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Researching Teaching & Learning 1 Western Sydney University

Critical Analysis of Research

Research Manuscript:
Keddie, A. (2014) Indigenous representation and alternative schooling:
prioritising an epistemology of relationality, International Journal of
Inclusive Education, 18:1, 55-71, DOI: 10.1080/13603116.2012.756949

Chosen Article:
Bodkin-Andrews, G., O'Rourke, V., & Craven, R. G. (2010). The utility of
general self-esteem and domain-specific self-concepts: Their influence
on indigenous and non-indigenous students' educational
outcomes. Australian Journal of Education, 54(3), 277-306. Retrieved
from
http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/docview/819182753?a
ccountid=36155

In current education Indigenous students remain in an educational


achievement decline in comparison to non-Indigenous students, thus seeking
and creating research to find an effective approach to cater this disadvantage.
The Keddie (2014) article, ‘Indigenous representation and alternative
schooling: prioritising an epistemology of relationality’, investigates
relationality indigenous epistemology potentials through collaborated
perspectives of Indigenous Elders from several Schools. The focus of this
article is on the importance of differentiation amongst groups in an alternate
Indigenous Queensland school with the foundation of Indigenous
representation. The issues of differentiation/representation in continuing
cultural reductionisms are also measured inspecting the potentials of the
indigenous epistemology of relationality (Keddie, 2014). A comparison will be
made between this article and Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Cravens’ (2010)
article ‘The utility of general self-esteem and domain-specific self-concepts:
Their influence on Indigenous and non-Indigenous students' educational
outcomes’. Relates to the similar topic of improving and adopting the
educational needs of disadvantaged Indigenous students. Both studies apply
different research methods and investigate the topic qualitatively (Keddie,
2014) and quantitatively (Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven, 2010). The
following essay will provide the types of research demonstrated in each article
with the strengths and limitations of the research. The outcomes of each
article acknowledge perceptive understanding of recognising culturally
suitable approaches to address the inequities of Indigenous students.

The purpose of the Keddie (2014) study was to improve educational


outcomes for indigenous students by signifying relationality inside an
alternative Indigenous School known as Indigo House. Perspectives of
several Indigenous Elders assist in investigating the possible of the
Indigenous epistemology of relationality as a combined idea to progress past
the challenges of reductionism. Indigenous culture is an emphasis in this
study that is provided by the case study of the alternative indigenous school.
Whilst inspecting the possibilities of the Indigenous epistemology of
relationality, outside such reductionism. The focus of this study shares
similarities with the Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) study for

Student ID: 17464824 1


Researching Teaching & Learning 1 Western Sydney University

improving Indigenous education. Although the Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, &


Craven (2010) study tests the connection of various extents of self-
concept to Indigenous and non-Indigenous students' educational outcomes
using quantitative measures with the validity of these measures. The Keddie
(2014) study strongly proves the possibility in improving difficulties with
indigenous students educational outcomes by focussing on a culturally
appropriate responsive pedagogy and curricula. While Bodkin-Andrews,
O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) results suggest that teachers are not considering
improving explicit areas of self-concept, functioning to encourage schooling
outcomes for indigenous and non-Indigenous students.

The Keddie (2014) study concludes that alternative Indigenous schools can
establish a place of connection, input and association that are essential in
starting to resolve the severity of Indigenous disadvantage, which is outlined
by the epistemology of relationality. The research of Bodkin-Andrews,
O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) study improves the indication to the likely strong
value of directing domain-specific self-concepts to encourage
both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students' educational outcomes. Also
the improvement of self-concept for Indigenous students might offer a
possible idea for interference and improving self-esteem (Bodkin-Andrews,
O'Rourke, & Craven, 2010). This has remained recognised as a fundamental
to increasing educational outcomes for Indigenous students (Bodkin-Andrews,
O'Rourke, & Craven, 2010). Both articles demonstrate the effectiveness of
given strategies to enhance educational outcomes and address the
educational needs of indigenous students. A literature review of these articles
includes a brief summary of the findings and extends to a conclusion
about how precise and thorough that knowledge is, which both articles obtain
(Knopf, 2006). Information that is right, wrong, inconclusive, and limitations in
the literature are used to create a literature review that is collected and
present in these two articles (Knopf, 2006). Conversely, the Keddie (2014)
study focuses solely on addressing the educational needs of indigenous
students. Whereas the Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) study
focuses on educational equity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous
students, nonetheless the study still addresses the educational needs for
indigenous students.

