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Springer Tracts in Natural Philosophy

Ergebnisse der angewandten Mathematik

Volume 1

Edited by C. Truesdell
Co-Editors: L. Collatz . G. Fichera
M. Fixman . P. Germain . J. Keller . A. Seeger
Linearized Analysis of
One - Dimensional
Magnetohydrodynamic Flows

Roy M. Gundersen

Springer-Verlag
Berlin. Gottingen . Heidelberg. New York
1964
Dr. Roy M. Gundersen
Professor of Mathematics
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

ISBN'13: 978'3'642'46007-4 e-ISBN-13: 978-3-642-46005-0


DOl: 10.1007/978-3-642-46005-0

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Titel-Nr. 6729
Dedicated to my Parents
Preface
Magnetohydrodynamics is concerned with the motion of electrically
conducting fluids in the presence of electric or magnetic fields. Un-
fortunately, the subject has a rather poorly developed experimental
basis and because of the difficulties inherent in carrying out controlled
laboratory experiments, the theoretical developments, in large measure,
have been concerned with finding solutions to rather idealized problems.
This lack of experimental basis need not become, however, a multi-
megohm impedance in the line of progress in the development of a
satisfactory scientific theory. While it is true that ultimately a scientific
theory must agree with and, in actuality, predict physical phenomena
with a reasonable degree of accuracy, such a theory must be sanctioned
by its mathematical validity and consistency. Physical phenomena may
be expressed precisely and quite comprehensively through the use of
differential equations, and the equations formulated by LUNDQUIST and
discussed by FRIEDRICHS belong to a class of equations particularly
well-understood and extensively studied. This class includes, in fact,
many other eminent members, the solutions of which have led to results
of far-reaching scientific and technological application. Frequently, the
mathematical analysis has provided the foundations and guidance
necessary for further developments, and, reciprocally, the physical
problems have provided, in many cases, the impetus for the development
of new mathematical theories which often have evolved to an a priori
unpredictable extent.
In the fall of 1961, the author became seriously interested in the
subject of magnetohydrodynamics, and this interest increased expo-
nentially after reading the remarkable paper by FRIEDRICHS. Therein,
FRIEDRICHS showed the amazingly close parallelism between the theory
governing the motion of a compressible fluid whose electrical conduc-
tivity may be assumed to be infinite and the theory of conventional gas
dynamics. Specifically, the hydromagnetic equations belong to the class
of symmetric hyperbolic equations. Because these equations are also
reducible, it is possible to develop a theory of shock waves and simple
waves in a manner quite similar to that employed in ordinary gas
dynamics. In this monograph, the author has used FRIEDRICHS' results
as a basis for a more detailed examination of the mathematical structure
of the equations governing a quite specialized class of hydromagnetic
flows; namely, those which may be considered effectively one-dimensional
VIII Preface

or nearly so, subjected to a transverse magnetic field. Throughout, the


emphasis is on the mathematical structure of the governing equations
and their linearized form, and applications are made only to some well-
known problems of conventional gas dynamics. The results of a little
more than a year's research are presented and in no sense is completion
even remotely claimed. If this work proves useful to workers in the
field or stimulates others to direct their energies to this fascinating though
as yet embryonic subject, the author will feel amply rewarded. Ad-
vancing technology requires that the period of gestation be reduced and
waits for the birth and maturation of a more satisfactory theory.
A portion of this work was carried out while the author was in
residence at the Mathematics Research Center, United States Army,
University of Wisconsin. The author is indebted to Professor R. E.
LANGER for making that stay possible and to the United States Army
for support. Many of the results published herein first appeared in various
articles published in the Journal of the Aerospace Sciences. The results
of section 4.2 are reprinted with the permission of the Editors of the
International Journal of Engineering Science.
The author wishes to thank Mrs. V. FIATTE for very expert typing
and handwork on the equations.
Finally, the author wishes to thank Professor C. TRUESDELL for
suggesting this monograph as a medium for presentation of the results
and for facilitating its quite rapid publication.

Milwaukee, Wesconsin Roy M. GUNDERSEN


September 1963
Table of Contents
1. Genet'al Theory . . . .
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 The Linearized Equations . 3
2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts. 9
2.1 Introductory Comments. . . . . . . 9
2.2 Transition Relations Across Normal Shocks. 12
2.3 Solution behind the Incident Shock 15
2.4 The Reflected Disturbance 20
2.5 Modified Perturbation Theory . . . 23
2.6 Criterion for the Particle Velocity to be Unaffected by Entropy
Perturbations . . . . . . 27
3. The Piston-Driven Shock Wave 30
3.1 Arbitrary Area Variations. 30
3.2 The Piston-Driven Cylindrical Shock Wave 32
3.3 The Piston-Driven Spherical Shock Wave. 34
3.4 The Integrated Shock Strength-Area Relation 35
4. Flows with Heat Addition . . . . 37
4.1 The Linearized Equations. . 37
4.2 Extension of STOCKER'S Work 39
4.3 Modified Perturbation Theory 47
5. Simple Wave Flows. . . . . 50
5.1 Introductory Comments 50
5.2 The Monatomic Fluid. . 51
5.3 Perturbation of a Centered Simple Wave Flow. 54
5.4 Perturbation of an Arbitrary Simple Wave . . 59
5.5 A Class of Exact Solutions of Non-Isentropic Flow 64
6. Formation and Decay of Shock Waves. 68
6.1 Introduction 68
6.2 The Simple Wave Transition . . . 69
6.3 The Differential Equation for the Shock Path 71
6.4 Decaying Shock Wave . . . . . . . 73
6.5 Formation of a Shock Wave. . . . . 75
7. The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field 78
7.1 The Characteristic Form of the Governing Equations 78
7.2 Transition Relations Across Oblique Shock Waves 84
7.3 Perturbation of a Centered Simple Wave Flow. 87
7.4 Perturbation of an Arbitrary Simple Wave 92
References. 96
Appendices 99
A. Principal Notation 99
B. The Characteristic Form of the Basic Equations 100
C. Tables of the Parameters K, Y, Z . . . . . . 102
D. Tables of the Function Fo . . . . . . . . . . 113
E. Tables of the Parameters K. and K, and the Functions F. and F, . 114
Chapter 1

General Theory
1.1 Introduction
In common with the equations of conventional gas dynamics, the
equations governing the motion of a perfectly conducting compressible
fluid belong to the class of reducible hyperbolic equations. Because of
this structural similarity, many of the techniques which have been
applied so successfully to gas dynamic flows may be extended to magneto-
hydrodynamic flows, and, in particular, it is possible to build up a
theory of shock waves and simple waves remarkably parallel to that of
conventional gas dynamics. This was pointed out quite elegantly by
FRIEDRICHS [1] and amplified by others.
The equations of magnetohydrodynamics form a system of first order
nonlinear partial differential equations. Because these equations can be
solved exactly only in certain quite specialized cases, alternative
approaches are mandatory. Whenever problems involving non-uniform
shock waves are under consideration, entropy variations are involved
and the differential equations for non-isentropic flow must be employed.
Although non-isentropic flows are seldom readily amenable to exact
mathematical analysis and the added effects of electrical conductivity
only compound the difficulties, various perturbation techniques have
led to important results and a better understanding of non-isentropic
conventional gas dynamic flows. Therein lies the reason for this investi-
gation.
The primary purpose of this monograph is the presentation of a
method for discussing weakly non-isentropic quasi-one-dimensional
flows of an ideal, inviscid, perfectly conducting compressible fluid
subjected to a transverse magnetic field. It is the simplicity of application
and the ease of extension which make the method attractive and, in
fact, many of the solutions to the corresponding problems in con-
ventional gas dynamic flows are contained as special cases, and this
provides a valuable check on the theory. The analysis is based on cha-
racteristic perturbations developed by PAUL GERMAIN and the author
for discussing similar problems for non-conducting fluids and the
author's extensions of this work to magnetohydrodynamic flows.
Springer Tracts, Vol. 1: Gundersen 1
2 1. General Theory

First, the basic (exact) equations are written in characteristic form


and for isentropic flow, generalized Riemann invariants may be deter-
mined by quadrature. Further, a relation between the induction and the
local sound speed, valid for uniform or simple wave flows, is obtained
and used to reduce the governing equations from four to three. In order
to bring the equations into close analogy with those of non-conducting
fluids, a change of dependent variables is made so that the generalized
Riemann invariants are transformed into linear relations. When the
discussion is limited to weak entropy variations, the resultant system,
which in the limit of vanishing magnetic field reduces precisely to the
equations of conventional gas dynamics, may be linearized in the
neighborhood of a known (isentropic) state, viz., a uniform or simple
wave flow. A system of linear equations with the same characteristic
surfaces as the original system governs the terms of first order, and
solutions are obtained through the use of techniques first presented by
GERMAIN and GUNDERSEN [2].
Rather than unnecessarily lengthening the introduction, it seems
more efficient to discuss the problems and the pertinent literature in the
appropriate sections and to give only a brief outline of the problems
considered. As a first example of the use of the solution for the non-
isentropic perturbation of an initially uniform flow, the propagation of
non-uniform shock waves is considered. The non-uniform shocks may be
generated by considering the propagation of initially uniform shock
waves in ducts whose cross-sectional areas are made to undergo small
variations with both time and distance. While it is true that flows with
time-dependent area variations are rare (one example would be a
boundary layer growing with time), the time-dependence is included
since the corresponding solution follows immediately from that for only
spatial variations. Two basic examples are discussed; first, the effects of
non-uniform cross-sectional area variations on the propagation of an
initially uniform shock without regard for the method of generation
thereof save that whatever that may be, the mechanism is sufficiently
far removed so that no reflections come back to interfere with the basic
interaction of shock and area change. Then, the additional effects of
small non-uniformities in piston motion on a piston-driven shock pro-
pagating through a non-uniform duct are determined. In various con-
texts, these problems lead to differential relations between shock strength
and area change which, on integration, lead to area-shock strength
relationships valid for finite continuous area changes. By particular
choices of the area distributions, piston-driven converging cylindrical
and spherical shock waves may be discussed. The second example
concerns the effects due to small heat addition to an initially uniform
stream. Small entropy variations occur in this problem, and previous
1.2 The Linearized Equations 3

work on the conventional gas dynamic case is extended to the magnetic


case with little difficulty.
Simple wave flows are considered in some detail and, in particular,
although simple waves do not exist in non-isentropic flow, it is shown
that non-isentropic perturbations of simple waves in isentropic flow do
exist. Further, from the simple wave theory, it is shown that the FRIED-
RICHS theory of the formation and decay of shocks may be extended to
the magnetic case.
Finally, some remarks are made on the effects of an oblique magnetic
field.

1.2 The Linearized Equations


Since magnetohydrodynamics is concerned with the motion of
electrically conducting fluids in the presence of electric or magnetic
fields, the governing equations are determined by coupling MAXWELL'S
equations for the magnetic field with the usual equations of gas dyna-
mics. The interaction process is exceedingly complicated since the motion
of the fluid generates body forces which modify the motion and induced
currents which modify the field. Throughout, it is assumed that the
fluid is an ideal, polytropic, inviscid, non-heat conducting compressible
continuum whose electrical conductivity is infinite. MAXWELL'S dis-
placements currents are neglected, and it is assumed that the medium is
essentially neutral. Under these assumptions, the phenomenalistic laws
may be assumed to be governed by the equations formulated by LUND-
QUIST [3] and discussed by FRIEDRICHS [1J.
It is a simple matter to modify these equations to take account of
flows with area variations, and, in fact, the modifications appear only in
the equation of continuity. Then, quasi-one-dimensional unsteady flow
SUbjected to a transverse magnetic field is governed by the system of
equations
P = exp [(s - s*)/c,,] (2'1' (1.2.1)
2ct + 2uc" cAt + ucA"
- - --+cu
1'-1 1'-1 III
+--
A ----
A-
0 (1.2.2)

2cc., b2 B., c2 s., 0


Ut+UU IIl + - -1
1'- +-B - I' (y - 1) c. = (1.2.3)

B t + uB + BUill = 0
Ill (1.2.4)
(1.2.5)

where partial derivatives are denoted by SUbscripts, and all dependent


variables are functions of (x, t) alone. The definition of symbols is given
in Appendix A.
1*
4 1. General Theory

The system of Eqs. (1.2.2)-(1.2.5) is always hyperbolic, and the


characteristics are given by
dx
de = u, U + w, U - W

where w, the limiting case of a fast wave, is the true speed of sound, i.e.,
small disturbances propagate with speed W relative to the fluid. It is
most convenient to deal with the characteristic form of the system where
derivatives in only one direction appear in each equation. A complete
derivation is given in Appendix B, and it is seen that for an arbitrary
flow in a uniform duct, the system may be written in the following
characteristic form
Xo - (u + w) t{J = 0 (1.2.6)
x'" - (u- w) t", = 0 (1.2.7)
x~- ut€ =0 (1.2.8)
(00 2 - c2 ) B{J 2cc{J c2 s{J
B +wu{J+ y-t"- y(y-l)c. =0 (1.2.9)

(00' - c2) B", 2cc", c2 s", = 0 (1.2.10)


B - WU", + y-l - y(y - 1) c.

B€ 2c~ =0 (1.2.11)
B (y-l)c

Se= o. (1.2.12)

Thus, three directions (parameterized by (x, p, .;) suffice to give four


independent characteristic forms for the four basic equations. A rather
surprising amount of information may be obtained from this charac-
teristic system.
From Eq. (1.2.11), it follows that the quantity Bjc 2 /(1'-1) is constant
along each particle path, which is a well-known consequence of the
assumption of infinite electrical conductivity, i.e., the magnetic field is
"frozen" into the fluid, and for a constant state, this quantity is constant
throughout the flow. Further, since a simple wave flow necessarily must
be adjacent to a constant state from whence the particle paths originate,
it is clear that Bjc 2 /(1'-1) is also constant throughout a simple wave flow.
Consequently, for an isentropic uniform or simple wave flow, i.e., the
flows in the neighborhood of which perturbations will be considered,
Eqs. (1.2.9) and (1.2.10) reduce to
2wc{J
u{J + (y _ 1) C = 0 (1.2.13)

2wc", _ 0
- U'" + -,----'=---
(y-l) C - •
(1.2.14)
1.2 The Linearized Equations 5

so that
co 2 = c2 [1 + kc'1*]. (1.2.15)

For a monatomic gas, y = 5/3, and Eqs. (1.2.13) and (1.2.14) may be
integrated explicitly to give

~ + (1 + ke)"tz = ~ + ~ (~)3 = IX (1.2.16)


2 k 2 k e

_~+ (1 + ke)3t2 = _ ~ + ~ (~)3 = {J (1.2.17)


2 k 2 k e

while for an arbitrary value of y, the solutions of Eqs. (1.2.13) and


(1.2.14) may be written as

-U2 + 1
(1'-1)
J(1 + kC'1*)1/2 dc = IX (1.2.18)

- -U2 + 1
(1'-1)
J(1 + kC'1*)1/2 dc = {J (1.2.19)

where (IX, (J) may be considered as generalizations of the usual Riemann


invariants. The integral appearing in Eq. (1.2.18) may be expressed in
terms of hypergeometric functions, but for most of the problems to be
considered, an explicit evaluation is unnecessary. In the limit of vanishing
magnetic field, Eqs. (1.2.18) and (1.2.19) may be integrated explicitly to
yield the usual Riemann invariants, and these are linear relations between
u and c.
In order to bring the governing equations (1.2.1)-(1.2.5) into close
analogy with the equations of conventional gas dynamics, a change of
dependent variables is made which transforms the generalized Riemann
invariants into linear relations. This is effected by the change of variable
w = J(1 + kc'1*)l/2dc which transforms Eqs. (1.2.2) and (1.2.3) to
~ +~+ wu", + uwA" + wAt = 0 (1.2.20)
1'-1 1'-1 2 2A 2A

Ut uu'" WW", e2 s", = 0 (1.2.21)


2+-2-+ 1'-1 - 2y(y-I)e.

where use has been made of the relation ~ = (I' ~;) e and Eq. (1.2.4)
omitted. Adding and subtracting Eqs. (1.2.20) and (1.2.21) gives the
6 1. General Theory

system to be utilized in the sequel

')'-1 +.!!.!.+
~ 2 (u + w) [~+~]
2 ')'-1
uwA z wAt c2 s z
=-~-2A+ 2')'(')'-I)c~ (1.2.22)

~-.!!.!.+
')'-1 2
(u- w) [-~+~]
2 ')'-1
uwA z wAt c2 s z
=-~-2A- 2')'(')'-I)c~ (1.2.23)

St + us", = O. (1.2.24)
The close analogy of this system with the basic equations of conventional
gas dynamics should be noted, viz., a hyperbolic system of three non-
linear first order partial differential equations with Riemann invariants
which are linear relations between the dependent variables. This system
includes the gas dynamic equations as the special case of vanishing
magnetic field, i.e., for k = 0, W = c, w = c.
A formal linearization of Eqs. (1.2.22)-(1.2.24) in the neighborhood
of a known (isentropic) state, i.e., a uniform or simple wave flow, denoted
by the subscript zero, leads to the following system of linear equations,
which has the same characteristic surfaces as Eqs. (1.2.22)-(1.2.24),
for the terms of first order, denoted by the subscript one
Rt + (uo + wo) R", + (~ + WI) (x'"

=_ uOwOAlo: _ woAlI + 4s 1:l'


(1.2.25)
2Ao 2Ao 2')'(')'-I)c~

St + (uo- wo) S'" + (~- WI) P'"


woAlI C~SlZ (1.2.26)
~- 2')'(')'-1) Cv

SIt + UOsI '" = 0 (1.2.27)


where it has been noted that

Uo
2
+~=
')'-1
(X
'
-~+~=
2 ')'-1
P
are the characteristic parameters of the base flow.
In the linearized form of the basic equations, the entropy equation may
be solved directly and independently. From Eq. (1.2.27), it is clear that Sl
remains constant along the particle paths of the base flow, i.e., along
dx/dt = U o' Further, since flo(dx - uodt) is the exact differential of a
function 'Po such that 'Po equated to a constant defines the trajectories,
the solution of Eq. (1.2.27) may be written as
Sl = r('Po)
1.2 The Linearized Equations 7

r
with an arbitrary differentiable function. It is convenient to define a
function To (x, t) by
C~SI'" = c~eor'CI'o) = y(y - 1) Cl1 To .
Since it follows from Eq. (1.2.15) that

the first order generalized Riemann invariants may be expressed in terms


of U I and Wl> viz.,
2
R-~ WOWI
- 2 + [wH (1'-2)c~]
2
5 __ ~+ WOWI
- 2 [w~ + (1'-2) c~J •
Thus

2tl +WI -_ [3 w~ + 22
(I' - 2) Cg] R
+ [ (I' - 2) c~ -
22
W~] 5
Wo Wo

_ =[W~+(2-y)cg]R_[3W&+(Y-2)cg]5
UI WI 2w& 2w~·

Consequently, the non-isentropic perturbation of an initially uniform or


simple wave flow may be determined by finding solutions of the following
two first order linear equations for the first order generalized Riemann
invariants

Rt + (U o+ Wo )R '" + {[ 3W~+(Y-2)C~]R
2w~ +
[(Y-2)c~-wg]5}
2w~ IX",

(1.2.28)

{[wg+(2- y)c&]R_[3wg+(Y-2)Cg]5}R
5t + (U o - ) 5
Wo '" + 2w~ 2w& /-,,,,
(1.2.29)

Although Eqs. (1.2.28) and (1.2.29) form a system of two coupled equa-
tions for the quantities Rand 5, these equations uncouple in each of the
cases to be considered and may be solved separately. Since the equations
are linear, solutions may be superposed. Further, the solutions may be
obtained by solving the linear homogeneous system associated with
Eqs. (1.2.28) - (1.2.29) and then adding a particular solution to the com-
plete system in order to include the effects of cross-sectional and/or
entropy perturbations.
8 1. General Theory: 1.2. The Linearized Equations

For an initially unifonn flow, IX and {3 are constants, and the general
solution of Eqs. (1.2.28) - (1.2.29) is

R = F[x - (uo + wo)t] +


+ E [x - uot] _ UOroOAl [x. (u o+ roo) t/uo] (1.2.30)
roo 2Ao(uo + roo)

UOroOAl [x. (u o - roo) t/u o] (1.2.31)


2Ao(uo - roo)

To = 2E' [x - uot] (1.2.32)

in tenns of three arbitrary functions of one argument. From the general


solution, the four distinct contributions to the perturbation may be noted;
namely, one due to the entropy perturbation, which travels along the
particle paths and is measured by E; a disturbance due directly to the
area variations; a perturbation propagating with speed 00 0 , the true speed
of sound, with respect to the fluid along the family of characteristics
x - (uo + wo)t = constant and measured by F; and a perturbation pro-
pagating with speed 00 0 with respect to the fluid, along the family of
characteristics x - (uo - wo)t = constant and measured by G.
For the case of time-independent area variations, the general solution
Eqs. (1.2.30)-(1.2.32) reduces to that previously presented [4] for the
corresponding problem. Since U 1 = R - 5, it follows that the addition of
an entropy perturbation affects WI' i.e., C1 and 001> but not u l • Said dif-
ferently, there exists a particular solution U 1 = 0 to the complete system.
A general discussion of this phenomenon for conventional gas dynamic
flows, including necessary and sufficient conditions for its occurrence,
was given in [5] (see also [6]).
In the limit of vanishing magnetic field, the general solution Eqs.
(1.2.30)-(1.2.32) reduces exactly to the solution to the corresponding
problem in conventional gas dynamics. Thus, there is the following result:
In the limit 01 vanishing magnetic field, the non-isentropic perturbation
01 an initially unilorm one-dimensional flow 01 a perlectly conducting ideal
compressible fluid, subjected to a transverse magnetic field, reduces to the
solution 101' the corresponding problem 101' a non-conducting fluid.
Frequent physical and mathematical authentication of this result will
be presented in the sequel. Although the proof is virtually trivial, the
result is most definitely important. In particular, it shows that when the
solution of the perturbation of an initially unifonn hydromagnetic flow is
detennined, the solution of the corresponding problem in conventional gas
dynamics is automatically contained as a special case.
2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts: 2.1 Introductory Comments 9

Chapter 2

Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts


2.1 Introductory Comments
The most simple problem in shock dynamics is to determine the pro-
pagation of a uniform shock wave, i.e., a shock which separates two regions
wherein the flow parameters are constant. Such a shock propagates with
constant speed so that its path is represented in an (x, t) diagram by a
straight line, and, since the entropy change through the shock is constant,
only the differential equations for isentropic flow and the mechanical
shock conditions need be considered in order to render the problem
determinate. In many applications, however, it is necessary to solve
problems involving non-uniform shock waves through which the entropy
change, in general, is not constant. Since the speed of propagation of such
a shock is not constant, its path is represented in an (x, t) diagram by a
curve. Because of the entropy changes, the differential equations for non-
isentropic flow would have to be solved, and this presents formidable
difficulties. Consequently, the development of approximate analytical
techniques which will yield the main features of the solution is a highly
desirable goal. If the deviations from uniformity are not too large, i.e.,
if the resultant flows are only weakly non-isentropic, the present theory
enables an approximate description to be given rather simply. In order to
produce the non-uniform shocks, it is convenient to consider the pro-
pagation of initially uniform shock waves in ducts whose cross-sectional
areas are made to undergo small variations. Since many of the results for
conventional gas dynamic shock waves are contained as special cases of the
present work and because of some continuing errors in the contemporary
literature, it is of value to give a brief discussion of some of the previous
work before explaining the method in detail.
The first results were obtained by CHESTER [8J, who used a lineari-
zation based on small area variations and found that when an initially
uniform plane shock wave of arbitrary strength passed through a non-
uniform transition section, which joined two ducts of constant but un-
equal cross-sectional area, the concomitant pressure perturbation was
given by
-K(P2 - PI) [L1AJ/A
where P 2 - PI was the initial pressure discontinuity across the shock,
[L1 A J the net change in cross-sectional area and the parameter K de-
creased monotonically with increasing shock strength. Although CHESTER
started with the complete three-dimensional equations of motion, the
exigencies of analysis made him utilize an averaging process so that the
final results are restricted to the average pressure. But the average of a
10 2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts

quantity over the cross-sectional area is what the hydraulic theory pre-
dicts! Thus, it must be possible to bypass CHESTER'S detailed analysis
and the same results must be obtainable by investigating the problem
from the very beginning by a one-dimensional formulation. This extremely
important simplification, which provides the basis for many extensions
of the theory, was observed by PAUL GERMAIN and the applicability of a
quasi-one-dimensional analysis for discussing flows in non-uniform ducts
noted in a preliminary presentation given by GERMAIN and GUNDER-
SEN [2]. A more detailed presentation, including a derivation of CHESTER'S
results by the use of a purely one-dimensional analysis, was given by
GUNDERSEN [5], [6].
A quite unexpected premium was the somewhat surprising result that
the more simple one-dimensional theory led to an important improvement;
namely, the term [Lf A] in CHESTER'S work was replaced by ..4, the per-
turbed area distribution. Consequently, instead of the pressure pertur-
bation being related to the total change in cross-sectional area, a direct
first order differential relation between changes in area and shock strength
was valid at any point in the non-uniform section. The usefulness of this
differential relation was exploited by CHIS NELL [9], who was led to it
differently under the assumption that the asymptotic form of CHESTER'S
steady state solution could be employed. CHISNELL integrated the dif-
ferential relation in closed form and used the resultant shock strength-
area relationship to give an approximate description of the motion of the
shock in terms of the area of the duct. By suitable choices of the area
distribution, a description of converging cylindrical and spherical shocks
was given, and the results checked by comparison with previous simi-
larity solutions, valid in the neighborhood of the points of collapse of the
shocks. The comparison showed the remarkable accuracy of CHISNELL'S
work.
Later, WHITHAM [10] discussed these problems and their extensions
and, in particular, rederived CHESTER'S results by the use of a one-dimen-
sional approach, virtually identical (the only difference being the choice of
dependent variables) to that previously presented by GERMAIN and
GUNDERSEN [2] and GUNDERSEN [5], [6]. ROSCISZEWSKI [11] also re-
derived CHESTER'S results, but made the erroneous statement in his paper
that the one-dimensional approach to the problem was developed by
WHITHAM. ROSCISZEWSKI limited credit to the present author's contri-
bution to: "the influence of a slow perturbation of the otherwise uniform
piston motion of a shock wave" though it seems somewhat curious that
reference was made to the wrong paper, i.e., [12] instead of [6].
The aforementioned theories suffered from the common defect that
they ceased to be valid for near-sonic flow behind the incident shock. By
the use of techniques developed by STOCKER [13], this defect was removed
2.1 Introductory Comments 11

in a discussion given by FRIEDMAN [14]. FRIEDMAN also incorrectly


credited the one-dimensional approach to WHITHAM [IOJ though use was
made of exactly the same dependent variables as in [2J, [SJ and [6J. Since
FRIEDMAN'S discussion is contained as a special case of a paper of GUN-
DERSEN [ISJ on secondary shock waves in magnetohydrodynamic channel
flow, and this latter is merely a special case of the discussion of section
2.S, further comments may be deferred. It might be noted that [6J, [IOJ,
[l1J, [12J and [14J appeared in the same journal.
The Germain-Gundersen theory was extended to discuss the pro-
pagation of a non-uniform shock wave into a moving fluid [16J and shock
propagation in ducts with time and spatial area variations [7J.
In general, the aforementioned papers dealt with the motion of an
initially uniform shock wave without consideration of the method of
generation, e.g., the uniform motion of a piston, save that the mechanism
was sufficiently far removed so that no reflections came back to interfere
with the basic interaction of the shock and the area change. Naturally, it
was of interest to consider the additional effects of waves reflected back
from a piston, and the perturbation of an initially uniform shock wave due
to non-uniform piston motion in a uniform duct and in a duct with a linear
area variation were given in [SJ, [6J. Extensions of CHISNELL'S work,
including closed-form shock strength-area relations, for piston-driven
shocks were given for linear [12J and quadratic [17J area distributions, the
appropriate ones for cylindrical and spherical shock waves. Piston-driven
shock waves propagating through ducts with arbitrary area variations
were considered by MIRELS [18J by a source distribution method and in
[19J by the small perturbation method with the solution given as an in-
finite series. Further comments will be made in Chapter 3 which is devoted
to piston-driven shocks.
The existence of explicit expressions for the generalized Riemann
invariants for the one-dimensional unsteady flow of a perfectly conducting
monatomic fluid sUbjected to a transverse magnetic field made it clear that
it must be possible to extend the aforementioned work on the propagation
of non-uniform shock waves to the magnetic case with little difficulty.
It was shown [20J for the monatomic fluid that the perturbation generated
when an initially uniform plane magnetohydrodynamic shock wave of
arbitrary strength encountered an area variation could be determined, the
problem being linearized on the basis of small area variations, and the
solution presented in a form which included the conventional gas dynamic
results, described in the foregoing, as a special case. The results of this
analysis were used to develop a theory of converging cylindrical and
spherical magnetohydrodynamic shock waves [21J, and CHISNELL'S work
was contained as a special case. In [20J, it was assumed that the fluid in
front of the incident shock was at rest, but this work was extended to the
12 2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts

case of non-stationary flow in front of the shock in [22]. Next, it was shown
that the limitation of a monatomic fluid was unnecessary, in spite of
the fact that generalized Riemann invariants could not be determined
explicitly, at least in terms of elementary functions, and the theory of
[20] and [21] was extended to an arbitrary value ofthe adiabatic index [4 J.
The extension of the results of [22] for arbitrary values of the adiabatic
index is contained in the present work as a special case.
Before proceeding to the determination of the propagation of shocks in
non-uniform ducts, it is of value to give a brief discussion of normal
magnetohydrodynamic shock waves and the transition relations relating
the flow parameters in front of and behind the shock. This is given in the
next section.

2.2 Transition Relations Across Normal Shocks


Jump conditions across magnetohydrodynamic shock waves were
considered by DE HOFFMAN and TELLER [23], LUST [24], HELFER [25],
FRIEDRICHS [1], BAZER and ERICSON [26], KANWAL [27], GUNDERSEN
[28], [29] and others.
For a gas dynamic shock wave, the specification of the flow in front of
and one quantity behind the shock suffices to determine the flow para-
meters behind the shock through the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. For a
hydromagnetic shock wave, two parameters are required; namely, one
giving a measure of the shock strength and one giving a measure of the
applied field. Then, all flow quantities may be expressed in terms of
these two parameters and the known flow on one side of the shock wave.
Let the subscripts one and two denote, respectively, the flow in front
of and behind the shock. Then, the hydromagnetic analogs of the
Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are [1]

!!IVl = 1?2 V 2' (2.2.1)


Blvl = B 2 v2 , (2.2.2)
m=
P1 + I?l VI2 + 2ji p m
+ 1?2 V22 + 2ji
2 (2.2.3)

yPl + v~ + B~ = yP + v~ + I B~ (2.2.4)
(y-I) (>t 2 (>tIL (y-I)J!. 2 flaIL

In terms of the ALFvEN speed, relations (2.2.3) - (2.2.4) may be written as

(2.2.5)

(2.2.6)
2.2. Transition Relations Across Normal Shocks 13

The basic set to be discussed is Eqs. (2.2.1), (2.2.2), (2.2.5) and (2.2.6).
It is assumed that the state one is completely known and further that the
shock strength is prescribed. It is immediately apparent that

(2.2.7)

Eq. (2.2.7) may be used to express all quantities with sUbscript two in
Eqs. (2.2.5) and (2.2.6) in terms of those with subscript one by the use of
Eq. (2.2.7). This yields

(1 ~)
2
~?l VIa + P [1 -c + ym~ (I-a)2]
- 2 1
- 0
-, - (2.2.8)

1) [2 Y (I-"C/a) +2y mr(l-a) ] =0.


elVr (I-a. +P I y-l (2.2.9)

Since there exists a nontrivial solution to this linear system of homo-


geneous algebraic equations for PI and el vr,
the determinant of the
coefficients must vanish, and this gives the result
2 20(a-"C) +2(a"C-I)
mi = y(I- a)3

which is linear in -c, so that


Oa - 1 - ymi(1 -a)3/2
-c = O-a (2.2.10)

which expresses -c in terms of a and mI.


