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APB 001 P.

1 Audi - Brand & Product

APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Learning objectives

At the end of the training participants will be familiar with the following topics:

 Audi Tradition
 Production locations
 The engines used by Audi and their technical features.
 The gearboxes used by Audi
 Running Gear - the pneumatic and electronic suspension systems.
 Vehicle dynamic control systems-the vehicle stabilization systems used by Audi.
 All wheel drive-The four-wheel drive systems used by Audi.
 The driver assist systems.
 The air conditioning systems.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi AG Tradition

APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi Tradition

The "Audi Tradition" team, in conjunction with traditional companies Auto Union GmbH and NSU GmbH,
maintains and presents the extensive and wide-branching history of Audi.

We put the exciting history of the six Audi predecessor brands into context with today's brand.

By highlighting the fascination of our classic and vintage cars we help to emotionalise the Audi brand and
strengthen customer relations. We participate in many classic and vintage car rallies and historic races, in
addition to organising shows and issuing publications, and we also have technical responsibility for the new
Audi museum ("museum mobile") in Ingolstadt

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

The four rings

1873 1885 1899 1907 1909


NSU Wanderer Horch DKW Audi

1960
NSU 1932 AUTO UNION AG
Motorenwerke AG 1949 AUTO UNION GmbH
The brands Wanderer, Horch, DKW and Audi
amalgamated in 1932 to form Auto Union AG.

1969 AUDI NSU AUTO UNION AG In 1969, Auto Union GmbH and NSU
Motorenwerke AG became AUDI NSU Auto UNION
GmbH, being renamed AUDI AG in 1985.
In 1909, company founder August Horch parted

1985 AUDI AG company with the Horch works which he founded.


In 1909, he established the Audi works. Audi is the
5 Latin translation of the name Horch.

APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi AG Locations

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Key affiliated companies

AUDI AG
AUDI HUNGARIA MOTOR Kft.

quattro GmbH

Audi Brussels S.A./N.V.

Audi Manufacturing Facility


Bratislava
Audi Manufacturing Facility
Aurangabad
Automobili Lamborghini Holding
S.p.A
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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Locations

Audi Manufacturing Facility FAW-VW - Audi


Audi Brussels Bratislava
Brussels Changchun
Audi Hungaria
AUDI AG Ingolstadt Györ
Neckarsulm
Lamborghini
Group Audi Manufacturing Facility
Sant‘Agata Aurangabad
Bolognese

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Ingolstadt facility

APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Ingolstadt, Germany

 Company headquarters

 approx. 2 mill. m2 of floor space

 Approx. 31,276 employees in 2006

 Affiliated logistics and delivery centre

 Freight transport centre

 Production in 2006: 537,047 vehicles:

 69,813 units of the Audi A3

 159,581 units of the Audi A3 Sportback

 165,139 units of the Audi A4

 142,027 units of the A4 Avant

 TT Coupé and TT Roadster body construction

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Neckarsulm facility

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Neckarsulm, Germany

 Headquarters of quattro GmbH: Development of RS models

 Aluminium and Lightweight Construction Centre (ASF -Audi Space Frame) for A8, R8
and Lamborghini Gallardo)

 S Line and customisation of cars

 951,799 m2 of floor space

 Approx. 13,425 employees in 2006

 Affiliated logistics and delivery centre

 "Bad Friedrichshall Business and Industrial Park"

 More than 260,000 cars were produced in 2006:

 221,331 units of the Audi A6 and A6 Avant

 11,838 units of the A6 allroad quattro

 22,468 units of the Audi A8

 164 units of the Audi R8 since end 2006

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Brussels facility

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Brussels, Belgium

 Site area: 540,000 square metres


 Approx. 2200 employees in 2006
 Affiliated logistics and delivery centre "Automotive Park"
 Production of the A3, VW Golf (until summer 2007) and VW Polo by Audi
 From 2007: production of 84,000 units p.a. of the Audi A3 Sportback & VW Polo models

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Györ facility

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Györ, Hungary

 Engine competency and development centre


 1,659,163 m2 of floor space
 Approx. 5,000 employees in 2006
 Production of R4, V6 and V8 engines
 TT Coupé and TT Roadster assembly
 Production in 2006:
 23,675 cars
 1,893,600 engines, including:
 R4 petrol engines
 R4 diesel engines
 V6 petrol/diesel engines
 V8 petrol/diesel engines

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Bratislava facility

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Bratislava, Slovakia

 Integrated manufacturing of the Audi Q7 on the site of VW Slovakia since the autumn
of 2005

 Approx. 3000 employees in 2006

 Production of 72,188 units of the Audi Q7 in 2006

 The pressings come from Ingolstadt and Neckarsulm and the engines from Györ (
Hungary) and Salzgitter (Germany)

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Changchun facility

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Changchun, China

• Joint Venture with FAW Volkswagen Automotive Company Ltd.

• CKD / SKD production of Audi cars since 1988 in Changchun, the national centre for automobile
manufacturing and film-making

• 1.16 mill. m2 of floor space

• Approx. 7,000 employees in 2006

• CKD production in 2006: 83,210 cars,

- of which 67,762 units of the Audi A6

- 15,448 units of the Audi A4

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Indian facility

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Aurangabad, India

 Manufacturing on the site of Skoda Auto India Ltd. according to the quality standards of AUDI AG

 CKD production of the Audi A6 from the autumn of 2007

 Planned manufacturing of over 300 cars in 2008

 Employees were trained in Ingolstadt

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Sant‘Agata Bolognese facility

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Sant‘Agata Bolognese, Italy

 Lamborghini has been making cars in Sant‘Agata Bolognese since 1963

 In 1998 AUDI AG acquired the entire share capital of Lamborghini

 Approx. 672 employees in 2006

 Production in 2006: 2,095 sports cars

 Current models: Gallardo, Gallardo Spyder, Murciélago LP640, Murciélago LP640 Roadster

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product


Engines

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Engines

Audi products available in India 2008 Overview of diesel engines

Overview of petrol engines Direct injection system (unit-injector)

Variable intake manifold on petrol engines Common rail injection system

Secondary air system on petrol engines Turbocharger with variable turbine geometry: how
does it work?
Direct petrol injection
Turbochargers with VTG: 3 and 4-cylinder engines
Variable valve timing on petrol engines
Turbochargers with VTG: 6 and 8-cylinder engines
Air flow control flaps on petrol engines

Audi valvelift system on petrol engines

Turbocharging on petrol engines

Mechanical supercharging on petrol


engines

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi products available in India 2009


A4:
8EC 0AH 1,8 T 120 kW Multitronic
8EC 0JH 2,0 TDI 103 kW Multitronic
8K2 0QH 2.0 TDI CR 105 kW Multitronic
8K2 0FL 3.2 FSI 195 kW Auto tiptronic quattro
A6:
4F2 01L 3,0 TDI 171 kW automatic transmission 09x
4F2 0NH 3,2 FSI 188 kW Multitronic
4F2 09H / 4F2 M9H (CKD) 2,7 TDI 130/132 kW Mutitronic
4F2 0TH / 4F2 MTH (CKD) 2,8 FSI 154 kW Multitronic
A8:
4E2 04L 3,0 TDI 171 kW automatic transmission 09x
4E8 04L 3,0 TDI 171 kW automatic transmission 09x
4E8 0FL 4,2 TDI 254 kW automatic transmission 09x
4E8 0CL 6,0 330 kW automatic transmission 09x
4E2 SSL 5,2 FSI 330 kW automatic transmission 09x
Q7:
4LB 0DL 3,6 FSI automatic transmission 0AT
4LB 0ML 3,0 TDI 171 kW automatic transmission 09D
4LB 0EL 4,2 FSI 254 kW automatic transmission 09D
Q5:
8RB 0HY 3.0 V6 TDI 176 kW 7-speed automatic transmission for four-wheel drive vehicle LWM
8RB 06Y 2.0 l 155 kW FSI 7-speed automatic transmission for four-wheel drive vehicle LHF
TT:
8J3 01L 3,2 FSI 184 kW DSG 02E
R8
423 01B 4.2 L, 8-cylinder gasoline engine 309 kW (32V) FSI with R tronic

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

1.4 ltr. TFSI


Engine type: 4-cylinder in-line, 4-valve

Capacity: 1390 cm3

Power output: 92 kW at 5000 rpm-

Torque: 200 Nm at 1500-4000 rpm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 95 RON

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

• Continuously variable
intake valve timing

• Timing chain

• Turbocharger

• Charge air cooling

• Air flow control flaps

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • Ceramic catalytic converter with


heater function; twin
injection (homogeneous
split)

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

1.6 ltr. MPI

Engine type: 4-cylinder in-line, 2-valve

Capacity: 1595 cm3

Power output: 75 kW/102 bhp at 5600 rpm

Torque: 148 Nm at 3800 rpm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 95 RON

Engine features: • Single overhead camshaft


(OHC)