The process of data collection is explained in the Keddie (2014) article, where
data was collected mainly from interviews of several of the school’s Elders
and from the non-Indigenous principal. This data was explored in
consideration of the conceptual and theoretical literature and related to the
differentiation of Indigeneity. Data screening, statistical software, and
statistical analysis was used and emphasised in the Bodkin-Andrews,
O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) article with an outline of collection of data.
However Keddie (2014) used interviews with a qualitative method of analysis
as Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) used a survey containing
self-report items that encompassed a quantitative method. The Keddie (2014)
article included certain questions with perspective phrases used in the
interviews with consideration to the collection of data. Bodkin-Andrews,
O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) did not address the survey practiced in the
quantitative collection of such data. Data collection from both articles provides

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Researching Teaching & Learning 1 Western Sydney University

an explicit explanation of the process and the types of data. Quantitative and
qualitative data is evaluated in the articles from the methods used for
collection of data. However a more detailed explanation is missing on the
methods and results of data collection in the Keddie (2014) article.

The study by Keddie (2014) focused on interviews with Elders on Indigenous


representation and self-determination addressing Indigenous disadvantage.
While Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) focused on the
recognition of education as an intervention to provide equity to disadvantaged
Indigenous students. Moreover, equalising the inequities between Indigenous
and non-Indigenous students and recognising culturally appropriate methods
is the primary significance. The differences of methodological approaches can
explain the better approach and the better research methods used to get the
authors findings. Keddies’ (2014) study involved staff and student interviews
with classroom and playground observations as well as a document analysis
of school resources of the Indigo House School. In comparison to Bodkin-
Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven (2010), participants of year 7 to 10 from four
rural and urban secondary public schools within New South Wales (NSW)
were asked to partake in the study. The selection of schools was based off of
a minimum enrolment of 10% indigenous students with a sample of 1369
students (694 male, 675 female and 217 Indigenous). The Keddie (2014)
study mainly focuses on the interviews with several of the school’s Elders and
the non-Indigenous principal, which disregards the student’s data. Limitations
of the studies are not clarified, however the studies offer insight into adopting
further research this can entail types of participants used.

Research findings are explored between the two studies with similarities and
differences of these findings. Keddies’ (2014) concentration was on the
approach of using alternative schooling through qualitative interviews to meet
the needs of disadvantaged indigenous students. Informed and thorough
qualitative data from interviews specify researchers with consideration of
participant’s perspectives (Castillo-Montoya, 2016). The influence of
psychological constructs on educational outcomes for Indigenous students is
investigated in the Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) study by a
survey. Quantitative research uses numbers and statistics to describe findings
collected from participants through methods such as surveys, and the
statistics are used to analyse data (Bowman, 2014). In relation to the findings,
both studies performed research and practice on approaches for improving
the education of disadvantaged Indigenous students. The use of mixed
methods, qualitative method (Keddie, 2014) and quantitative method (Bodkin-
Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven, 2010), investigates results of best practice and
the discrepancies between methods. It is of curiosity to what the results
obtained will deliver and the effective approaches that will develop from the
findings. The usefulness of an alternative indigenous school may become
beneficial through selective interviews as also surveying students with the
influence of psychological constructs may have on Indigenous education.
Generally, the two studies findings were associated to their purpose for the
study and linked to the approaches used. This achieves the studies
establishment knowledge and awareness for improving the educational needs
of Indigenous students.

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Researching Teaching & Learning 1 Western Sydney University

Both articles consider suggestions of quality teaching methods and practice in


the school environment in their conclusions. The alternative indigenous school
from the Keddie (2014) study differentiate from conventional schools catering
to the disadvantage and culture of students. This differentiation however has
found to be possibly problematic, separating the ‘other’ (Indigenous students)
from conventional school environments. Allegations of Bodkin-Andrews,
O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) imply that teachers are not improving specific
domains of self-concept that motivate increases in schooling outcomes.
Quality teaching is fundamental to improving this issue and by engaging in a
culturally inclusive pedagogy. In reference to the case study of Keddie (2014)
this is a systematic qualitative research investigation, as the study of Bodkin-
Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) is quantitative research with the use of
statistical methods (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2015, p.83 & p.149). The use of these
two articles presents mixed-methods research using both quantitative and
qualitative techniques addressing similar research questions (Gall, Gall, &
Borg, 2015, p.193). Despite the problems discussed, the implications of
quality teaching methods and practice for disadvantaged Indigenous students
is significant for discussion, conveyed in these research articles. Teacher
employment and retainment are an aspect of a complicated set of conditions
that effect Indigenous educational outcomes, including their cultural
background, language, geographical location and social settings (Brasche, &
Harrington, 2012). This prompts the fact that Indigenous students require
effective quality teaching for teachers to get on their level of understanding
and to have teacher recruitment in rural and remote areas. The use of
alternate schooling and psychological constructs on educational outcomes
improve disadvantaged indigenous students achievement in education, quality
teaching is integral to educational success (Brasche, & Harrington, 2012).