Consequently,
c~ "C Oa - 1 - ymi (1 - a)3/2
ci =a= a(O-a)
(2.2.11)
m~ a' a 2 (0 - a)
mi = -;-= Oa-I- ymi(1 -a)3/2
(2.2.12)

-+
J
C2
= 1+ m~
~~~-~
= 1 + ...".-_-,---=....c~,-,---:-----:-=-=-
Oa - 1 - ym~ (1 - a) 3/2
(2.2.13)
w~ (1 + m~)"C (2.2.14)
wi (1 + mil a
Expressing all quantities in Eqs. (2.2.5) and (2.2.6) in terms of those
with subscript two gives

e2V~ (a-I) + P 2 [(: - 1) + y;~ (:. - 1)] = 0 (2.2.15)

e2V~(a2 - 1) + P 2 h-y2Y 1) (~ -1) + 2ym~ (! -1)] = O. (2.2.16)

The secular equation for the system of Eqs. (2.2.15) and (2.2.16) gives the
known result m~/mr = a 2/-c.
14 2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts

Division of Eq. (2.2.8) by elcI and Eq. (2.2.15) by e2c~ gives


~ = a(I-T) + m~a(1 + a)
1 1'(I-a) 2

= {I' -2 1 + m1
2[ I' -I' 1 +
(2-I')a]}
I' - 1
a
(0 - a)
(2.2.17)

M2- M~ (2.2.18)
2 - aT
Further, there is the result
v~ ~
w~ 1 + m~
v~ ~
w~ l+m~
From Eq. (2.2.1),
U. U - U, + U, M,
C, C, a
so that

n2 = :: = [nl + (1 _ ~) Ml](;) t
or

n2 = [nl + Ml (1- ~)] [Oa-l ~0;:l~i_a)3/2 t· (2.2.19)

Finally
u, n,
w, (1 + ml)2
I

u. n.
1
W2
(1 +~)2

Consequently, all quantities behind the shock have been expressed in


terms of the quantities in front of the shock and the two parameters mv
which is a measure of the applied field, and (1, the shock strength. The
usual gas dynamic relations are obtained by letting m1 = O.
The existence of an applied magnetic field produces a magnetic
pressure counteracting the gas pressure such that the sum of the gas
pressure and the magnetic pressure is constant. As a consequence, there
is a decrease in the rate of momentum flow of the fluid, and the magnetic
field is "frozen" into and compressed to the same extent as the fluid and
causes a decrease in compression across a shock wave. From Eq. (2.2.10)
it is also immediately apparent that for very weak or very strong shock
waves [in an asymptotic sense], the shock strength is independent of the
applied field. The solutions obtained in the subsequent sections exhibit
exactly this behavior.
2.3 Solution behind the Incident Shock 15

Eq. (2.2.10) gives, in fact, the magnetic Hugoniot function for poly-
tropic fluids, i.e.,
ym~
P 2(e2- 0el)- [ el- Oe2+-2-!h ( /?2 )3] P1=0.
l-e; (2.2.20)
Along the Hugoniot curve, l' varies from 0 to 00, while a varies between the
limits amin = 0 and amax , where amax is determined from the equation

()a - 1 - Tym 2
(1 - a)3 = 0 ;

along the Hugoniot curve, ~: > O.

2.3 Solution behind the Incident Shock


The problem considered is that of an initially uniform plane magneto-
hydrodynamic shock wave of arbitrary strength propagating with initially
constant speed in a duct which has a section of non-uniform cross-sectional
area, and it is assumed that the area variations are spatially and time-
dependent. It is assumed that the (unspecified) mechanism of generation
of the shock is sufficiently far
removed so that no reflected t
waves come back to interfere
with the basic interaction to
be considered. It is assumed
that the area variations are
restricted to the region x > 0,
whereas to the left of the cross-
section x = 0, the tube is of
constant cross-sectional area,
and the shock propagates
therein with constant speed.
Since the area variations are
considered to be time-depen-
Fig. 1. The (x, t) diagram for the shock wave area inter-
dent, the fluid in front of the action. To the left of the cross-section x = 0, the duct is of
shock is perturbed, but, to in this portion
constant area, and the shock propagates with uniform speed
of the duct. It is assumed that no pertur-
simplify the discussion, it is bations from the disturbed upstream flow reach the shock
until the section x = 0 is reached at t = 0
assumed that no disturbances
from the perturbed upstream flow reach the shock until the area variations
are encountered at x = 0 at t = O. The set-up of the problem is given in
Fig. 1.
Initially, the flow behind the incident shock is a uniform, isentropic
state, but, when the shock wave meets the area variation, the shock is
perturbed, its strength altered and the subsequent flow non-isentropic.
Although the one-dimensional approach does not allow a complete
description of the complex metamorphosis which takes place behind the
16 2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts

shock due to the reflections of rarefactive or compressive wavelets by the


non-uniformities, the gross features of the interaction process are readily
discernible. There are three distinct contributions to the disturbance;
namely, a permanent disturbance due directly to the area change;
a transient disturbance, which propagates with speed £0 (the true sonic
speed), with respect to the flow behind the shock, and is due to reflections
of the permanent perturbation at the shock; and the effect of the per-
turbed flow in front of the shock.
In the immediate vicinity of the incident shock, the ultimate effect is
an altered shock strength and concomitant pressure change behind the
shock. When the main flow behind the shock has speed < £0, a transient
reflected disturbance is convected to the left downstream of the shock
with speed £0 relative to the fluid; for flow speed >£0, this reflected
disturbance is convected to the right upstream of the shock with speed
£0 relative to the main flow. Expressions for these various contributions
are obtained.
Under the assumption of small area variations, the resultant flow
behind the incident shock wave will be weakly non-isentropic and may be
determined by use of the solution for the non-isentropic perturbation of a
constant state, Eqs. (1.2.30) -(1.2.32). In the solution for R, the term
F [x - (u 2 + (0 2) t] would represent a disturbance wave travelling to the
right from downstream of the shock. But from the formulation of the
problem, there is no mechanism downstream of the shock which could
give rise to such a term; thus, the pressure perturbation immediately
behind the incident shock may be obtained simply by setting F = 0, and
this is carried out in the present section. Once this solution has been deter-
mined, it may be used to evaluate the arbitrary function G in the solution
for S, and this determines the transient reflected disturbance; the solution
is given in the next section.
Consequently, setting F = 0 in Eq. (1.2.30) gives
-u.w.A. [x, (nl + q.) tin.] (2.3.1)
2A.(u. + w.)
where perturbations of a base quantity are denoted by a bar. Since
W2=Q2 C2;
-i. PI c.
2i'(i'-I)c~ = 2i'P. - (i'-I)c.'

the latter from Eq. (1.2.1), Eq. (2.3.1) may be written as


ul + [i'(~+I)-I] PI m~
e;
el
C. i'(i'-I) ql PI - (i'-I)ql
(2.3.2)
_ -n.q.A. [x, (n. + q.) tin.]
- (nl + q.) AI
2.3 Solution behind the Incident Shock 17

From the perturbation form of the jump conditions of section 2.2


f PI PI
-;=p;---p;=
m~ya[30-1-60a + 3(0 + 1) a'-2a8]/2} a
{ (OS-I) a +
(0 - a) [Oa- 1 - ymW - a)8/2] a (2.3.3)
yml (1 - a)3m1
Oa- 1 - ymW - a)3/2

U. = n 1 (~)* uU t1 + [n 2 _ n1 (.!!.-)*] c +i

r] m~[
C, T T C1

.1

[n S -nl (; 1 + 0 + a(0-3)] mImI a t (2.3.4)


+ 2(0 + I)/y +
[1 + 0 + a(0-3)] + n 1 (-;) ] X [n2 -
2 (0+ 1) 0/y+2 (0+ 1) (0-2)a/y+m~ [0(1 +0) + (1 + 0) (0-2) a + (0-3) (20-1) as + (3-0) a 3]} (j
{
X 2(0-a) (a-I) {2(0 + 1) /y + mW + 0 + a(O -3)]} a •
Thus, substituting Eqs. (2.3.3) -(2.3.4) into Eq. (2.3.2) gives

{[n -n (;)f]
2 1 X

[ 2 (0 + 1) O/y + 2 (0 + 1) (0-2) a/y+m~[O(1 + 0) + (1 + 0) (0-2)a + (0-3) (20-1) as + (3-0)aB] ]


X 2(a-l) {2(0 + 1)/y + mW + 0 + a (0-3)]} +
+ [ y(m~ + 1) - 1 ] [ (OS-I) a + m~ ya[30-1-60a + 3(0 + 1) a s -2aB]/2 ] _
y(y-l)q. Oa-l-ymW-a)3/2
m~(O-a) } p.
qs(y-l) (P.-P1 )
=_ [(0 2 -1) a + m~ya{30-1-60a + 3 (0 + 1) a s -2a3}/2]
(0 + 1) (a- 1) + ym~ (a- 1)3/2 X

X { naq• .I.
+
(n s qs)A.
+n1 (a)t~+[
-T -U n2 -n1 -T
I
(a)t]cII m~
---;----'0-:--
C (y-I)q. lit
QI}_
f] :~
1

- [n2 - n 1 ( ; X
X [{2(0+1) 0/y+2 (0+1) (0-2) a/y+mHO (1 +0)+(1 + 0) (0-2)a + (0-3) (20-1)a 2 + (3-0)aB] _
2(0-a) (a-I) {2(0 + 1)/y + mW + 0 + a(0-3)]}
m~} ymW - a)3 (4 - a)
- qs(y-l) (0 + + ym¥(a-l)3/2 +
1) (a-I)
[1 + 0+a(0-3)]m~
+ 2(0 + I)/y + mW + 0 + a(0-3)] X
{ (0'-1) a + m~ ya[30-1-60a + 3(0 + 1) a s -2a3]/2}]
X (0 + 1) (a- 1) + ym~(a- 1)3/2
1 _
+
a)2] PI [ymW-a)3/2+1-0a]
[
+ n2n1 ( T
- Ii; (4 - a) (0 + I) (I-a) + ym~(I-a)3/2 X
3
{ 20(0+1)/y+2(0+1) (0-2)a/y+mHO(1 +0) +(1 + 0) (0-2)a + (0-3) (20-I)aa + (3-0)a ]
X 2(0-a) (a-I) {2(0 + 1)/y + mW + 0 + a(0-3)]} -
m~ }
q.(y-l)
Springer Tracts, Vol. 1: Gundersen 2
18 2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts

which may be abbreviated as:


P 2 /(P 2 - Pl) = - K ((1, ml> n l ) 1'2 [x, (n2 + q2) t/n2J/A2 +
5
+ 1: Di ((1, ml> n l) ¢i (x, t)
i-I
(2.3.5)

where ¢l = el/el' ¢2 = ul/ul> ¢3 = el/cl , ¢4 = Pl/Pl' ¢5 = ml/ml and K


and Di refer to the respective coefficients. Eq. (2.3.5) gives the pressure
perturbation immediately behind the incident shock. The term -K1'2/A2
gives the contribution due directly to the area variations while the sum-
mation term gives that due to the perturbed upstream flow.

2 J 5 u
Fig. 2. A graph of the parameter K (G, m" 0) '" K. vs. G for m, = 0, the ordinary gas dynamic case, and for
m,=2and6

For time-independent ducts, i.e., 1'2 = 1'2 (x) alone, Eq. (2.3.5) con-
tains as a special case the results given [22J for the propagation of a non-
uniform hydromagnetic shock wave into a moving monatomic fluid; with
n l = 0 and ¢i = 0, i = 1 - 5, Eq. (2.3.5) reduces to the solution given [4J for
the propagation of a non-uniform shock wave into a stationary fluid. In the
limit of vanishing magnetic field, Eq. (2.3.5) reduces exactly to the cor-
responding solution for the propagation of a conventional gas dynamic
shock wave in a duct with time-dependent area variations [7J.
In magnetohydrodynamics, strong shocks can occur in two ways, viz.,
for (1 close to e, i.e., 6 for y = 7/5, or for a very strong applied field for any
(1 > 1, i.e., ml is then large.
For stationary flow in front of the incident shock wave, it is seen that
for y = 7/5 and all ml> lim K ((1, ml> 0) = 0.5 and lim K ((1, ml , 0) = 0.39414,
G->-1 + a->-6-
and these are exactly the limits for the ordinary gas dynamic case which
corresponds to ml = O. Consequently, there is the result:
For very strong or very weak shock waves [in an asymptotic sense], the
propagation of the shock is independent of the applied field and given by
conventional gas dynamic theory.
2.3 Solution behind the Incident Shock 19

For mi = 0, K (G, ml> 0) decreases monotonically with increasing G


and agrees exactly with the corresponding parameter in the gas dynamic
case. For any mi =l= 0, there is no longer a monotonic variation with G,

~
050

If 5 CT 5
Fig. 3. Agraph of tbe parameter K, vs. a for tn, _ 1,3 and 10

J(.
050

J 5 5 IT
Fig. 4. A graph of the parameter K, vs. a for tn. ~ 1000

but the curves are concave upward with those for greater mllying beneath
those for lesser ml , and all curves issue from the point (G, K) = (1, 0.5)
and terminate at the point (6, 0.39414). Graphs are presented in Figs. 2,
3 and 4.
For fixed incident shock strength G, K (G, ml , 0) decreases monotoni-
cally with increasing ml , so that in a diverging (converging) duct, the
pressure decrement (increment) is decreased (decreased) by increasing the
2*
20 2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts

applied field. Qualitatively, the motion of the shock is independent of


whether the main flow behind the shock is < (Oll or > (02.
For non-stationary flow in front of the incident shock, a complete dis-
cussion is quite difficult since the pressure perturbation immediately
downstream of the shock is the sum of two contributions, viz., the direct
effect of the area variations and the perturbed flow upstream. The latter
contribution, which depends implicitly on the area variations, will not
be discussed, but the effect of the behavior of the former on the flow may
be obtained from the tables presented in Appendix C.
For fixed nl , K (a, 0, n l ) decreases monotonically with increasing a,
i.e., the same essential behavior as K (a, 0, 0). Since K (a, 0, nl ) increases
monotonically with increasing nl for fixed a, in a diverging (converging)
duct, this portion of P2' the pressure decrement (increment), which
decreases (increases) monotonically with increasing nl , is increased
(increased) by increasing the Mach number of the upstream flow. For
fixed nl and ~ =1= 0, K no longer varies monotonically with increasing a,
but the curves are concave upward with curves for greater ~ lying
beneath those for lesser ml. For large mv the minimum point of each
curve lies between a = 1 and a = 1.1 so that the tables show only a mono-
tonic increase with increasing a. For fixed a (and nl ), K decreases mono-
tonically with increasing ml , i.e., the same essen tial behavior as K (a, ~, 0).
For fixed ~ and a, K(a, ~, nl ) increases monotonically with nl .

2.4 The Reflected Disturbance


To complete the solution for the perturbed flow behind the incident
shock wave, an expression for the transient reflected disturbance must be
obtained from Eq. (1.2.31). The evaluation of the arbitrary function G is
accomplished quite readily by noting that the system Eqs. (1.2.30)-
(1.2.32) may be written as:

iia + 2m~ c + Pa = _
i nsql A [ (n. +qa)!]
1:. (y-l) q. I:s yp.q. (n. + qs)A. 2 X, n.

_ iia + 2m~ c + PI = _
i nlqz A [x (n.-q.) t] +
2 (y-l)q. 1:. yp.q. (ns-qa)As 2' na

+ ~ [x - (us - co.) t] •
1:.

Adding these two equations, which serves to eliminate ii 2 , using Eq.


(2.3.3) and the fact
2.4 The Reflected Disturbance 21

it follows that:
Pa [71- 1 + 71m~
p. 71(71-l)q.

mWJ - 0') [00' - 1- 71mW -a)8/2J ]

m~ 71ml (1- 0')3 (0 -0') iiil


(71-1) q.{(02-1) 0' + mi71a[30-I-60a + 3(0 + 1) a 2 -2a3J/2} +
+ 2m~ Ct + n.q. AI [x, (na + q) tlnaJ +
(71-1) ql cl (n z + ql) 2AI

+ naql 2A
Az [x, (n2 - ql) tlnaJ = G [x - (U 2 - W2) t]/C2 .
nl - qz a

Evaluating this on the shock, x = Ut, and replacing P2/ p 2 by its value
from Eq. (2.3.5) evaluates G so that the final solution is:

5
+E Di(a,m1 , n1)CPi[<5A., CA.] +
i=1

(0 - 0') [00' - 1 - 71mi (1 - a)8/2J ]


+m~ [1- (02-I)a+mha[30-1-60a+3(0+I)a Z -2a8J/2 X

71m~mW - 0')8 (0 - 0') ]


+ [ (0 2 -1) 0' + mi71 0'[30-1-600' + 3(0 + 1) aa-2a3J/2 X
(2.4.1)
22 2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts

where
Oa - 1 - ym~ (1 - a)3/2
"1 = (0 + 1) (a-I) + ym~(a-l)3/2

y-l+ym~ m~ (0 - a) [Oa - 1- ym~ (1 - a)3/2]


"2= Y (0 2 - 1) a + m~ ya[30 - 1- 60a + 3(0 + 1) a 2 - 211"]/2

A= x - (U 2 - W2) t
t.
10

When the flow speed behind


the shock is < W2' a distur-
bance will be reflected to the
left downstream of the shock,
and the pressure perturbation
will ultimately be given by
Eq. (2.4.1) with the two terms
..42 [x, (n2 ± q2) t/n 2J absent
since ..42 = 0 for x < O. For
-5
flow speed > W 2 behind the
incident shock, the reflected
disturbance will be convected
to the right upstream of the
-W'~--~2L---~--~----~5----6L-U--- shock and is given by Eq.
(2.4.1). When the area vari-
Fig. 5. A graph of the parameter Z (cr, .... , 0) == e.
vs. cr.
ations are assumed time-inde-
The parameter is singular for true-sonic flow behind the
incident shock, i.e., for ft., = qtJ and this singularity masks
the formation of secondary shocks pendent, Eq. (2.4.1) reduces to

(2.4.2)

where <1>4 denotes the first four terms on the right-hand side of Eq. (2.4.2)
Tables of Y and Z are given in Appendix C and graphs of Z (0', ?nt, 0) = ~2
and !5 (0', m1 , 0) are given in Figs. 5 and 6.
It should be noted that the expression for the pressure in the reflected
pulse as given by Eq. (2.4.1) or Eq. (2.4.2) is singular for true-sonic flow
2.5 Modified Perturbation Theory 23

speed behind the incident shock, i. e., for n 2 = Q2' This singularity masks
the formation of secondary shocks and further comments and a modified
perturbation theory valid for all flow speeds will be given in the next
section.
15
2.0

Fig. 6. A graph of the parameter 6 (G. m,. 0) vs.caseG. mSince 0there


=
is only a small total variation with m,. only the
is given
1

2.5 Modified Perturbation Theory


Although the solution for the pressure perturbation directly behind
the incident shock, i.e., Eq. (2.3.5) is valid for all flow speeds, the ex-
pression for the pressure perturbation in the transient reflected pulse is
singular for true-sonic flow speed, i.e., for u 2 = CO2' In the neighborhood
of u 2 = CO 2 , the disturbance 5 tends to accumulate since its speed of
propagation is u 2 - CO 2 which is quite small. But. in actuality, as soon as
an accumulation begins, U 2 - CO 2 will cease to be small, and the disturbance
will be convected through the duct. This difficulty is due to the inade-
quacies of the linearization, which approximates the characteristics
dx/dt = u 2 - CO 2 by the rectilinear and parallel family x - (u 2 - c( 2)t
= constant, but when a more careful examination of the negative charac-
teristics is made, a perturbation theory valid for all flow speeds behind
the incident shock may be derived, and the aforementioned singularity
actually masks the formation of secondary shocks in the flow. The re-
quisite modifications have been given previously for hydromagnetic
shock propagation in channels with only spatially dependent area
variations and stationary flow in front of the incident shock wave [15J.
The discussion of the present section solves this problem for spatially and
time-dependent area variations and includes, as a special case, non
stationary flow in front of the incident shock for time-independent area
variations.
Since it is the neighborhood of u 2 = CO2 which is important for this dis-
cussion, the governing equations are rewritten with u and co as dependent
variables. Since
d w = --"(Y~-,--=.1)_w_2",,,dc-w...,,-­
WI + (y - 2) c2
24 2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts

Eqs. (1.2.20)-(1.2.21) may be transfonned to:

rot + uro., + [roll + (y - 2) c3 ] u.,j2ro + A.,u [roll +


(2.5.1)
+ (y - 2) c3 ]j2A ro + At [roll + (y - 2) c2 ]j2A ro

Ut + uu., + 2ro8 ro.,/[roll + (y - 2) c3] - c2 s.,jy (y - 1) c" = 0 . (2.5.2)

Subtracting these two equations gives:

CiS., + u[w l + (y-2) c l] A., + [w B + (y-2)c l ]A, (2.5.3)


Y (y - 1) c. 2A 00 2A 00

which is the equation satisfied along the negative characteristics. The


equations valid along the positive characteristics and particle paths are:

~
""2 + WI +~~
(y-2) c l
[~~~]
+ (u+ro) 2 + w B + (y-2) cl
(2.5.4)

St + us., = o. (2.5.5)

The system of Eqs. (2.5.3) -(2.5.5) is that to be utilized throughout the


remainder of this section. For time-independent area variations, this
system reduces to that discussed in [15].
Because Eqs. (2.5.4) -(2.5.5) are valid for all flow speeds, they may
be linearized directly and lead to the following solutions:
- g-
R = -2
'UI
+ Wg
9 +WgW.
(Y - 2) c9g =F[ ( )
x - u 2 + ro 2 t] +
(2.5.6)

(2.5.7)

It is assumed that the physical set-up of the problem is exactly that of


section 2.3, and by setting F = 0, Eqs. (2.5.6) -(2.5.7) lead directly to
the solution for the pressure perturbation behind the shock given by
Eq. (2.3.5).
Linearization of Eq. (2.5.3) must be carried out with greater care. It is
the tenns in Us - ro2 == [J which cause the difficulty and these tenns are
2.5 Modified Perturbation Theory 25

retained while the remaining terms may be linearized directly. Thus, the
resultant equation is:
n R., _ C~81z
Dt +Q ~~'" + [W22 + (2 - y)
2
C2] -
WI
-
Y ( Y - 1) c. +
+ [W~ (Y - 2) c~J [A + u A ]
+2A.w. 2t 2 2", •

Substituting from Eqs. (2.5.6) -(2.5.7) gives the following equation valid
along the negative characteristics:
[2 2) 2] E' [x - Us t]
n
~~t + ~~n ~~'"
n
= W2 + (y - C2
W2
2 +
(2.5.8)

The function E may be expressed in terms of the cross-sectional area


perturbation by noting that
80 2y(y-1)E[x-u.tJ
C;;= c~ (2.5.9)

From the shock conditions, Eq. (2.3.3),

e. _ 1 Po 1 PI + 1 iiil + 121
e;-L;"p'-L;p; L; m1 e,' (2.5.10)

where (Ll' L 2 ) refer to the respective coefficients in Eq. (2.3.3). Thus,


evaluating Eq. (2.5.9) on the shock, x = Ut, replacing-~: by its value
obtained from Eq. (2.3.5) and using Eq. (2.5.10), it follows that

1 tP, 1 tPs tPl


+L; 2(y-1) -L; 2(y-1) - 2(y-1) ,

where the arguments of the last three terms are the same as in the sum-
mation term. For convenience, let Eq. (2.5.11) be rewritten with a new
26 2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts

so that
E'[x-uat] {3 (Ma + n a)Aa.l + {3 (na + ql) As.s +
c~ 1 MsAa 1 M.nsc s A.
(2.5.12)
5
+ X; !5i[~i.I(M2 + n2)/M2 + ~i.2/M2C2]
i=l

where the subscripts after the commas refer to derivatives with respect
to the first or second argument of the pertinent function. Substitution
of Eq. (2.5.12) into Eq. (2.5.8) gives the final differential equation. viz ..
Q +QQ = (q~ +Y- 2) Plc~(M. +n l) A ••1 +
t III q~M.As

+ (n2 + q2) (q~ + Yz- 2) Pl c• A M + (q~ + Y -;) c~(M. + n.) l;!5 i ~i.l +
qzM.nzA z qa M ! i=l

(q~ +Y- 2) c. ~.i "" (q~ + 2 - y)n.c~ -


+ q2M
a.
.~ Ui,/,i.2+
t=l
2A (n +q)
2 a •
A 2•I [X.(n2+Q2)t/n2]+
+y- -
+
(q~
2A z qz
2) C z
[u2A2.dX, t) + A- 2•2(X, t)] (2.5.13)

where the arguments have been omitted in the functions arising from
Eq. (2.5.12). For u 2 not close to £02' Eq. (2.5.13) may be solved directly
and the solution so obtained agrees with Eq. (1.2.31) after a redefinition
of the arbitrary function G, and this leads to the solution presented in
section 2.4.
For u 2 near £0 2, it is a first order non-linear partial differential equation
with prescribed inhomogeneous term and is to be integrated along the
negative characteristics. The initial condition at the shock is easily
determined. Since
WB = [q~ (2 + 11*) - 11*] Cz Cz = ~ +~_ ~
al. 2q~c. 'c. C1 2. 20'
and ii/a and i/T are known on the shock, viz., Eqs. (2.3.5) and (2.5.10),
w.=[q~(2+1):)-1)*][~3(Ut,t)_ t/J&(Ut,t) + (I-L 1)t/J4(Ut,t) +
ala 2q2 2LI 2LI
5
+ (L~~ 1) (.~ I) i~ Dda, ml , nl ) ~i(Ut, t)] +
+ 1)*) -1)*] (1 - + qa) tIn.]
+
[q~ (2
4 zL A
qz 1.
L 1 ) (. -
a
1) K (0', ml> n l ) Aa [Ut, (nz
(2.5.14)
2.6 Criterion for the Particle Velocity to be Unaffected by Entropy Perturbations 27

n
on the shock. Since = u - W = U2 - W2 + u 2 - W 2 , with W2 given by
Eq. (2.5.14) and U2 by Eq. (2.3.5), the initial condition may be written as:
5 -
no _
.:.~ - U2 - W2
+ ~
~ Qi 'f'i
,I. (Ut t)
, -
Q8 A
A. [Ut, (n. + q.) tIn.] (2.5.15)
i=l •

with appropriate coefficients Q;, i = 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Thus the problem is


reduced to solving Eq. (2.5.13) with the initial condition (2.5.15) given
at the shock. If the area perturbation is approximated by a few terms of a
Taylor series, Eq. (2.5.13) may be solved exactly to that order of approxi-
mation and the initial condition Eq. (2.5.15) applied. For further details,
including a determination of the point of secondary shock formation, the
previous paper [15J may be consulted. For time-independent area
variations, the discussion of this section gives the modified perturbation
theory for the propagation of a non-uniform shock into a moving fluid.

2.6 Criterion for the Particle Velocity to be Unaffected by Entropy


Perturbations
It was shown in Chapter 1 that the addition of an entropy perturba-
tion introduced a non-homogeneous term in an otherwise homogeneous
system of perturbation equations, and the entropy perturbation could
be determined directly. This meant that problem could be solved by first
considering the homogeneous system (isentropic perturbed flow) and
then adding particular solutions to the complete system (non-isentropic
s erturbed flow). For two conventional gas dynamic flows of interest, viz.,
an initially uniform or centered simple wave flow, it was found previously
[2J, [5J, [6J that the addition of an entropy perturbation affected the
pound speed but not the particle velocity, i.e., there was a particular
solution with the particle velocity perturbation equal to zero. A general
discussion of this phenomenon, including necessary and sufficient
conditions for it to occur, was given [5J, [6J.
In the present theory, it has been seen that the addition of an entropy
perturbation did not affect the particle velocity in an initially uniform
flow [Eqs. (1.2.30) -(1.2.32)], which is a direct consequence of the result
that the non-isentropic perturbation of an initially uniform flow must
reduce to the solution of the corresponding problem in conventional gas
dynamics in the limit of vanishing magnetic field, but, in contrast to
ordinary gas dynamics, this result did not obtain for a centered simple
wave flow [30J. Simple wave perturbations will be discussed in detail
in Chapter 5.
Consequently, it is of interest to examine the question in greater detail
[31]. In order to be able to use the perturbation equations which have
been derived, the discussion is limited to the class of flows for which
28 2. Shock Propagation in Non-Uniform Ducts

Bjc2 /(Y-l) is constant throughout the flow. It is convenient to use (u, w, s)


as the dependent variables, so that the pertinent equations are
[w 2 + (1'-2) c 2]
Wt + UW'" + 2w u'" = 0 (2.6.1)

Ut + UU'" + [w2 + (1'-2) c2] y(y-1)c~


(2.6.2)
St + us", = o. (2.6.3)
When this system of equations is linearized in the neighborhood of a
known isentropic flow, denoted by the subscript zero, a system of linear
equations for the terms of first order, denoted by the subscript one, is
obtained exactly as in Chapter 1. Since for the problem under con-
sideration, it is equivalent to look for solutions of the linear system with
u 1 = 0, the pertinent equations are
+ + [w~+(y-2)c~]UO~WI 0
(2.6.4)
WIt U OWl'" 2w~ =

(W W ) -
[w~ + (1' - 2) c~] eoc~T' ('['0)
(2.6.5)