• Toothed belt

• Variable intake manifold

• Indirect injection

Emission control system: • Close-coupled catalytic


converter

• Secondary air system

• Exhaust gas recirculation

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

1.8 ltr. TFSI Engine type: 4-cylinder in-line, 4-valve

Capacity: 1798 cm3

Power output: 88 - 118 kW

Torque: 230 - 270 Nm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 95 RON

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

• Continuously variable
intake valve timing

• Timing chain

• Air flow control flaps

• Turbocharger

• Charge air cooling

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • Close-coupled ceramic starter


catalytic converter

• Ceramic catalytic converter with


heater function; twin
injection (homogeneous
split)

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

2.0 ltr. TFSI (timing belt) Engine type:

Capacity: 1984 cm3

Power output: 125 - 195 kW

Torque: 280 - 350 Nm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 95 / 98 RON

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

•Continuously variable intake


valve timing

• Toothed belt

• Turbocharger

• Charge air cooling

• Air flow control flaps

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • Ceramic catalytic converter

• Two heated Lambda probes

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

2.0 ltr. TFSI (timing chain)


Engine type:

Capacity: 1984 cm3

Power output: 147 - 206 kW

Torque: 280 - 350 Nm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 98 RON

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

• Continuously variable intake


valve timing

• Timing chain

• Turbocharger

• Charge air cooling

• Air flow control flaps

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • Ceramic catalytic converter,

• Two heated Lambda probes

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

2.0 ltr. TFSI (timing chain, AVS) Engine type:

Capacity: 1984 cm3

Power output: 155 - 206 kW

Torque: 280 - 350 Nm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 98 RON

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

• Audi valvelift system for


exhaust valves

• Continuously variable intake


valve timing

• Timing chain

• Turbocharger

• Charge air cooling

• Air flow control flaps

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • Ceramic catalytic converter,

• Two heated Lambda probes

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

2.8 ltr. FSI


Engine type: V6, 4-valve

Capacity: 2773 cm3

Power output: 140 - 162 kW

Torque: 280 Nm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 95 RON

Engine type: • 2 overhead camshafts on


each bank (DOHC)

• Audi valvelift system

for inlet valves

• Timing chain

• 2-stage variable intake


manifold

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • 2 close-coupled


catalytic converters
each with front and rear
Lambda probes

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

3.0 ltr. TFSI Engine type: V6, 4-valve

Capacity: 2995 cm3

Power output: 213 – 245 kW

Torque: 420 Nm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 98 RON

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts on


each bank (DOHC)

• Continuously variable intake


valve timing

• Timing chain

• Mechanical supercharger with

charge air cooling

• Air flow control flaps

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • 2 close-coupled


catalytic converters
each with front and rear
Lambda probes

• Secondary air system

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

3.2 ltr. FSI


Engine type: V6, 4-valve

Capacity: 3123 cm3

Power output: 188 - 191 kW

Torque: 330 Nm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 98 RON

Engine type: • 2 overhead camshafts

on each bank (DOHC)

• Continuously variable valve


timing

• Timing chain

• 2-stage variable intake


manifold

• Air flow control flaps

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • 2 catalytic converters, each


with front and rear Lambda
probes

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

3.2 ltr. FSI (AVS) Engine type: V6, 4-valve

Capacity: 3123 cm3

Power output: 195 kW

Torque: 330 Nm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 98 RON

Engine type: • 2 overhead camshafts

on each bank (DOHC)

• Audi valvelift system

for inlet valves

• Continuously variable valve


timing

• Timing chain

• 2-stage variable intake


manifold

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • 2 catalytic converters, each


with front and rear Lambda
probes

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

3.6 ltr. FSI

Engine type: V6, 4-valve

Capacity: 3597 cm3

Power output: 206 kW at 6200 rpm

Torque: 360 Nm at 2500-5000 rpm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 95 RON

Engine type: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

• Continuously variable valve


timing

• Timing chain

• Variable intake manifold

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • Starter catalytic converter,

• Main catalytic converter

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Engine type: V8, 4-valve


4.2 ltr. FSI
Capacity: 4163 cm3

Power output: 257 - 260 kW

Torque: 440 Nm at 3500 rpm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 95 RON

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts on


each bank (DOHC)

• Continuously variable

valve timing

• Timing chain

• 2-stage variable intake


manifold

• Air flow control flaps

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • 2 starter catalytic converters


and 2 main catalytic
converters

• 4 Lambda probes

• Secondary air system

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Engine type: V8, 4-valve


4.2 ltr. FSI (high rpm) Capacity: 4163 cm3

Power output: 309 (420) at 7800 rpm

Torque: 430 at 5500 rpm

Fuel grade: Super Plus unleaded, 98 RON

Engine features: •2 overhead camshafts on each


bank (DOHC)

• Continuously variable

valve timing

• Timing chain

• 2-stage variable intake


manifold

• Direct petrol injection

• Air flow control flaps

• High-rpm concept

Emission control system: • Twin-pipe manifold

• 2 starter catalytic converters,

• 2 underfloor main catalytic


converters

• Cylinder-bank selective Lambda


control
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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Engine type: V10, 4-valve

Capacity: 4991 cm3


5.0 ltr. TFSI
Power output: 426 kW at 6250-6700 rpm

Torque: 650 Nm at 1500-6250 rpm

Fuel grade: Premium unleaded, 95 RON

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

• Continuously variable valve


timing

• Timing chain

• Turbocharger

• Charge air cooling

• 2-stage variable intake


manifold

• Air flow control flaps

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • Single-pipe manifold with 4 integral


close-coupled main catalytic converters

• Front and rear Lambda probes on


each catalytic
converter

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Engine type: V10, 4-valve


5.2 ltr. FSI
Capacity: 5204 cm3

Power output: 320 - 331 kW

Torque: 540 Nm

Fuel grade: Premium / Super Plus unleaded, 95 / 98


RON

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

• Continuously variable valve


timing

• Timing chain

• 2-stage variable intake


manifold

• Air flow control flaps

• Direct petrol injection

Emission control system: • Single-pipe manifold with 4 integral


close-coupled main catalytic converters

• Front and rear Lambda probes on


each catalytic
converter

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

6.0 ltr. MPI

Engine type: W12 4-valve

Capacity: 5998 cm3

Power output: 309 kW (420 bhp) at 6000 rpm

Torque: 550 Nm at 3500 - 4750 rpm*

Fuel grade: Super Plus unleaded, 98 RON

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

• Continuously variable valve


timing

• Timing chain

• Indirect injection

• Secondary air system

• Dry sump lubrication

Emission control system: • 4 starter catalytic converters

• 2 main catalytic converters,

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Variable intake manifold in petrol engines

Why a variable intake manifold?

Long intake paths produce high torque at low engine speeds and short intake paths produce high power at high
engine speeds. Both variants can be realised using a variable intake manifold.
Switching drum

Position of switching drum at low engine speed


Long intake path = high torque

Vacuum reservoir
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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Variable intake manifold in petrol engines

Position of the switching flap at high engine speeds


Short intake path = high power output

Switching drum

Vacuum reservoir

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Petrol direct injection

The abbreviation FSI stands for Fuel Stratified Injection.


The petrol direct injection system has two operating modes.
Homogeneous mode and stratified charge mode

In both operating modes, the quantity of fuel is adapted optimally to the torque and power requirements of the
engine.

Homogeneous mode
In the upper engine load and engine speed range, the engine switches to homogeneous mode.
The fuel is now injected directly into the cylinder during the intake stroke.
Here, the fuel mixes homogeneously with the Intake air throughout the cylinder like in an engine with indirect
injection.
In homogeneous mode, the system operates at lambda 1.

Stratified charge mode


Up to the medium engine load and speed range, the engine runs on a lean mix in stratified charge mode.
This is possible because the fuel is not injected until the end of the compression stroke. As a result, a stratified
distribution of fuel forms inside the combustion chamber at the time of ignition.
The interior stratum is located in the area of the spark plug and consists of an ignitable mixture.
The outer stratum envelops the inner stratum and ideally consists of a mixture of induced air and exhaust gases.
Relative to the combustion chamber as a whole, this results in lambda values between 1.6 and 3.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Petrol direct injection


Motronic control unit J220

Fuel pump control unit J -


538

Fuel filter with Fuel pressure Fuel pressure


Pressure limiting valve sender, sender,
low pressure G410 high-pressure G247
Pressure relief valve > 120 bar

Rail pressure 50 - 110 bar

High-pressure pump

Short return line

Injectors
Fuel delivery unit with fuel tank sender
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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Variable valve timing in petrol engines

Task of the variable valve timing


The task of the variable valve timing is to set the most favourable valve timings for each engine for the operating
states of idling, maximum power output, torque and exhaust gas recirculation.

Valve timings at idle


When the engine is at idle, the camshafts are positioned in such a way that opening and closing of the intake
camshaft are retarded. The exhaust camshaft is adjusted in such a way that it closes before TDC. Due to the
low residual gas content during the combustion cycle, this results in a stable idling.