Indigo House takes a holistic approach to education promoting Indigenous


identities and embedding Indigenous perspectives within curriculum
maximising students’ educational achievement (Keddie, 2014). In contrast,
Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven (2010) emphasised how deficit
approaches may be misleading to understanding the gathering of issues that
may encourage a students' educational outcome (Hattie, 2009, cited in
Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven, 2010). Both articles approaches main
focus was to address the disadvantage of Indigenous students and improve
their educational outcomes. The articles findings represent relevant research
to backup these approaches and emphasise the reason for implementing this
main approach. In relation to this main approach, the use of critical theory in
the Remote Area Teacher Education Program (RATEP) can effectively
embrace inclusivity for students in the learning environment (Bethel, 2006).
The importance of RATEP approach is the continual efforts to improve
disadvantaged Indigenous educational outcomes, corresponding with both the
articles main approach (Bethel, 2006). The two articles support improving
educational outcomes of Indigenous students by embracing their culture,
philosophies, ideologies and offering a suitable education (Keddie, 2014).
Both articles consider a culturally inclusive pedagogy that entails the student’s
culture that develops learning that may become more individually important

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Researching Teaching & Learning 1 Western Sydney University

with succeeding learning procedures processing a more clear better


understanding (Gay, 2002, cited in Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven).

Quality teaching for disadvantaged Indigenous students to increase quality


learning requires a teacher to “know students and how they learn”, which
effectively improves educational achievement (Australian Institute for
Teaching and School Leadership, 2011, Standard 1). Therefore teachers
must understand the needs of Indigenous students and how to associate
strategies to better improve their learning process. Awareness and
appreciation of Indigenous students culture, language and their community
require a more central and explicit focus for culturally responsive teaching to
be implemented in schools (Castagno & Brayboy). This underlines culturally
effective teaching as a key strategy to be included into a lesson to incorporate
a student’s level of understanding with content taught.

To encapsulate the research of both articles, schools require a culturally


responsive pedagogy that caters to the needs of disadvantaged indigenous
students, while considering their psychological aspects of learning. Keddie
(2014) explains that an alternate school for Indigenous students can provide
durable relationships with strong connections essential for Indigenous
students. Highlighting a culturally inclusive pedagogy may lead to features of
Indigenous students' self-concept to become gradually more important for
encompassing educational success (Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven,
2010). Cited research in both articles influence the understanding and
approaches developed to address the disadvantages of Indigenous students
education. By the teacher including culturally relevant content in lesson is a
great starting point to grasp on the understanding of a Indigenous students
learning way. Creating a safe environment with perspectives of content and
culture can produce quality learning for a student to achieve.

In conclusion, the two research articles grasp on to information relevant to


addressing Indigenous students needs in this era of struggle and
disadvantage. Ideas expressed demonstrate effective approaches and
strategies that assist educational outcomes for Indigenous students. Both
articles recommend further research and insight to find an effective approach
that does not separate Indigenous students from non-Indigenous students.
Generally, quality effective teaching is of significance to improving a student’s
educational achievement through a culturally responsive pedagogy. Issues of
concern arise from both articles noticing the disadvantage of Indigenous
students and the connection of effective teaching. Consequently, research on
the quality of teaching towards Indigenous students is a main focus that
essentially meets their needs of effective learning improving educational
outcomes.

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Researching Teaching & Learning 1 Western Sydney University

References

Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership. (2011). Australian


professional standards for teaching. Retrieved from Education Services
Australia website: http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-
standards-for-teachers/standards/list

Bethel, B. (2006). Critical approaches to inclusion in indigenous teacher


education in queensland: The case of RATEP. International Journal of
Pedagogies & Learning, 2(3), 30-41. Retrieved from
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ccountid=36155

Bodkin-Andrews, G., O'Rourke, V., & Craven, R. G. (2010). The utility of


general self-esteem and domain-specific self-concepts: Their influence
on indigenous and non-indigenous students' educational
outcomes. Australian Journal of Education, 54(3), 277-306. Retrieved
from
http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/docview/819182753?a
ccountid=36155

Bowman, K. G. (2014). Research recognition, the first step to research


literacy. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 45(9), 409-15.
doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/10.3928/00220124-20140826-
04

Brasche, I., & Harrington, I. (2012). Promoting teacher quality and continuity:
Tackling the disadvantages of remote indigenous schools in the
northern territory. Australian Journal of Education, 56(2), 110-125.
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accountid=36155

Castagno, A. E., & Brayboy, B. M. J. (2008). Culturally responsive schooling


for indigenous youth: A review of the literature. Review of Educational
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Castillo-Montoya, M. (2016). Preparing for interview research: The interview


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Gall, M.D., Gall, J.P., & Borg,W.R. (2015). Applying educational research:
How to read, do, and use research to solve problems of practice. (7th
ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Pearson Education, Inc.

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Researching Teaching & Learning 1 Western Sydney University

Keddie, A. (2014) Indigenous representation and alternative schooling:


prioritising an epistemology of relationality, International Journal of
Inclusive Education, 18:1, 55-71, DOI: 10.1080/13603116.2012.756949

Knopf, J. W. (2006). Doing a literature review. PS, Political Science &


Politics, 39(1), 127-132. Retrieved from
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