o 1 '" - (1' - 1) w~ 2 yc~
dPo = eo [dx - uodt] (2.6.6)
where Po = constant defines the particle paths. Consequently, the problem
is reduced to expressing the compatibility of Eqs. (2.6.4) and (2.6.5), and
the conditions on the functions uo(x, t), Co (x, t) and wo(x, t) which allow
this compatibility will be determined.
The characteristics of Eq. (2.6.4) are
dt dx dW I
T = u;;- = [w~ + (1' - 2) c~ ] (2.6.7)
- 2w~ UO~WI

One first integral of Eq. (2.6.7) is Po = constant, i.e., the particle paths.
Since WI = Wo is a particular solution of Eq. (2.6.4), the following method
of solution is suggested. From Eq. (2.6.7)

dw o
_ [ w~ + (1' - 2) cg ] uoz
2 Wo

which shows clearly that Wl/WO = constant is a first integral. Consequently


the solution of Eq. (2.6.4) may be written

(2.6.8)

where t is an arbitrary differentiable function.


2.6 Criterion for the Particle Velocity to be Unaffected by Entropy Perturbations 29

Since Eq. (2.6.4) is obtained by linearizing the continuity equation,


which is the same in the magnetic or non-magnetic case, it follows that
[5], [6]
(2.6.9)
where g is an arbitrary differentiable function.
Since it follows from Eqs. (2.6.8) and (2.6.9) that
W1 Wo f(lJ'o} Wo [wg + (y - 2) c~J
C1 Co g (lJ'0) (y - I) cowg
Eq. (2.6.5) may be written as
( )
WOWI x -
_
eoco
2[ F' ('Po) f('Po}
2 yc.g('Po}
1• (2.6.10)
Substituting Eq. (2.6.8) into Eq. (2.6.10) gives
WOz _ ~ [ F' ('Po) ] _ f' ('Po) (2.6.11)
!loW o - wg 4yc.g(lJ'0} 2f('Po}
2

\Vriting eo = r 2 Co ),-1 and absorbing the constant r 2 in the arbitrary func-


·
t IOns, replacmg
' - - = cozf('Po}
Woz d ki h
('U) an ta ng t e matena
. 1d ' .
envatIve m
Wo cog TO
Eq. (2.6.11), the following condition is obtained
D [c6 ] )
m
D [co
~
z ]
=
F' (lJ'0)
4 ye.f (lJ'0) Dt wg . (2.6.12
When the differentiation on the right-hand side of Eq. (2.6.12) is carried
out and Coxt is replaced by its equivalent obtained by differentiating the
continuity equation with respect to x, the following result is obtained
Uoxx r' (lJ'0) D [e g ] (2.6.13)
2 =-2(y-l}yc.f(lJ'0}Dt wg'
),-1
Co
For the non-magnetic case, the right-hand side vanishes and the condition
IS
u oxx = 0
so that
In the non-magnetic case, a necessary and s~tfficient condition for the
particle velocity to be unaffected by the addition of an entropy perturbation
is that uo(x, t) be a linear function of x.
An investigation of all solutions of this fonn, i.e., U o = a l (t) x + bi (t),
has been carried out [5].
When the indicated differentiation in Eq. (2.6.13) is carried out and the
material derivative is again taken to eliminate the functions of Po, the
condition may be written as

(2.6.14)
30 3. The Piston-Driven Shock Wave

which may be put into the following form

~[uO'''']+[I+ (Y-2)(w~-cij)]u =0. (2.6.15)


Dt U oz 003 0<1:<1:

Thus, the final result


In the magnetic case, a necessary and sufficient condition for the particle
velocity to be unalfected by the addition of an entropy perturbation is that
(uo, co' coo) satisfy (2.6.14) or (2.6.15).
It should be noted that UO<l:<l: = 0 is a sufficient condition.

Chapter 3

The Piston-Driven Shock Wave


3.1 Arbitrary Area Variations
In Chapter 2, the effects of cross-sectional area variations on the motion
of an initially uniform shock wave were determined with no reference
to the method of generation of the shock. It is the purpose of the present
chapter to consider the additional effects of waves reflected back from a
piston, the initially uniform motion of which generated the shock. The
solutions contain, as special cases, the solutions for the corresponding
problems in conventional gas dynamic flows. The effects of small non-
uniformities in piston motion on the propagation of an initially uniform
shock wave in a uniform duct was determined in [5] and [6] ; in ducts with
linear area variations (cylindrical shock wave) in [6] and [12]; in ducts
with quadratic area variations (spherical shock wave) in [17]; in ducts
with arbitrary area variations in [18] and [19].
Taking the usual model, it is assumed that the piston, initially at rest,
is moved impUlsively with initially constant speed into the fluid. For
simplicity, it is assumed that the area variations are time-independent,
the fluid in front of the shock is at rest and the piston starts from x = 0
at t = O. The effects of the area variations and small non-uniformities of
the piston motion may be determined from the general solution for the
non-isentropic perturbation of an initially uniform flow as given by
Eqs. (1.2.30) -(1.2.32). For ready reference, this solution is rewritten
here specialized to the case of time-independent area variations, viz.,
E[x-u.t] uzw.A. [x]
R = F [x - (u 2 + CO2) t] + Ws 2(u.+w.)A.
(3.1.1)
E[x-ust] u.wsA. [x]
S = G [x - (u 2 - CO2) t] + w. 2(u.-w.)A.
(3.1.2)

To = 2E' [x - u 2 t] . (3.1.3)
3.1 Arbitrary Area Variations 31

When the shock propagates through the non-uniform duct, it is perturbed


and the initially isentropic flow behind the shock becomes weakly non-
isentropic. The compressive and rarefactive wavelets thus generated
propagate with true sonic speed with respect to the flow, are reflected at
the piston and return to modify the motion of the shock. These are again
reflected at the shock and the pattern repeats itself indefinitely. In
addition, further perturbations are generated by small non-uniformities
of the piston motion. Thus there is an extremely complicated interaction
pattern created behind the shock, but an expression for the average
pressure perturbation behind the shock may be obtained rather simply
from the present theory.
From the shock conditions, it follows that R, 5 and 82 may be expres-
sed in terms of the pressure perturbation at the shock. This gives:

(3.1.4)

at the shock, x = Ut, where (Nl' N 2 , N 3 ) are the appropriate coefficients.


Using the subsidiary conditions Eq. (3.1.4), the arbitrary functions in
Eqs. (3.1.1) -(3.1.2) may be determined in terms of 'fIr. Since it is assumed
that the piston velocity perturbation is prescribed, say u2P (t), the follow-
ing functional equation is obtained by evaluating u2 = R - 5 at the
piston curve, x = u 2 t.

~ [Nl - c2N 3] f [q 2t/(q2- M 2)] + ~ [N3 ~ _ N2] f [q.t/(M. + q.)]


U2 q. r u. q. r

(3.1.5)

The functional equation (3.1.5) is a special case of the theorem proved in


[6J, p. 578. Thus the solution may be written down immediately.
f [q.t/(q. - M.)]

= i:
v=O
[N 3 c./u 2 q. - N2/u 2]V(-I)V ] [t{( _
[N 1 /u 2 - c 2 N 3 /u 2 q 2 ]V+1 q2
M )/(q +M )}vJ_
2 2 2
(3.1.6)
00

== L (-I)v Qv(a, m l , v) ] [t{(q2 - M 2)/(q2 + M 2)}"J


v=o
where
32 3. The Piston-Driven Shock Wave

and
r., _ (I-q~)
1- 2(y-l)n.q. X

(0 - a) [Oa - 1 - ym~ (I - a)3/2] ]


[
X 1- (oa_l)a+mlya[30-1-60a+3(0+I)a"-20-1]/2 -
1
- 2y naq. +
2(0 + 1)0 + 2 (0 + 1) (0 - 2)a +m~[O(O + 1) + (0 + 1) (0-2)a + (0-3) (20-1)0-1+ (3-0)0-1]
Y Y
+ ______________ -4~(~a--~I)~{~2~(0-+~I)~/y~+-m~l~[-I~+~0~+~a~(0_-
__3~)]~}__- - - - - - - - - - - -
(OI-I)a + mha[30-1-60a + 3(0 + l)al -20-1]/2
Oa - 1 - ymi(! - a)3/2
r. 1__
= ___ + (q~ - 1) X
2 2yn.q. 2(y -1)n.q.
(0 - a) [Oa - 1 - ymW - a)8/2] ]
X
[
1- (02 _ 1) a + m~ya[30 - 1- 60a + 3(0 + l)a2 - 2a3 ]/2 +
2(0 + 1) 0 + 2(0 + 1) (0 - 2)a + mHO (0 + 1) + (0 + 1)(0-2) a + (0-3)(2 0-I)a2+(3-0) 0-1]
i' y
+ ____________~-4~(~a--~I~)~{2~(0~+~I~)/~y~+~m~l~[I-+~0~+~a~(~0_-~3~)]~}-==-___________
(02-1)a + mha[30-1-60a + 3(0 + l)a2 -20-1]/2
Oa - 1 - yml(1 - a)I/2

For 1nt = 0, Eq. (3.1.6) reduces to the result given in [19] for the
corresponding problem for non-conducting fluids. The series, Eq. (3.1.6),
converges rapidly, and a few terms suffice for a reasonable approximation.
An alternative approach is to approximate the area perturbation by a
Taylor series, and then the resultant functional equation may be solved
term by term.

3.2 The Piston-Driven Cylindrical Shock Wave


The cylindrical shock wave may be discussed as a special case of shock
propagation in a non-uniform duct by choosing a wedge-shaped duct with
cross-sectional area proportional to the distance from the center of the
shock front, i.e., a linear area variation. The motion of a piston-driven
cylindrical shock wave may be determined as a special case of the results
of section 3.1, but it is easier to approach this problem directly since its
solution may be given in finite form. Choosing ..42 (x) = E x, the equations
corresponding to Eqs. (3.1.1) - (3.1.2) are

(3.2.1)

(3.2.2)
3.2 The Piston-Driven Cylindrical Shock Wave 33

The solution is obtained exactly as in section 3.1. The subsidiary conditions


are again Eq. (3.1.4), and this allows the determination of F and G in
terms of f/7:. With the assumption that there is no perturbation of the
piston, the following functional equation is obtained

[N 1 _ coN.] f [q.t/(qo - Mo)] + [~N _ N ] f [qot/(M. + qo)]


q. T q. 3 2 T
(3.2.3)
(Mono - q~) tl.q.Wo(M. + no) Et uMEt
A2(n~ - q~) (M~ -q'l) Ao(n~-q§) .

A linear function of t satisfies Eq. (3.2.3), so that the solution may be


written as
_
[ U2q2W2(M.n2-q~)(M2+112) u~q~ ]~
f (M§ - q§) (11§ - q~) (11§ - q~) A.
(3.2.4)
T
q. [Nl _ C.N.] + q2 I c2 Na -N2]
(q2- M 2) q. M2 + q. l q2
Eq. (3.2.4) may be put into the form
(3.2.5)
where Kc = Q7/QS and
_
Q7- 2[Oa-I-ymr(l-a)a/2][112(~-q§) ]
n 2q2 0 + 1 + ymf(a-I)2/2 M2 + 110 + q~ - n 2M 2

Qs = -M2(a - 1) (n~ - q~)/y + M2(n~ - q~) (a - 1) (1 - q~) x


(O-a) [Oa-l- ymW -a)3/2] }
{
X 1- (02-I)a+m1ya[30-1-60a+3(O+I)a 2 -2a3]/2 +
+ n~q~ (q~ - n~) X
2(0+1) O/y+2(O+I) (O-2)a/y+mHO(O+I)+(O+I) (O-2)a+(O-3) (20-I)a 2+(3-0)a"] )
X
1 2{2(O + 1)/y + mW + 0 + a(O - 3)]}
(02-I)a + mfya[30-1-60a + 3(0 + l)a 2 -2a3]/2
Oa-l- ymW -a)3/2

Tables of the parameter Kc (a, m1 ) are given in Appendix E. For m1 = 0,


Kc decreases monotonically with increasing a and agrees exactly with the
corresponding parameter in the non-conducting case [12]. For all m1 ,
lim Kc = 0.5 and lim Kc = 0.259259 for y = 7/5. For an arbitrary mv
<1--+1 + <1--+6-
the behavior is more complicated. For m1 ~ 3, Kc decreases monotonically
to a minimum, increases monotonically to a maximum and then de-
creases monotonically to 0.259259. For increasing m 1 , the points of these
extremal values diverge. Since Kc exhibits a monotonic decrease for
m1 = 1 or 2, it is conjectured that the two aforementioned extremal
values come together, and this confluence leads to the monotonic be-
havior. For fixed a, Kc decreases monotonically with increasing mi'
Springer Tracts, Vol. 1: Gundersen 3
34 3. The Piston-Driven Shock Wave

3.3 The Piston-Driven Spherical Shock Wave


The spherical shock wave may be discussed as a special case of shock
propagation in a non-uniform duct by choosing a conical channel with
area proportional to the square of the distance from the center. Thus,
choosing A2 (x) = E X2, the equations corresponding to Eq. (3.1.1)-
(3.1.2) are
E[x-u.t] uzq. Ex·
R = F [x - (u 2 + w 2 ) t] + --=-----=-=- (3.3.1)
w. 2A.(n. + q.)

5 = G [x - (u 2 - W2) t] + _E--,,[,-x_u---,z'-.-'t],-- u.q. Ex'


(3.3.2)
w. 2A.(n.-q.)

The subsidiary conditions are again Eq. (3.1.4), and this allows the deter-
mination of F and G in terms of fiT. With the assumption that there is no
perturbation of the piston, the following functional equation is obtained:

[N _ caNs] f [q.t/(q. - Ma)] + [C.Ns _ N ] f [q.tf(M. + q.)]


1 ~ T ~ 2 T
(3.3.3)
u~q~ Et' u.q~w~ (M. + n.)· (2n.M. - ~- q~) Et2
=- Aa(n~-q~) - A2(n~-q~) (~-q~)'
A quadratic function of t satisfies Eq. (3.3.3), so the solution may be
written as
[ U.w~(M.+n')'(~-2nzM.+q~) _ u; ]E2
f A.(n~-q~) (~_q~)' A.(n~-q~) t
(3.3.4)
-:r= [Nl_CaNa] 1 +[C.Na_ Na ] 1
q. (qa - Ma)' q2 (M. + qa)2
Eq. (3.3.4) may be put into the form
P2 = -Ks(G, m1) (P2 - P 1)A2/A 2 (3.3.5)
where Ks = QU/QI0 and
_ Q _ [n.q~(~ - 2n.M. + q~) _
U- n~-q~

n;(~_q~)a ] [6a-l- y mW -a)S/2]


- (n~ - q~) (M. + n.)" 6 + 1 + ymHa - 1)2/2
_ 2M (
Q10- 1)/ 2Ma(q~-I) (a-I)
2 G- y+ 1'-1 X

[ (6 - a) [6a - 1 - ym~ (1 - a)a/2] ] 2 2


X 1- (6'-I)a+myya[36-1-66a+3(6+1)a 2 -2a8]/2 +n2(M 2 +q2) X

2(6+1) 6/1'+2 (6+1)(6-2)aly+m¥[6(/J+l) + (/J+l)(6-2)a+(/J-3) (2/J-l)a 2+ (3-/J)a8] ]


[ 2{2(/J + 1)/1' + mi[1 + /J + a(/J- 3)]}
X (6' -1)a + m~ya[3/J - 1 - 66a + 3(6 + l)a 2-2a8]/2
/Ja - 1 - ymW - a)a/2
3.4 The Integrated Shock Strength-Area Relation 35

Tables of the parameter K.(G, ml ) are given in Appendix E. For


~ = 0, K. decreases monotonically and agrees exactly with the corres-
ponding parameter in the non-conducting case [17]. For all ml ,
lim K. = 0.5 and lim K. = 0.361111 for y = 7/5. For any ml =F 0, the
a~l+ a~6-

monotonicity is lost, but the curves are concave upward with curves for
greater mllying beneath those for lesser~, i.e., for fixed G, K. decreases
monotonically with increasing ml'

3.4 The Integrated Shock Strength-Area Relation


A relation of the form
- ..42
P2 = -K(G, ml ) (P 2 - Pl) A
2

may be interpreted as a first order differential relation between area and


shock strength, viz.,
dA d-r: = 0
A+ (-r:-l)K (3.4.1)

and the solution may be written as

A="exp[- f (-r:~~)K]==vH(G,ml) (3.4.2)


where
- log.H (G, m l )
_f
-
[0" -1 + m~y[30 -
(0 - a) (a - 1) [0
I-GOa
+ +1
+
3(1 +
0)a 2 - 2a3J /2] d
ymHa - 1)2/2] K (a, m i ) G
(3.4.3)

and v is a constant of integration. It is more convenient to give the inte-


gral in terms of G since K is known in terms of G.
CHISNELL [9J integrated the shock strength-area relation in closed
form in the non-magnetic case and showed that the result could be used
to give an approximate description of the motion of a shock in terms of
the area of the duct. By suitable choices of the cross-sectional area
distribution, a description of converging cylindrical (linear area variation)
and spherical (quadratic area variation) shock waves was given. These
results were checked by comparison with previous similarity solutions,
valid in the neighborhood of the points of collapse of the shock, and the
comparison showed the remarkable accuracy of CHISNELL'S work.
CHISNELL'S work was based on the motion of an initially uniform shock
wave with no specification of the method of generation thereof. It was
shown by GUNDERSEN that these results could be extended to piston-
driven shocks, where waves reflected back from a piston return to modify
the motion of the shock. Closed-form shock strength-area relationships
were obtained for cylindrical shock waves [12J, i.e., a linear area variation,
and for spherical shock waves [17J, i.e., a quadratic area variation.
3*
36 3. The Piston-Driven Shock: 3.4 The Integrated Shock Strength-Area Relation

In contrast to plane shock waves, converging cylindrical and spherical


shock waves are unstable and ultimately become strong. As the shock
converges, its strength increases and ultimately becomes singular at the
center. Near the singular point, Eq. (3.4.1) shows that A is proportional
to -r- 1/K O, where K* is the asymptotic limit of K, so that the shock strengths
of converging cylindrical and spherical shocks near the singular point are
proportional, respectively, to D- KO and D-2 K*, where D is the distance of
the shock from its axis or point of symmetry. For y = 7/5, CHISNELL
showed that the strengths were proportional to D-0.394141 and D-·788282.
It was shown by GUNDERSEN that the strengths of converging cylindrical
and spherical piston-driven shocks were proportional to D-0.259259 and
D- 0.361111, respectively.
For monatomic fluids, it was shown by GUNDERSEN [21] that
CHISNELL'S work could be extended to the magnetic case, and a theory
of converging cylindrical and spherical magnetohydrodynamic shock
waves was given. This theory, which included CHISNELL'S work as a
special case, was extended later to an arbitrary value of the adiabatic
index [4J. In these papers, it was shown that
Near the axis or point 01 symmetry, the strengths 01 converging cylindrical
and spherical magnetohydrodynamic shock waves are independent 01 the
applied field and given by conventional gas dynamic theory.
It is the purpose of the present section to point out that the theory
of [12] and [17] may be extended to the magnetic case and in a form
which includes the conventional gas dynamic results as a special case.
The integrated shock strength-area relation must be obtained numerically,
and Eq. (3.4.3) is the basic relation. Numerical results are given in Ap-
pendix E, and the tables refer to the evaluation of
F (0', ~) = -logeH (0', ~)
= Ja
[01 -1 + mi,,[30-1-60x + 3(1 + 0)XZ -2X3 ]/2] dx
(0 - x) (x -1) [0 + 1 + "mi (x - 1)1/2] K (x, m 1)
(3.4.4)

1.01
for y = 7/5. The piston-driven cylindrical shock wave is obtained by
letting K = Kc and the resultant function is called Fe (0', ~). The piston-
driven spherical shock wave is obtained by letting K = K. and the re-
sultant function is calledF.(O', ~). Data are presented for several values
of ~, the measure of the applied field, including the conventional gas
dynamic case which corresponds to ml = O. For convenience of reference,
a table of values of the function F (0', ~) for the case previously derived
[4J, i.e., when there was no influence of a piston, is given in Appendix D.
This function, called Fo(O', ~), is obtained from Eq. (3.4.4) when
K = K (0', ~, 0) as obtained from Eq. (2.3.5).
The tables may be used in several ways, e.g., suppose there is a section
of variable area connecting two ducts of constant but unequal area, say
4. Flows with Heat Addition: 4.1 The Linearized Equations 37

Al and A 2, then for given m1>


F(a., m,,) A.
F (a1> m l ) --:4; . (3.4.5)
If AI' A2 and (11 are known, (12 may be obtained by interpolating inversely
from the tables.
After passage through the transition section, the shock wave travels
with this altered shock strength, a 2 , and ultimately becomes uniform.
Conversely, given aI' a 2, m 1 and AI' the tables may be utilized to deter-
mine what A2 would give the desired a 2 • Eq. (3.4.5) could also be con-
sidered as one for m 1 with a1> a 2, Al and A2 prescribed.
The tables for Fo(a, m 1 ) are valid for arbitrary area variations, so
that converging cylindrical and spherical shocks may be treated by
choosing channels with areas proportional to D and D2, respectively, where
D is the distance from the axis or point of symmetry.
Finally, from the tables of Appendix E, which are valid for areas pro-
portional to D and D2 only, it is seen that the asymptotic limits of Kc and
Ks are independent of the applied field, so that there is the result
Near the axis or point 0/ symmetry, the strengths 0/ converging cylindrical
and spherical piston-driven magnetohydrodynamic shock waves are inde-
pendent 0/ the applied field and are given by conventional gas dynamic
theory.

Chapter 4

Flows with Heat Addition


4.1 The Linearized Equations
Another problem which may be treated by the present method is to
determine the effects of small heat addition and area variations on the
otherwise uniform flow of a perfectly conducting fluid [32]. The heat
addition produces entropy variations and, since it is generally the rate of
change of entropy along a trajectory that is known, it is convenient to use
(u, P, B, s) as dependent variables [33]. With this choice of dependent
variables, only material derivatives of the entropy appear, and the go-
verning equations are
Pt+uP x + yPux-P [-;:;--A- =0
to yUA",] (4.1.1)

(4.1.2)

B t + uBx + Bu x = 0 , (4.1.3)
St+usx=/* (4.1.4)
where /* is the rate of entropy production (due to the heat addition).
38 4. Flows with Heat Addition

The characteristics ofthe system of Eq. (4.1.1) -(4.1.4) are, of course,


given by
dx
Yt=u, u+w, u-w
and the system may be written in the following characteristic form
Bp
Pp+ewup+e(w2-c2)B-P [/* YUA~] =0
C;--A- (4.1.5)

(4.1.6)

(4.1.7)
(4.1.8)
Approximate solutions to the characteristic system could be obtained by
finite-difference techniques.
To this point, the discussion has been quite general, and the equations
apply to an arbitrary quasi-one-dimensional flow with heat addition. But,
if it is assumed now that the cross-sectional area variations and heat
addition are small and may be considered as small perturbations in an
otherwise uniform base flow, it follows from Eq. (4.1. 7) that B jeis constant
along each particle path and for an initially uniform flow, Bje is constant
throughout the flow. Then, Eqs. (4.1.5)-(4.1.6) lead to
~+-l-f wdP = 0(
(4.1.9)
2 2y P

-~+-~f wdP = {J (4.1.10)


2 2y P
which is merely a different form of the generalized Riemann invariants as
defined by Eqs. (1.2.16)-(1.2.17). Of course, Eqs. (4.1.9)-(4.1.10) could
have been obtained directly from Eqs. (1.2.16)-(1.2.17).
Consequently, under exactly the same assumption as was made in the
previous chapters, i. e., the constancy of Bje throughout the flow, the
system of Eqs. (4.1.1)-(4.1.4) is equivalent to the following system
00
yP [P t + (u + w)P",] + [u t + (u + w)u",]-
(4.1.11)
_~[.!:...._ YUA~] =0
y c. A

yWP [P t + (u - w) P",] - [Ut + (u - w)u",] -


(4.1.12)
_~[.!:...._ YUA~] =0
y c. A
St + us", = t* . (4.1.4)
When Eqs. (4.1.11), (4.1.12) and (4.1.4) are linearized in the neighborhood
4.2 Extension of Stocker's Work 39

of a known constant isentropic solution, denoted by the subscript zero, the


following system of linear equations for the terms of first order, denoted
by the subscript one, is obtained

(4.1.13)

(4.1.14)
(4.1.15)
where
~+ WOP1
R1 = 2 2y Po

S--~+ WOP1
- 2 2y Po
are the first order generalized Riemann invariants written in terms of U 1
and Pl. For simplicity, let = n n(t) alone; then, exactly as in Chapter 1,
the general solution of Eqs. (4.1.13)-(4.1.15) may be written as
81 = r(Po) + JIt (t) dt (4.1.16)

R = F [x- (u o + Wo ) t] + -2
Wo
-
/I*()d
1 t t- 2A ( + )
UOWOAI(X)
(4.1.17)
YC v 0 Uo Wo

5 = G[x- (u o- Wo) t] + - Wo
?-
/I*()d
1 t t- UOWOAI(X)
2A ( _ ) (4.1.18)
~yc. 0 Uo Wo

r
with F, G and arbitrary functions. For the case of no heat addition,
these solutions are equivalent to Eqs. (1.2.30) - (1.2.32), and, in the limit
of vanishing magnetic field, these solutions reduce to solutions of the
corresponding problem in conventional gas dynamics. An illustration of
this latter fact will be given in the next section.

4.2 Extension of Stocker's Work


In many technological applications, it is of interest to determine the
modifying effects due to the addition of heat to a gas flow. When heat is
added to a gas flow, entropy changes are produced and, if the flow is sub-
sonic (supersonic), it accelerates (decelerates). Because the solution in
the subsonic case predicts some rather anomalous behavior, the solution
must be interpreted with great care. For example, suppose heat is con-
tinuously added to a steady, subsonic one-dimensional gas flow in a uni-
form duct in such a way that the flow remains one-dimensional; then, the
following results were stated by several investigators: (i) although the
flow speed accelerates, a subsonic flow cannot become supersonic but
rather always approaches the sonic state; (ii) the temperature T increases
monotonically to a maximum for M = Ijyt, where M is the Mach number,
but then starts to decrease, i.e., the temperature actually decreases when
40 4. Flows with Heat Addition

heat is added if 1 > M > l/yt.Aratherheatedcontroversywasgenerated


by the many different hypotheses made in attempting to justify these
results. The correct interpretation depends, however, on a careful exami-
nation of the transient effects introduced in the initially steady flow by the
heat addition and, in particular, on the effects of the transients on the
boundary conditions at the entrance and exit of the region of heating.
This was carried out by FOA and RUDINGER [34J, [35J who showed that
heat addition: (i) modified the flow parameters upstream and downstream
of the heating region; (ii) M may increase or decrease depending on the
subsidiary conditions; (iii) the static temperature increases monotonically
with increasing M for 1 > M > l/yt. Their discussion was based on an
initially steady flow in a duct finite in length, and it was possible to
determine the final modified state without considering the intermediary
flow.
A more direct approach was presented in an interesting paper by
STOCKER [13J, who used a small perturbation analysis to determine the
effects of transients introduced by adding heat to an initially uniform
subsonic flow in an infinite duct of uniform cross-sectional area. Further,
it was shown that this solution could be used to discuss the case of a
finite duct where the solution depends on the subsidiary conditions at the
ends of the duct.
In the present section, it is shown that STOCKER'S discussion may be
extended to magnetohydrodynamic flows subjected to a transverse
magnetic field, and further, in such a form that in the limit of vanishing
magnetic field, the solution in the magnetic case reduces precisely to the
solution in the non-magnetic case [37J. Specifically, the transients due to
uniform heat addition along a finite section of an infinite duct of uniform
cross-sectional area are determined by the linearized analysis of section
4.1 which is based on small heat addition. Throughout, it is assumed that
the initially uniform flow is sub-true-sonic. Although the solution obtained
ceases to be valid in the neighborhood of true-sonic flow, and this difficulty
is due to the inadequacies of the linearization which approximates the
characteristics by two rectilinear and parallel families of lines, a solution
valid for all flow speeds may be obtained by making a more detailed
examination of the negative characteristics.
For small perturbations, denoted by the subscript one, of an initially