Valve timings for exhaust gas recirculation

Exhaust gas is recirculated internally when setting the intake and exhaust camshafts. During this, the exhaust
gases flow from the exhaust port into the intake port during the valve overlap period (inlet and exhaust valves are
open). The decisive factor determining the quantity of exhaust gas recirculated during the internal exhaust gas
recirculation process is the degree of valve overlap. Hence, the intake camshaft is adjusted in such a way that it
opens well in advance of TDC and the exhaust camshaft closes shortly in advance of TDC. Both valves are
therefore open and the exhaust gas is recirculated. The advantages of internal exhaust gas recirculation over
external exhaust gas recirculation are quick system response and even distribution of the recirculated exhaust
gases.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Variable valve timing in petrol engines

Valve timings for torque

To achieve maximum torque, the cylinders must achieve high volumetric efficiency. To accomplish this, the
intake valves must open in advance. By opening in advance, the valves also close in advance, preventing the
fresh gases from being discharged.
The exhaust camshaft closes shortly in advance of TDC.

Valve timings for power

To achieve good power output at high engine speeds, opening of the exhaust valves is retarded. This allows
the expansion of the combustion gases to act on the pistons for a lengthy period.
The intake valve opens shortly after TDC and closes late after BDC. The dynamic post-charging effects of the
inflowing air can therefore be used to boost power.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Variable valve timing with vane cell adjuster

The adjustment is made in dependence on engine load and speed by vane cell adjusters (oscillating motors) actuated by engine oil
pressure. At increasing oil pressure, the rotor is displaced relative to the stator, thus adjusting the valve timing.

Stator
Rotor
Vane cell adjuster

Oil pressure chamber

Intake camshaft timing


adjustment valve N205 N318

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Tumble flaps in petrol engines

Tumble flaps with


steel shaft
The tumble flaps are used to improve inner mixture
formation.
At low engine load and low engine speeds from 1000
rpm up to 5000 rpm, the tumble flaps are closed:
- to improve idling quality when the engine is cold
- to increase charge motion and thereby improve the
engine's running smoothness
- to prevent engine shudder during overrun
The tumble flaps are open at other engine speeds.

Link rod
Throttle valve
control unit
Intake manifold flap motor V157 with
intake manifold flap potentiometer G336
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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi valvelift system in petrol engines

Design of the camshaft

Cam elements with


inner spline

Camshaft adjuster

Intake camshaft with


outer spline

High-pressure fuel pump drive

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi valvelift system in petrol engines

Camshaft bearing Actuator

Ladder frame

Axial bearing

Camshaft
Cam element Displacement groove

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Exhaust gas turbocharging

Turbocharger divert air valve N249 Exhaust gas turbocharging


Charge pressure control Wastegate Charge pressure is controlled is via the wastegate flap. If
solenoid valve N75 the charge pressure is too high, the wastegate flap is
Pressure unit opened and a portion of the exhaust gas upstream of the
turbocharger flows unused into the exhaust system.
The wastegate flap is actuated via a vacuum actuator with
linkage.
The charge pressure control solenoid valve N75 is
activated cyclically by the engine control unit and sets the
effective control pressure in the vacuum actuator.
The charge pressure (overpressure) is used as a pilot
pressure. If the charge pressure control solenoid valve
N75 is not activated, the entire charge pressure acts as a
pilot pressure and opens the wastegate flap against the
spring force of the vacuum actuator. The result is a base
boost pressure for limp-home operation.

Charge air cooler

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Exhaust gas turbocharging

Air divert control in overrun


When the engine running in overrun mode, a
back pressure develops in the compressor
housing due to the presence of charge
pressure. This back pressure noticeably
reduces the speed of the compressor wheel,
Compressor side Exhaust resulting in a reduction in boost pressure.
turbocharger
When the driver again presses the
accelerator, thereby opening the throttle valve,
Intake end
the turbocharger must spool up to speed
again (turbo lag).
Wastegate valve
For this reason, the wastegate valve is
opened in overrun and the compressor side is
short-circuited with the intake end. As a result,
the turbocharger retains its speed, and no
turbo lag occurs under acceleration because
the full charge pressure is present.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Mechanical supercharging

The supercharger in the new 3.0 TFSI is a Roots blower. Inside the supercharger housing, two four-lobe rotors
counter-rotate at speeds of up to 23,000 rpm. The clearance between the rotors is only a few thousandths of a
millimetre.
The mechanical compressor is so compact that it fits in the 90 "V" between the cylinder banks in place of the
intake manifold. It is permanently driven off the engine via a poly V-belt.
The housing also incorporates two water/air charge air coolers (interoolers), which are made of aluminium. They
effectively cool down the intake air, which is heated up when it is compressed. This increases the oxygen content
required for the combustion process.

Pulley

Rotors Charge air cooler


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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Mechanical supercharging

Wastegate
Charge pressure control
Regulating flap control unit -J808-
The charge pressure (boost pressure)
is controlled by a "wastegate". When
the charge pressure exceeds a certain
amount, the wastegate opens and
Air intake from air cleaner diverts part of the air delivered by the
supercharger to the compressor
intake.
Similarly, part of the air flow is also
diverted to the compressor intake
under part load, when idling and on
overrun.
The wastegate is controlled by the
regulating flap control unit -J808-.

Compressor intake

Cooled air Compressed air

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

1.9 ltr. TDI PD


Engine type: 4-cylinder in-line, 2-valve

Capacity: 1896 cm3

Power output: 77 - 85 kW

Torque: 250 – 285 Nm

Fuel grade: Diesel EN 590

Engine features: • Single overhead camshaft


(OHC)

• Toothed belt

• Turbocharger with variable


turbine geometry

• Charge air cooling

• Unit-injector system

Emission control system: • Oxidising catalytic converter

• Exhaust gas recirculation

• Optional maintenance-free particulate


filter

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2.0 ltr. TDI PD 4V


Engine type: 4-cylinder in-line, 4-valve

Capacity: 1968 cm3

Power output: 100 - 103 kW

Torque: 320 Nm

Fuel grade: Diesel EN 590

Engine type: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

• Toothed belt

• Turbocharger with variable


turbine geometry

• Charge air cooling

• Direct injection system (unit-


injector)

• Piezo injectors

Emission control system: • Oxidising catalytic converter

• Exhaust gas recirculation

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2.0 ltr. TDI CR


Engine type: 4-cylinder in-line, 4-valve

Capacity: 1968 cm3

Power output: 88 - 125 kW

Torque: 300 - 350 Nm

Fuel grade: Diesel EN 590

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts


(DOHC)

• Toothed belt

• Turbocharger with variable


turbine geometry

• Charge air cooling

• Common rail injection system

• Piezo injectors

Emission control system: • Oxidising catalytic converter

• Exhaust gas recirculation

• Maintenance-free particulate
filter

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2.7 ltr. TDI CR


Engine type: V6, 4-valve

Capacity: 2698 cm3

Power output: 120 - 140 kW

Torque: 380 - 400 Nm

Fuel grade: Diesel EN 590

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts on


each bank (DOHC)

• Timing chain

• Turbocharger with variable


turbine geometry

• Charge air cooling

• Common rail injection system

• Piezo injectors

Emission control system: • Oxidising catalytic converter

• Exhaust gas recirculation

• Maintenance-free particulate
filter

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3.0 ltr. TDI CR


Engine type: V6, 4-valve

Capacity: 2967 cm3

Power output: 155 - 176 kW

Torque: 500 Nm

Fuel grade: Diesel EN 590

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts on


each bank (DOHC)

• Timing chain

• Turbocharger with variable


turbine geometry

• Charge air cooling

• Common rail injection system

• Piezo injectors

Emission control system: • Oxidising catalytic converter

• Exhaust gas recirculation

• Maintenance-free particulate
filter

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4.2 ltr. TDI CR


Engine type: V8, 4-valve

Capacity: 4134 cm3

Power output: 240 kW at 3750 rpm

Torque: 650 Nm at 1600-3500 rpm

Fuel grade: Diesel EN 590

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts on each


bank (DOHC)

• Timing chain

• Turbocharger with variable


turbine geometry

• Charge air cooling

• Common rail injection system

• Piezo injectors

Emission control system: • 2 oxidising catalytic converters

• Water-cooled exhaust gas


recirculation

• 2 maintenance-free
diesel particulate filters

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6.0 ltr. TDI CR


Engine type: V12 4-valve

Capacity: 5934 cm3

Power output: 368 kW at 3750 rpm

Torque: 1000 Nm at 1750-3250 rpm

Fuel grade: Diesel EN 590

Engine features: • 2 overhead camshafts on each


bank (DOHC)

• Timing chain

• Turbocharger with variable


turbine geometry

• Charge air cooling

• Common rail injection system

• Piezo injectors

Emission control system: • 2 oxidising catalytic converters

• Water-cooled exhaust gas


recirculation

• 2 maintenance-free
diesel particulate filters

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Pump injector direct injection (3 and 4 cylinder engines)