uniform flow, denoted by the subscript zero, in a uniform duct, the perti-
nent equations are Eqs. (4.1.17)-(4.1.18) which show that

R=-2
1 u + 20pl
w P
y 0
W
=-2
0
ye.
f n(t)dt+constant (4.2.1)
on advancing characteristics
x - (u o + Wo) t = constant.
4.2 Extension of Stocker's Work 41

s = -~
2
+ 2yP
WOPl = ~flr(t) dt+constant
o 2yc.
(4.2.2)

on receding characteristics
x - (u o- wo) t = constant.
In regions where there is no heating, Eqs. (4.2.1)-(4.2.2) are valid with
It(t)= O.
The sound speed perturbation may be determined from
c ( P )(1'-1)/21'
Co = Po exp [(s- so)/2yc,J
which gives

The solution for the first order generalized Riemann invariants,


Eqs. (4.2.1)-(4.2.2) may be used to solve the problem of uniform heat
addition to the initially uniform flow of a gas in an infinite duct. Speci-
fically, it is assumed that at t = 0, a gas is flowing through a uniform duct
infinitely long in both directions, but for t ~ 0, heat is added uniformly
over the section extending from x = 0 to x = ~l and that the fiow remains
one-dimensional. Further, it is assumed that
woft(t) _ A-
ye. - l'

a constant. This follows because in the linearized approximation, a uni-


form rate of entropy production is equivalent to a uniform rate of heat
addition. Consequently, from Eqs. (4.2.1)-(4.2.2),

R - 2A.lt = constant on ad ' ch aractenstics,


vancmg .. (4.2.3)

~5 - 2A.lt = constant on rece d'mg ch aractenstics.


.. (4.2.4)

This is the direct extension to the magnetic case of the problem con-
sidered by STOCKER, and its solution is obtained in a similar manner. The
(x, t) plane is divided into regions as shown in Fig. 7, which is taken from
STOCKER'S paper [13J. The region contained between the lines x = 0 and
x ~~ ~l is the heating region and Eqs. (4.2.3)-(4.2.4) apply therein. Out-
side this region R (5) is constant on an advancing (receding) characteristic.
The lines 0 D and L C are the advancing characteristics
x-(u+w)t=o and x-(u+W)t=~l'

The lines 0 A and L B are the receding characteristics


x - (u - w) t = 0 and x - (u - w) t = ~l •
42 4. Flows with Heat Addition

The lines 0 M and L N are the particle paths


x- ut = 0 and x - ut = ~l .

For simplicity the subscript zero has been dropped from the base flow.
The values of Rand 5 throughout the (x, t) plane may be found by the
use of Eqs. (4.2.3)-(4.2.4) . Since R(S) is constant along an advancing
°
(receding) characteristic and R = 0,5 = in regions 1 and 15, the values

t
11 N
/ / 0 c
./ /
.I
.9
.J

Fig. 7. The (x, t) diagram for uniform heat addition to an initially uniform flow. Heat is added over the section
extending from 0 to L. The lines OD and LC are advancing characteristics. The lines OA and LB are reo
ceding characteristics. The lines OM and LN are particle paths

of Rand 5 in the other regions may be found by considering characteristics


which originate therein. This gives:
In regions 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
5= O.
In regions 7, 8, 9
5 = A.(~I-X)
2(w-u)
In regions 4,5,6
S -- ~­
2 .
In region 2
5=- X]
Al [ t + - - .
2 w-u
In region 3
5 = A~I
2(w-u)
In regions 1, 2, 3
R=O.
4.2 Extension of Stocker's Work 43

In regions 4, 5, 8, 9

In regions 6, 7

In regions 13, 14
R = ~
2
[t + u;1-
+w
X] .
In regions 10, 11, 12
R = A1;1
2(u +w)

These relations allow the determination of U 1 and PI in the regions of


interest. To determine CI , 0)1> T I , MI and N I , it is necessary to know SI.
In regions 1,2,3,12,14 and 15 and on the line OL, SI = O. Starting from
a region wherein SI = 0 and integrating Eq. (4.1.15) along particle
paths, the perturbed entropy distribution may be determined, and this
glVes:
In regions 4,6, 7 and 8
S1 yA11
Cv w
In regions 5 and 9
51 yA1X
Co uw
In region 10
51 yA 1;1
Co tlW

In regions 11 and 13
51 YAd;1 - x + ut)
Co uw

Consequently, the perturbed quantities in the various regions are:


In region 1

In region 2
U = - A1
- X]
[t + - -
I 2 w-u'

~=A[t
P 2w + _X_]
w-u '

C1 (Y-l)A1 X]
c=
[
4w t+ w-u '

M
I
= _ A
I
[2W + (y -
4wc
l)u ] [t + _X_]
w-u
.
44 4. Flows with Heat Addition

In region 3
~=- 2(w-u) '
Cl (y - I) Al~l
C 4w(w-u) '
PI YAl~l
P 2w(w-u) '
M = _ Al~l [2wc + (y - I)u]
1 4wc(w-u)
In region 4
u =~[_X_
1 2 u+w
-t] '
PI _
p - 2w
~Al [t + u+w
X]
'
Cl Al [
c=4'W (y+l)t+(y-l)
X
u+w '
]

M
1
= - ~{[2w + (
4wc y
+ l)u]t+ x[(y-I)U-2W]}.
u +w ,
In region 5
Al [X t] ,
U1 = T U+W-

~_A[_X_
P - 2w U+W + t] ,
~= (y-I)Alt + Atx[2w+(y+l)u]
C 4w 4uw(u+w) '
At { XU(Y+l)}
M 1 =-4wc [2w+(y-l)u]t+ U+W •
In region 6
u1 = 0,
PI yAtt
P=-W'

M 1-
-
- -YAtut
--
2wc·
In region 7

~-2
-~[t +w-u'
X-~l]

~= ~ [( + l)t + (1'-1) (~l-X)]


c 4w Y w-u'
PI = yAt [t+ ~l-X]
P 2w w-u'

M1 = 4~C [t{2W-(y+l)u}-{2w+ (y-l)u} (:=~].


4.2 Extension of Stocker's Work 45

In regions 8 and 9
A" [2wx - (u + w) ~,]
U1 = 2(W 2 _ U2) ,

P, yA,,[(u+w)~,-2ux]
P 2W(W2-U 2)
In region 8
2 = ~ + (y -1) ~,A" _ (y -1).A.l ux
C 2w 4w(w-u) 2W(W2-U 2) '
M = _ UA,lt + A"x[2w 2 + (y -1)u 2] + (y -1)u]
A,'~1[2w
1 2wc 2WC(W2-U 2) 4wc(w-u)
In region 9

c: ~W(Wl~~, + ~w~:(:.~~~
M = A"x(W 2 +yu 2) _ A,,~,[2w+(y-l)u)]
1 2WC(W 2 - U 2) 4wc(w-u)

In regions 10, 11, 12


A,,~,
ttl = 2(u +w) ,
P, yA,l~l
P 2w(u+w)·
In region 10
c, [(y + l)u + 2W]A,'~1
C 4wu(u + w)
M __ (y + l)uA,,~,
1- 4w(w+u)
In region 11
c, A,,~,[(y + l)u + 2w] A"X A"t
c= 4uw(u + w) - 2uw +20).
M __ (y + l)uA,,~, + A"X _ A"ut
1 - 4wc(u + w) 2wc 2wc·
In region 12
c, (y -1) A,,~,
c 4w(u+w) '
M _ A,,~,[2w - (y -1)u]
1- 4wc(u+w)

In regions 13 and 14

P,
P
=A
2w
[t+ u~'-X]
+w
.
46 4. Flows with Heat Addition

In region 13
C1 (y + l)lrt + ,1.1(~1-X) [(y + l)u + 2£0]
C 4£0 4lOU(U + £0) ,

M =).t[2lO-(Y+l)U]_).(~_X)[ (y+l)u ].
1 1 4lOC 1 1 4lOC(U + £0)

In region 14
~= (y-I),1.1 [t ~l-X]
C 4£0 + U + £0 '
M - ,1.1[2lO-(y-l)u]
1- 4lOC
[t+ U+lO
~l-X].

In region 15
u 1 = 0,
P1 = 0,
c1 = 0,
Ml=O.
The values of N v Wv Tl in any of the above regions may be obtained from
the relations
£01 [q2 +
y - 2] c1
w= (y-l)q" c'
M(y-2) (q2-I)c 1
qNl = M1+ (y-l)q 2 c
Tl 2c1
T=-c-
where N = uJw.
In the limit of vanishing magnetic field, these results reduce precisely to
those obtained by STOCKER.
As STOCKER points out, the unsteady effects are confined to the re-
gions: (i) 2, which represents a pressure wave propagating upstream;
(ii) 11, which represents an interface propagating downstream; (iii) 14,
which represents a pressure wave propagating downstream. Consequently,
the flow resulting from the heat addition never becomes steady, though
the flow in any finite section asymptotically becomes steady and, in a
sense, the flow in regions 3, 9 and 10 is the final steady flow resulting from
the heating of the initially uniform flow.
°
In regions 3, 9 and 10, c1 > 0, PI > 0, Ml < and Tl > 0, so that an
addition of heat cannot result in a drop in temperature, and an increase in
total heat added to the fluid passing through the heating section cannot
cause a fall in temperature at the exit from this section. Within the frame-
work of the linearized analysis, the final states in regions 3 and 9 depend
4.3 Modified Perturbation Theory 47

only on the product Al ~I' i.e., on the total heat added but not directly on
the length over which the addition takes place.
In the heating region 9, ~: < ° if M> q/yt or, equivalently, if
--'-
N > Y 2. This is because the gas flowing through the heating section
undergoes a pressure drop and the heat loss from the concomitant
expansion may exceed the gain from the external source. In the unsteady
flow regions 7, 8, 10 and 11, ~: < 0, irrespective of the Mach number.
The solution of this section may be used to discuss the case of a duct
of finite length. The solution is identical to that previously obtained until
the advancing or receding waves encounter an end of the duct where
reflection takes place. Again, the solution in the magnetic case follows
directly from STOCKER'S solution for the non-magnetic case and will not
be included.
4.3 Modified Perturbation Theory
The linearized analysis of section 4.2 led to a solution which was sin-
gular for true-sonic speed, i.e., for u = w, in the neighborhood of which
the disturbance 5 tends to accumulate and does not propagate through
the channel. Exactly as in Chapter 2, this difficulty is due to the lineari-
zation, which approximates the negative characteristics dx/dt = u - W
by the rectilinear family x - (u - w) t = constant, and again a more
detailed examination of the receding characteristics must be made.
From Eqs. (4.2.1)-(4.2.2), it is seen that the values of U I and PI
depend on the time taken by a small disturbance to pass through the
heating region. This is true because the function If was assumed constant.
Although the time will always be small for the advancing characteristics,
it becomes large for the receding characteristics when the base flow is
near true-sonic. Thus, it may be assumed that the advancing characte-
ristics and particle paths are each rectilinear and parallel, viz.,
x - (u + w)t = constant,
x - ut = constant,

while the negative characteristics are given by


dx/dt = u- w + uI - WI' (4.3.1)
Let the solution of Eq. (4.3.1) be written as
r; (x, t) = constant.
In a heating region, R - Al t/2 is constant on an advancing characteristic
and thus a function of x - (u +
w) t; 5 - Al t/2 is constant on a receding
characteristic and thus a function of r;.
48 4. Flows with Heat Addition

The explicit solution for the fifteen regions in the (x, t) plane will not
be given; rather, only the regions 7, 13 and 14 will be considered.
These are the cases considered by STOCKER.
In region 14, it is known that

R= ~
2
[t + u+w'
~l-X] S = 0, SI = O.

Thus, the receding characteristics are determined from

(~~t = u- w + u1 - Wl= u- W + ~l [q2-;'+2] [t+ !l+ ~]. (4.3.2)

It is convenient to choose 1] so that it is approximately equal tox- (u- w) t,


i.e., choose
1] = x- (u- w)t + A1 1]1 (x, t) + o(AY) . (4.3.3)

Substituting Eq. (4.3.3) into Eq. (4.3.2) and carrying out the integration,
there results
x = (u - w) t + Al [q2-;q~ + 2] {u ~2W + t~l;WT))} + h (1]) + 0 (Ayt) .
The function of integration h(1]) is not completely arbitrary since by the
definition of 1], it follows that
h(1]) = 1] + Al hI (1]) + o(AY)
where hd1]) is arbitrary. It may be determined by requiring 1] to be
continuous. In region 15, the receding characteristics are rectilinear and
1] = x- (u- w)t. When 1] is required to be continuous across LC, i.e.,
x = (u + w) t + ~1' it is found that
[q2 - Y + 2] (T) - ~l)2
hI (1]) = 16q 2 w (u + w) .
Thus

are the negative characteristics in region 14.


In region 13,
R=-
2
t+ Al [
~l-X]
u- - S =0 ,
+w'

ye. uw
Thus,

( ~) _ _ Al{q2+2-y) [t ~l-X]_ Al{q2+y-2){~l-X+Ut)


ot 1J-u w+ 4 q2 +u+w 2{y-l)q2u
4.3 Modified Perturbation Theory 49

so that by the same procedure


= ( _ )t + ~(q2_ 71 + 2) t(wt + ~1-11) _
x u OJ 4q2(U + w)
~(q2 + y-2)t [wt ]
- 2u(y-1)q2 2+ ~1-1] +m(1]),
where m(1]) = 1] + AI~(1]) + O(A~),
where ~ (1]) is arbitrary.
By assuming that 1] is continuous across the line LN, i.e., x = ut + ~l'
it is found that

i.e.,
(11-~1)2 {q2_Y+2 (q2+ Y-2)}
~(1]) = 4w 4q2(U + w) - (y-1)q 2u .
In region 7, the modification of the characteristics leads also to different
values of S. It is known that
R Alt $1 _ Alt
=2' 2yc. -2£0.
It is known that 5 - Altj2 is constant along 1] = constant. Thus, let
5- A1 [t-r(11)]
- 2
where .(1]) is value of t where the characteristic meets the line x = ~l.
Thus
5 = ~ [t + 11-~1]
2 u-w'
so that
Al (11-~1)
u1 = - 2(u-w) ,
WI 71 Al t [q2 + 71 - 2] [q2 +y- 2] Al (11 - ~1)
m= 2w(y-1)q2 + 4w(U-W)q2
Thus
(~) = u - OJ- ~(11-~1) [3q' + 71- 2 ] _ [q2 + y-2]YAlt
ot 1J 4q2(U-W) 2(y-1)q2
and
x= (u-OJ)t- Al(l1-~I) (3q2 + y-2)t_
4 qZ(u-w)
(q2 + 71 -
2) yAlt2 2
- 4(y-1)q2 + 1] + Al n l (1]) + O(Al) .
The arbitrary function nl is determined by choosing 1] to be continuous
across the line x = ~l. This gives
(~1 -11)1 {q2(3- 271) + 71 - 2
n l (1]) = ml(1]) + 4q2(U-W)2 71- 1 +
ul[(y - 3)q2 +2+ 71 - 71 2] -uw(qZ + 71 - 2) + W2(q2 + 71- 2)}
+ (y-1)u(u+w) •
Springer Tracts, Vol. 1: Gundersen 4
so S. Simple Wave Flows

STOCKER has given a comparison of the solutions in region 9 obtained


through the use of the modified perturbation theory and by nonlinear
steady-state theory as obtained by numerical integration of the equations
given in [36] under the assumptions that the upstream (downstream)
boundary condition is R = 0 (5 = 0). In all cases, the modified linear
solution was a reasonable approximation to the nonlinear solution, even
in the cases where the linear solution failed. The same conclusions may
be expected to obtain in the present case.

Chapter 5
Simple Wave Flows
5.1 Introductory Comments
In isentropic flows, simple waves are defined by the condition that the
fluid velocity, the local speed of sound and the magnetic field are constant
along any curve of one family of characteristics. As a consequence, this
family of characteristics is rectilinear. For non-isentropic flows, the same
condition cannot be assumed for the entropy. This is due to the fact that
the entropy is constant along a streamline. In addition, if the entropy is
constant along a family of characteristics, which is distinct from the
streamlines, then the flow is isentropic. It might be assumed that a
possible solution would be to assume that the entropy is not constant
along a simple wave, but that the fluid velocity, local sound speed and
magnetic field are constant along a simple wave. But from the charac-
teristic form of the basic equations, viz., Eqs. (1.2.4)-(1.2.10), it is seen
that such an assumption is not possible, so that simple waves (in the
above sense) do not exist in non-isentropic flow. However, non-isentropic
perturbations of simple waves have been shown to exist [30].
For conventional one-dimensional gas dynamic flows, the non-isen-
tropic perturbation of a centered simple wave and the isentropic pertur-
bation of an arbitrary (non-centered) simple wave were determined by
GERMAIN and GUNDERSEN [2], and a further discussion given by GUN-
DERSEN [5], [6]. The non-isentropic perturbation of an arbitrary simple
wave was determined by GUNDERSEN [38], and the results of these papers
were used to discuss centered and arbitrary simple wave flow in ducts with
small non-uniform cross-sectional area perturbations, viz., linear and
quadratic area distributions [39].
ROSCISZEWSKI [41] has used the Germain-Gundersen solution for the
isentropic perturbation of a centered simple wave to consider centered
simple wave flow in a duct with a small linear area variation; however,
there is no reference to that effect, nor, for that matter, is there any
reference to the earlier and more extensive discussion of effectively the
same problem by GUNDERSEN [39]. FRIEDMAN [42] has used a minor
5.2 The Monatomic Fluid 51

variation of the results of [2J, [6J as a basis for a discussion of cylindrical


and spherical shock waves. References [6J, [41J and [42J all appeared in
the same journal.
Recently, it was shown that the gas dynamic theory [2J could be
extended to magnetohydrodynamic flows, and the non-isentropic per-
turbation of a centered magnetohydrodynamic simple wave was deter-
mined [30]. Hydromagnetic simple wave flow in non-uniform ducts was
discussed, and the non-isentropic perturbation of a non-centered simple
wave determined [40]. These solutions [30J, [40J were limited to a
monatomic fluid, and it is the primary purpose of this chapter to extend
these results to an arbitrary value of the adiabatic index. Since simple
wave flow in non-uniform ducts has been discussed previously [40J, the
present discussion will be limited to determining the non-isentropic
perturbation of a centered and non-centered simple wave in a uniform
duct. The effects of cross-sectional area perturbations may be included
by adding particular solutions, obtainable as quadratures, of the complete
perturbation equations.
In Chapter 1, it was shown that in the limit of vanishing magnetic
field, the non-isentropic perturbation of an initially uniform flow reduced
precisely to the corresponding problem in conventional gas dynamics. The
same situation does not obtain for an initially simple wave flow. However,
the isentropic perturbation of a simple wave does reduce exactly to the
corresponding problem in conventional gas dynamics in the limit of
vanishing magnetic field.
For a monatomic gas, it is even possible to give an exact solution for
centered simple wave flow [40J, and this is discussed in section 5.2.
Further, the interaction of simple waves may be reduced to the solution
of a second order linear partial differential equation somewhat similar to
the Euler-Poisson Equation [43J, and this is discussed in section 5.2. With
the exception of this section, the results of the remainder of the chapter
are valid for arbitrary values of the adiabatic index.

5.2 The Monatomic Fluid


It is assumed that the wave is produced by the impulsive withdrawal
of a piston in a tube filled with a monatomic gas initially at rest. Let the
origin of the (x, t) coordinate system be taken at the initial position of
the piston, so that the resultant (forward-facing) rarefaction wave is cen-
tered at the origin and characterized by {J = {Jo' On each characteristic,
dxjdt = u + w, (u, c, B) are constant, and these characteristics are straight
lines in the (x. t) plane. The wave may be represented by
x = (u + w)t, (5.2.1)
u (1 + k C)3t. (1 + k C,)3t.
-2 + k = {Jo = k (5.2.2)
4*
52 5. Simple Wave Flows

where the subscript r denotes stagnation quantities. The wave propagates


with speed Wr into the gas at rest.
From Eqs. (5.2.1)-(5.2.2), it is possible to explicitly determine the
flow parameters in the wave. The substitution d = 1 + kc leads to the
cubic equation
d
d 3 -"3-T flo+2i = 0
2k ( X)
which has the solution

where

a2 = a3- (a~ - 7!9 r. 1

a3 = : (flo + ;t) .
From this result and the definition of the characteristic parameters, it
follows that
kc = a~/3 + a~/3
7=
-"9 [k"2 ((X + flo) ]2/3 - 1, (5.2.3)

(1 + kc)t = ai'3 + a~/3 • (5.2.4)


_ 2a. _~( 1/3 1/3)_ a+{Jo _~[k(a+{Jo)]1/3 (5.2.5)
W- k 3k al + a2 - 2 k 2 •
x
U= T- W = (X- flo. (5.2.6)
~= ~_ A_~ [k(a+{Jo) ]1 /3 (5.2.7)
t 2 2 k 2 .
In the conventional gas dynamic case, problems involving the inter-
action of simple waves may be reduced to finding solutions of a single
second order linear partial differential equation, the Euler-Poisson
equation, for which the Riemann function may be expressed in terms of
hypergeometric functions; for a particular set of values of the adiabatic
index, the general solution may be written in terms of two arbitrary
functions [43].
The existence of the relations given by Eqs. (5.2.3)-(5.2.6) raises the
possibility of reducing problems involving the interaction of hydro-
magnetic simple waves to the solution of a single second order linear
partial differential equation. This is carried out in the present section, but
the results obtained are incomplete. In particular, it is shown that the
requisite Riemann function may be found from a Fourier superposition
of the solutions of a linear second order ordinary differential equation.
Although the author has not been able to solve this latter equation in
5.2 The Monatomic Fluid 53

terms of the products of known functions, some circumstantial evidence


is presented which makes it seem quite possible that better results may be
obtained. However, it may well be the case that the Riemann function
must be obtained numerically.
The second order partial differential equation is obtained by eliminat-
ing x from the Eqs. (1.2.6)-(1.2.7), i.e., from
x{J = (u + ro)t{J
x", = (u- ro)t",
and using the relations given by Eqs. (5.2.5)-(5.2.6). This gives
(9q,·/3_ 1) (t", t{J) +
t",p + 6{0:: + fJ) (q,./8 _ 1) = 0 (5.2.8)
where cp = k (IX + fJ)J2. It is convenient to introduce the new variable t*
by requiring that [44 J
t:
= x - (u + ro) t ,

-t~ = x- (u- ro)t.


Then t* (IX, fJ) satisfies the equation
* (3q,·/3 + 1) (t: + tb) _
(5.2.9)
t",p+ 6{0::+ fJ)(q,'/8-1) -0.

In order to transform Eq. (5.2.9) into a form for which results are known,
a new dependent variable l(lX, fJ) is introduced through the substitution
t*(
IX,
fJ) = (o:: +q,2/8fJ)1/81{0::,
_ 1
fJ)

The resultant equation for 1 is


(9q,Z/8 + 7) 1
l",{J + 36 (o:: + fJ)' (q,Z/3 _ 1) = 0. (5.2.10)
The Riemann function may be obtained from the following result which
was heuristically derived by RIEMANN [44J and proved rigorously by
COHN [45J.
Given the equation
1",{J +H (IX + fJ) 1 = 0, (5.2.11)
let ~ = IX + fJ, 1] = IX - fJ and

f exp[iv(1]-1]')J y(~, ~'; v) dv


00

R* = ~
-00

where y (~, ~/; v) is defined by the ordinary differential equation


d"y
d~' + [v2+H(~)Jy=0, (5.2.12)

y = 0, ~~ = 1 for ~ = f.
54 5. Simple Wave Flows

Then, changing back to the variables (ac, fJ), R* satisfies the relation
1
R* = "2 [sgn (ac - ac') + sgn (fJ - fJ')] R (ac, fJ; ac', fJ')

where R(ac, fJ; ac', fJ') is the Riemann function for Eq. (5.2.11).
From this result, the Riemann function of Eq. (5.2.10) may be ob-
tained from the Fourier superposition of the solution of

(5.2.13)

where ra = (k/2)2/a, subject to the subsidiary conditions appended to


Eq. (5.2.12). In order to put Eq. (5.2.13) into a form more convenient for
comparison with known equations, let z = ~2/a, Y = Yl (z) so that m
Z2 d"Yl _ ~ dYl + [9 rv' + 9rsz + 7 ]
dz' 2 dz 4 16(rs z _ 1) Yl = 0.
Then let raZ = e, Yl (z) = Y2 (e) so that
_~ dy. [~~
e d'YI
2
dC' 2 dC + 4 rI 'J1
2 9(C+7/9)]
+ 16(C-l)
_
Y2- 0 .

Since the smaller of the exponents relative to the singular points (0, 1)
is (- ! ' 0) , the substitution Y2 (e) = C- t Ya (e) is made which gives

(5.2.14)

The normal form of Eq. (5.2.14) is obtained by making the substitution


Ya(C) = ely,(e); this gives

(5.2.15)

It has not been possible to relate Eqs. (5.2.14)-(5.2.15) to any known


equations. But the following observations are somewhat suggestive. For
'J1 = 0, Eq. (5.2.14) reduces to the hypergeometric equation, and for very
e,
large Eq. (5.2.14) is close to one which has Airy functions as solutions.
Since, in addition, the conventional gas dynamic case is governed by an
equation whose Riemann function may be given in terms of hypergeome-
tric functions, there exists the possibility that better results might be
obtainable. The author has been unable to make further progress along
these lines, but more research is indicated.

5.3 Perturbation of a Centered Simple Wave Flow


For an initially simple wave flow, the perturbation equations are
Eqs. (1.2.28)-(1.2.29). For convenience, these equations are repeated
5.3 Perturbation of a Centered Simple Wave Flow 55

here, specialized to the case of a uniform duct.


3W~ + (I' - 2)C~]
R t + (uo + wo)R., + {[ 2w~ X

x R+ [(I'-2)C~-W~] S} - ~2 '
2w~ IX.,-
(5.3.1)

St + (U o - wo)S., + {[ w~ + ~~~ I')c~ ] x

X
R- [3W~ +2w~
(I'-2)C~] S} {J - _ ~
., - 2'
(5.3.2)

For the case of no applied field, Eqs. (5.3.1) -(5.3.2) reduce exactly to the
basic perturbation equations derived in [2J.
In the present section, it is assumed that the wave is centered at the
origin and characterized by {J = {Jo, a constant. For convenience, the sub-
script zero will be dropped on the base flow. On each characteristic
dxjdt= U + w, (u, c, B) are constant, and these characteristics are straight
lines in the (x, t) plane so that the wave may be represented as:
x = (u + w)t (5.3.3)
{J = {Jo' (5.3.4)
From the definition of the characteristic parameters of the base flow, it
follows that
u = IX - {Jo (5.3.5)
w = (y - 1) (IX + {Jo)j2 . (5.3.6)
In Eq. (5.3.1), an expression for IX., is needed, and this is obtained by
differentiating Eq. (5.3.3) with respect to x which gives the result
1
"T=U"+w.,. (5.3.7)
. [ w 2 + (I' - 2) c2 ] •
However, smce w.,= (I' -1)w 2 W." Eq. (5.3.7) may be wntten as

+ [W2 (I'+_(I'-2)C
~_ 2]
t - u., 1) w2 w., . (5.3.8)
The derivatives u., and w., may be expressed in terms of IX., through
Eqs. (5.3.5)-(5.3.6) so that
IX., = 2w2j[3w2 + (y- 2) c2Jt . (5.3.9)
Thus, for the wave centered at the origin, Eqs. (5.3.1)-(5.3.2) reduce to

(5.3.10)

(5.3.11)
Eqs. (5.3.10) and (5.3.11) will be solved by considering the homogeneous
system with To = 0, and the physical significance of this reduced system
56 5. Simple Wave Flows

is that to the order of terms retained, the perturbed flow is still isentropic,
and then the solution of the complete system may be obtained by adding
a particular solution of the complete system. The function S may be
obtained from Eq. (5.3.11), and then R may be determined from Eq.
(5.3.10).
The characteristics of the homogeneous equation associated with
Eq. (5.3.11) are
dS = 0 and dxJ(u- w) = dt. (5.3.12)
From Eq. (5.3.3), the second of Eqs. (5.3.12) may be written as
dx d
de = u- w= u+w + t de (u + w) . (5.3.13)
From the definitions of the characteristic parameters and w, it follows that

u+w= (Y-=-l) j[l+kc'1*]tdc-2,Bo+c[l+kc'1*]t,


so that Eq. (5.3.13) may be written as

2W+t{ (y+l) [1+kc'1*]{- + kTJc'1* }~-o


y-l 2[I+kc'1*]t dt-

which has the solution


,,+1
t2c"-1 [1 + kc'1*]t= cst
or
(5.3.14)
or
ewt2 = cst. (5.3.15)
Eq. (5.3.15) gives a convenient representation of the curvilinear cross-
characteristics of the simple wave. Since the two first integrals obtained
from Eq. (5.3.12) are S = constant and Eq. (5.3.15), a convenient form for
the solution of the homogeneous equation associated with Eq. (5.3.1) is
S = 2(ew)ttF' [ewt2] (5.3.16)
where F is an arbitrary differentiable function. This form of solution is
chosen in order to obtain a simpler form for the solution for R.
By the use of Eq. (5.3.3), it is seen that the homogeneous equation