Roller rocker arm

Pump/injector valve
Injection cam
(piezoelectric valve)

Pump piston Pump/injector valve


(solenoid valve)
High-pressure chamber
Injector spring

Fuel return line

Fuel supply line


Injector pintle

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Common rail injection system

High-pressure Restrictor
accumulator (rail) Fuel pressure control valve N276
Cylinder bank 1

High-pressure accumulator
(rail)
Cylinder bank 2

Injectors

High-pressure pump Fuel pressure sender G247

73 Injectors

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Common rail injection system

Fuel pressure sender G247

High-pressure pump Rail elements

Fuel metering valve N290


Fuel pressure control
valve N276
Pressure retention valve
Piezoelectric injectors 1 – 3
N30, N31, N32
Fuel temp. sender G81
Fuel cooler

Fuel filter
Fuel pump (pre-supply pump) G6
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Common rail injection system

Fuel supply (high-pressure connection)

Electrical connection

Rod filter Injectors


Fuel return line The injectors are controlled by a piezoelectric actuator.
The switching speed of a piezoelectric actuator is
approximately four times faster than that of a solenoid
valve.
The piezoelectric technology also has the advantage
Piezoelectric actuator that it reduces moving mass at the injector pintle by
approximately 75 % compared to solenoid-controlled
injectors.
Coupling piston

Valve piston

Injector spring
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Common rail injection system

High-pressure pump
The high-pressure pump generates the high fuel
pressure required for injection and feeds this pressure
to the high-pressure accumulator.
A dual regulator system is used for fuel pressure
control. The fuel pressure is regulated by means of the
fuel pressure regulator N276 on the rail when the
engine is running at near-idle speed, when the engine
is cold and for torque limitation.
At full throttle and when the engine is hot, the fuel for
pressure regulation is diverted by the fuel pressure
regulator (fuel metering unit ZME) N 290 so that it is
not heated unnecessarily.

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The variable turbine geometry

Basic principle

A gas flows through a narrowed pipe faster than through


a pipe with no narrowing. This is provided that the
pressure in both pipes is identical.

This physical principle is used by the turbocharger with


variable turbine geometry in order to maintain a
constant charge pressure in almost all engine speed
ranges.

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The variable turbine geometry

Low engine speed

Exhaust gas quantity and velocity are low.


The cross-section of the exhaust pipe is narrowed
upstream of the turbine wheel by the guide vanes. The
reduced cross-section forces the exhaust gas to flow
more quickly, thus causing the turbine wheel to rotate
faster.
The high turbine speed ensures that an optimum
charge pressure is achieved even at low engine
speed.

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The variable turbine geometry

High engine speed

Exhaust gas quantity and velocity are high.


The guide vanes open up a larger cross-section.
The maximum allowable charge pressure is regulated
by the cross-section allowed by the guide vanes.

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The variable turbine geometry of 6 and 8 cylinder engines

Function

The guide vanes on V6 and V8 engines and adjusted


by the electrical servomotor, which is activated by the
engine control unit.

The activation values for the servomotor are stored in


a map in the engine control unit.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product


Gearboxes

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Gearboxes

Overview of gearboxes

Special features of manual gearbox on A5/A4

R tronic

Tiptronic (multi-step automatic gearbox)

multitronic

S tronic

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Gearbox overview

Manual gearbox
5 and 6 speed longitudinal and transverse gearboxes are used.
Clutch: hydraulically actuated single or double plate dry clutch.

R tronic
A 6 speed longitudinal sequential manual gearbox is used.
Clutch: double-plate clutch
tiptronic
6 speed longitudinal and transverse gearboxes are used.
Clutch: hydraulic torque converter with lockup clutch.

multitronic
6, 7 or 8 speed longitudinal and transverse CVT gearboxes with tiptronic are used.
Clutch: multi-plate clutch, electronically controlled, oil-immersed .

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Gearbox overview

S tronic
Transverse installation, 6-speed
Clutch: two electro-hydraulically actuated multi-plate wet clutches
Transverse installation, 7-speed
Clutch: two electro-hydraulically actuated multi-plate dry clutches
Longitudinal installation, 7-speed
Clutch: two electro-hydraulically actuated multi-plate wet clutches

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R tronic 086 (SL600-6A)

R tronic is an Auto Shift Gearbox on which the clutch and gearshifting


functions are controlled electronically.

Pressure regulating valves N284, N285, N286, N255


Hydraulic unit

Sensors G604/G616
for selector gate
and selected gear

High-pressure pump

As with other automatic


gearboxes, the brake pedal
must be pressed when the
engine is started!

High-pressure accumulator
Oil tank

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R tronic

Shift schematic
+ The shift schematic of the R tronic is new development by Audi. The
shift selector lever has a stable left position and a stable right position.
Starting from the left selector lever position, the manual forward gears
A N and automatic mode are selected by briefly pressing the lever towards
"+", "-", or "A", as required.
Starting from the right selector lever position N, reverse is selected
_
when the vehicle is stationary and the engine is idling by briefly pressing
the lever towards "R". To select reverse, the brake pedal must be
pressed. The selector lever must not be moved towards R while driving!
To change from one selector lever position to the other, the neutral
position"N" is selected. If reverse is engaged, move the selector lever to
the left. If a forward gear is engaged, move the selector lever to the
right.

N The sport function is activated by pressing the Sport button. The power
reserves of the engine can be fully utilised by shifting late. In manual
mode, gear shift times are shorter and the engine does not shift into the
R next gear before the maximum allowable engine speed is reached.

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R tronic
A – Automatic mode
In this operating mode, the forward gears are shifted up and down automatically
+ depending on engine load and vehicle speed. To do this, briefly press the
selector lever towards A.
+/- Manual mode
A N In this operating mode, the forward gears are shifted using the selector lever. +
shift up, - shift down.

_ N - Neutral (idling position)


To select neutral, the selector lever must be moved over to the left or right. If
reverse is engaged, move the selector lever to the left. If a forward gear is
engaged, move the selector lever to the right. In neutral, the vehicle can roll
away.
R - Reverse
Reverse may only be selected when the vehicle is stationary and the engine is
idling. To select reverse gear, depress the brake pedal, move the selector lever
N
over to the right and briefly press it towards R.
Sport function
R
The sport function can be activated by pressing the - button. The power reserves
of the engine can be fully utilised by shifting late. In manual mode, gear shift
times are shorter and the engine does not shift into the next gear before the
maximum allowable engine speed is reached.
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Tiptronic (multi-step automatic gearbox)

Selector lever positions and operation

P - Park
To move the selector lever out of this position, the ignition must be "on" and the foot brake depressed. The unlock
button on the selector lever must also be pressed.

R - Reverse
To select this gear, the unlock button must be pressed and the brake pedal depressed.

N - Neutral position
In this position, the gearbox is disengaged. If the selector lever is left in this position for a lengthy period and the
vehicle is travelling at less than 5 kph, the foot brake must be depressed again in order to move out of this position.

D - Drive
In this position, the forward gears are shifted automatically.

S - Sport
To engage the "S" selection range, the unlock button must be pressed. Gears are selected automatically according
to a "sporty" characteristic curve stored in the control unit.

+ and –
Gears can be selected manually in the right selector lever gate and using the steering wheel switches.

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tiptronic

Towing
To tow a vehicle with tiptronic, the following conditions must be observed:
• The selector lever must be in position "N".
• A max. speed of 50 kph must not be exceeded.
• The vehicle must not be towed further than 50 km.
While the vehicle is being towed, the oil pump is not operating and no rotating parts are lubricated.
Therefore, it is very important to make sure that the aforementioned conditions are observed since otherwise
serious gearbox damage can occur.
It is not possible to jump-start the engine by towing the vehicle (e.g. if the battery is flat).

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multitronic

• Dynamics / comfort
Adjustments are made at least at
quickly as the gearshifts on multi-step automatic
gearboxes. However, they are smooth and jolt-free.

• Performance
Better acceleration from 0 to 100 kph
than a 5-speed multi-step automatic.
At least the same acceleration from
0 to 100 kph as a 5-speed manual gearbox.

• Fuel economy
Much better than a 5-speed multi-step
automatic gearbox, at least the same as a
5-speed manual gearbox.

• Weight
Lighter than an equivalent multi-step automatic gearbox
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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

multitronic
Variator - basic principle

Primary pulley set


(pulley set 1)

Overdrive

Starting ratio

Secondary pulley set


(pulley set 2)

Input

Output

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multitronic

Selector lever positions and operation

P - Park
To move the selector lever out of this position, the ignition must be "on" and the foot brake depressed. The unlock
button on the selector lever must also be pressed.

R - Reverse
To select this gear, the unlock button must be pressed and the brake pedal depressed.

N - Neutral position
In this position, the gearbox is disengaged. If the selector lever is left in this position for a lengthy period and the
vehicle is travelling at less than 5 kph, the foot brake must be depressed again in order to move out of this position.

D - Drive
In this position, the forward gears are shifted automatically.

S - Sport
To engage the "S" selection range, the unlock button must be pressed. Gears are selected automatically according
to a "sporty" characteristic curve stored in the control unit.

+ and –
Gears can be selected manually in the right selector lever gate and using the steering wheel switches.

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multitronic

tiptronic mode
In tiptronic mode, 6, 7 or 8 "gears" can be selected manually. Defined ratios are set and the "gears" thereby
simulated.
The handling and shift strategies are identical to those of multi-step automatic gearboxes with tiptronic (automatic
up shift and automatic downshift).
If the driver changes over to tiptronic mode while driving, the momentary transmission ratio is initially maintained.
Defined transmission ratios are gradually set by shifting up and down.

Reason:
Since the transmission ratio is possibly in between two "gears" at the time of changeover to tiptronic mode, an
immediate changeover to one of the defined ratios would, to a greater or lesser extent, result in a change in
engine speed depending on the ratio differential.

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multitronic

Towing
To tow a vehicle with multitronic®, the following conditions must be observed:
• The selector lever must be in position "N".
• A max. speed of 50 kph must not be exceeded.
• The vehicle must not be towed further than 50 km.
While the vehicle is being towed, the oil pump is not operating and no rotating parts are lubricated.
Therefore, it is very important to make sure that the aforementioned conditions are observed since otherwise
serious gearbox damage can occur.
It is not possible to jump-start the engine by towing the vehicle (e.g. if the battery is flat).

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

S tronic 6-speed, transverse


Dynamics / comfort
The high efficiency of a manual gearbox is combined
the shifting comfort of an automatic gearbox.
Hydraulic oil filter
Oil cooler

Oil pump

Mechatronics

Multi-plate clutches

Fuel consumption
approx. 10 % better than a multi-step
automatic gearbox.
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S tronic 7-speed, transverse


Performance / comfort
The high efficiency of a manual gearbox is combined
with the convenience of automatic transmission.

Fuel consumption
lower than with a manual gearbox

Multi-plate dry clutches

Mechatronic unit with integral oil pump

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

S tronic 7-speed, longitudinal


Performance / comfort

The high efficiency of a manual gearbox is


Multi-plate clutches combined with the convenience of automatic
transmission.

Fuel consumption
lower than with a manual gearbox

Mechatronic unit

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S tronic 7-speed, longitudinal

Clutch 1

Clutch 2

Drive to front differential


Input shaft 2 Input shaft 1

Drive to rear differential

Output shaft

4th gear 5th gear


Reverse
gear Centre differential
6th gear 7th gear

2nd gear 1st gear 3rd gear

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S tronic

P - Park
In this selector lever position, the drive wheels are mechanically blocked. The parking lock must only be engaged when the vehicle
is stationary. To disengage selector lever position P , press the Lock button (button in selector lever handle) and , at the same time,
depress the brake pedal with the ignition "on".
R – Reverse
In this selector lever position, the reverse gear is engaged. Reverse may only be engaged when the vehicle is stationary and the
engine is idling. To engage R, press the Lock button and, at the same time, depress the brake pedal with the ignition "on".
N – Neutral
In this selector lever position, the gearbox is disengaged; no power is transmitted to the wheels and there is no engine braking
effect.
D – Drive
In this selector lever position, the forward gears are automatically shifted up and down in dependence on engine load and vehicle
speed.
S – Sport
In this selector lever position, all forward gears are automatically shifted up and down later than in position D in order to fully utilise
the power reserves of the engine. This is dependent on engine load, your personal driving style and the speed at which the vehicle
is travelling.
+ and –
Gears can be selected manually in the right selector lever gate and using the steering wheel switches.

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S tronic

Towing
The vehicle can normally be towed with a tow bar or
a towing rope. Please pay attention to the following:
• Engage the selector lever in position N.
• Maximum towing speed is 50 kph.
• Maximum towing distance is 50 km. Reason: When the engine is at a standstill, the gear oil pump is not working
so the gearbox will not be lubricated sufficiently at high speeds and over long distances.
If the road speed exceeds 50 km/h when towing, excessive shaft speeds will occur in the gearbox and the dual
clutch because one gear will always remain engaged in one of the two sections of the gearbox.
Therefore, it is very important to make sure that the aforementioned conditions are observed since otherwise
serious gearbox damage can occur.
It is not possible to jump-start the engine by towing the vehicle (e.g. if the battery is flat).

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product


Running Gear

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Running Gear

Air suspension

Audi magnetic ride

Electronic damping control


Servotronic hydraulic steering

Dynamic steering system

Electromechanical steering system (EPS)

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

adaptive air suspension

CDC damping control

Electronic damping control:


The control system allows for the current driving
situation. Sensors measure wheel movement (unsprung
masses) and body movement (sprung masses).

Externally located air springs

The spring boot is enclosed in an aluminium cylinder.


The result is a significant improvement in response.

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adaptive air suspension

Air supply unit:


The air supply unit is installed in the engine bay at the front
left. Adverse effects on the interior acoustics are thus avoided.
In addition, effective cooling can be obtained with this layout.
This extends the maximum duty cycle of the compressor and
thereby enhances control quality.

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adaptive air suspension

Mode
Balanced combination of:

Ride height Damping control

defined by: defined by:

Driver input Driver input (comfortable - sporty)


Road conditions
Vehicle speed
Speed
Payload
Current driving situation (driving away,
braking, cornering etc.)

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adaptive air suspension


Vehicle ride levels (e.g. A8):
Standard suspension
•"automatic" mode:
basic ride level ( 0mm), motorway ride level (-25mm)
•"comfort" mode: basic ride level ( 0mm)

•"dynamic" mode:
low ride level (-20mm), motorway ride level (-
25mm)

•"lift" mode:
high ride level (+25mm)

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

adaptive air suspension


Vehicle ride levels
Sports suspension
•"automatic" mode:
basic ride level of sports suspension (- 20mm
compared to basic ride level of standard suspension)

•"comfort" mode:
basic ride level ( 0mm)

•"dynamic" mode:
basic ride level ( 0mm)

•"lift" mode:
high ride level (+25mm)

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adaptive air suspension

Operating /display concept


CAR button: Access directly on MMI display
with priority 1
SETUP button: Display Status
information and
settings
Control knob: Activate modes
Adjust settings

Indicator lamp: Indication of low ride level of


standard suspension
Indication of extreme low and
high ride levels
Warning lamp: Indication of extreme low and
high ride levels

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adaptive air suspension

Lift mode

Lift operation is detected through evaluation of the


height sensor signal and the shut-down duration of the
stationary vehicle.
No diagnostic trouble code is stored in the fault
memory.

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Audi magnetic ride

Shock absorber
System overview damping adjustment
button E387
ECD control unit
(electronically
controlled damping)
J250

Shock absorber
damping adjustment
warning lamp K189
Level control
Shock absorber
system sender
damping adjustment
G76-78,G289
valves N336-339

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi magnetic ride


Without electrical activation: The magnetic particles are suspended in random fashion, and without exerting any
force upon each other, in the suspension damping fluid. During the movement of the piston rod, the particles are
forced through the piston orifice together with the fluid. Damping force is relatively low and defined by the base
viscosity of the suspension damping fluid.

without electrical
activation

Electrical activation: The particles position themselves along the lines of the magnetic field. Long chains of
particles form, particularly inside the piston orifices. This increases the friction between the oil exerts and the orifice
wall. As a result, the flux voltage of the suspension damping fluid and the damping force increase.
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Audi magnetic ride

Shock absorber damping adjustment button E387


Warning lamp K189
The button is used to select a damper set-up.In standard
mode, the damper set-up is configured for comfort. A sporty
damping characteristic can be activated by pressing the
button. The warning lamp in the button indicates the sporty
damper set-up. With some dash panel versions, an additional
text message is displayed. The signal from the button is read
in by the control unit via a discrete line.

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Audi magnetic ride

Shock absorber test


When the button is pressed for longer than 5 s, a constant
current is applied to the magnetic coils. In this state, the shock
absorbers can be tested on a test bench.

The indicator lamp in the button flashes when "Shock absorber


test" mode is active. This mode is exited automatically by
again pressing the button, turning the ignition on/off or driving
at a speed of at least 10 kph.

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Electronic damping control -Load mode

When Load mode is activated, a constant electrical current is applied to the shock absorbers.

The warning lamp is activated. "Load mode active" is stored in the fault memory

For detailed information about the design and operating principle, please refer to SSP 409

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Servotronic hydraulic steering system

Pressure p (bar) Method of functioning of the Servotronic system

The faster the vehicle is travelling, the less the effort the driver needs to
apply to the steering wheel in order to change direction. This rule basically
applies to all steering systems (with & without power steering assist).