associated with Eq. (5.3.10) may be written as

tRt + xRq: + R + [~:~2~;~~:] S = 0. (5.3.17)

The solution for R may be obtained from the following system


dt dx dR
-t- = -x- = -----=[:-w--:O:-+-:--:(=-2-y--:)"-c-=-·::-]- • (5.3.18)
-R+ 3wl + (y-2)c' S
5.3 Perturbation of a Centered Simple Wave Flow 57

From the first two ratios of Eq. (5.3.18), one first integral is
xlt = constant (5.3.19)
i.e., the rectilinear characteristics. From the first and last ratios of
Eq. (5.3.18)
d(dRt )
t
= [t.++ (~-~)C'2]
00 y- c
dd
t
[F((loo~.)]
((100)2
• (5.3.20)

To integrate Eq. (5.3.20), the first integral, Eq. (5.3.19) is utilized, i.e.,
on xlt = constant, w, e, c are constants, so that the solution of Eq. (5.3.20)
may be written as:
oo' + (2 - Y)C 2 ] F[(loot2]
Rt - [ 300' + (y -2)c' ((loo)"~- = constant. (5.3.21)

From the two first integrals, Eqs. (5.3.19) and (5.3.21), the solution of
the homogeneous equation associated with Eq. (5.3.10) may be written as
Rt = [ oo' + (2 - y)c' ] F[(loot2j G (.!....) (5.3.22)
300 2 + (y-2)c 2 ((loo)t + t

where G is an arbitrary function. Thus the isentropic perturbation of a


centered simple wave is given by Eqs. (5.3.16) and (5.3.22), and the follow-
ing result is immediately apparent by comparison with [2J:
In the limit 01 vanishing magnetic field, the isentropic perturbation 01 a
centered magnetohydrodynamic simple wave reduces precisely to the solution
01 the corresponding problem lor conventional non-conducting fluids.
Since the general solution to the homogeneous system associated with
Eqs. (5.3.10) - (5.3.11) has been found, the case of non-isentropic perturbed
flow is reduced to finding a particular solution of Eqs. (5.3.10)-(5.3.11).
The solution may be accomplished quite readily by choosing a convenient
form for the function To.
The particle paths in the simple wave are given by ewt = constant or,
more conveniently by
y = [1 + kc'1*Jt C(l'+1)/2 (1'-1) tt = constant. (5.3.23)
Then from the definition of To,
T _ (lc' F' ('Po) _ goot c' _ r' ('J! )
0- y(y-l)c. - y(y-l)c.oot 0

so that it is convenient to write


2c 2 Q'(y)
To = oot (5.3.24)

where Q is an arbitrary differentiable function and y is given by Eq.


(5.2.23). Then the particular solution for 5 is obtained from the equation
St+(u-w)S",=- cQ'(Y)l ,
(1 +kC'1°)"2t
58 5. Simple Wave Flows

i.e., from the ratios:


dt dx dS
T= U-CJ) = 1· (5.3.25)
-cD'(y)jt(1 +kC'I*j"2

From the first two ratios of Eq. (5.3.25), one first integral is
tt c (Y+1l/4(,,-ll [1 + kC'l*]1/8= a (5.3.26)

where a is constant. From the first and last ratios of Eq. (5.3.25)
dS cD' [C<"+1)/2 <,,-1l(1 + kC'I*)t tt]
(5.3.27)
Tt- - (1 + kC'I*)tt
Using the first integral, Eq. (5.3.26), and the definition of y, Eq. (5.3.27)
may be written as:
2" (1.)
~ = ~c ,,-1 t5/2 d D a2jtS (5.3.28)
dt 6 a dt·

Integrating Eq. (5.3.28) and performing an integration by parts gives


2"
S = 2c ,,-1 t o/2Q [a 2/tt]/a 6 -

- :. {J Q [a 2/tt] d [c ,,2!1 t 5/ 2 ]L + constant. (5.3.29)

From the two first integrals, Eqs. (5.3.26) and (5.3.29), the particular
solution for S may be written as:
S _ 2c 2 D(y) _ 2
- roy royt5/2C2/(" 1) X
(5.3.30)
X {f Q[a2/tt] d[c2"/("-lltO/2]}a = 2C~(Y) + Ql(X, t)

where the notation { }a denotes that the quadrature is to be carried out


with constant a which must be then replaced by its equivalent from
Eq. (5.3.26) to give the particular solution for S. The quadrature is ab-
breviated by Ql(X, t).
The particular solution for R is obtained from the equation
(I' - 2)c 2 - ro 2 }] c2 D' (y)
tRt+xR",+ [ R+ { 3ro2 +(y-2)c2 S = ro '
i.e., from the ratios:
dt dx dR
-=-=---------------,:----------:--
t X
-R + {ro2 + (2- Y )C"} S + ----------'---~-~-
c2D'[ttc<,,+1112lY-1l{1 + kC'I*}t]
3ro 2 + (y-2)c 2 ro

From the first two ratios, one first integral is


x/t = h (5.3.31)
5.4 Perturbation of an Arbitrary Simple Wave 59

where h is a constant. From the first and last ratios, the following differ-
ential equation is obtained:
d[Rt] [00 2 + (2- y )C 2 ] [2C 2
+ + ill (x, t) +
]
----;u- = 300" (y - 2) c" ooy il (y)
(5.3.32)
1
2c"t2 dQ
+ ooccy+lll,(Y-ll[l + kC'1*]t fit·

To integrate Eq. (5.3.32), the first integral, Eq. (5.3.31) may be utilized,
i.e., u and c may be treated as constants. This gives:

(5.3.33)

Performing an integration by parts in the third term on the right-hand


side of Eq. (5.3.33) and using this result and the first integral, Eq. (5.3.31),
the final particular solution for R may be written as:

Rt = 2c 2 tQ(y)
ooy
+
ooy
1

c"t2 [3(2 - y)c" - 00"]


300' + (y -2)c"
{f Q(y) dt}
tt +
h= zIt
(5.3.34)
+ [ 3oo~" -:- (~y-=-y~)c:" ] {f ill (ht, t) dt} h = zIt

where the notation { h = zIt denotes that the quadrature is to be carried


out with x/t constant; then, replacing h by x/t, the solution Eq. (5.3.34)
is obtained.
The general solution for the non-isentropic perturbation of the cen-
tered simple wave is given by Eq. (5.3.16) plus Eq. (5.3.30) and Eq.
(5.3.22) plus Eq. (5.3.34). For y = 5/3, these results reduce to those
presented in [30]. By comparing these results with those of [2J, the follow-
ing result may be stated:
In the limit of vanishing magnetic field, the non-isentropic perturbation
of a centered magnetohydrodynamic simple wave does not reduce to the
solution for the corresponding problem for non-conducting fluids.

5.4 Perturbation of an Arbitrary Simple Wave


In this section, the non-isentropic perturbation of a non-centered
simple wave is determined by quadratures. Let the wave be characterized
by P= Po, a constant. Then dropping the subscript zero on the base flow
and letting [xo(z), to (z)J be the parametric representation of a curvilinear
60 5. Simple Wave Flows

characteristic of the wave, the wave may be represented by


x = Xo(z) + [u(z) + w(z)lr, t = to(Z) + r, (5.4.1)
_ u(z) w(z) - fJ
2 + (y_l) - o' (5.4.2)

The parameter r defined in Eq. (5.4.1) should not be confused with the
use of this symbol as a shock strength in Chapters 2 and 3. This symbol
is used here to agree with the notation of [2J, [5J, [6J, [38J, [39J and [40J
and to facilitate comparison with these papers.
The governing perturbation equations are Eqs. (5.3.1)-(5.3.2), and
because of Eq. (5.4.2), Eq. (5.3.2) reduces to
5t + (u- w)5", = - To/2. (5.4.3)
In order to solve Eq. (5.4.3), it is convenient to change from the indepen-
dent variables (x, t) to (z, r). With the definition that 5 (x, t) = 51 (z, r), it
follows that:
J 5", = 51. - tb 51 T ,
J5 t = [xb+ r(u' + w')J51T - (u + w)51Z '
J = xb + r(u' + w') - (u + w)t~
where primes denote differentiation with respect to the argument.
From the definitions of the characteristic parameters and w, it
follows that:
u +w= 2w(z)/(y-1)- 2fJo + c[l + kc'1*J¥
so that
2t
, + ' _ [3 w (y-I)wc
W -
+ (y - 2) 2 C2 ]
c.
,
(5.4.4)

Since (xo, to) is a curvilinear characteristic, x~ = (u - w) tb, so that by the


use of Eq. (5.4.4), it follows that the Jacobian may be written as

J -- - 2 t'
w
+I(Y-2)C
+ [3W (y
2 2
] ,
rc . (5.4.5)
0 - ) wc
Under the prescribed transformation of independent variables, Eq.
(5.4.3) becomes
_ 2w5 [3w 2 + (y - 2)c 2Jc'T 5 __ fTo
1.+ (y-I)wc 1T- 2' (5.4.6)
Since the particle paths in the simple wave are given by ewr = constant
or, more conveniently by
y = C(Y+1)/2(y-1) [1 + kc'1*Jh¥ = constant (5.4.7)
and
l' C2 F' ('Po)
0= ewr y(y _ I)C.WT '
5.4 Perturbation of an Arbitrary Simple Wave 61

it is convenient to write
To c2 ,Q'(y)
2 ror
(5.4.8)

where Q is an arbitrary differentiable function. The solution of Eq. (5.4.6)


may be obtained from the ratios:
dz dr _ dS I
(5.4.9)
-2ro
[ 3ro2 + (y -2)C'] rc' ---yr-;
(y-l)roc 2

From the first two ratios of Eq. (5.4.9), the following first integral is
obtained:
C(Y+l)/4(Y-l)·d" [1 + kC f1 *Jl/8 = a (5.4.10)
a constant or
eW7:2 = constant. (5.4.11)

Eq. (5.4.11) gives a convenient representation of the curvilinear cross-


characteristics of the simple wave. From the first and third ratios of
Eq. (5.4.9), the following differential equation is obtained:

2dS l = [ 3ro' +
(y-2)c 2
(y-l)ro'(I+kcf1*)'i
1] Q'(y) dc- 2c',Q'(y) dto.
ror
(5.4.12)

In order to integrate Eq. (5.4.12), the previous first integral may be


used, and this gives a relation between z and 7:, viz.,
dz 2 (1 +
kCf1*) (y - l)c
(5.4.13)
dr [3kcf1* y + + l]rc'

and from the definition of y:

Consequently, Eq. (5.4.12) may be written as

(5.4.14)

Integrating Eq. (5.4.14), performing an integration by parts in the first


term and introducing Eq. (5.4.13) in the second term gives

2a Sl =
6 1
c 2 }'/(y-l) 7: 5 / 2 Q(a 2 j7:2)-

- f Q (a jd) d [c 2 2 }'/(Y-1) 7:5 / 2 J-

- f +
C'Y!<y-I)
r [3ro'
r5/2 2(y - 1) ro' ct~
(y - 2) c'] c' dQ + constant.
62 5. Simple Wave Flows

Performing an integration by parts in the last integral gives the following


first integral:
51 = 2c 2l'/(l'-I)-r:5 / 2Q(a 2jrl)ja6 - :6 {f .Q (a 2jrl) d [c2l'/(l'-I)-r: 5/ 2 J}a-
4 (y _1)C(8l'-1)f(l'-1)T8/2w2t~.Q [a 2/T!]
- a6 [3w 2 + (y-2)c l ]c'
+ 4 (ya- 1 )
6
X
(5.4.15)

X {!.Q (a 2jrl) d [C(Sl'-I)/(l'-I).,;3/2 t~


c' [3 w"
2
+ w(y-2)c l]
]}
a
+ constant.
From the two first integrals, Eqs. (5.4.11) and (5.4.15), the solution of
Eq. (5.4.3) may be written as
2c 2.Q(y)
+
1
51 = 2 (ew)"2-r:F' [ew-r:2] WyT X

[ 2(Y-l)CW2t~] 2
X -r:- [3w2 + (y-2)c 2]c' - WYT6/ 2 C2!(y-1l X
, (5.4.16)
X {!.Q(a2jrl)d[-r:S/2C2l'/(l'-I) {-r: 2(y-l) cw2to }]} ==
[3w· + (I' - 2) c2]C' a
2c l .Q(y) [ 2(Y-l)CW"t~]
==2(e w )hF'[e W -r:2]+ WyT -r:-[3w2+(y_2)c2]c' +4>(z,-r:)

where F is an arbitrary differentiable function, { }a has the same signifi-


cance as in Eq. (5.3.30) and 4> is used to denote the quadrature in order
to simplify the notation.
From the definition of the characteristic parameters of the basic flow
and Eq. (5.4.4), it follows that
2wc' 2wc'
ex.., = z = (y-l)c]
(y-l)c"
(5.4.17)

Substitution of Eq. (5.4.17) into Eq. (5.3.1) gives the equation for R, viz.,
(y-2)C 2 _W 2 ] }
Rt+(u+w)R.,+ {R+ [ 3W2+(y-2)c" 5 X
(5.4.18)
1
X { 2(y- 1) w"cto }
T- [3w2+ (y-2)c 2]c'

The solution of Eq. (5.4.18) is obtained from the ratios


dt dx dR
(5.4.19)
Tu+w= R [W 2 +(2- Y)C"]5 To
---;-+ 3w"+ (y-2)c" - ; + 2
2(y-l)w2ct~. .
where'JIdenotes-r:- [3w 2 + (y-2)c l ]c' . The mtegralofthe firsttwo ratIOs
of Eq. (5.4.19) has the rectilinear characteristics for level curves. This
5.4 Perturbation of an Arbitrary Simple Wave 63

first integral may be written as:


z(x, t) = h, a constant (5.4.20)
where the function is defined implicitly by:
x - xo(z) = [u(z) + w(z)J [t - to(z)J .
From the first and last ratios of Eq. (5.4.19), the following differential
equation is obtained
~ [vRJ = J
[W2 + (2 - y)c 2 ~ [F(e WT2 ) ] +[ w 2 + (2 - y)c 2 JX
dt 3w 2 + (y-2)c 2 dt (ew)t 3w 2 + (y-2)c'
(5.4.21)
X (/J(h t- t)
, 0 +
[W2 + (2 - y)c'
3w 2 + (y-2)c 2
J 2c 2WyT
vQ(y) + .c vQ'(y)
WT
2
.

In order to integrate Eq. (5.4.21), the first integral Eq. (5.4.20) may be
used, i.e., z may be treated as a constant. This gives
vR = [ w' + (2 - y) c' J F [e WT2 ] + [ w' + (2 - y) c2 ] ~! X
3w 2 + (y- 2)c 2 (ew)t 3w 2 + (y - 2)c 2 W

Q(y) [
X y(t-to) t-t o-
2(y-l)cw 2to J
[3w'+ (y-2)c2]c'
c2
dt+o;
Q'(y) ! t-to X

X [t-to-
2(y-l)cw2t~
[3w 2 + (y-2)c 2]c'
J
dt+
[W 2 +(2- y )C 2
3w2 + (y-2)c 2
J! X
(5.4.22)

X (/J (h, t - to) d t + constant.


Since
! V~~~odt = 2Q;Y)v 2! Q(y)d [~ J'
the following general solution is obtained from the first integrals, Eqs.
(5.4.20) and (5.4.22)
vR = G [zJ [w' + (2 - y)c' J F[e WT2 ]_+ 2 c2vQ(y) +
+ 3w 2 +(y-2)c 2 (ew)t wy

+t
f[ w' + (2 - y)c' ] 2C 2
3w 2 + (y-2)c 2 W
! Q(y)
y(t-to) vdt+
(5.4.23)
+ [t~.: (~y-=-y~)C;2 J ! (/J (h, t - to) dt -

- 2~2 ! Q(y) d(v/y)}h=Z


where G is an arbitrary function and { h = Z has the same significance as in
Eq. (5.3.30).
Eqs. (5.4.16) and (5.4.23) give the general solution for the non-
isentropic perturbation of an arbitrary simple wave in terms of three
arbitrary functions F, G and Q. For y = 5/3, these results reduce to
those previously presented in [40J. They also include the results of
section 5.3 as a special case, viz., in order to obtain the solution for a wave
64 5. Simple Wave Flows

centered at (x, t) = (0,0), it is sufficient to let (xo' to) = (0,0) and


z = x/to In the limit of vanishing magnetic field, the solution of this
section reduces to the solution for the corresponding problem in conven-
tional gas dynamics [39J only for isentropic perturbed flow.
In the foregoing chapters, a method, for which the germane mathe-
matical techniques were conveniently available, has been presented for
discussing weakly non-isentropic quasi-one-dimensional magnetohydro-
dynamic flows subjected to a transverse magnetic field, and the basis was
the close parallelism of the basic equations with those of conventional
gas dynamics. The number of known solutions which were but special
cases of the theory provided frequent authentication of its validity.
In conventional gas dynamics, simple waves are frequently useful for
building up solutions of isentropic flow problems. Non-isentropic per-
turbations of simple waves may well provide convenient building blocks
for non-isentropic flows. Further, it is well-known that the study of one-
dimensional flows has led frequently to a better understanding of more
significant physical problems and the same situation may be expected to
obtain in magnetohydrodynamics. It is hoped that the techniques pre-
sented may prove useful in achieving this goal.
The chapter ends with a discussion of a particular class of non-isen-
tropic flows, which does not fit exactly into the classification of any of the
previous chapters, for which exact solutions are possible.

5.5 A Class of Exact Solutions of Non-Isentropic Flow


With a suitable choice of dependent variables, problems in one-
dimensional unsteady gas dynamics may be reduced to finding solutions
of a particular Monge-Ampere partial differential equation [48J, [49].
If the particle paths and isobars coincide, this technique fails, so that an
alternative procedure must be employed. This particular class of flows
was the subject of a paper by WEIR [50J, and it is the purpose of this
section to show that WEIR'S discussion may be extended to magneto-
hydrodynamic flows subjected to a transverse magnetic field and the
resultant solutions reduce, in the limit of vanishing magnetic field, to
those obtained by WEIR [51J.
For this purpose, it is convenient to use (u, e, P, B, s) as dependent
variables, so that the governing equations are
et + eu., + u e., = 0, (5.5.1)
e(Ut + UU.,) + P., + BB.,/p, = 0, (5.5.2)
Bt + uB., + Bu., = 0 , (5.5.3)
St + us., = 0, (5.5.4)
P = exp [(s - s*)/c"J e'Y . (5.5.5)
5.5 A Class of Exact Solutions of Non-Isentropic Flow 65

Exactly as in Chapter I, e [d x - u d t] is the exact differential of a func-


tion lJI such that lJI equated to a constant defines the particle paths, and,
from its definition, lJI satisfies the equation
lJIt + ulJl., = O. (5.5.6)
If it is assumed that P = P(lJI), it follows from Eq. (5.5.6) that

Pt + uP., = o. (5.5.7)
Since P, e and s are related by some equation of state, e.g., Eq. (5.5.5),
Eqs. (5.5.4) and (5.5.7) give
et+uex=O (5.5.8)
so that Eq. (5.5.1) reduces to
eux = 0 (5.5.9)
and u = 1t(t) alone, say
u = - f' (t) . (5.5.10)
From Eqs. (5.5.3) and (5.5.9), B satisfies the equation
Bt + uBx = O. (5.5.11)
Consequently, B, P, e, sand lJI satisfy the same partial differential equa-
tion. Further, no explicit assumption of an equation of state has been
made in the derivation to this point, and this class of flows may be gene-
rated from the single assumption B = B (lJI).
When Eq. (5.5.10) is substituted into Eqs. (5.5.4), (5.5.6), (5.5.7),
(5.5.8) and (5.5.11), it is seen that s, lJI, P, e and B are each functions of
y = x + I(t). Eq. (5.5.2) may be written as

-e I"()t +dP
- +B'"- -
dy
dB
dy
=0 (5.5.12)

and since Band P are constant along a trajectory, Eq. (5.5.12) reduces to
I" (t) = 2A
where A is constant, so that
I (t) = A t2 + Al t + A 2 •
With no loss of generality A2 may be taken as zero, and, if u (0) = U o,

u(t) = -2At + U o
and the trajectories are given by
y = x + I (t) = x + A t 2 - uot = constant, (5.5.13)
i.e., a family of coaxial parabolas.
From the definition of lJI, dlJl = edy so that from Eq. (5.5.2)
1 d [ B2] (5.5.14)
e= 2A dY P+ 2",
Springer Tracts, Vol. 1: Gundersen 5
66 5. Simple Wave Flows

and since (! is constant along a trajectory, Eq. (5.5.14) may be integrated


to give
B8
P + 2p = 2A P + Aa
with some constant Aa. Consequently, there is the result:
There exists only one possible case in which P = P(P), or, equivalently,
B = B(P). Therein, P + B2/2p is a linear function of P; u is a linear
function of t; the trafectories are parabolas.
For a polytropic gas [Eq. (5.5.5)]

c2= 'Y P = d [A'YP BI] ,


e dy P + 2p
(5.5.15)
w2 = _B_1 + 2A 'Y P
pe ~ [p + ::]
For the particular class of flows under consideration, the characteristics
are given by the trajectories and the curves dx/dt = u ± w, i.e.,
dy
Tt= ±w (5.5.16)

1
with the solutions

t= ± 1 d
-1;[p +-:i]
[B8]
}t
dy. (5.5.17)
bB dy P+ 2p + 2A 'Y P

If the equation of state is prescribed, e.g., Eq. (5.5.5), and also one initial
condition, e.g., s = s (P) or P = P (x) at t = 0, the solution may be
determined uniquely.
Example 1. Isentropic flow with B = Constant. If. Eq. (5.5.5) is
written as P = K(!'" with a constant K, it follows from Eq. (5.5.14) that
1

2Ay=f[!]Y dP
so that
)'

P= [2A('Y- 1)Y] ),-1


(5.5.18)
"I Kl/),
From Eqs. (5.5.14) and (5.5.18)
1
= [2A ("I - I) "] ),-1
(5.5.19)
(! 'YK
Consequently
cZ = 2Ay,
B8
w 2 =2Ay+-
pe
5.5 A Class of Exact Solutions of Non-Isentropic Flow 67

where e is given by Eq. (5.5.19). Thus if it is assumed that U o = 0,


u = -2A t, c2 = 2A (x + A t 2 ). The gas is initially at rest, and the solution
corresponds to expansion into a vacuum.
Example 2. Assume the initial condition

E'] = [Po + 2p.E~] exp (.1.2 x)


[P + 2j.i
with Po, Eo and .1.2 constants. It follows that [p + :;] = [po + :;] X
X exp (A 2 Y) throughout the flow and, further,

Thus, the speed of propagation of small disturbances is constant. If it is


assumed that U o = 0, it follows that u = - 2A t and the trajectories are
given by x + A t 2 = constant. The characteristics are given by

x + At 2 = ± j [(p.~ ++ E~)] It +
[2A

A, Po
2AYPo]

2p.
t constant.

Graphs of these characteristics are given in WEIR'S paper. Finally, the


entropy distribution is given by
S = cv A2(1- y)y + constant.
In this example, the entropy gradient causes the sound speed to remain
constant.
E'
Example 3. Assume P = AaY, 2j.i = A4Y' Then
(,1.3 + ,1.4)
e= 2A

2 2A Y,1.;Y
c = ,1.3 +,1.4 '

w2 - 2Ay(,1.3Y + 2,1.4)
- ,1.3 +,1.4

so that the density remains constant throughout the non-uniform flow.


5*
68 6. Formation and Decay of Shock Waves

The characteristics are given by the trajectories and the curves

t= -I- [2(A. + A,) (x + AtB) ]t+ ~


- A (He + "A.) 11.0 (5.5.20)
where ).0 is a constant of integration. Consequently, the two families of
characteristics given by Eq. (5.5.20) are given by the same family of
parabolas, viz.,
A ).3(/' - 2)tZ - 2).0(2)" + /'J.a)A t - 2().3 + ).,)x +
(5.5.21)

The envelope of Eq. (5.5.21) is x + AtZ = 0, so that the conclusion in this


case agrees with that obtained by WEIR, viz., Eq. (5.5.20) implies that the
point at which any member of the family given by Eq. (5.5.21) touches the
envelope is also the point which divides that part of a curve representing
a characteristic of one family from that representing a characteristic of
the other family. Since this example deals with a gas expanding into a
vacuum and x + A t2 = 0 is the particle path through the origin, it must
be the front of the expanding gas. Consequently, this gives another ex-
ample where a characteristic of one family meets a gas front at a tangent
and is reflected off as a characteristic of the other family. This occurs
because the slopes of the characteristics given by Eq. (5.5.20) are the same
at the front since co = 0 there. A sketch of the characteristics is given in
WEIR'S paper. Finally, the entropy distribution is given by
s = cvlogy + constant.

Chapter 6

Formation and Decay of Shock Waves


6.1 Introduction
In the previous five chapters, the close analogy between one-dimen-
sional conventional gas dynamics and the particular class of hydromag-
netic flows under consideration has been utilized to extend a rather large
part of the linearized theory of the former to the magnetic case. The
analogy may be exploited in yet another problem of interest, namely, the
formation and decay of weak shock waves. This is due to the fact that
in common with conventional gas dynamic shock waves, the entropy
change across magnetohydrodynamic shock waves involves only terms
of the third and higher order in the shock strength [1]. With this fact as a
basis and because of the existence of generalized Riemann invariants and
simple normal shock relations, it is possible to extend the Friedrichs theory
6.2 The Simple Wave Transition 69

[46] of the formation and decay of shock waves to the magnetic case
with little difficulty. Since the generalized Riemann invariants and an
exact solution for simple wave flow are known explicitly for a monatomic
fluid, the discussion will be limited to a monatomic fluid in order to sim-
plify the expository analysis of this chapter.
Because the differences between a shock transition and a simple wave
transition with the same strength and same initial state involve only
terms of third and higher order in the strength, the Friedrichs theory,
which may be used for an approximate description of the propagation of
non-uniform shock waves which are not too strong, replaces the shock
transition relations by those through a corresponding simple compression
wave. Since simple waves exist only in isentropic flows, the replacement
is equivalent to the assumptions that the entropy and an appropriate
generalized Riemann invariant do not change across the shock. After the
simple wave, which replaces the actual disturbance, the fluid must be
again at rest. The method is most easily applied when the flow in front
of the non-uniform shock wave is initially at rest, and, for simplicity, the
present discussion will be limited to that case.
The critical evaluations of the Friedrichs theory which have been
made will not be discussed, though, in this connection, see the paper by
LIGHTHILL [47], who showed that although the Friedrichs theory
neglected third order terms, some of the neglected terms can integrate
to give a second order effect, particularly for very weak shock waves
which take a very long time to decay. This occurs, for example, when
discussing the tail shock of an N-wave, behind which the Friedrichs
theory assumes undisturbed fluid while LIGHTHILL shows the region to be
a compression wave.

6.2 The Simple Wave Transition


For a monatomic fluid, the generalized Riemann invariants are
u (1 + kC)8/2

r
2+ k (6.2.1)

- -~ + (1 +:C)8/2 = - ; + ! (~ = {J • (6.2.2)

For a forward-facing simple wave, the basic relation is {J = {Jo or


2 2
U -""II (1 + kc)3/2 = U o -""II (1 + kCo)3/2 (6.2.3)

where the subscript zero denotes quantities in the constant state in front
of the simple wave. From Eq. (6.2.3)

C= -
1 1 [
""II +""11 (1 + kCO)3/2 + 2k (u - u o)
]2/3 (6.2.4)
70 6. Formation and Decay of Shock Waves

and since
w = c(l + kC)1/2,

:0 = (:.r,
P (
p;=c;;-'
)5 C

these quantities may be expressed in terms of u - uo. The expansions of


these quantities in terms of powers of u - U o are given by
1
c= co+ , (u- uo)
3(1 + m~)'
_ eo (_) eo(4 + 3mI) (_
e-eo+
co(1 + m~r2", u Uo + 12c2(l+m2)2
0 1
u uo)
2
+ ••• ,
1 (12 + 13m~)
- = - - ------,---, (u - uo) + 18 11 0 C2o(l + m21)2 (u - u o)2 + ... ,
e eo eoco(1 ml)' + '"'
(6.2.5)
p= po+
eoco
,
+ 7m~)
eo(8
(u-u o) + 12(1 +m~)2 (u-u o)
2
+ ... ,
+ mIl' (1
(2 + 3m~) m~ 2
W = wo + 6(1 + m~) (u - uo) + 36c o (l + m~)5'2 (u - uo) + ... ,
_ (8 + 9m~) ( _ ml _ 2 •••
U +W - Uo + wo + 6(1 + m~) U uo) + 36c o(1 + m~)5'2 (u uo) + .
In the limit of vanishing magnetic field, the expansions (6.2.5) reduce
exactly to the corresponding expansions in the non-magnetic case.
For a forward-facing shock in a polytropic gas, these expansions are
the same through the second order but differ in the third order and higher
terms. For a shock of at most moderate strength, the Friedrichs theory
uses these expansions as an approximation for the true expansions.
In order to obtain an expansion for the shock velocity, U, the exact
shock relations are employed. For this purpose, it is convenient to use the
relation
( U - Uo )2 = 6G + m~G(5 + G)
Co 2(4-G)

which yields the expansion


+ 9m~ 8
U = uo+ wo+ + mi) (u- uo) +
12(1
(6.2.6)
69mt + 136mi + 64
+ 288co(l + mi)S'2 (u - uo) + ....
2

However, it is convenient to have an expansion of U in powers of


u+ w - U o - woo From Eq. (6.2.6) and the last of Eqs. (6.2.5), this ex-
6.3 The Differential Equation for the Shock Path 71

pansion is
I 1
U = u o + Wo + 2" (u +W - u o - wo) + 2co(8 + 9m~)2 X
(6.2.7)
69mt + 136m~ + 64
X[
4(1 + m~)"2
1

Exactly as in the non-magnetic case, which Eq. (6.2.7) includes as a


special case, the following result obtains:
In first order, the velocity of a forward-facing shock wave is the mean
value of the velocities of the forward-facing sound waves in front of, i.e.,
(u o + wo) and behind, i.e., (u + w) the shock wave.

6.3 The Differential Equation for the Shock Path


In order to obtain a typical problem in which the motion of a non-
uniform shock wave must be determined, consider an initially uniform
forward-facing shock wave, propagating with constant speed into fluid at