The Servotronic system controls steering wheel actuation torque as a function


of vehicle speed. Maximum power steering assistance is available when the
vehicle is stationary or travelling at a very low speed (e.g. when parking).
Actuation torque (Nm)
120 kph
50 kph
Low vehicle speed (e.g. when parking)

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Servotronic hydraulic steering system

Servotronic solenoid valve N119

The solenoid valve serves as an electro-hydraulic converter for implementing the


servotronic function. It is a proportional valve. When the valve is deenergised, it
is open. The greater the electrical current applied to the valve, the smaller the
port cross-section.

For detailed information about the design and operating principle, please refer to SSP 285

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Dynamic steering system

For detailed information about the design and operating principle, please refer to SSP 402

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Dynamic steering system

The dynamic steering system provides enhance comfort and driving dynamics through the dynamic control of
steering effort and angle dependent on the driving situation, i.e. when changing lane, parking and cornering.
Steering ratio

Comfort setting
indirect

without dynamic steering


direct

Dynamic setting

Low speed (e.g. Medium speed (e.g. High speed (e.g.


parking) country road) motorway)

Vehicle speed

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Dynamic steering system

Stabilising intervention

The dynamic steering system takes stabilising measures in situations when necessary, e.g.:

1. under braking on surfaces with different coefficients of friction (µ split)


2. understeer
3. oversteer

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Dynamic steering system

System diagnostics

System malfunctions are indicated by the warning lamp and by text output on the centre display of the dash panel
insert.
If the system is shut down due to a malfunctioning, this will be noticeable by the fact that a great deal more steering
effort is required when parking. (steering wheel turning angle from 0 position to full lock is 450 instead of 390 )

Dynamic steering
system:
System
malfunction

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Electromechanical steering system (EPS)

Steering angle sensor


Advantages
Vehicle speed - Steering angle
- Steering angle speed
Reduction of fuel consumption by 0.1-0.2l /100 km
through demand-basedpower consumption
Steering torque sensor
- Steering torque
Easy implementation of a speed-sensitive power
EPS control unit assistance and damping system which provides an
optimal steering feel in any situation
Asynchronous motor

Worm gear Low sensitivity to surface unevenness implementation


of active wheel return to straight-ahead position

Steering pinion
EPS pinion

For detailed information about the design and operating principle, please refer to SSP 313

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Electromechanical steering system (EPS)

Warning lamp K161

The warning lamp is located in the dash panel insert.


It serves to indicate system faults.

When the warning lamp comes on,a triple gong is


simultaneously activated.

For detailed information about the design and operating principle, please refer to SSP 313

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product


Vehicle Dynamics Control Systems

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Vehicle dynamics control systems

Glossary

What do the following abbreviations mean?


ABS ESP BDW
EBD HBA
EDL AHA
TCS HHA
EBC EPB

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ABS( Anti-lock Braking System)


This system prevents the wheels from locking while braking. Despite the systems powerful braking effect, track
stability and steer ability are retained.

TCS (Traction Control System)


This system prevents the driven wheels from spinning, e.g. on ice or gravel, by intervening in the brake and
engine management systems.

EBD (Electronic Brake Pressure Distribution) This system prevents over braking of the rear wheels before ABS
takes effect or if ABS is unavailable, due to specific fault states.

EDL (Electronic Differential Lock)


This system makes it possible to drive away on road surfaces where each wheel has a different degree of traction
by braking the wheel which is spinning.

ESP( Electronic Stability Programme)


This system prevents the vehicle from skidding by selectively intervening in the brake and engine management
systems. The following abbreviations are used also: ASMS (Automatic Stability Management System), DSC
(Dynamic Stability Control), DDC (Driving Dynamic Control), VSA (Vehicle Stability Assist) and VSC (Vehicle
Stability Control).

EBC (Engine Braking Control)


This system prevents the driven wheels from locking due to the engine braking effect when the accelerator pedal
is released suddenly or when the vehicle is braked with a gear engaged.

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HBA ( Hydraulic Brake Assist )function

By using defined characteristic curves during the dynamic brake pressure build-up as a reference, HBA is able to
detect when an emergency braking manoeuvre has been made by the driver.
To provide the driver with braking assistance, the system builds up the maximum brake pressure as quickly as
possible to bring the wheels to within the operating range of the ABS. This allows optimal deceleration of the vehicle
to be achieved in an emergency situation.

Hill Hold Assist

If the foot brake has been applied for a long period on an uphill gradient and the vehicle is stationary, the brake
pressure developed is maintained for a short time after the foot brake is released; this automatic brake intervention
feature helps the driver to move off uphill slopes without rolling back.

Audi Hold Assist

Holds the vehicle for an unlimited period of time after stopping, both on uphill slopes and downhill slopes. The
system is pushbutton-activated and allows the driver to pull away conveniently without using the handbrake.

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TCS function

If the drive torque is too high, the TCS directs the engine
control unit to reduce engine power.

TCS is effective over the full speed range of the vehicle.


It can be deactivated with the TCS (ESP) button.

However, TCS is always activated when the ignition is


turned on.

Advantage:
Stability under acceleration on smooth road surfaces.

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EBC function

EBC takes effect when the driven wheels show a


tendency to lock up shifting into a lower gear or if
the driver suddenly lifts off the throttle.

The engine control unit receives the command to


increase the engine speed. As a result, the drag
torque of the engine is reduced.

EBC is effective over the full road speed range


from approx. 20 kph.
TCS and EBC override the driver torque input
from the drive-by-wire throttle control.

Advantage:
Steerability when coasting on smooth road
surfaces.

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ESP function

Example: avoiding an obstacle

Without ESP:
The preceding steering movements cause the vehicle to roll and the
rear end of the vehicle begins to drift.

With ESP:
The steering movement is initially assisted by braking one of the rear
wheels. Vehicle roll is avoided by selective braking of the front wheels.

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ESP function

The ESP works by determining the actual response of the vehicle and comparing this with
the predetermined nominal response of the vehicle.

Actual response is essentially determined from the actual measurement data for:
•Yaw rate
•Transverse acceleration
•Steering angle
•Vehicle road speed
•Brake pressure

Nominal response is essentially determined from:


• steering angle sensor signal > driver steering input
• brake pressure signal > driver deceleration input
• engine power signal > drive torque input
• vehicle's road speed
• estimated traction coefficients: This estimate is based on the
transverse acceleration signal and the estimated longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle

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BA function

An emergency braking situation is identifiedfrom


the following trigger conditions, and the brake
assist system is activated.
For this purpose, it requires following conditions:
1. The signal from the brake light switch
indicating that the brake has been applied.
2. The signals from the wheel speed sensor
indicating how fast the vehicle is travelling.
Brake light switch
3. The signal from the brake pressure sender
indicating how quickly and with how much
pressure the driver has pressed the brake
Brake pressure sender
pedal.

RPM sensor

ACTUAL value NOMINAL value

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BDW function

If a speed signal greater than 50 kph is Actuation of


present and the windscreen wiper is in the windscreen
operation (even in intermittent mode), the wipers
front brake pads are applied to the brake (even in
discs approx. every 3 km for a duration of intermittent
wipe mode)
approx. 8 seconds in order to remove any
water film from the brake discs.

For this purpose, the ESP starts up and


applies a pressure of approx. 0.8 - 1.2 bar.
J104
The function is not indicated to the driver.
The function interval is reset whenever the
brake is applied.

Active brake pressure build-up at the front


axle

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Electromechanical parking brake

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Electromechanical parking brake

Parking brake motor V282/283

• Mechanical tensioning of the brake pads by spindle drive, self-locking thread.


• Spindle drive by wobble-plate gear
• Gear drive by DC motor

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Electromechanical parking brake

Functions :

• Parking brake function

• Dynamic emergency brake function

• Adaptive Hill Start Assist

• Break pad wear sensors (Audi A8 only) and


brake pad clearance adjustment

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Electromechanical parking brake

Parking brake function:

The tension is sufficient for any driving situation. On


uphill gradients greater than 30%, a warning is
indicated by a text message on the centre display of
the dash panel insert

Automatic re-tensioning after cooling of the brake disc


(disc temperature model in the control unit software)

Warning lamps in the switch and dash panel insert


indicate when the system is active

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Electromechanical parking brake

Emergency braking
function

V > 8 kph Maximum vehicle deceleration 8 m/s2 V 8 kph

• Braking by ESP Vehicle is braked as long as switch is • Parking brake is closed


pulled.
• Engine torque is • Indication by parking brake
decreased to idling level Activated emergency brake function indicator on dash panel
if the accelerator pedal is is deactivated if when the accelerator insert and warning lamp on
still being pressed pedal is depressed further switch when parking brake
is closed
• Brake pressure build-up
at all four wheel brakes Function indication by acoustic signal

• CCS deactivation (if


system is active)

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Electromechanical parking brake

Adaptive Start Assist:

• Provides smooth driveaway without roll-back on uphill slopes

• Only available when fastened seat belt active

• Measurement of angle of inclination by sensor in control unit

• Continuous automatic calibration of tilt-angle sensor and drive-away parameters

• Whenever the vehicle is driven away on level terrain, its acceleration response is evaluated and compared
to the control parameters stored in the control unit.

Emergency release

In the event of a fault (e.g. failure of the power supply, faulty electronics etc.), the closed parking brake can only
be released mechanically as described below.
The vehicle is lifted with the car jack and the relevant wheel is removed.
The adjustment motor is detached from the brake caliper using a Torx wrench. The spindle wrench insert is now
accessible, and the spindle can be turned until the brake pads become detached.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product


All-wheel Drive- Power transmission

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Overview of all-wheel drive systems

Haldex coupling Torsen differential Transfer case

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Quattro history
1980 : Audi quattro Permanent all-wheel drive with open differential and manually actuated,
mechanical locks on transfer differential and at the rear axle differential, initially by Bowden cable,
then pneumatically actuated.
1986 : Audi 80/100-The self-locking Torsen differential (Torsen "A") integrated in the manual gearbox is
located between the front and rear axles. A manually actuated limited slip differential (electro-
pneumatically operated by a button in the centre console) is located on the rear axle.
1988 : Audi V8 With automatic: centre differential by means of planet gear set and electro-hydraulically
controlled multi-disc differential lock and self-locking Torsen differential on rear axle.
1994 : Audi A4, A6*, A8 Discontinuation of manual, electro-pneumaticallyengaged limited slipdifferential on
rear axle. Launch of 4-wheel EDL &TCS with open differentials on front and rear axles.

1995 : Audi A4, A6*, A8 The new 5-speed automatic gearboxes 01V and 01L are equipped with PAT Torsen
(Parallel Axis Torsen), alsoknown as Torsen "B".

1998 : Audi A3 As an optimum solution for transversely installed engines, the Audi A3 is fitted for the first
time with an electronically controlled hydraulic multi-plate clutch (Haldex) serving as a longitudinal
lock. Four-wheel EDL and TCS with open differentials on the front and rear axles.
2004 : Audi A3, Audi TT Second generation of the Haldex coupling (Haldex II).
2005 : Audi S4 and RS4Launch of the Torsen "C" with asymmetric
2006: Audi Q7 40:60 torque split.

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Haldex coupling

Power distribution

Front axle differential

Bevel box

Rear axle differential

Rear axle differential Haldex coupling

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Haldex coupling
- High ease of use due to automatic control
Characteristics
- Variable power transmission from 0 - 100% to the rear axle

- The Haldex clutch can handle almost any driving situation in


conjunction with the EDL control.

-Quick response, power transmission is available as of a wheel


rotation angle difference of only 10 between the front and rear
axle, while maximum torque is transmissible as of 20 .

-No stressing of the powertrain during manoeuvring,since only a


very low torque is transmissible

- No restrictions on towing with the front axle raised

-Fully combinable with all traction control systems (ABS, EDL,


ESP, TCS, EBD)

rear axle is activated by closing the Haldex coupling.The Haldex coupling is a multi-plate clutch which is closed by oil pressure.The rear
axle is only activated if there is a difference in speed between the front and rear axles.
As the speed differential increases, the oil pressure which compresses the multi-plate clutch rises, allowing more torque to be
transmitted to the rear axle.The rear axle is not activated when reversing.
The Haldex coupling is opened under braking, when operating the hand brake or when the ESP is activated.When testing the front axle
brake, attention should be paid to use of a brake test stand with a reversing function, and the engine and ignition should be turned off,
144 as otherwise the vehicle will be pushed out of the rollers by the rear axle.

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Haldex coupling
Driving dynamics

Normal acceleration 100% slip at a front wheel

Normal acceleration 100% slip at a front wheel


Even under normal acceleration, speed differentials When 100% slip occurs at one of the front wheels,
occur between the front and rear axles (approx. 1-2 the engine's full drive power is directed to the rear
RPM), these being sufficient to close the Haldex axle. The differential compensates for differences in
coupling and thereby transmit engine power to all four torque between the two front wheels.This means that
wheels. Since small speed differentials virtually always when 100% slip occurs at one wheel, the other wheel
exist, the drive system is permanent all-wheel drive cannot transmit any torque to the road surface.

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Haldex II coupling

Driving dynamics

100% slip at a rear wheel 100% slip at one wheel, front and rear

100% slip at a rear wheel 100% slip at one wheel, front and rear
In this case, too, the front and rear axles are If this situation occurs, it is theoretically not possible
driven at different speeds. All-wheel drive is to drive forwards: The differential compensates for the
positively engaged, distributing drive power to differences in wheel speeds,
all wheels. The rear axle is driven, but no drive with the result that no drive power is available at any
power can be transmitted to the road surface of the wheels.
due to the slip at the rear wheels. Hence, drive However, this is where the four-wheel EDL comes in,
is provided by the front axle. providing forward traction
to the remaining wheels. The slipping wheels are
braked, with the result that drive power is transmitted
via the differential to the wheels with higher traction
146 potential.

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Torsen differential
Torsen A Torsen B Torsen C
Overview

01W 01V 0A3


01E 01L 0AQ
02X
0A3
09L - Power distribution front-to-rear 50% : 50% with Torsen A and B and 40% : 60% with Torsen B.
09E
- Permanent all-wheel drive even when reversing

- Stressing of the powertrain during manoeuvring

- Restrictions on towing with the front axle raised

147 - Fully combinable with all traction control systems (ABS, ESP, TCS)

APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Torsen differential

Power distribution
Rear axle drive with
differential

Front axle drive with


differential

Torsen centre
differential

The self-locking Torsen centre differential is an all-mechanical


system. The mechanism "senses" the axle to which more power
can be transmitted and directs most of the engine's drive power to
this axle continuously and instantaneously.

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Torsen differential

General notes

•The Torsen differential cannot be compared to a • When driving away with the steering wheel fully
mechanical 100% differential lock. If an axle or a locked (e.g. when manoeuvring into a vacant parking
wheel begins to spin, no drive power is transmitted space), the powertrain will be subjected to stress due
until the EDL system (electronic differential lock) to the lock-up effect of the Torsen differential.
intervenes. This can result in judder, stick/slip or vibration in the
powertrain (Torsen judder). This does not constitute a
• The EDL control system begins to intervene when a defect provided that these symptoms do not occur
defined difference in wheel speed is exceeded. during normal turn-off manoeuvres or when driving in a
Throttle must be applied until the EDL control system, circle.
by means of brake application, produces a
compensating torque which is then available at the • Pay attention to the information given in the
other wheels. If this compensating torque is sufficient operating instructions with regard to the use of tyres
to overcome the motion resistance of the vehicle, the and snow chains.
vehicle will be able to drive away. The compensating
torque (produced by brake intervention) is converted • Continuous compensation for large differences in
to heat , and becomes what is known as "loss torque". speed between the front and rear axles in combination
The EDL control system is deactivated before the with high engine load will damage the Torsen
brake begins to overheat. differential.

• If the prop shaft has been removed, no drive power


will be transmitted .
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Transfer case

Front axle Rear axle differential


differential

A final drive with differential is installed on the front and rear axles.

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Transfer case
The transfer case is flanged onto the gearbox. The front axle is driven by a gear chain.

Differential
Oil pan
Input shaft

Output to the rear

Chain drive

Output to the front


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Transfer case

Operating instructions

– The self-locking centre differential cannot be – The EDL control system begins to intervene when
compared to a mechanical 100% differential lock. a defined difference in wheel speed is exceeded.
If an axle or a wheel begins to spin, no drive power Throttle must be applied until the EDL control
is transmitted until the EDL control system builds up additional, compensating torque by
(electronic differential lock) intervenes. means of brake application.
This compensating torque is then available to
– Continuous compensation for large differences in the opposite wheel.
speed between the front and rear axles in
combination with high engine load will damage the
self-locking centre differential.
– If either of the two prop shafts is removed, no drive
power will be transmitted.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product


Driver Assist Systems

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adaptive

cruise

control

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adaptive cruise control

Overview

Cruise control system adaptive cruise control


(CCS)

Vehicle directly ahead: No vehicle directly ahead:

The desired speed set by The desired distance (time The desired speed set by the
the driver is implemented. gap) set by the driver is driver is implemented.
implemented.

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adaptive cruise control

Basics
The information required for acc control

Distance to vehicle ahead

Speed of vehicle ahead

Position of vehicle ahead

Selection of vehicle
relevant to control

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adaptive cruise control

Basics

Distance measurement
The time interval between sending the signal and
receiving the reflected signal components is
dependent on the distance to the object

50 m
Example:
The duration between sending and receiving the
reflected signal is twice as long at twice the distance.

100 m

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adaptive cruise control

Basics

Determining the position of the vehicle ahead:

The radar signal propagates in a wave that gets larger


as it moves outward. The signal strength (amplitude)
decreases at increasing distance from the transmitter.

To determine the position of a vehicle ahead, it is also


necessary to know the angle at which it is moving
relative to one's own vehicle.
This information is acquired using a three-beam radar.
The ratio of the amplitudes (=signal strengths) of the
received (reflected) signals provides the angle
information.