rest and let the shock be overtaken from behind by a forward-facing
simple wave. See Fig. 8. In the interaction region, the shock will cease
to be uniform and the subsequent flow will be non-isentropic. However,
under the assumption that the
shock is of at most moderate t
strength, the Friedrichs theory
replaces the shock transition
bya transition throughacorre-
sponding simple compression
wave. Consequently, the flow
behind the non-uniform shock
is assumed to be isentropic
and characterized by {l = flo, oX

i.e., the region behind the shock


is a simple wave, and, in fact,
it is just the continuation of
the original simple wave. In
this way, it is possible to deter- Fig. 8. At time t = 0 at the place " = 0, an initially
uniform shock wave is overtaken and modified by a for-
mine the flow behind the non- ward-facing simple wave
uniform shock independently
of the shock. Then, the shock path may be fitted in by solving a linear
ordinary differential equation.
It is assumed that the fluid in front of the shock is a uniform state of
rest, denoted by the SUbscript zero and that the interaction begins at
x = 0 at t = O. The simple wave behind the shock may be characterized
by a characteristic parameter ;, which is constant along each rectilinear
72 6. Formation and Decay of Shock Waves

characteristic, i.e., it is the value of x where the characteristic intersects


the x-axis, and a function D(~). Specifically,
x= ~+ D(~)t, (6.3.1)
D(~) = uW + w(~) ,
- U(;)_+~[W(;)]3= (J
2 k c (;) 0

and ~ is always negative.


W (~) in terms of D (~).
It is possible to solve explicitly for u (~) and
Actually, this is effectively the same problem as was solved in section 5.2
where an explicit solution was determined for the flow parameters in a
centered simple wave. For the present problem, the previous solution,
Eqs. (5.2.5)-(5.2.6), may be used. It is only necessary to replace xft by
D in those equations.
In order to determine the shock path, Eq. (6.3.1) is differentiated with
respect to ~. Then, since dx = U dt along the shock path, the following
linear ordinary differential equation for t = t(~) is obtained

[U(~)-D(~)J :;-t d~f) = 1. (6.3.2)


From Eq. (6.2.7), U is a function of D and consequently of~; namely

Q(~) - U(~) = ! [DW - woJ - [D(~)- woJ 2 2Co (8! 9mn' X


(6.3.3)
X [
69mt + 136m~ + 64 1
_ m 2(1
1 + m 2)]
1 .
4(1 +m~)"2

Inserting Eq. (6.3.3), which is correct through the second order, into
Eq. (6.3.2), the solution may be determined uniquely when the initial
condition t = 0 when ~ = 0 is appended. It is convenient to express the
solution in terms of the function O"t (~) defined by
D- Wo = WOO"lW .
The explicit solution is

(6.3.4)

where
D _ 69mt + 136m~ + 64 -4mW + m1)3!2
- (8 + 9mn'
Inserting Eq. (6.3.4) into the first of Eqs. (6.3.1) gives

Da,(;) ]2 f
o
x = ~ + 8[1 + O"l(~)J [4-a,(;) a,(y) dy
[4-Da,(y)]8 (6.3.5)
<
Eqs. (6.3.4)-(6.3.5) give a parametric representition of the shock path.
6.4 Decaying Shock Wave 73

In the limit of vanishing magnetic field, these results reduce precisely to


those obtained by FRIEDRICHS, i.e., lim D = 1. Further, the basic con-
m~-->O
elusion is effectively the same, i.e.,
For fixed m 1 , and a compressive (expansive) simple wave, the shock front
is accelerated (decelerated) and its strength increased (decreased).
It should be noted that Eqs. (6.3.4)-(6.3.5) are based on equations
in which terms O(O"V have been neglected. Consequently, terms O(O"r)
must also be neglected in these equations.

6.4 Decaying Shock Wave


In the problem of section 6.3, suppose the interaction created when
the shock wave is overtaken by a rarefaction wave continues indefinitely.
From Eq. (6.3.4), t -+ 00 if 0"1 -> 0, i.e., Q -+ Wo, which means that the
slope of the last characteristic of the simple wave is wo, so that the gas
velocity vanishes behind the rarefaction wave. Following FRIEDRICHS,
the asymptotic behavior of the shock wave will be determined in the case
that the pressure behind the rarefaction wave is equal to the pressure in
front of the shock wave. Then, the gas velocity vanishes behind the tail
of the rarefaction wave, and the tail
t
is given by ~ = ~o < 0 for which
0"1 (~o)= O. Exactly as in the non-
magnetic case, it will be seen that the
width of the wave zone, i.e., the dis-
tance between the shock front and
the characteristic ~ = ~o [d (t) in
Fig. 9J increases like [}.
With the notation

~------------------------
the following asymptotic expansion .:c
Fig. 9. The lines OA and A B represent the path
is obtained from Eq. (6.3.4) of a piston. When the piston is arrested at point
A I a simple rarefaction wave is generated. The

(It)ot)~ = 2A ~ [-~ -
01
_E_]
4
simple wave catches up with and causes the initially
l1nifonn shock wave to decay. d (t) is the width of
the wave zone

which may be inverted to give


1

0"1 = 2 (-A)" DA- + ....


- - - (6.4.1)
wot wot
Substituting Eq. (6.4.1) into Eq. (6.3.1) gives the asymptotic represen-
tation of the shock path, viz.,
x = ~o + wot + 2 (A wot)l- AD.
74 6. Formation and Decay of Shock Waves

Consequently, the width of the wave zone, d (t), is given asymptotically by


d (t) = 2 (A wot)1- AD. (6.4 .2)
The effect of the magnetic field on the width is contained entirely in the
term D, and, in the limit of vanishing magnetic field, Eq. (6.4.2) reduces
precisely to the corresponding result in the non-magnetic case. For small
ml , the quantity D decreases with increasing ml , so that the asymptotic
expression for the width of the wave zone increases with increasing mI.
t
C' ------------- - - - - -- -- - - --7---------

Fig. 10. The lines 0 A. A Band Be represent the path of a piston. The decaying N -wave may be discussed
by the use of the Friedrichs theory

The asymptotic distribution of u, wand P within the interaction


region depends on the behavior of the original rarefaction wave near
x = ;0' t = O. Expanding (h (;) near; = ;0
0"1 W = a4 (; - ;0) + a6(; - ;0)2 + ... . (6.4.3)
Substitution of Eq. (6.4.3) into Eq. (6.3.1) gives
x - ;0 - wot = (a"wot + 1) (; - ;0) + a6wOt(; - ;0)2 + ...
which may be inverted to yield

(6.4.4)

Substitution of Eq. (6.4.4) into Eq. (6.4.3) gives


a4 (x - ~o - wot) as (x - ~o - wot)2
0"1 = a 4w ot +1 + (a 4w ot + 1)8 + . . . . (6.4.5)
Since Q = w o(1 + 0"1 W). the asymptotic distribution of Q in the inter-
action zone follows directly from Eq. (6.4.5). The asymptotic distributions
6.5 Formation of a Shock Wave 75

for u and £0 then follow directly from the explicit representations of these
functions in terms of D (;) .
From Eq. (6.4.5), it follows that
a,d (t) a 5 d 2 (t)
(11 = a,wot + 1 + (a,wot + 1)3
which is equivalent to Eq. (6.4.1). Exactly as in the non-magnetic case,
it may be shown that the shock strength decreases like rt.
The problem of this section may be generated as illustrated in Fig. 9,
and the constants a", as and A may be determined quite easily [46].
Another problem, which may be treated in an entirely similar manner,
is the decaying N-wave, see Fig. 10. In front of the head shock, the flow
is known exactly, viz., a uniform state of rest, so that the flow behind the
shock may be determined with an error of third or higher order in the
shock strength, and the second order theory is valid for all time. However,
the treatment of the tail shock presents difficulties since the flow which
precedes it is only known approximately. See LIGHTHILL [47].

6.5 Formation of a Shock Wave


When a piston is pushed into a tube filled with gas at rest, a simple
compression wave is generated, and, ultimately, the rectilinear charac-
teristics, on each of which the flow parameters are constant, intersect and
form an envelope. If the simple wave is generated by a uniformly acceler-
ated piston motion and the initial acceleration is positive, the envelope
begins at a point on the rectilinear characteristic through the origin,
i.e., x = lOot, where the subscript zero denotes stagnation quantities. In
this particular case, which is effectively the same as if the shock formed
has been overtaken by the simple wave, the initial shock strength is zero
and remains rather weak with a path close to the characteristic x = lOot
immediately after formation, so that the simplifying assumptions of the
Friedrichs theory are satisfied.
Consequently, following FRIEDRICHS, it is assumed that the shock
begins at (x, t) = (0, 0) and the region in front of the shock is initially at
rest. Thus, it is required that D(;o) = £0 0 , dD/d; < 0 for; < 0 and
d Did; = - 00 at ; = O. Specifically, it is assumed that
(11(;) = (-;)t[a + a1 ; +. oJ ,
0 a> 0
with constants a and a1 • In order to obtain the shock path, Eqs. (6.3.1)
and (6.3.4) are expanded with respect to powers of t so that
4 t D~
lOot =ga(-;) -12'
x = 34a (_ ;)t - (4 ~2D) ~
76 6. Formation and Decay of Shock Waves

Consequently, the (x, t) representation of the shock path is


3
x = wot + 16 allw~ til + ....
The shock path is initially close to the characteristic x = wot, so that the
initial shock velocity is Wo and the acceleration is 3allw~/8.
The discussion of this section may be particularized by specifiying the
motion of the piston. The resultant simple compression wave is written
in the general form
x = Xo{.A.) + (~t + w) [t- to(A)] (6.5.1)
where A is a parameter. The piston is assumed to be pushed into the gas
with constant acceleration until the time t = t*, after which its velocity is
maintained with the constant value given at that time. The fluid in front
of the piston is assumed to be initially at rest with u = U o = 0, C = Co'
w = woo The specified piston motion is given by
rt"
x=2 O~t~t*

x = rt*(t- t*) t ~ t*.


Letting A = constant denote the rectilinear characteristic which originates
at the piston at time t = A, the compression simple wave, Eq. (6.5.1), may
be represented by
r A-
x = 2 + (u + w) (t - A)
_~+ (1 +kC)8/. _p _~(Wo)3
2 k - 0- k Co •

or
r AS kr A )1/3]
X = 2 + [T3 rA + Po - Ii k Po + -2-
1 (
(t - A) . (6.5.2)

Although the envelope ofEq. (6.5.2) is easily determined, say [xE (A),tE (A)],
the point at which the shock formation begins is determined by finding the
minimum of tE (A). Since this is given at best by a complicated implicit
representation, it seems more fruitful to give an approximate represen-
tation for Eq. (6.5.2), valid for small applied fields. Since

~
k
[kp 0 +
kr A ]1/3 = (1
2
+ kco)" +
k
1
r AC~ _
6w~
__1_
36
kr2A2cg
wg+
o(k2"s 13)11.,

the coefficient of (t - A) in Eq. (6.5.2) may be written as


3 rA kr'Ascg 2 3
TrA + w o- 6(1 + kco) + 36wS + O(k "sA)
and for simplicity, only the first three terms are retained. Then, the
6.5 Formation of a Shock Wave 77

simple wave may be represented by

x= 2
d. + [3"2 r A + Wo -
I
6 (1
d.
+ mi) ] (t - A) . (6.5.3)
The envelope of Eq. (6.5.3) is given by
E_ 2(5 + 6mi) A. + 6(1 + mnS/Bco (6.5.4)
t - (8 + 9mi) (8 + 9mnr '
E _ ~ + {(2 + 3mi) A. + 6(1 + mi)S/co}
x - 2 (8 + 9mi) (8 + 9mi)r X
grA +
(6.5.5)
X wo- 6(1 ~mi)}'
The initial point of shock formation is given by
E 6(1 + mi)S/co
tmln= tv = (8 + 9m¥)r '
Xv = wotv'
Since the shock begins at (xv, tv) and lies within the region x > wot, the
region in front of the shock is a constant state so that the methods of this
chapter are applicable.
By shifting the origin to the point (xv, tv), the simple wave may be
represented by
(8 + 9mnrA. ] (5 + 6mi) I' A.'
x- x.= (t- tv) [
6(1 + mi) + Wo - 6(1 + mi) (6.5.6)
(8 + 9mi)rA. .
Since Q = wo(1 + 0'1) = 6(1 + mi) + wo, It follows that
(8 + 9m¥) rA.
0'1 = 6(1 + mi)wo
(6.5.7)
so that
l:. = _ 6 (5 + 6mi) (1 + mi) wg~
S" 1'(8 + 9mi)2
In order to determine the motion of the shock wave, these results are
substituted into Eq. (6.3.4). This gives
W
oVal
(t- t) = 96 [4 -Dal ]2 (5 + 6mi) (1 + m¥)wg
(8 + 9m¥)2r
f a,
aida,
(4-Dal)8
o (6.5.8)
= 12(5 + 6mi) (1 + m¥)wg
(8 + 9mi)2r
{~
3 0'1 +
(~_~)
8 3
2
0'1
o(err)}
+ l'
By inverting Eq. (6.5.8), the following expansion for 0'1 is obtained
(8+9mi)2(t-tv)r [ (8+9m~)8(t-t.)r]
0'1 = 8w o(5 +
6mi) (1 mi) 1- 128wo(5 +6m¥) (1 mi) • + + (6.5.9)
Thus, from Eqs. (6.5.6), (6.5.7) and (6.5.9),
1'(8 + 9mi)2(t-t.)2
x- x" = wo(t- t,,) + 32(5 + 6m¥) (1 + m¥) + .... (6.5.10)
78 7. The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field

In the limit of vanishing magnetic field, Eq. (6.5.10) reduces exactly to


the result obtained by FRIEDRICHS for the non-magnetic case. The be-
havior of the other flow parameters in the simple wave may be obtained
from their explicit representations and the above expansions.
The objectives of this chapter have been achieved, and it has been
shown that the Friedrichs theory may be extended to the magnetic case
with little difficulty.

Chapter 7

The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field


7.1 The Characteristic Form of the Governing Equations
The analysis of the foregoing chapters was restricted to the case of a
transverse magnetic field, and the basis for the results was the striking
parallelism between this particular class of hydromagnetic flows and
conventional gas dynamic flows. For an arbitrary orientation of the
magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic wave phenomena are much more
complicated, and, in fact, there exist three sound speeds, i.e., modes of
propagation, called fast, slow and intermediate waves, in each direction
which, moreover, depend on the direction of propagation. The anisotropic
nature of magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation was noted first by
HERLOFSON [56J and by VAN DE HULST [57]. An introductory discussion
may be found, for example, in the papers by FRIEDRICHS [1J, GRAD [58J
and SHERCLIFF [55].
Naturally, it would be nice if the results of the previous chapters could
be extended directly to the case of an oblique field, and the purpose of this
chapter is to present the preliminary analysis necessary for that extension.
The equations governing one-dimensional unsteady flow, subjected to an
oblique magnetic field, are considered. Throughout, it is assumed that all
dependent variables are functions of only one space variable x and the
time t, i.e., it is the projections of the characteristics from (x, y, t) space
onto the (x, t) plane that are considered. The governing equations are
written in characteristic form and simple wave flows are discussed. For
initially uniform or simple wave flows, a reduction in the number of
governing equations is possible in a manner quite similar to that used in
Chapter 1. General solutions are obtained for the non-isentropic pertur-
bation of an initially uniform flow, an initially centered simple wave flow
and an initially arbitrary simple wave flow.
It is assumed that the velocity vector has only two components, viz.,
(u1 , U 2 , 0) and the induction is given by B = (Bv B 2 , 0). Consequently,
7.1 The Characteristic Form of the Governing Equations 79

the basic equations are


(7.1.1)

(7.1.2)

(7.1.3)

B2t - B 1 u 2X + u 1 ",B 2 + u l B 2 ", = 0, (7.1.4)


St + U1S", = 0, (7.1.5)
where br = Br//J,f.! (i = 1,2).
As a consequence of MAXWELL'S equations, there is the further condition
that Bl = constant.
The possible characteristic surfaces cP (x, t) = constant of the system
of Eqs. (7.1.1)-(7.1.5) are given by solutions of the following first-order
partial differential equations for cP:
[CPt + U 1 CP",J [CPt + 4ul cp",cpr + (6ur - bi - b~ - c2 ) cP~cp'f +
+ {4ur- 2u1 (br + b~ + c2) CP~CPt} + (7.1.6)
+ cpH ui (ui - bi - b~) - c2 (ui - btl) J = 0 .
The first factor shows that one characteristic curve is given by dx/dt = U l .
If cP (x, t) = constant is characteristic, then dx/dt = - cpt/CPa;, so that the
introduction of dx/dt = U l + a leads to the following algebraic equation
for a:
(7.1.7)
where 0)2 = c2 + bi + b~. The larger and smaller of the roots a > 0
of Eq. (7.1.7) will be denoted by at (fast speed) and as (slow speed),
respectively [1 J.
Consequently, introducing characteristic parameters (~, (3, ~, 'fj, C),
the basic system of Eqs. (7.1.1)-(7.1.5) may be written in the following
characteristic form [52J
xp = (u l + at)tp ,
x", = (u l - at)t""
x~ = ult~,
xT) = (u l + a.)tT) ,
x,= (ul-a.)t e ,
a U ~ (a2- c2) B 2{J _ Bl (aJ - CO) U 2{J _ c 2s{J 8)
Il{J+(y_1)+ f B. at B • y(y_1)c.=O,(7.1.

2ccIX (2 B21X Bl(a;-c 2)u21X


- atullX + -y-
- 1 + at - c - B + 2) C 2 SIX

2
B
at • Y (y-
1 ) c. = 0, (7.1.9)
80 7. The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field

COsc
y(y-I)c. = 0, (7.1.11)

s~ = o. (7.1.12)
For the case of a transverse field only, Bl = 0, as = 0 and at = W
= [b~ + c2 Jt, and the above characteristic system reduces to that derived
in Chapter I, viz., Eqs. (1.2.6)-(1.2.12).
In the transverse field case, the particle paths were characteristics of
multiplicity two. Three independent characteristic directions led to
four independent characteristic forms of the governing equations, and a
reduction in the number of equations was possible. A similar reduction is
possible in the present case for simple wave flows.
Hydromagnetic simple wave flow was considered by FRIEDRICHS [IJ.
who showed that the problem could be reduced to finding the solution of
a single linear first-order differential equation, which could be solved
explicitly for the case of a polytropic gas, and by BAZER [54J, SHERCLIFF
[55J and others. In principle, simple wave flow would be characterized by
integrating one of Eqs. (7.1.8)-(7.1.11) and setting the result equal to a
constant thus determining a Riemann invariant. In actuality, a better
approach is to look for solutions constant along a single family of rectilinear
characteristics, i.e., to determine the motion of a "phase" which moves
with constant velocity. For example, consider a forward-facing wave cha-
racterized by
x = [Ut(b) + a(b)Jt + b (7.1.13)
where b is a parameter. From Eq. (7.1.13), it follows that
a 1 a
ax- 1 + [ui(6) +a'(6)]t ac5'
a -[ud6) + a(6)] a
at 1 + [ui(6) + a'(6)]t ac5.
Substituting these results into Eqs. (7.1.1)-(7.1.5) gives
(1'-1)
- ac,,+ 2 cU}d= 0,
2cc" b~ C'S6
-aU16+--1
1'-
+-B• B 2,,- y ( y - I )=0
c.'

-au2 , , - 'b";1 B 2 ,,=0, (7.1.14)

- a B 2" - Bl U 2" + B 2u 1 " = 0,


- as,,= 0,
whose eliminant is Eq. (7.1.7). After some simple manipulation, the system
7.1 The Characteristic Form of the Governing Equations 81

of Eqs. (7.1.14) may be put into a more convenient form, e.g., for a for-
ward-facing fast wave

(7.1.15)

where b has been replaced by 0: to agree with Eq. (7.1.9). When the first
of Eqs. (7.1.15) is integrated and set equal to a constant, a generalized
Riemann invariant is determined which is completely analogous to
Eq. (1.2.9) to which it reduces when Bl ---7 O. The system of Eqs. (7.1.15)
is completely equivalent to Eq. (7.1.9).
The system corresponding to Eqs. (7.1.15) for a backward-facing fast
wave is

(7.1.16)

where the characteristic parameter (3 has been chosen to agree with


Eq. (7.1.8).
From the two systems of Eqs. (7.1.15) and Eqs. (7.1.16), it follows
that the following differential relations hold on both the forward-facing
and backward-facing characteristics:
dB. +_2_~~=O
B2 y - l b~-a2 e '
Bda2-b~) d 0
d
u1 + B b2 U2=
2 1

where the symbol a has been written without subscript since the same
relations hold for a = a, or a = as. It follows immediately that these
differential relations must hold throughout the flow, so that the follo-
wing integrals are obtained:

10gB 2 + -y-
-1
2 f a 2 de
(b I2 - a 2) e = constant, (7.1.17)

Uz + n:. f
1 B.b~
(a 2 _ b~) dU l = constant. (7.1.18)
Springer Tracts, Vol. 1: Gundersen 6
82 7. The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field

These two integrals may be used to reduce to number of equations


govemingthe flow, viz., because ofEq. (7.1.17), it follows that Eq. (7.1.4)
is identical to Eq. (7.1.1) and because of Eq. (7.1.18), it follows that Eq.
(7.1.3) is identical to Eq. (7.1.2) when the entropy is constant. Conse-
quently, the governing equations are reduced to
_C_t_ + U1Cz + CU... u1cA z = 0
,,-1 ,,-1 2 + 2A '
(7.1.19)
2a"c c·s.. = 0
Utt+U1Ut .. + (,,-t)c ,,(,,-I)c. (7.1.20)

St + Uts.. = 0 (7.1.21)
where an arbitrary, time-independent area variation has been added, and
it should be noted that the system of Eqs. (7.1.19)-(7.1.21) is valid
for isentropic flow only. The entropy has been included since these
equations will be linearized in the neighborhood of a known isentropic
state. In order to make the generalized Riemann invariants linear
relations between the dependent variables, the variable w is introduced by
the substitution w = f:
de. Then, appropriate combinations of the
resultant system lead to the following characteristic form of the equations
U1
[2+ W] t+ (Ut + a) [U
,,-1
1 ,,-1
2+ W] ..
(7.1.22)

[- i + " wit + (U1- a) [- ~l + I' WI] ..


(7.1.23)
u.aAz c·s ..
=-~-- 21'(1'-I)c.'

St + U1S.. = O. (7.1.24)
Then, linearizing Eqs. (7.1.22)-(7.1.24) in the neighborhood of a known
(isentropic) constant area flow, i.e., a uniform or simple wave flow,
denoted by the subscript zero, the following system of linear equations is
obtained for the terms of first order, denoted by a bar:
Rt + (Uto + ao) R .. + (u 1 + a)oc..
(7.1.25)

(7.1.26)
ulOaoA(x)
2Ao 21'(1'-I)c. '
St + Utos.. = 0 (7.1.27)
where the first-order generalized Riemann invariants have been denoted
7.1 The Characteristic Form of the Governing Equations 83

by Rand 5, i.e.,
U iii
R= u;. +~ S=--.!..+--
2 y-l' 2 y-l
and it has been noted that

~+~= 0: -~+~=fJ
2 y-l ' 2 y-l
are the characteristic parameters of the base flow. Throughout, the symbol
a will appear without the subscript s or f since the analysis is valid for
slow or fast waves, and the appropriate characteristic parameters will be
denoted by (0:, fJ). Further, the subscript zero will be dropped from base
flow quantities in order to simplify the notation.
Since Eq. (7.1.7) for the wave speeds may be written in the equivalent
form
b~
a2-b~
(7.1.28)
it follows from Eq. (7.1.28) that
ii = [ (a' - c2 )' + (y - 1) b~C'] ac
b~c' + (a 2 - C2)2 (y -1)c
Consequently, the first-order generalized Riemann invariants may be
written in terms of u and ii, namely,
u;. [ b~C2 + (a 2 - C2)2 ] _
R=""2+ (a2-c2)2+(y_l)b~c2 a,
u;. [ b~C2 + (a 2 - C2)2 ] _
5 = -""2 + (a2 _ C2)2 + (y _ 1) b~C2 a.
Thus
_ __{3(a'-C 2)2 + (y + 1) b~C2}
u1 +a- 2 [b~C2 + (a2 _ c2)'J X
(y - 3) b~c' - (a 2 _ C')2}
X R +{ 2[b~C2 + (a'_c 2)2] 5,
_ _ { (a' - c 2)' - (y - 3) b~C2}
U1 - a = 2[b~c' + (a' _ c2)'J X

R_{3(a'-C 2). + (y + 1) b~C'}S


X 2 [b~c' + (a 2 _ c2)'] .
Exactly as in the case of a purely transverse field, the entropy
perturbation may be determined independently and directly, i.e., from
Eq. (7.1.27) which shows that s is constant along the curves obtained by
integrating dx/dt = U 1 . The solution is
s= r(lI'o)
where r is an arbitrary differentiable function and d'Po = (2 [dx - u1dtJ.
Exactly as in Chapter 1, the function To, defined by
c2 S'" = c2 (2F' ('Po) = y(y - l)c"To
6*
84 7. The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field

is introduced, so that the non-isentropic perturbation of an initially


uniform or simple wave flow may be determined by finding solutions of
the following two first-order linear equations for the first-order generalized
Riemann invariants

(7.1.29)

(a2 - C2)2 - (y - 3) b~C2}


St + (U1- a) S", + [{ 2 [b~C2 + (a2 _ c2 )'] X

R_{3(a2 -C2)2 + (y + l)b~C'}S] f3 (7.1.30)


X 2 [b~c' + (a' _ C2)2] '"
u 1al'.. To
-~-2'

For an initially uniform flow, ex and f3 are constants, and the general
solution of Eqs. (7.1.29)-(7.1.30) is
R=F[x-( a)t] E[x-u1t]_ u1al'(x)
Ut + + a 2A (u 1 + a) ,
S=G[x-( -a)t] E[x-u1t] _ u 1al'(x)
Ut + a 2A (u1 - a) ,
T o =2E'[x-u1 t]
in terms of three arbitrary functions of one argument. This solution is
directly analogous to the solution given by Eqs. (1.2.30)-(1.2.32), which
it includes as a special case, and may be used to extend the analysis of
Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to the oblique field case. Although the extensions
will be given in a future publication, the next section is devoted to a
relatively simple formulation of the transition relations across oblique
shock waves. The final two sections of the chapter are concerned with
simple wave perturbations.

7.2 Transition Relations Across Oblique Shock Waves


Transition relations across hydromagnetic shock waves have been
considered by de HOFFMAN and TELLER [23], LUST [24], HELFER [25],
FRIEDRICHS [1], BAZER and ERICSON [26], [53], KANWAL [27], SHER-
CLIFF [55], GUNDERSEN [28], [29], and others. While all flow parameters
behind a conventional gas dynamic shock wave may be determined by
use of the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions if the flow in front of and one
quantity behind the shock are specified, two parameters are required for
a normal hydromagnetic shock wave, e.g., one giving the shock strength
7.2 Transition Relations Across Oblique Shock Waves 85

and one giving a measure of the applied transverse magnetic field. As


shown in section 2.2, all flow quantities behind the shock may be ex-
pressed in terms of these and the known flow in front of the shock.
In the present section, it is shown that all flow quantities behind an
oblique hydromagnetic shock wave may be expressed in terms of the flow
quantities in front of the shock and three parameters, e.g., the shock
strength, one giving a measure of the applied field and one giving a
measure of the obliqueness of the applied field with respect to the shock
front.
Let the shock front be perpendicular to the x-axis of an (x, y) co-
ordinate system, and, as in section 7.1, let the velocity vector and in-
duction have only two components. Further, let the flow velocity relative
to the shock front, whose motion is parallel to the x-axis, be v = u1 - U,
and let the regions in front of and behind the shock front be denoted by
the subscripts one and hvo, respectively. Then the hydromagnetic analogs
of the jump conditions across oblique shock fronts are [1J
Bll = B 12 , (7.2.1)
!?! VI = 1?2 V2 , (7.2.2)
PI B~l P B~2
+ I?l VI2 + ----z;; = 2 + 1?2 V22 + 2 f.l ' (7.2.3)

I?I Vl'U 21 - Bll7=1?2


~.
V2U22-
~.~.
f.l (7.2.4)
vI B 21 - B ll u 21 = v2B 22 - B 12 u 22 , (7.2.5)
VI _ u~l + yp. + ml
2 2 (y-l)e. e1f.l
(7.2.6)
= v~ _ U~2 + yp. + B~2
2 2 (y-l)e. e.f.l·
For the case of no applied field, Eqs. (7.2.1)-(7.2.6) reduce exactly to
the transition relations given by COURANT and FRIEDRICHS [43J, p. 299.
Introduce the parameters (J = 1?2/1?1> l" = P21 P1> m i = bile, ni = uile
and B2ilBIi = if>i' i = 1,2. From Eq. (7.2.2), it follows that
02 VI
-'-- = - = (7.2.7)
e1 v.
(J.

In order to simplify the derivation, a coordinate system is chosen such


that the shock front is at rest and the flow velocity and magnetic field
are parallel on both sides of the shock front [lJ, [23J. This may be ac-
complished by choosing a coordinate system such that = V i1jB 1 • u
Then Eq. (7.2.5) is satisfied identically and, further, there is no distinction
between U 1 and v. Thus, it follows that

(7.2.8)
86 7. The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field

and
c~ T
(7.2.9)
4 a
From the continuity of the normal component of the magnetic field, i.e.,
Eq. (7.2.1) and Eqs. (7.2.7) and (7.2.8), the following relations are derived
B.. t/>.
Bn = t/>1·'
b~2 1
bh a'
m~2 t/>~
m~l = Tt/>~ ,
b~2 = t/>~ (7.2.10)
bh at/>~'
m~2
m~l -:r '
nh = -;;;,

n~2 t/>~
n~l = aTt/>~ .
Since u 1 = v in the coordinate system utilized, Eq. (7.2.4) may be written as
(11 tPl [vi - bi IJ = (12 tP2 [v~ - bi 2J
or, solving for tP2
(7.2.11)

which expresses tP2 in terms of (1, tPl' m 21 = tPl mn and the known flow in
front of the shock.
Since Eqs. (7.2.1), (7.2.2),7.2.4) and (7.2.5) have been utilized, only
Eqs. (7.2.3) and (7.2.6) remain to be considered. These may be rewritten as
P1 + b~l P b~2
+ (112
(11 VI
2
= 2 + (12 V2 + (12 -2- ,
2

vi(1- t/>i) + yP + b2 1
2 (y-l)e1 21

= vW-t/>~) + yp. + b2
2 (y-I) eo 22

or, if all terms with subscript two are expressed in terms of those with
subscript one

(ll v i(l- !)+Pl[I-<+ y~l (1-:0]=0, (7.2.12)

(11 vi [1 - tPt + (t/>~; I) ] +


(7.2.13)
+ P[y2 Y1(1- ;)+2ym~I(I- a~~)]=O.
1
7.3 Perturbation of a Centered Simple Wave Flow 87

Since there exists a nontrivial solution to this linear system of homo-


geneous algebraic equations for PI and ~?!V~, Eqs. (7.2.12)-(7.2.13), the
determinant of the coefficients must vanish, which leads to the result

.1.2.1.2 1 "m21
[a2 (I-'I'I)+'I'2- I J [ + - 2 -
2 (1 --:1:2
.p~ )] -
'1'.
2
"0'(0'-1)
.[ 1 2 (1
y=I+m21 . 1 . '1'2
-~
2 )]

7:= (7.2.14)
a'(I-cf>~) + cf>~-I _~ (0'-1)
,,-1

which expresses 7: in terms of ,pI and 'ln 21 • Eq. (7.2.14) gives the Hugoniot
function for the case of an oblique magnetic field.
Because of Eqs. (7.2.11) and (7.2.13), Eqs. (7.2.7)-(7.2.10) express
the flow quantities behind the shock in terms of those in front and the
three parameters a, ,pI and ~l. In the limit of vanishing Bv these results
reduce to those presented in section 2.2 for the case of a normal shock.
Some care must be exercised in carrying out this limit, e.g., it must be
noted that
lim 1:!. = a .
B,-+O cf>l

7.3 Perturbation of a Centered Simple Wave Flow


For a simple wave flow, one of the characteristic parameters of the
base flow is constant throughout the flow. Let the wave be centered at
the origin and be characterized by fJ = fJo, a constant. On each charac-
teristic dx/dt = U 1 + a, the flow parameters are constant, and these
characteristics are straight lines in the (x, t) plane. Consequently, the
wave may be represented as
x=(ul+a)t, (7.3.1)

fJ = fJo· (7.3.2)

From the definitions of the characteristic parameters of the base flow, it


follows that
(7.3.3)
(,,-1)
W = 2 (~+ fJo) . (7.3.4)

In Eq. (7.1.29), an expression for ~o: is needed, and this may be


obtained by differentiating Eq. (7.3.1) with respect to x which gives the
result
1 [(a 2 - CO)' + (,,-1) b~CO] Wx
T = Uu + ao: = U u + b~c' + (a O- CO)' Y- 1 .
88 7. The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field

However, the derivatives U 1 ", and w'" may be expressed in terms of IX",
through Eqs. (7.3.3)-(7.3.4). This yields the result

(7.3.5)

Consequently, for the wave centered at the origin, Eqs. (7.1.29)-(7.1.30)


reduce to

(7.3.6)

(7.3.7)
where attention will be restricted to simple wave flow in a uniform duct.
Eqs. (7.3.6)-(7.3.7) will be solved by first considering the associated
homogeneous system with To = 0, and then the solution of the complete
system may be obtained by adding a particular solution of the complete
system.
The characteristics of the homogeneous equation associated with
Eq. (7.3.7) are dS = 0 and
(7.3.8)

By the use of Eq. (7.3.1), Eq. (7.3.8) may be written as


dx d
dt = u1+ a + tdt (u 1+ a) = U1- a. (7.3.9)

From the definition of the characteristic parameters

u1+a=a+ I' 2 1 f: dc-2po


so that Eq. (7.3.9) may be written as
2dt +!!!... + _2_~= 0
t a 1'-1 c
which has the solution
2
at 2c y-l = constant (7.3.10)
or
eat2 = constant. (7.3.11)
Eq. (7.3.11) gives a convenient representation of the curvilinear cross-
characteristics of the wave. In terms of an arbitrary differentiable
function F, a convenient form for the solution of the homogeneous
equation associated with Eq. (7.3.7) is
S = 2(ea)ttF' [eat2] . (7.3.12)
7.3 Perturbation of a Centered Simple \Vave Flow 89

By the use of Eq. (7.3.1), the homogeneous equation associated with


Eq. (7.3.6) may be written as
(y - 3) b~C2 - (a 2 _ C2)2 } ]
tRt+xR",+ [ R+ { 3(a2 _c2)2 + (y + l)b~c' S = o. (7.3.13)

The solution for R may be obtained from the system


dt dx dR
-=-=
t x (a2 - c 2)' - ()' - 3) b~C2 ]
(7.3.14)
[
-R+ 3(a 2 - c 2 )' + (y + l)b~c' S

From the first two ratios of Eq. (7.3.14), one first integral is
xlt = constant, (7.3.15)
i.e., the rectilinear characteristics. From the first and last ratios of
Eq. (7.3.14), the following differential equation is obtained
d (tR) = [ (3 - y) b~C2 + (a' - C2 )2 ] ~ [F [eat']]
dt 3(a 2 c 2 )' ..L, (y + I) b22 c 2 dt
(7.3.16)
-
(e a ).L2

In order to integrate Eq. (7.3.16), the previous first integral, Eq. (7.3.15),
may be utilized, i.e., on xlt = constant, the flow parameters are constant
so that the solution of Eq. (7.3.16) may be written as
(3_Y)b~c2+(a2_C2)2] F[eat2]
Rt- [ 3(a2-c2)2+(y+l)b~c' ()t =constant. (7.3.17)
ea
From the first integrals, Eqs. (7.3.15) and (7.3.17), the solution of the
homogeneous equation associated with Eq. (7.3.6) may be written as
(3 - y) bilc' + (a 2 -c')' ] F[eat'] (X)
Rt= [
3(a'-c2)2 + (y + l)b~c'
2
.L
(e a )2
+G t (7.3.18)

",-here G is an arbitrary function.


Since the general solution to the homogeneous system associated with
Eqs. (7.3.6)-(7.3.7) has been determined, the case of non-isentropic
perturbed flow is reduced to finding a particular solution of the complete
system, and this may be accomplished quite readily by choosing a con-
venient form for the function To.
The curves 'Po = constant are given by eat = constant or, more
conveniently, by
1
----1 1 1
Y= C 1'- a2 t'i = constant. (7.3.19)
Since
T _ ec'F' ('Po) _ [ eat ] ~ F'(lJ')
0- y(y-l)c. - y(y -I)c. at 0

it is convenient to write
To = 2c 2 .Q'(y)
at
90 7. The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field

where Q is an arbitrary differentiable function, and y is given by Eq.


(7.3.19). Then the particular solution for S may be obtained from the
equation
c2 Q' (y)
St + (u 1 - a)S., = - at
i.e., from the ratios
dt dx dS
1 u1-a -c 2 Q' (y)/at . (7.3.20)

From the two first ratios of Eq. (7.3.20), one first integral is
(7.3.21)
where .It is a constant. From the first and last ratios of Eq. (7.3.20)

dS tt
c2 Q' [at C1/(Y-l)]
dt at (7.3.22)

Using the first integral, Eq. (7.3.21), and the definition of y, Eq. (7.3.22)
may be written as

(7.3.23)

Integrating Eq. (7.3.23) and performing an integration by parts gives


2 ~
l.6 C y-l t5/2Q [.lt2/t2] -
I
S =
(7.3.24)
- :. {fQ[.lt2/tt]d[CY~1 t 5/ 2 ]L+constant.

From the two first integrals, Eqs. (7.3.21) and (7.3.24), the particular
solution for S may be written as

S = 2c 2 Q(y)
ay

(7.3.25)
_ 2c 2 Q(y) Q ( )
= ay + 1 X, t
where the notation { h denotes that the quadrature is to be carried out
with constant .It which must then be replaced by its equivalent from
Eq. (7.3.21) to give the particular solution for S, and the quadrature is
abbreviated by Q 1 (x, t).
The particular solution for R may be obtained from the equation
(y_3)b~c2_(a2_c2)2 }] c'Q'(y)
tR t + xR.,+ R
[
+ { 3(a' _ c')' + (y + 1) b~C2 S = a
7.3 Perturbation of a Centered Simple Wave Flow 91

i.e., from the ratios


dt dx dR
t x (Y-3)b~c.-(a.-c')'} c'Q'(y)
{
-R- 3(a'-c')' + (I' + l)b~c' S + a

From the first two ratios, one first integral is


xlt = h (7.3.26)
where h is constant. From the first and last ratios, the following diffe-
rential equation is obtained
d [tRJ = [ (3 - 1') b~c' + (a' - c')' ]
dt 3(a 2 _c 2)2 + (I' + 1) b~C2 X
(7.3.27)
L
2c't 2 dQ
1 (it.
a312 c 1'-1

To integrate Eq. (7.3.27), the first integral, Eq. (7.3.26) may be utilized,
i.e., the flow parameters are constant on the rectilinear characteristics.
This gives
(3 - 1') b~c' + (a 2 - C')2 ]
Rt = [ 3 (a' _ C')2 + (y + 1) b~c' Q 1 (ht, t) dt +
f
+[
(3 - y) b~C2 + (a 2 - C')']
3(a' - c2 )' + (y 1) b~c' +
2c 2 f Q(y) dt
+ (7.3.28)

f
a 3/2 cl/(1'-I) t§

2c' dQ(y)
+ a 31 'cl/(1' 1) t2 -
1
d- t - dt + constant.
Performing an integration by parts in the third term on the right-hand
side of Eq. (7.3.28) and using this result and the first integral, Eq. (7.3.26),
the final particular solution for R may be written as
1
2c 2 tQ(y) c 2 t2 (5-31') b~c'- (a'-c')']
Rt= ay
+-- [ ay c')' + (y + 1) b~c'
3 (a' -
X

X {f Q(y) dt}
.l
t" h = zit
...L [
I
(3 - y) b~c'
3 (a' _ c2 )'
+ (a 2 - c2 )' ]
+ (I' + 1) b2c2
2
X (7.3.29)

X {f Q1(ht, t) dtL=zJt
where the notation { h = zit denotes that the quadrature is to be carried
out with xlt constant; then, replacing h by xlt, the solution, Eq. (7.3.29),
is obtained.
The general solution for the non-isentropic perturbation of the
centered simple wave is given by Eq. (7.3.12) plus Eq. (7.3.25) and
Eq. (7.3.18) plus Eq. (7.3.29).
92 7. The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field

7.4 Perturbation of an Arbitrary Simple Wave


Suppose the wave is characterized by P= Po, a constant. Then
letting [xo (z), to (z)] be the parametric representation of a curvilinear
characteristic of the simple wave, the wave may be represented by
x = xo(z) + [Ut(z) + a(z)]T, t = to(z) + T, (7.4.1)
_ u,(z) + w(z) _ R
2 ,,-1 - po' (7.4.2)

The pertinent perturbation equations are Eqs. (7.1.29)-(7.1.30), and


because of Eq. (7.4.2), Eq. (7.1.30) reduces to

(7.4.3)

In order to solve Eq. (7.4.3), it is convenient to change from the inde-


pendent variables (x, t) to (z, T). The transformation is effectively the same
as carried out in section (5.4), and, with the definition that 5 (x, t)
= 51 (z, T), it follows that
J 5(1J = 5 11 - t~511: '

J5 t = [x~ + T(ui. + a')] 511:- (Ut + a)5u '


J=-2at~+T(ui.+a') .
From the definition of the characteristic parameters,

so that
, , [3(aS-C2)2+("+1)b~CS] ac'
Ul +a = b~C2 +
(a s _c 2)S (,,-l)c (7.4.4)

and the Jacobian may be written as


-
J- 2 ' [3(a S -C 2)2 + (,,+ l)b~CS] ac'.
(7.4.5)
- ato + b~c'+(aS-c2)S (,,-l)c'

Under the prescribed transformation of independent variables, Eq.(7.4.3)


becomes
-2 5 [ 3(al C2)2+ (" + 1) b~C2]
+
-
a lZ b~C2 + (as_cS)1 X
(7.4.6)
ac'. JTo
X (,,-l)c 5iT = - - 2 - '

Since the curves Po = constant ar~ given by eaT = constant or, more
conveniently, by
1
= constant,
~11

Y= C,,-l aTTT (7.4.7)


7.4 Perturbation of an Arbitrary Simple Wave 93

it is convenient to write
(7.4.8)

where Q is an arbitrary differentiable function. Consequently, the


solution of Eq. (7.4.6) may be obtained from the ratios
dz dSl
-2a= [3(a2-C2)2+(Y+l)b~C2] aTc' JT. (7.4.9)
b~c' + (a' - CO)'
--2-
(I' - 1) c

From the first two ratios of Eq. (7.4.9), the following first integral is
obtained
1
C 2 (1'-1) at't't = A, (7.4.10)
where A, is a constant or
(la't'2 = constant. (7.4.11)
Eq. (7.4.11) gives a convenient representation of the curvilinear cross-
characteristics of the simple wave. From the first and third ratios of
Eq. (7.4.9), the following differential equation is obtained
cD' (y) [3 (a' - c2)O + (I' + 1) blC'] dc-
2dS 1 = (y-l)a b~c2+(a'-c')'
(7.4.12)
2c'D'(y) dto
aT

In order to integrate Eq. (7.4.12), the previous first integral may be used,
and this gives a relation between z and 't', namely,
dz 2(y-l)c[b~c2 + (a 2 - c 2)']
"""dT = - T [3 (a 2 - C')2 + (I' + 1) b~C2J c' (7.4.13)

and from the definition of y


y = A,2/'t't.

Consequently, Eq. (7.4.12) may be written as

A6 dSl =
2 't'
21' [']
5/2 1'-1- dD A2 /T2
C dT
dt
0
+ 't'6/2 C 1'-1
21'
dQ
• (7.4.14)

Integrating Eq. (7.4.14), performing an integration by parts in the first


term and introducing Eq. (7.4.13) in the second gives
94 7. The Effects Due to an Oblique Applied Field

Performing an integration by parts in the last integral gives the following


first integral

5, ~ :. "'" ,t" [1'",]_ :. {f .Q [A'/<'] d [, ;.", Ttl},-


3y-l 2
4(y-I) y-l 2' [ b2c2 +(a 2 - c 2)2 ]
- A6 C ·rf Q [A, (to] 3 (a2 _ C2)2 + (y + 1) b~C2 X
(7.4.15)

X ~~ + 4(y; 1) {f Q[A,2/Tt] d X

X [c~:=f- Tt ;, { 3 (a 2 ~:2; ~2(;~2):) *2 }]} + constant. A

From the two first integrals, Eqs. (7.4.11) and (7.4.15), the solution of
Eq. (7.4.3) may be written as
1 2c 2 .Q(y) [ t~
SI=2(e a )'TF'[e aT2 ]+ ayr T-2(y-l)ce'X

{ b~C2 + (a 2 - C2) 2 } ] 2
X 3(a2_c2)2 + (y + 1) b~C2 - _-;O-2~-5- X
r' ay
{f
c y-l

X .Q [A'/"] d [/'" ,J 1< - 2 (y - I), ; X (7.4.16)

[b~C2 + (a 2 - C2)2] }]} _ 1., 2


X 3(a2 _c2)2 + (y + I)b~c2 A= 2(e a )2TF [eaT] +

2c 2.Q(y) [ ct~{ b~c2+(a2_c2)2 }]


+ ayr T-2(y-l)7 3(a2-c2)2+(y+I)b~c2 + (/)(Z,T)
where F is an arbitrary differentiable function, { lot has the same signi-
ficance as in Eq. (7.3.25) and (/) is used to denote the quadrature.
From the definition of the characteristic parameters of the base flow
and Eq. (7.4.4), it follows that
2 [b~C2 + (a 2 _ C2)2]
2ac' 3 (a 2 - C2)2 + (y + Ii b~C2
oc'" = (y _ I)c] = 2 (y _ 1) ctab~c2 + (a2 _ C2)2] • (7.4.17)
r - c'[3(a2_c2)2 + (y + I)b~c2]

Substitution of Eq. (7.4.17) into Eq. (7.1.29) gives the equation for R, viz.,
R t + (u1 + a)R", +
(7.4.18)
(y-3)b~c2-(a2-c2)2 }] 1 To
+ [ R+ 5 { 3(a2_c2)2 + (y + I)b~c2 -;=2
2 (y - 1) ct~ [b~C2 + (a 2 - C2)2]
where l' =T - c' [3 (a2 _ C2)2 + (y + 1) b~C2]
7.4 Perturbation of an Arbitrary Simple \Vave 95

The solution of Eq. (7.4.18) may be obtained from the ratios


dt dx
I U1 +a
dR
(7.4.19)
_!!.- _ [(y - 3) b~C2 - (a 2 - C2)2J 5 + Ir!... .
v [3(a2-c2)2+(y+l)b~c2Jv 2
The integral of the first two ratios of Eq. (7.4.19) has the rectilinear
characteristics for level curves. This first integral may be written as
z (x, t) = h (7.4.20)
where h is a constant, and the function is defined implicitly by
x - Xo (z) = [ttl (z) + a (z) ] [t - to (z) ] .
From the first and last ratios of Eq. (7.4.19), the following differential
equation is obtained
d [ (a2-c2)2_(y-3)b~c2 ] d [F(ear2)]
dt [v RJ = 3 (a 2 -
( 2)2 (y +
1) b~e2 dt (ear,!-++

I [ (a 2 - ( 2)2 - (y - 3) b~e2 ]
T 3(a2 _ C2)2 + (y + 1) b~e2 lP(h, t- to) + (7.4.21)
+[ (a2_C2)2_(Y_3)b~e2] 2e 2vQ(y) + e 2vQ'(y)
3(a 2 _e 2)2 (y 1) b~e2 +
ay(t-to) + a(t-to)
In order to integrate Eq. (7.4.21), the first integral Eq. (7.4.20) may be
used, i.e., z may be treated as a constant. This gives
_ [ (a2-C2)2_(Y_3)b~e2] F[ear2J
vR- 3(a 2 - c 2)2+(y+l)b2e 2
2
~
(e a ) 2
+
(a2_c2)2_ (y-3) b~c2 ] ~f Q(y)vdt
+[ 3(a2-c2)2+(y+l)b~c2 +
f lP(h, t- to) dt +
a y(t-to)
(7.4.22)
(a2 - C2)2 - (y - 3) b~C2 ]
+ [
3(a2 - c2)2 + (y + l)b~c2
e2
+----;;-
f Q'(y)vdt
t-to +constant.
After an integration by parts is performed in the last integral in Eq.
(7.4.22), the following solution is obtained from Eqs. (7.4.20) and (7.4.22)
(a2 - C2)2 - (y - 3) b~C2 ] F [ear2J
[
vR=G[zJ+ 3(a2_e2)2+(y+l)b~c2 (ea)t +
2e 2v Q (y) {2e 2 [ (a 2 - ( 2)2 - (y - 3) b~e2 ]
+ ay + a 3(a 2 _e 2)2 + (y + l)b~c2 X

X
f Q(y)vdt
+ 3(a2-c2)2+(y+l)b~e2
y(t-to)
[(a2_e2)2_(Y_3)b~C2]
X

X f lP(h, t- to) dt- 2;2 f ,Q(y) d[V/YJ}h=Z


where G is an arbitrary function and { h = Z has the same significance as
in Eq. (7.3.25).
96 References

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non-uniform cross-section. J. Fluid. Mech. 8, 625 (1960).
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New York: Interscience Publ. 1948.
[44] RIEMANN, B.: tl"ber die Fortpflanzung ebener Luftwellen von endlicher Schwin-
gungsweite. Gesammelte Mathematische Werke. Leipzig 1892.
a2 u
[45] COHN, H.: The Rieman Function for a x a y + H (x + y) u = O. Duke Math. J.
14,297 (1947).
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1. Plane waves. Phil. Mag. (7), 41, 1101 (1950).
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Appl. Math. 8, 137 (1950).
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magnetohydrodynamic flow. A.I.A.A.J. 1. 1191 (1963).
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hydrodynamic flow with oblique magnetic field. A.I.A.A.J. 1.219 (1962).
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Phys. Fluids 3. 631 (1960).
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J. Fluid Mech. 9. 481 (1960).
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ductor. Nature (Lond.) 165. 1020 (1950).
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waves in problems of cosmical aerodynamics. Int. Union Theor. Appl.
Mech. and Int. Astr. Union. Froc. Symposium. Paris 1949.
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Mod. Phys. 32. 830 (1960).
Appendix A
Principal Notation
x distance
t time
U particle velocity
c local speed of sound
s specific entropy
s* specific entropy at some reference state
(! density
13 = (0,0, B) magnetic induction
permeability
square of Alfven speed
P pressure
I' adiabatic index, ratio of specific heat at constant pressure c» and
at constant volume c.
A cross-sectional area of the channel
1
W = (b i + c2)2 = true speed of sound (the limiting case of a fast wave)
(0:, fl, ~) characteristic parameters
2(2-1')
1'-1
R =~+~
2 1'-1
5 U1 + w,
=-2 1'-1
E,F,G = arbitrary functions
a =~
(!l
T =~
PI
U shock velocity
v U-u
b
m
c
U
n
c
v
M
C
Wi
qB =7=1 + mB
_ I' + 1
()
- 1'-1

7*
Appendix B
The Characteristic Form of the Basic Equations
An outline of the Courant-Friedrichs method [43J for obtaining the
characteristic form of the basic equations (1.2.2)-(1.2.5) for the case of
no area variations will be given.
If Eqs. (1.2.2)-(1.2.5) are multiplied by~, A2 , Aa and A"" respectively,
the resulting equations added, and it is required then that the derivatives
of u, c, Band s enter only as directional derivatives with respect to e,
there results
2 AIC t + [2AIU + 2A.C] (B I)
1'-1 1'-1 1'-1 C.,=CE,
A2 H t + [~c + A2U + AaBJ u., = UE, (B2)

AaB t + [A2 ~ + Aa U ] B.,= BE, (B3)

(B4)
From (B 1)-(B4)
XE AIU + A.c AIC + A.u + A.B
IE = ,1.1 = A.
(B5)
A.b"IB + A.u A4u-A2c"ly(y -I)c.
A. ,1.4
The Eqs. (B 5) lead to the following three independent relations for non-
vanishing Aj (j = I, 2, 3, 4)
cA~ = cAr + AlAa B (B6)
Alb"
CAa=~' (B7)

A- - AIC (BS)
"'- y(y-I)c.·
If A2 = 0, then Eqs. (B5) lead to two relations when A", is arbitrary but
Al and Aa do not vanish. Thus
A2 = 0 , Al C + Aa B = 0 . (B 9)
The cases when Al and/or Aa and/or A", vanish lead to no new equations.
If the variable w 2 = b2 + c2 is introduced, then after eliminating ;: in
Appendix B 101

(B 6) by use of (B 7), the following two relations are obtained


A _ A,W
2- C ' (BlO)

(B 11)
Consequently, there are three basic types of relations for Aj which follow
from Eq. (B 5): (1) the Eqs. (B 7), (B 8) and (B lO); (2) the Eqs. (B 7),
(B 8) and (B 11); (3) the Eqs. (B 9) with }'4 arbitrary. From Eq. (B 5), it is
seen that if the curves of the above three families are parameterized by
{3 = variable, a; = variable, ~ = variable, respectively, then
x/3 = (u + w) t/3' (B 12)
x"=(u-w)t,,, (B 13)
x~ = ute. (B 14)
Thus Eqs. (B 12) and (B 13) are the C+ and C_ characteristics and (B 14)
are the streamlines.
Now, returning to Eqs. (1.2.2)-(1.2.5) and multiplying them respect-
ively by AI' A2 , A3 and A4 , adding them and using the relations (B 7), (B 8),
(B lO) and (B 12) gives
2 2 B/3 2cC/3 _~ _ _
(w-C)B+ WU /3+(y_l) y(y-l)c.-O. (BI5)
Similarly, from Eqs. (B7), (B8), (B 11) and (B 13), there results
2 2 B" ~_ c's" _
(w-C)B- wu"+y_l y(y-l)C.-O. (BI6)
Finally, by use of Eqs. (B9) and (B 14)
.!:!L _ 2ce
(B 17)
B (y-l)c = O.
The Eqs. (B 15)-(B 17) and
Se = 0 (B 18)
are the characteristic forms of Eqs. (1.2.2)-(1.2.5).
Appendix C

Tables are presented for the parameters


K (0', ~, n 1) ,
y (0', ~, n 1 ) ,
Z (0', ml> n 1)
for various values of the arguments.

Sigma K«(f, .0, .00) Y«(f, .0, .00) Z«(f, .0, .00)

1.10 .4 8 33 28 -.100901 .5 84 22 9
1.20 .47 14 84 - .206667 .6781 51
1.3 0 .4 6269 6 - .321260 .7 83955
1.40 .455940 -.448485 .90 44 2 5
1.5 0 .45 0 593 - .59 2 593 1.043 186
1.60 .4462 51 - .75 882 4 1. 20 50 75
1.70 .44 26 47 -.9540 74 1.39 67 21
1.80 ·439593 -1. 18 7 879 1. 62 747 2
1.90 .43 69 60 - 1.474016 1.9 1097 6
2.00 .434 6 53 -1. 833333 2. 26 79 86
2.10 .43 2601 - 2.299 0 99 2.731700
2.20 .43 0 753 - 2.928000 3-35 8753
2.3 0 .4 2906 7 - 3. 82 528 7 4. 2 54354
2.40 .4 27514 - 5. 211111 5. 6 3 862 5
2.5 0 .4 2606 9 - 7. 6 36 364 8.062433
2.60 .4 247 14 -12.97777 8 13.402 49 1
2.70 .4 2 3433 - 34·453333 34. 876 766
2.80 .4 2221 5 71.100000 -7 0 .6 77786
2.90 4 210 50 18.884848 - 18-463799
3.00 .41 99 29 11.333333 -10.913404
3. 10 .4188 4 8 8.3 0 5618 -7. 886770
3. 20 .41 7 800 6.673333 - 6.255534
3.3 0 .4167 80 5. 6 52 288 - 5. 2 355 0 7
3.40 .41 57 86 4.953 1 91 - 4.53740 5
3.5 0 .414 81 5 4·444444 - 4. 02 96 30
3. 60 .4 1 3 86 3 4. 0 5757 6 - 3. 6437 1 3
3.70 .412 9 29 3·753443 - 3.340 514
3. 80 .412011 3.5 0804 6 - 3. 0 960 35
Appendix C 103

K(u, .0, .00) Y(u, .0, .00) Z(u, .0, .00)


Sigma
I
3.9 0 .4 11107 3.3 0 58 52 - 2.894746
4.00 .410216 3. 1 36 364 - 2.726148
4. 10 .40 933 6 2.99 222 9 - 2.5 828 93
4. 20 .408 4 68 2. 868148 - 2.459680
4.3 0 .40 7610 2.760202 - 2.35259 2
4.40 .406 762 2.665432 - 2.25 8670
4.5 0 .40 59 22 2.5 81 560 - 2.175 638
4. 60 .40 50 91 2.506806 - 2.101716
4.70 .40 4 26 7 2-43975 8 - 2.03549 0
4. 80 .40 3451 2.379 279 - 1.975 828
4.90 .4026 4 2 2·324449 -1.9 2180 7
5.00 .4018 4 0 2.274510 - 1. 872670
5. 10 .4010 44 2. 2288 34 - 1. 82 779 0
5. 20 .4002 54 2. 186897 - 1.786642
5.3 0 .39947 1 2.1482 56 - 1.74 87 86
5.40 .39 86 93 2. 112 53 8 - 1.7 1 3 845
5· 50 .3979 21 2.079422 - 1.681501
5.60 .397 1 54 2.0486 34 - 1. 6 51479
5.7 0 .39 6 393 2. 01 9935 -1. 62 354 2
5. 80 .395 6 38 1.993 120 -1.5974 8 3
5.9 0 .394 88 7 1.9 6800 9 -1.573 122

Sigma K(u, .0,1.00) Y(u, .0,1.00) Z(u, .0,1.00)

1.10 2.901101 82. 61 3299 - 79.7121 97


1.20 1. 6 5193 1 26.3 612 77 - 24.70 934 6
1.3 0 1. 2 35 8 57 14·553953 - 13.3 18096
1.40 1. 02 79 12 9.9517 0 7 - 8.9 2 3795
1.5 0 .90 312 3 7. 606 594 - 6.70 3471
1.60 . 81 9 847 6. 216 509 - 5039 6662
1.70 .7 602 45 5.3 08 43 2 - 4.54 818 7
1.80 .7 1 5408 4. 673751 - 3.95 8 343
1.9 0 .680388 4. 20 75 89 - 3.5 27201
2.00 .65 2222 3. 8 51 977 - 3. 199755
2.10 . 62 902 7 3.57 24 86 - 2·943459
2.20 . 60 954 8 3-347475 - 2.7379 2 7
2.3 0 .59 29 21 3.162710 - 2.5 69789
2.40 .57 8 52 6 3.008468 - 2.4 2994 2
2.5 0 .5 6 59 12 2.877896 - 2.311984
2.60 .554741 2.766034 - 2. 2112 93
2.70 ·544754 2.669 209 - 2. 124455
2.80 .53575 1 2.5 84 643 - 2.048891
2.90 .5 2 7574 2.510201 -1.982626
3. 00 .5 20097 2·444216 -1.9 24 11 9
104 Appendix C

Sigma .0,1.00)
K{a, .0,1.00)
I Y{a, .0,1.00) Z{a,

3. 10 .5 1 32- 17 2..3 853 68 - 1. 872.15 1


3·2.0 .5 068 52- 2.·332.601 - 1.82.5749
3.3 0 .5 00 932. 2..2. 850 56 - 1.78412.4
3.40 ·495399 2..2.42.034 - 1.7466 34
3.5 0 .49 0 2. 0 7 2..2.02.95 6 -1.712.749
3. 60 .4 8 53 1 3 2.. 167341 -1.682.02.8
3.70 .4 8068 3 2..134788 -1. 6 54106
3. 80 .4762.86 2.. 10495 8 - 1.62.8672.
3.90 .472. 0 9 6 2..0775 64 -1. 60 5468
4.00 .4680 9 1 2..052.3 63 - 1.5 842.72.
4. 10 -4642.5 0 2..02.9148 -1.5 64 89 8
4·2.0 .460 554 2..007742. - 1.547 188
4.3 0 .45 6 9 88 1.9 8799 6 -1.53 1009
4.40 .45353 6 1.9 697 84 -1.5162.47
4.5 0 .45 018 5 1.952.997 - 1.5 02.812.
4. 60 .44692.2. 1.93755 0 - 1.49062.8
4.7 0 ·443734 1.92.3372. - 1.479 6 38
4. 80 .44060 9 1.9 104 11 - 1.469801
4.9 0 ·437535 1. 89 86 32- - 1.4610 97
5. 00 ·434497 1.88802.1 - 1.453 52.3
5. 10 .43 1 4 8 3 1. 87 8 58 7 -1.447 104
5·2.0 .42.8476 1. 870 36 9 - 1.4418 93
5.3 0 .42.545 6 1. 86 3445 - 1.4379 89
5.40 .42.2.398 1. 8 57954 - 1.43555 6
5.5 0 .41 92. 69 1. 85412.8 -1.434 8 59
5. 60 .4 1601 7 1.852.3 66 - 1.43 6 349
5.70 .412.5 60 1. 8 53401 -1.440841
5. 80 .408 734 1. 8 587 66 - 1.45 00 32-
5.9 0 .404118 1.872.690 - 1.468 572.

Sigma K{a, .0,2.00) Y{a, .0,2.00) Z{a, .0,2.00)

1.10 3.7 668 36 14. 66 7773 -10.9 00 937


1.2.0 2..100052. 8.001882. - 5.9 018 30
1.30 1.5441 47 5.7 80 2.33 - 4.2.3 608 7
1.40 1.2.6 582.7 4. 66 9574 - 3-40 3747
1.5 0 1. 0 9 84 60 4. 00 32.9 0 - 2..9 0 482.9
1.60 .9 86 516 3-559 194 - 2..572.678
1.70 .9 06 2. 0 5 3.2.42.072. - 2..335 866
1.80 .845 641 3.00432.2. -2..15 8681
1.9 0 .7982.2.4 2.. 81 95 0 3 - 2..02.12.80
2..00 .75999 6 2..67175 1 - 1.9 11 755
2..10 .72. 8442. 2..55 0972. - 1.82.2.53 0
2..2.0 .70188 7 2.-45 0 439 - 1.748552.
Appendix C 105

Sigma K(a, .0,2.00) Y(a, .0,2.00) Z(a, .0,2.00)

2.3 0 .67917 2 2.3 6 5493 - 1. 686 321


2.40 .6594 6 9 2.29 2810 - 1. 633341
2.5 0 .64 21 73 2.22995 1 -1.5 8 777 8
2.60 .626830 2.175 08 9 - 1.548260
2.70 . 61 30 9 2 2. 126827 -1.513735
2.80 .600691 2. 08 4 0 79 - 1.4833 88
2.90 .5 8 94 12 2.0459 89 - 1.45 6 577
3. 00 .579 086 2. 0118 74 - 1.4327 88
3. 10 .5 6 9575 1.9 81180 - 1.41160 5
3. 20 .5 60 7 66 1.95345 8 - 1.39 26 93
3.3 0 .5525 6 4 1.9 28 33 6 - 1.37577 2
3-4 0 .544 89 2 1.9 0 55 0 7 - 1.3 606 14
3.5 0 .537 68 5 1. 88 47 1 3 - 1.347 02 9
3. 60 .53 088 5 1. 86 574 1 -1.334 8 56
3.7 0 .5 24444 1. 84 84 08 - 1.3 2 39 64
3. 80 .5 18 32 2 1. 8 325 62 - 1.3 14 24 0
3.9 0 .5 12 4 80 1. 8180 74 - 1.3 0 5593
4. 00 .5 0688 9 1. 80 4 8 35 - 1. 2 97947
4. 10 .5 01 517 1.79 2 75 6 - 1. 2 9 12 39
4. 20 .49 6 34 1 1.7 81 7 62 - 1. 28 54 20
4.3 0 .49 1 337 1.77 1 79 1 - 1. 280454
4.4 0 -4 86 4 82 1.7 62 79 8 - 1. 276316
4.5 0 .4 81 757 1.75474 8 - 1. 2 7 2 99 1
4. 60 .47714 1 1.747 621 - 1. 2704 80
4.7 0 .47 2616 1.7414 12 - 1. 268 795
4. 80 .4 6816 3 1.73 6128 - 1. 26 7966
4.9 0 .4 6 37 60 1.73 1 799 - 1. 2680 39
5. 00 .4593 87 1.7 28 477 - 1. 26 9090
5. 10 .455 01 9 1.7 262 4 2 - 1. 2 7 122 3
5. 20 .45 0628 1.7 2 52 20 - 1. 274593
5.3 0 .44 61 77 1.7 2 5597 - 1.279419
5.4 0 .44 1622 1.7 2 7 6 53 - 1.286031
5.5 0 .43 68 97 1.73 18 30 - 1. 2 94933
5. 60 -4319 0 7 1.73 88 57 - 1.3 06 951
5.7 0 .4 26 4 88 1. 750053 - 1.3235 66
5. 80 .4 20 32 2 1. 768189 - 1.347867
5.9 0 .4 12 57 6 1. 8010 47 - 1.3 88471

Sigma K(a, 2.0, .00) Y(a, 2.0, .00) Z(a, 2.0, .00

1.10 47 280 5 -.095724 .5 68 529


1.20 .4439 12 - .177821 . 621 733
1.3 0 .4 1 514 8 -.244681 .659 82 9
1.40 .388282 - .3 002 79 .688560
106 Appendix C

Sigma K(a, 2.0, .00) Y(a, 2.0, .00) Z(a, 2.0, .00)

1.5 0 .3 644 14 -.35 0220 .714 6 34


1.60 .3439 6 3 - .399 610 ·743573
1.70 .3 26881 - .452 6 75 .77955 6
1.80 .3 128 7 8 - .513 12 7 .826005
1.90 .3 01 57 1 - .5 84721 .886292
2.00 .29 2 568 - .671879 .9 64446
2.10 . 28 55 0 7 - .780466 1. 06 597 2
2.20 . 2800 73 -.9 18 961 1.1990 34
2.3 0 .275997 -1.100 513 1.376 51 0
2.40 .273 0 54 - 1.346 9 87 1.620041
2.5 0 27 10 57 - 1.697868 1.9 68 9 2 5
2.60 . 26 9 8 50 - 2.23 2696 2.5 02 546
2.70 . 26 93 0 5 - 3. 1 39 297 3.408602
2.80 . 26 93 16 -4.99325 8 5. 262 574
2.90 . 26 979 6 -10.826010 11.095 806
3.00 .27 06 74 170 .4437 20 - 170.173 046
3. 10 .27 18 90 10.510868 - 10.23 8978
3. 20 .273396 5. 6 7799 8 - 5.404 602
3.3 0 .275 1 53 4. 00 90 37 - 3.733 88 4
3.40 .277129 3. 167739 - 2.890609
3.5 0 .2793 00 2.663 836 - 2.3 8453 6
3.60 . 2816 43 2.33 0 582 - 2.048939
3.70 . 28 4 145 2.095712 - 1.8115 67
3. 80 . 286 793 1.9 228 55 -1.63 6062
3.90 . 28 957 8 1.79 1 73 2 -1.5 021 53
4.00 .29 249 6 1. 69016 9 - 1.3976 74
4.10 .295543 1. 610 440 - 1.3 14 897
4. 20 .29 871 9 1.5474 28 -1.248709
4.3 0 .3 0202 7 1.4976 36 - 1.195 609
4.40 .3 0 5470 1.45 8621 -1.153 151
4.5 0 .3 0 90 55 1.4 286 55 -1.119599
4·60 .31 279 2 1.406 51 7 -1.093725
4.70 .3 1669 1 1.39 1 36 3 -1.074672
4·80 .3 207 6 5 1.3 826 38 - 1.061872
4.90 .325 0 33 1.3 800 31 - 1. 0 54999
5.00 .3 29513 1.3 8 3449 - 1. 0 5393 6
5.10 .334 228 1.393 00 3 -1.05 8774
5. 20 .339 208 1.40 902 5 -1.069817
503 0 .3444 84 1.43 209 6 -1.08 7612
5.40 .35 0095 1.46 3104 -1.113 009
5.5 0 .35 608 7 1.5 0 3333 -1.147246
5. 60 .3 62 515 1.554612 -1.192097
5.70 .3 6 9446 1. 61 955 1 - 1. 2 5010 5
5. 80 .37 695 8 1.701 9 27 -1.3 249 69
5.90 .3 8 51 50 1. 807348 -1.4 221 99
Appendix C 107

Sigma K(a, 2.0,1.00) Y(a, 2.0,1.00) Z(a, 2.0,1.00)

1.10 1. 89 802 5 - 4. 0 747 2 5 5.97 275°


1.20 1.°991 5° - 2.947422 4.°46 57 2
1.3° .816224 -2.652753 3.4 68 977
1.40 .664932 - 2.599 2°4 3. 26 4 1 36
1. 50 .5 6886 7 - 2.696442 3. 26 53°9
1.60 ·5°2344 - 2.94 697 2 3.4493 16
1.7° .4539 80 - 3.4°76 59 3. 8616 39
1.80 .4 1 7757 - 4. 22 75 8 3 4. 6 4534 1
1.9° ·39°100 - 5. 820 759 6. 2108 59
2.00 .3 68 7 11 -9.7 8995 8 10.15 8669
2.10 .352°33 - 33. 2 531 84 33. 60 52 18
2.20 .33 897 1 23· 58 3°45 - 23. 244°74
2.3 0 .32 87 27 8·793279 - 8.464552
2.40 .32°712 5.47 22 95 - 5. 1 515 8 3
2.5 0 .3 14479 4. 021 77 6 - 3.7 0 7 297
2.60 .3°968 5 3. 2162 47 - 2.9°6562
2.70 .3°606 3 2.7°81 53 - 2-40208 9
2.80 .303405 2.3 61261 - 2.°57856
2.9 0 ·3°1545 2.111331 - 1.8°9786
3. 00 .3°°351 1.924161 - 1.623810
3. 10 .2997 16 1.7799 0 4 - 1.480188
3. 20 .29955 6 1.666278 - 1.3 66722
3.30 .299801 1.57529° - 1. 2754 8 9
3.4 0 ·3°°397 1.5 01 534 - 1.201137
3.50 .3°12 9 8 1.44 12 3° - 1.139932
3. 60 .3°24 68 1.39 16 71 - 1. 08 9 2°3
3.7 0 .3°3 8 79 1.35 08 7 6 - 1. 0 4 6997
3. 80 .3°55°8 1.317373 - 1.01186 5
3·90 ·307337 1. 29°°57 -.9 82 7 20
4. 00 ·3°9353 1.268092 -.95 8 739
4. 10 .3 11 546 1. 2 508 48 -·9393°2
4. 20 .3 1 39 11 1. 2 37 8 57 -.9 2 394 6
4.3 0 .3 16 444 1. 228 779 -.9 12 335
4.4 0 .3 1 9 1 44 1. 22 33 80 -.9°42 35
4.50 .32 201 5 1.221522 -.8895 07
4.60 325 060 1. 22 31 55 -.89 8095
4.70 .32 8288 1. 228 311 - .9°002 3
4. 80 .33 1 7°8 1. 2 37 108 - .9°54°°
4.9 0 ·335333 1. 2497 60 -.9 1 44 27
5. 00 .339 1 79 1.266588 -.9 274°9
5. 10 .3432 6 5 1. 2880 45 - .9447 80
5. 20 .347 61 3 1.3 1474 6 - ,967133
5.3 0 .352 2 5° 1.347523 -.995 2 7 2
5.4 0 .357 2°7 1.3 8 7049 2 -1. 0 3028 5
5.5 0 .3 62 519 1.43 617 6 - 1.073 6 57
108 Appendix C

Sigma K(I1, 2.0,1.00) Y(I1, 2.0,1.00) Z(I1, 2.0,1.00)

5.60 .3 6812 3 1.495 677 - 1.12.7454


5.7 0 ·374359 1.5 68 9 86 - 1.194627
5. 80 .3 80 955 1. 660 544 -1. 2795 89
5.9 0 .3 87974 1.777559 -1.3 895 8 5

Sigma K(I1, 2.0,2.00) Y(I1, 2.0,2.00) Z(I1, 2.0,2.00)

1.10 2.696802 -102.755 872 10 5.45 26 74


1.20 1.484 26 9 4169.630076 - 4168.145807
1.3 0 1. 061 340 43.5 8026 4 - 42.51 89 2 5
1-40 .839 6 53 17. 8228 45 - 16.98319 2
1.5 0 .70168 9 10.182325 - 9.4 806 36
1.60 . 60 7 80 5 6.779 69 1 - 6.171886
1.70 .540 47 8 4.95 11 9 2 - 4.4 10 71 3
1.80 .490 54 1 3. 8 52 2 32 - 3.3 616 91
1.90 .45 26 31 3. 1 39 81 4 - 2.687182
2.00 .4 2 33 66 2.651 812. - 2. 128446
2.10 -400 49 6 2.3 0 31 8 3 -1.902686
2.20 .3 82 4 6 5 2.045748 - 1. 66 32 8 3
2.3 0 .3 6816 3 1. 8 50 539 - 1.482 376
2.40 .35 677 8 1. 699 280 - 1.34 2 502
2.5 0 .34770 5 1.579979 -1.232 274
2.60 .3404 86 1.4 845 0 5 -1.144020
2.70 .3347 6 7 1.40 7186 - 1. 0 7 24 19
2.80 .33 02 75 1.34397 2 - 1. 01 3697
2.90 .3 26 794 1. 291912. - .965118
3. 00 .3241 52 1. 24 881 5 -.9 24 66 3
3. 10 .3 2121 5 1. 21 30 36 -.890820
3. 20 .32 08 73 1. 18 33 1 7 - .862444
3.3 0 .3 200 37 1.15 86 93 -.83 86 55
3.40 .3 1 9 6 38 1.13 8414 - . 818 777
3.5 0 .3 1 961 7 1. 1218 99 - .802282
3. 60 .3 1 99 28 1.108692 - .7 88 764
3.70 .32 0 533 1. 0 9 844 2 -.777908
3. 80 .3 21 4 04 1. 0 908 7 8 -.7 69474
3.9 0 .3 12 515 1. 08 579 8 - .7 6 32 83
4. 00 .323 849 1. 08 30 59 - .759 210
4.10 .32539 1 1.082566 - .757175
4. 20 .327 1 31 1. 08 4 271 - .757140
4.3 0 .329 062 1.088170 -.759 107
4.40 .33 1181 1. 0 94 299 - .76 31 18
4.5 0 .3334 87 1. 102 743 - .769 2 55
4. 60 .3359 82 1.113 631 - .77764 8
4.7 0 .33 86 71 1.12.7148 - .7 88 477
Appendix C 109

Sigma K(a, 2.0,2.00) Y(a, 2.0,2.00) Z(a, 2.0,2.00)

4. 80 .34 1 560 1.14354 1 - .801982


4.9 0 .344 6 59 1. 16 31 37 -. 818 47 8
5. 00 .3479 81 1. 186 35 6 - .83 8375
5. 10 .35154 1 1. 21 3740 - . 8621 99
5. 20 ·355357 1. 245993 - .8906 36
5.3 0 .35945 0 1. 28 40 36 -.9 245 86
5.40 .3 6 384 2 1.3 2908 7 -.9 6 5245
5.5 0 .3 68 55 8 1.3 82 794 - 1.014236
5. 60 .373 621 1.44744 1 - 1.073 81 9
5.7 0 .379 0 43 1.52 6 30 9 - 1.147266
5. 80 .3 84799 1. 62 44 12 - 1. 2 39 61 3
5.9 0 .39 0 7 21 1.75 0 453 -1.359732

Sigma K(a, 100.0, .00) Y(a, 100.0, .00) Z(a, 100.0, .00)

1.10 .057614 - .0060 53 .06 366 7


1.20 .067018 -. 01 4593 .081611
1.3 0 .08 5539 - .02 922 3 .1147 6 3
1.40 . 102 574 -.049107 .151 681
1. 50 .117544 -.074272 .19181 5
1.60 .13 0 7 18 - .10 5174 .235 89 2
1.70 .14 24 19 -.142647 .285066
1.80 .15 29 18 -. 18 795 1 .34086 9
1.9 0 .1624 28 - .242903 .40 533 1
2.00 .17 111 7 - .31 0112 .4 8122 9
2.10 .179 120 - .39337 6 .57 2495
2.20 . 186 54 1 -.49 8 3 8 3 .6849 24
2.3 0 .193468 - .63399 2 . 82 74 60
2.40 .19997 1 - .814745 1. 01 47 16
2.5 0 .206110 - 1.066230 1.272340
2.60 .211934 - 1.4379 61 1.649 895
2.70 . 21 74 84 - 2.03977 8 2.257 262
2.80 .222797 - 3. 1 737 8 7 3-39 6 584
2.90 .22790 5 - 6.081884 6.3 0 97 89
3. 00 .232 8 35 - 29.37602 5 29.608860
3. 10 .237612 12.599 8 50 - 12.3 622 39
3. 20 .2422 57 5. 60 51 1 5 - 5-3 628 57
3.3 0 .24 6 79 1 3.77 11 7 1 - 3.5243 81
3.40 .25 12 31 2.9 297 22 - 2.67 8491
3· 50 .25559 6 2·449459 - 2.193 86 3
3. 60 .2599 00 2.141049 - 1.88115 0
3.7 0 . 26 4 1 59 1.9 27999 - 1. 66 3840
3. 80 . 268 3 89 1.773517 -1.5 0 5128
3.9 0 .27 260 3 1. 6 5773 8 - 1.3 8513 6
llO AppendixC

Sigma K(O', 100.0, .00) Y(O', 100.0, .00) Z(O', 100.0, .00)

4.00 .27681 5 1.5 69021 -1. 292206


4. 10 .281041 1.5 0011 5 -1. 219074
4. 20 . 28 5295 1.4462 9 2 -1. 160997
4.3 0 . 28 9593 1.4043 69 -1.114776
4.40 .29395 0 1.37 21 4 8 - 1. 0 7 81 9 8
4.5 0 .2983 83 1.348101 -1. 049718
4. 60 .3 02 911 1.33 1169 -1.028%5 8
4.7 0 .3 0 7554 1.3 206 39 - 1. 01 308 5
4. 80 .3 12 333 1.3 1607 2 -1. 00 3739
4.9 0 .3 1 7 273 1.3 17260 -.9999 86
5. 00 .3 22 4 02 1.3 24200 -1. 001 798
5. 10 .3 27749 1.3370 99 -1. 00 935 0
5. 20 .33335 0 1.35 6 3 89 - 1. 02 3038
5.3 0 .339 247 1.3 82766 - 1.0435 19
5.40 .3454 86 1.41 7261 -1. 0 71775
5.5 0 .35 2122 1.461 349 -1.10922 7
5.60 .359 22 4 1.5171 32 -1.1579 0 9
5.70 .366868 1.5 87626 -1. 22075 8
5. 80 .375 1 53 1. 6 77 2 51 -1.3 02098
5.9 0 .3 84 195 1.79 268 4 -1.408489

Sigma K(O', 100.0,1.00) Y(O', 100.0,1.00) Z(O', 100.0,1.00)

1.10 .062 959 - .0073 68 .070p8


1.20 .06 99 68 -.016209 . 0861 77
1.30 .08 7941 -.03 1471 .119412
1.40 . 104 6 53 -.05 2086 .15 6739
1.5 0 .1193 8 5 -.078086 .197471
1.60 .13 2 371 - . 1099 62 .24 2333
1.70 .1439 1 9 - .14 8 599 .29 2 518
1.80 .154288 - .19533 0 .349 618
1.90 . 16 368 7 -.25 2076 .41 57 64
2.00 .172281 - .3 2160 3 .493 88 4
2.10 .180200 -.40 7954 .5 881 54
2.20 . 18 7547 - .517 220 .7047 6 7
2.3 0 .194408 -.65 8959 .8533 67
2.40 .200852 - .849020 1.049 872
2.5 0 . 206 937 - 1.115 666 1.3 22602
2.60 .212711 -1.514621 1.7 2733 2
2.70 . 21821 7 - 2.173 02 3 2.39 12 4 0
2.80 .2234 89 - 3·457539 3.681028
2.90 . 228 559 -7. 0401 35 7. 2686 94
3. 00 .233454 - 68.641660 68.875 114
3. 10 .23 81 9 8 10.374816 - 10.13 6618
Appendix C 111

Sigma K(G, 100.0,1.00) Y(G, 100.0,1.00) Z (G, 100.0,1.00)

3·2.0 .2.42. 81 3 5. 1 72. 0 9 1 - 4·92.92.79


3.3 0 .2.473 18 3-592.9 6 5 - 3-345 647
3.40 .2.5 1 731 2..83331 8 - 2..5 81 58 7
3.5 0 .2.5 60 71 2..3 892.95 - 2..1332.2.4
3. 60 .2. 60 35 1 2.. 1000 54 - 1. 8 3970 3
3.7 0 .2. 645 88 1. 89 8 35 6 - 1. 633768
3. 80 .2.68 796 1. 751146 -1.482.35 0
3.9 0 .2.72.99 0 1. 64 0 30 4 - 1.3 6 73 14
4. 00 .2.7718 3 1.555 0 9 0 - 1.2.77907
4. 10 .2. 81 391 1.4 88 759 - 1.2.073 68
4·2.0 .2. 8 562.7 1.43 688 5 - 1.15 12.57
4.3 0 .2. 8 99 08 1.39 647 0 - 1.106 562.
4-4 0 .2.942.48 1.3 6 544 1 - 1. 0 7 11 93
4.5 0 .2.9 8666 1.342.354 - 1.043 688
4. 60 .3 0 31 79 1.32. 6 2. 0 4 - 1.02.3 02.6
4.7 0 .3 0 7 80 7 1. 31632.2. - 1.008516
4. 80 .312.57 1 1. 312.2.99 -·99972.7
4.9 0 .3 1 7497 1.3 1 394 6 -.99 644 8
5. 00 .32.2.611 1. 32.12.80 -.99 8668
5. 10 ·32.7945 1.33452 0 - 1.006 575
5·2.0 ·333532. 1. 354109 - 1.02.0 577
5.3 0 ·339414 1.3 80 751 - 1. 0 4 1 337
5.40 .345 6 39 1.4 1 54 86 - 1. 06 9847
5.5 0 ·352.2.61 1.459794 -1. 10 7534
5. 60 .359346 1.5 1 57 86 - 1.15 6440
5.7 0 .3 66 973 1. 586 4 8 7 - 1.2.19514
5. 80 .37523 8 1. 6 7 6 33 1 - 1.3 010 93
5.9 0 .3 842.55 1.792. 0 33 -1.40777 8

Sigma K(G, 100.0,2.00) Y(G. 100.0,2.00) Z(G, 100.0,2.00)

1.10 .0682.13 -.008818 .077030


1.2.0 .072. 873 -. 01 79 18 .09 0 79 1
1.3 0 .09 0 31 0 - .033 81 9 .12.412.9
1.40 . 106 7 0 5 - .0551 81 .161886
1. 50 .12.12.0 5 -.082.0 39 .2.032.43
1.60 .134007 - .11492.0 .2.4 8 92.7
1.70 .14540 3 - .154764 .3 0016 7
1.80 .155 645 -.2.02.9 80 .35 86 2.5
1.9 0 . 16 493 6 -.2.61602. .42. 6 537
2..00 .17343 6 - .3335 6 3 .5 06 99 8
2..10 .1812.71 -·42.3173 . 60 4445
2..2.0 . 188 545 -.53 69 6 5 .72.551 1
2..3 0 .195341 -. 68 52.71 .880612.
112 AppendixC

Sigma K(u, 100.0,2.00) Y(u, 100.0,2.00) Z(u, 100.0,2.00)

2.-40 .2.0172.6 - .885404 1. 08 71 30


2..5 0 .2. 0 775 8 - 1.168683 1.376440
2..60 .2.13484 - 1.598102. 1.8115 86
2..70 .2.1 8945 - 2..32.1 831 2..540776
2..80 .2.2.4177 - 3.79 0 4 19 4. 01 459 6
2..90 .2.2.92.09 - 8.33 0862. 8.5 600 71
3. 00 .2.3406 9 2.17.44 8 2.99 - 2.17.2.142.3 0
3. 10 .2.3 8781 8.837337 -8.59 8 55 6
3·2.0 .2.433 6 5 4.806003 - 4.5 62.637
3.3 0 .2.47842. 3.432. 892. - 3.18 50 50
3.40 .2.52.2.3 0 2..744 1 53 - 2..49192.3
3.5 0 .2.5 6 544 2.·332.680 - 2..0761 37
3. 60 .2.60801 2..061036 -1.8002.35
3.70 .2.6 501 5 1. 86 99 1 3 -1. 604898
3. 80 .2.692.02. 1.72.955 1 -1.460348
3.90 .2.73376 1.62.3395 - 1.35 001 9
4. 00 .2.7755 0 1. 5415 2.8 - 1.2.6397 8
4. 10 .2. 81 739 1-4776 70 - 1.19593 0
4·2.0 .2. 8 595 8 1.42.76 74 -1.141715
4.3 0 .2.902.2.2. 1.3 88 7 1 9 - 1. 0 9 8497
4.40 .2.94546 1.35 88 49 - 1.0643 03
4.5 0 .2.9 894 8 1.33 66 95 -1. 0 37747
4. 60 .3 0 3446 1.32.13 0 9 - 1.017863
4.7 0 .3 080 59 1.312.060 -1. 004002.
4. 80 .3 1 2. 80 9 1.3 08 568 - ·995759
4.9 0 .3 1772.1 1.310666 -.992.946
5. 00 ·32.2.82.1 1.3 18 38 7 - .9955 66
5. 10 .32. 81 4 0 1.3319 6 3 - 1.003 82.3
5·2.0 .3337 14 1.35 18 4 6 -1.0181 33
5.3 0 ·339582. 1.37 8 751 -1. 0 39 16 9
5.40 ·345792. 1.41372.1 -1.06792.9
5.5 0 ·352.399 1.45 82.48 - 1.10 5849
5.60 .359468 1.5 14446 - 1.154978
5.70 .3 6 70 7 8 1.5 8 5352. -1.2.182.74
5. 80 ·37532.3 1. 67541 5 - 1.3 00092.
5.90 .3 843 1 5 1.79 1 384 -1.40 706 9
Appendix D

The tables refer to the evaluation of

1[(11
(]

F (J m = 2 -1) +miy[311-1-6I1x+3(1 +(1)X 2 -2X 3J /2]dx


o (, 1) (11 - x) (x -1) [11 + +
1 ymi(x -1)2/2J J(,(x, m 1 ) •
1.01

The numbers in parentheses refer to the power of ten by which each


entry is to be multiplied.

a Fo (a, 0) Fo (a, 1) a Fo (a, 2) Fo (a, 3)

1.2 6.65000 (0) 6.66275 (0) 1.2 6.70180 (0) 6.76868 (0)
1.4 1.36500 (1) 1.37038 (1) 1.4 1.38736 (1) 1.41736 (1)
1.6 2.06500 (1) 2.07765 (1) 1.6 2.11842 (1) 2.18986 (1)
1.8 2.76500 (1) 2.78834 (1) 1.8 2.86366 (1) 2.98974 (1)
2.0 3-46500 (1) 3.50263 (1) 2.0 3.62160 (1) 3.80758 (1)

2.2 4.16500 (1) 4.22054 (1) 2.2 4.38964 (1) 4.63410 (1)
2·4 4.86500 (1) 4.94203 (1) 2·4 p6488 (1) 5-46244 (1)
2.6 5.56500 (1) 5.66694 (1) 2.6 5.94468 (1) 6.28849 (1)
2.8 6.26500 (1) 6.39504 (1) 2.8 6.72696 (1) 7.11011 (1)
3. 0 6.96500 (1) 7.12610 (1) 3. 0 7.51020 (1) 7.92647 (1)

3. 2 7.66500 (1) 7.85988 (1) 3. 2 8.29343 (1) 8.73751 (1)


3·4 8.36500 (1) 8.59614 (1) 3·4 9.07609 (1) 9.54358 (1)
3. 6 9.06500 (1) 9.33473 (1) 3. 6 9.85792 (1) 1.03452 (2)
3. 8 9.76500 (1) 1.00755 (2) 3. 8 1.06390 (2) 1.11432 (2)
4. 0 1.04650 (2) 1.08185 (2) 4. 0 1.14194 (2) 1.19383 (2)

4. 2 1.11650 (2) 1.15638 (2) 4. 2 1.22000 (2) 1.27314 (2)


4·4 1.18650 (2) 1.23116 (2) 4·4 1.29803 (2) 1.35234 (2)
4. 6 1.25650 (2) 1.30623 (2) 4. 6 1.37623 (2) 1.43155 (2)
4. 8 1.32650 (2) 1.38167 (2) 4. 8 1.45467 (2) 1.51093 (2)
5. 0 1.39650 (2) 1.45761 (2) 5. 0 1.53355 (2) 1.59070 (2)

5. 2 1.46500 (2) 1.53426 (2) 5. 2 1.61318 (2) 1.67117 (2)


5·4 1.53650 (2) 1.61206 (2) 5·4 1.69410 (2) 1.75300 (2)
5. 6 1.60650 (2) 1.69194 (2) 5. 6 1.77755 (2) 1.83738 (2)
5. 8 1.67650 (2) 1.77700 (2) 5. 8 1.86748 (2) 1.92857 (2)
Springer Tracts, Vol. 1: Gundersen 8
Appendix E

Tables are presented for the parameters


Ke(a, m1) ,

K.(a, m1)
and the functions
Fe (a, m1 ) ,

F.(a, m1) •

Sigma K. (G, .0) K, (G, .0) F. (G, .0) F, (G, .0)

1.10 ·494525 .483770 4. 81 36 53 4. 86043 1


1.2.0 .4 88 343 .473 108 6.2. 6618 7 6·352.881
1.3 0 .4 81 72.3 .46 5952. 7. 14535 8 7.2.61 52.9
1.40 .474 84 6 .46102.4 7.79 16 76 7.92. 8761
1.5 0 .46 7 8 36 .4575 16 8.3 116 39 8.462.5 64
1.60 .4 60 7 80 .45490 5 8.752.6 52. 8.9115 13
1.70 .45373 8 .452. 849 9.14000 5 9.3 018 2.0
1.80 .446 754 .45 112.2. 9.4 88811 9. 64932.5
1.90 .439 8 58 ·449577 9.808841 9.9 6437 6
2..00 .433 0 71 .44 811 3 10.106796 10·2.5412.7
2..10 .42.6408 .44666 7 10.3 87487 10.52375 1
2..2.0 .419 879 .445 1 97 10.654499 10·77712.0
2..3 0 .41 349 0 .443 6 77 10.9 10 59 1 11.0172.19
2.·40 .40 72.45 .442.092. 11.157946 11.2.46410
2..5 0 .4011 4 6 .440433 11.39 8334 11.466600
2..60 .395 1 93 .43 86 99 11.6332.2.6 11.6793 6 5
2..70 .3 893 84 .43 6888 11. 86 3870 11.88602.9
2..80 .3 8 37 19 .435 00 5 12..091348 12..08772.4
2..90 .37 81 94 .433 0 52. 12..316618 12..2.8 5441
3. 00 .372.807 .43 10 34 12..540 547 12..480056
3. 10 .3 6 7555 .42. 895 8 12..76 393 6 12..672.3 61
3·2.0 .3 6 2.434 ·42.682.8 12..9 87540 12..863088
3.3 0 ·357442. .42.4649 13·2.12.086 13.0 52.92.0
3.40 ·352573 ·42.2.42.7 13.43 82.87 13·2.42.512.
3.5 0 .34782.6 ·42.0168 13.666860 13.432.5 0 3
3. 60 .343 1 9 6 .41 7 876 13.89853 6 13.62.352.5
3.70 .33 8680 .41 5555 14. 1 340 75 13·8162.2.3
3·80 ·3342.74 .4132.10 14·3742.80 14.011 2.60
Appendix E 115

Sigma Ke (a, .0) K, (a, .0) Fe (a, .0) F, (a, .0)

3.9 0 ·329975 .410846 14.620019 14. 2°9334


4. 00 ·325779 .4°846 5 14. 8 7 22 38 14.4111 93
4. 10 .3 2168 4 .4°6°71 15. 1 319 8 5 14.617 6 52
4. 20 .317 68 5 -4 0 366 7 15.4 00 44 2 14. 82 9 61 5
4·3° .3137 81 .4°12 57 15. 6 7 895 6 15.°48100
4.4 0 .3°9968 .39 88 43 15.9 6 9°86 15. 274 27 1
4.5 0 .3°62 43 .39 6427 16.272662 15.5°948 3
4. 60 ·3°26°3 ·394°11 16.591862 15·755339
4.7 0 .299°46 .39 1 59 8 16.9 2932 1 16.01 3764
4. 80 .2955 6 9 .3 89 1 9 0 17.288280 16. 28 711 7
4.9 0 .29 216 9 i .3 86 788 17.672801 16.578342
5. 00 . 2888 45 .3 84393 18.088080 16.891199
i
5. 10 . 28 5593 I .3 82 °°7 18.54 0 93 8 17. 2 3°6°7
5. 20 .282412
I

I .379 6 32 19.°4°58 3 17. 60 32 01


5·30 .279 299 I
.377 268 19· 599 89 8 18.0182 52
5-4° .27 62 53 .3749 1 7 20.237726 18.4 8 93 06
5.5 0 .273 271 ! .37 2 57 8 20.9 83248 19·°37332
5. 60 .27°35 1 i .37 02 54 21. 88 532 1 19. 6 974 24
5.7 0 . 26 749 2 I
I .3 6 7945 23·°35515 20.535341
5. 80 . 26 4 6 9 1 .3 6 56 51 24. 6 3944 6 21. 6 9 8 7 19
5.9 0 . 261 94 8 .3 6 3373 27.354 1 4 6 23. 6 59 28 7
5·99 .25952 6 .3 61 337 3 6 .5 64343 3°. 2818 99
6.00 .259 2 59 .3 61111

Sigma Ke (a, 1.0) K, (a, 1.0) Fe (a, 1.0) F, (a, 1.0)


I I I
1.10 .49 1 34 2 .47935 6 4. 82 53 88 4.878160
1.20 .4 8°°93 .4 6 3116 6.3 00004 6.39 8 577
1.3° .4 6 74 18 ·4495°1 7. 2101 55 7·343951
1.4° .454 160 ·437543 7. 8 95 8 36 8.05 6 55 8
1. 50 .440 9 10 .4 26 74 1 8.463102 8.644147
1.60 .428064 .4 168 4 8 8.95 895 1 9. 1 5497 2
1.7° .41 5868 .4 0 775 2 9.4°828 7 9. 61 4 86 3
1.80 .4°446 5 ·3994°2 9. 82 584 2 10.°392 39
1.9° .3939 1 5 .39 1 77 1 10.221°°7 10-43799 8
2.00 .3 84 2 31 .3 84 84° 10.600098 10. 817829
2.10 .3753 89 .37 8 58 3 10.9 6 7539 11.18 3429
2.20 .3 6 7344 .37 2973 11.326 526 11.53 81 91
2.3 0 .3 6°°4° .3 6 7973 11. 6 794 27 11.884622
2.40 .3534 1 5 .3 6 3547 12.028035 12.22461 3
2.5 0 ·3474°8 .359 6 52 12·373737 12.559 611
2.60 .34 1 95 6 .35 62 49 12.717 62 5 12.890744
2.70 .337°°1 ·353297 13. 06 °5 80 13. 218 9°8
2.80 .3324 88 .35°75 6 13-40 332 8 13.544 82 4
8*
116 Appendix E

Sigma Kc (a, 1.0)


I K. (a, 1.0) Fe (a, 1.0) F, (a, 1.0)

2.90 .32 8 36 7 .34 8 589 13.74 64 86 13. 86 9 0 9 2


3. 00 ·324593 .34 6 7 61 14. 0 9 0 597 14. 1 9 2221
3. 10 .32 112 4 .345240 14-43 61 53 14.514 662
3. 20 .3179 21 ·343994 14.7 8 361 9 I 14. 836824
3.3 0 .3 14952 .34 2997 15. 1 3345 0 15. 1 59 0 95
3.40 .3 1218 5 .34 222 4 15.486108 15.4818 57
3.5 0 .3 0 9593 .34 16 53 15. 84 20 75 15. 80 5499
3. 60 .3 0 7 1 53 .341262 16.201867 16.13 04 29
3.7 0 .3 0 4 84 1 .34 10 33 16.5 66047 16-457 08 4
3. 80 .3 026 39 .340 951 16.935 2 39 16.7 8 5943
3.9 0 .3 00 52 8 .34 1001 17.310148 17. 11 7537
4. 00 .29 8494 .34116 9 17. 6 9 1 57 0 17.45 24 68
4. 10 .29 6 52 2 ·341445 18.080424 17.79 1 4 21
4. 20 .294 600 .34 181 9 18.47777 1 18.1351 82
4.3 0 .29 27 16 .34 228 3 18.884853 I 18.484669
4.4 0 .290860 .34 282 9 19.3 0 31 36 18.840 959
4.5 0 . 28 9 02 3 .34345 1 19.7343 66 19. 20 5331
4. 60 . 28 7 197 ·344145 20.180650 19.57932 2
4.7 0 I
. 28 5374 .3449 06 20.64455 8 19.964 80 4
4. 80 . 28 354 6 ·345733 21. 129"-77 20.3 6408 9
4.9 0 . 281 7 0 9 .34 662 3 21. 638821 20.7 80084
5. 00 .2798 55 .34757 6 22.17 8348 21.216 517
5. 10 .2779 80 .34 8 59 1 22.754643 21. 678284
5. 20 .276077 .349 6 7 0 23.37 688 7 22.17 2002
5.3 0 .274142 .35 081 5 24. 0 57940 22.706927
5-40 .27 216 9 .352 02 9 24.816625 23. 29 6 59 8
5.5 0 .27 01 54 ·353317 25. 682109 23.9 61 979
5. 60 .268091 .354 68 5 26.70 3240 24.73 816 3
5.7 0 . 26 597 6 .35 61 38 27.97 1 57 8 25. 6 90 9 10
5. 80 . 26 380 3 .357 68 7 29. 6 9 273 6 26.9 67860
5.9 0 .261566 .359340 32·523743 29. 0 4 0 75 1
5·99 .259493 .3 60 9 28 41. 8 37 82 9 35.7 6 339 2
6.00 .259 2 59 .3 61111

Sigma Kc (a, 2.0) K. (a, 2.0) Fe (a, 2.0) F, (a, 2.0)


I
1.10 .486218 ·473433 4. 84439 1 4.9 0122 5
1.20 .4 64 84 2 .446201 6.3 66 9 0 5 6.47 602 3
1.3 0 .440 7 81 .41 97 1 4 7.35 068 4 7.5 0 519 2
1.40 .417 226 .3953 8 9 8.13327 2 8.329 1 38
1. 50 .395 8 53 .374088 8.818170 9. 0 52954
1.60 .377 297 .35 60 9 1 9.449 649 9.7 216 7 6
1.7 0 .3 6161 3 .34 128 7 10.04973 0 10.3575 60
1.80 .34 8 57 1 ·329359 10.63 0190 10.97 22 91
Appendix E 117

Sigma Ke (a, 2.0) K. (a, 2.0) Fe (a, 2.0) F. (a, 2.0)


I
1.9° .337 84 1 .3 1 99 2 5 11.1974 8 3 11. 572064
2.00 .3 29°76 .3 126 °3 11.755 110 12.16°°43
2.10 .32 1 954 .3°7°46 12.3°488 9 12.737692
2.20 .31 61 9° .3°295 2 12.847676 13.3°5548
2.3 0 .3 11 53 8 .3°006 4 13.3 8 3811 13. 86 36 74
2.40 .3°7791 .29 8166 13.9 1 33 80 14.4 11 939
2.5 0 i
·3°4777 .297°79 14-43 6 379 14.95 0 175
2.60 . 302 34 8 29 66 52 1495
. 2810 1 547
. 82 7 1
2.7 0 .3°°38 5 .29 6761 15.4 62 73 1 15.99 62 14
2.80 .29 8 7 88 .2973°3 15.966280 16.5 04108
2.9 0 .297474 .29 81 92 16.463690 17.002171
3. 00 .29 6 375 .299359 16,955 282 17·49°73°
3. 10 .295435 .3 00 744 17.4414 66 17·97°208
3. 20 .294 6 °9 ·3°23°1 17.9 22 732 18.441110
3.3 0 .293 860 .3 0 399 0 18.399 64 2 18,9°4°1 3
3.40 .293 1 57 .3°5780 18.8728 31 19.35955 6
3· 50 .29 247 6 .3°76 44 19.34 2997 19. 808 43 1
3. 60 .291797 .3°95 62 19. 810 9 0 4 20.25 1 382
3·7° .29 11 °4 .3 11 517 20.2773 87 20. 68 9199
3. 80 .29°3 86 ·313497 20·743352 21.1227 23
3.9 0 . 28 9 6 31 .3 1 549 1 21.2°978 7 21.55 28 50
4. 00 .288832 .31749 2 21. 6 77777 21.9 80 539
4. 10 . 28 79 8 3 ·319495 22.14 852 1 22·4°6821
4. 20 .28 7°80 .3 21 497 22. 62 3354 22.83 2821
4.3 0 .286118 ·323495 23. 1°3782 23. 2 59777
4.4 0 . 28 5°95 .3 2 54 8 9 23.59 1 52 3 23. 68 9 0 73
4.5 0 . 28 4°°9 .3274 81 24. 08 85 63 24. 122277
4. 60 . 2828 59 ·329473 24.597 2 39 24.561200
4.7 0 .281642 .33 1 4 6 7 25. 120 335 25.°°797°
4. 80 .28°35 8 .3334 68 25. 661242 25.4 6 514°
4.9 0 .279 00 7 .3354 81 26.224164 25.935 84 1
5. 00 .2775 86 ·337513 26. 81443 8 26.424012
5. 10 .27 6°96 .33957 0 27·439°16 26,934745
5. 20 .274535 .34 1660 28. 10 7 2 35 27.474 8 39
503° .27 29°1 ·343795 28.832 101 28.0537 20
5.40 .271194 .3459 8 3 29. 6 32573 28. 68 5084
5.5 0 . 26 94 11 .34 82 39 3°·537945 29.39°°41
5. 60 . 26 755° .35°576 31. 597 182 3°.2°382 3
5.7 0 . 26 56°9 ·353°11 32.9°1955 31.19 2 314
5. 80 . 26 35 82 .3555 6 3 34. 6 57979 32.5 0 3273
5.9 0 .261468 .35 82 55 37.5 22 379 34. 608 54 6
5·99 .2594 84 .3 608 17 4 6 . 86 5332 41. 359°25
6.00 .259 2 59 .3 61111
118 Appendix E

Sigma K. (0', 3.0) K, (0', 3.0) F. (0', 3.0) F, (0', 3.0)

1.10 ·4793°7 .466114 4. 870 7 2 5 4.9 29794


1.20 .4445 66 .4 245 20 6.4 66 91 9 6.5 8 557 2
1.3° .4°82 59 .3 8435 1 7.5 6 58 56 7.7445 83
1.4° .37 6 511 .35°5°3 8.49 8753 8.7412 38
1.5° ·35°954 .3240 52 9.3 61 7 24 9. 67 22 45
1.60 .33 1222 .3°426 5 10.190973 10.5728 53
1.7° .3 16 361 . 28 99 1 9 11.000428 11.455 261
1.80 .3°53 83 .279 844 11.7944 12 12.3218 36
1.9° .297432 .273°66 12.573 0 75 13. 1 7°893
2.00 .291808 .268816 13·335°18 13.9995 1 5
2.10 . 28 795 6 . 266 49 6 14.°78 589 14. 8049 04
2.20 . 28 543 8 . 26 5644 14. 802 470 15.5 849 6 3
2.3 0 . 28 39 10 . 26 59°2 15.5°5 88 9 16.33 845 8
2.40 . 28 31°4 . 266 994 16.1886 37 17. 06 49 64
2·5° .282815 . 268 7°6 16.85 0989 17.7647 24
2.60 .282883 .27°871 17.493 6°9 18.43 8494
2·7° . 28 31 86 .2733 63 18.117440 19. 08 73 88
2.80 . 28 36 3° .27608 3 18.72361 7 19.7 12 7 60
2·9° . 28 4 144 .27 8954 19.3 1 34°1 20.316108
3. 00 . 28 4 6 75 .281918 19. 88812 3 20.899001
3.10 . 28 51 8 5 . 28 493 1 20·449149 21.4 6 3033
3. 20 . 28 5643 . 28 7959 20.997 8 54 22.°°9786
3·3° .286028 .29°976 21. 53 5612 22·54°818
3.40 . 286 326 .2939 6 5 22.063784 23.°57644
3·5° .286526 .296911 22.5 83723 23.5 61 740
3. 60 .286622 .299 8°7 23.°96 773 24. 0 5454 2
3·7° .286610 .3°26 45 23.604282 24.53745 1
3. 80 . 286 4 89 .3 0 54 24 24.1°7611 25. 011848
3·9° .286258 .3°81 4 1 24. 6081 49 25.479 100
4.00 . 28 59 18 .3 1°799 25. 10 7333 25.94°5 80
4. 10 . 28 547 1 .3 1 339 8 25. 606674 26.397686
4. 20 . 28 49 1 9 .3 1 5942 26. 10 7779 26.851 862
4.3 0 . 28 4 26 4 .3 18 43 6 26. 612 397 27.3°4628
4.4 0 . 28 351° ·32°883 27. 122 45 8 27.757 61 5
4.5 0 . 2826 57 .32329 1 27. 64 01 39 28.212610
4. 60 . 281 711 .325 666 28. 16 7939 28.671616
4.7 0 .280671 .32 801 5 28.708 793 29. 1 3693 1
4. 80 .27954 2 .33 0 345 29.266221 29. 6112 58
4·9° .27 832 5 .33 2666 29. 844544 3°.°9786 3
5.00 .277°21 .3349 87 30 -449 202 30.600802
5. 10 .275 632 .3373 18 31. 08 7 2 38 31. 12 5273
5. 20 .274159 .339 671 31.7 680 74 31. 6 7 816 7
5.3 0 .272601 .34 20 57 32.5°4787 32.268996
5.40 .27°960 .34449 1 33-3 16 4 0 3 32.9 11 53 1
5.5 0 . 26 9 2 33 .34 69 87 34. 2 32 275 33. 626 94 8
Appendix E 119

Sigma K, (a, 3.0) K. (a, 3.0) F, (a, 3.0) F. (a, 3.0)

5. 60 . 26 74 21 .3495 64 ,5.,°14 22 34-45°5,9


5.7 0 . 26 55 20 .,52 24° ,6.61 55 6, ,5.44 82 4,
5. 80 .26,529 .,55°,9 ,8., 80455 ,6.767868
5.9 0 . 261 444 .,579 86 41. 2 532 62 ,8.881,0,
5·99 .2594 82 ., 60 790 5°.6°3417 45. 6,873 0
6.00 .259 2 59 .,61111
MATHEMATICS