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adaptive cruise control

Basics

Identification of the vehicle relevant to


control

First of all, the acc control unit has to determine the


lane in which the vehicle is travelling.

This process is relatively complex and requires


additional information (additional input signals). In
particular, the signals from the yaw rate sensor, the
wheel speed sender and the steering angle sender
are required for this purpose.
Information on the curvature of the lane is obtained by
evaluating these signals.

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adaptive cruise control

System components

Distance control sender G259 and adaptive cruise


control unit J428

The sender and the control unit are accommodated in


a single housing. If the sender/control unit
malfunctions, then the complete unit must be
replaced.

The distance control sender G259 transmits the


frequency modulated signal and receives the reflected
signal. The control unit processes the radar signals
and other, additional input signals. From these
signals, the system identifies the relevant vehicle
ahead from all the objects within the line of sight of the
radar.

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adaptive cruise control

System components

Operating concept

The system is operated using the control stalk on the


left-hand side of the steering column.

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adaptive cruise control

System components

Display concept

The display concept provides for three display blocks:

All key information is always displayed centrally on the


speedometer.

Important system-related information which, however,


does not have to be displayed continuously due to its low
incidence is displayed in the information line on the
centre display of the dash panel insert.

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adaptive cruise control

Diagnostics

The following diagnostic options are available:

- Data blocks - Final control diagnosis

- Adaption - Coding

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adaptive cruise control

Diagnostics

Setting the distance control sender:

Mechanical setting of the distance sensor is necessary after:

• modifications to the rear axle alignment

• replacing the sensor, sensor holder,bumper beam and


front end

• damage (e.g. after a collision)

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Audi parking system

Overview

Audi Parking Audi parking Audi parking Audi parking


System system front system plus system
and rear advanced

4-channel park 8-channel park 8-channel park 8-channel park


assist system assist system
assist system assist system
(audio-visual) (audio-visual)
(rear) (audible) with rear view

A3
 - - -
TT
 - - -
A4
  - -
A6
 -  
Q7
 -  
A8 - -  
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Audi parking system

Functions
> Audible warning

The interval between the audible tones decreases as the vehicle approaches an obstacle. Once the vehicle within a
distance of approximately 30cm from the obstacle, the warning becomes a continuous tone.
The measuring range of the ultrasonic sensors begins approximately at:

Front side: 0.90m Front centre: 1.20m Rear side: 0.60m Rear centre: 1.60m

> Mute function


The audible distance warning is suppressed when the selector lever is moved into position P.However, the park
assist system remains active.

> Volume reduction


If the distance to a detected obstacle remains constant, the volume is reduced to a minimum level after approximately
4 seconds(does not apply to continuous tone!).

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Audi parking system

Functions

> Manoeuvring
If you shift gear while manoeuvring the vehicle, the audible warning tones are temporarily suppressed. When you
again approach an obstacle, the audible warning function will be active again.

> Trailer operation


In vehicles equipped with a factory fitted tow bar, the continuous audible warning tone begins at a distance of
0.35m. If the trailer control unit detects that a trailer is coupled to the vehicle, the rear park assist system remains
deactivated.

> Acknowledgement tone


When the park assist system is activated, a short acknowledgement tone will be heard. If the system unavailable due
to a fault, a sustained warning tone sounds.

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Audi parking system

Rear park assist system (4-channel system)


System overview
Convenience CAN High

Convenience CAN Low

Signal generator
rear
H15
Terminal 31
Terminal 30
Terminal 15

Feedback to driver: audible

Park assist system control unit

J446

G203 G204 G205 G206

168 Ultrasound sensors, rear

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Audi parking system

System overview Front and rear park assist system (8-channel system)
Convenience CAN High

Convenience CAN Low

Signal generator, Park assist system


Signal generator,
rear front button
H15 H22 E266 Feedback to driver:
Terminal 31
Terminal 30
Terminal 15

1) audible
Audi Parking System

Park assist system control unit


2) audio-visual
J446
Audi Parking System Plus

G203 G204 G205 G206 G252 G253 G254 G255


rear 4 ultrasound sensors front 4 ultrasound sensors
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Audi parking system

Operation Front and rear park assist system (8-channel system)

System activation by
– selecting reverse gear
– pushing the park assist system button

System deactivation by:


– driving forwards at a speed of
greater than 10 kph
– turning off the ignition
Park assist system button of an Audi Q7
– pushing the park assist system button

If the function turn signal LED in the park assist system button comes on:

- System is currently active


- No system fault currently present

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Audi parking system

MMI display Optical Parking System OPS

Park assist system

Vehicle equipped with:


MMI

Also check the course of the vehicle! Rear View

Vehicle equipped with:


MMI Basic

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Audi parking system

Setting options

8-channel park assist system with visual display on the MMI

Car Vehicle wallet

Audi parking system

Display APS none

graphic
Volume, front

Frequency, front

Volume, rear

Frequency, rear

Version

none Visual display of the park assist system on the MMI is deactivated
graphic Visual display of the park assist system on the MMI is activated
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Rear-view camera (Rear View)

Sideways parking

– Orange coloured line are dynamic guide lines and depend on the steering angle
– The dynamic guide lines have graduation marks spaced at intervals of 1 metre
– The blue box is a static reference box and represents a vehicle contour extended by 5 metres
– The first transition between the different shades of blue in the reference box is 1 metre behind the rear end of the
vehicle and the second transition is 2 metres, the blue reference box ending 5 metres behind the rear end of the vehicle

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Rear-view camera (Rear View)

Longitudinal parking

The prerequisite for a successful parking manoeuvre is:

-> The blue box must completely fit between the two vehicles

The blue box is 7 metres long

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Rear-view camera (Rear View)

Setting options
Car Vehicle wallet
Audi parking system
APS display none
graphic
Volume, front
Rear View
Frequency, front
automatic
Volume, rear
Frequency, rear

Version

Meanings of the setting options on the MMI:


None When park assist is active, neither the visual turn signal nor the image of the
rear-view camera are displayed on the MMI

Graphic When park assist is active, the visual turn signal is always displayed on the MMI

Rear View When park assist is active, the image of the rear-view camera is always displayed
on the MMI

Automatic If park assist is active, the visual turn signals are displayed on the MMI when the
vehicle is travelling forwards and the image of the rear-view camera is displayed
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Rear-view camera (Rear View)

Installation locations

Rear-view camera
The Audi rear-view camera is a PANASONIC brand camera. It weighs 40 g and has dimensions of 27 mm x 24.5
mm x 35 mm. Because of its compact design, the camera has been integrated in the boot lid handle.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product


Air Conditioning Systems

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Air conditioning system


The air conditioning system is a combination of a heating/ventilation system and a cooling system, which is
responsible for dehumidifying and cooling the intake air.
In cooling mode, the humidity of the air in the vehicle interior is reduced.
This prevents misting of the windows and provides a pleasant interior climate.

Please pay attention to the following:


At high ambient air humidity and high ambient temperatures, condensation can drip from the cooling system
evaporator and form a puddle beneath the vehicle. This is normal, and not the sign of the leak!
At low ambient temperatures, except in the defrost setting, the fresh air blower does not switch to a higher speed
until the coolant has reached a sufficient temperature.
When driving away at full throttle, the compressor of the automatic air conditioning system is briefly deactivated
to provide full engine power.
To ensure engine cooling under extreme engine load, the compressor is deactivated at excessively high coolant
temperatures.

Dust and pollen filter


The Dust and pollen filter removes impurities (e.g. dust, pollen) from the ambient air and significantly reduces
odour. air filter also takes place in air recycle mode.

The automatic air conditioning system maintains the set temperature fully automatically.
For this purpose, the temperature of the outflowing air, the blower speed (air flow rate) and the air distribution are
adjusted automatically.The system also allows for high levels of incident solar radiation, thus eliminating the need
for manual adjustment.
In almost all cases, therefore, the automatic mode provides the best configuration with regard to the well-being of
the vehicle occupants all year round.
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Method of operation of the air conditioning system


The compressor draws in cold, gaseous refrigerant with a low pressure. The refrigerant is compressed in the
compressor, during which it process it heats up. It is pumped into the circulation system (high-pressure side).
In this phase, the refrigerant is in a gaseous state and has a high pressure and high temperature.

Evaporator
Induced fresh air
The refrigerant enters the condenser. Heat is now
extracted from the compressed, hot gas in the Fresh air blower
condenser by the air flowing through (head wind and Refrigerant system
fresh air blower).
When the pressure-dependent dew point is reached,
the gaseous refrigerant condenses and liquefies. Head wind
In this phase, the refrigerant is in a liquid state and
has a high pressure and medium temperature.

Condenser Heat exchanger


In the evaporator , the injected liquid refrigerant expands and evaporates. The necessary heat of evaporation is
extracted from the warm fresh air flowing through the evaporator fins, during which process the fresh air cools
down.
In this phase, the refrigerant is in a vapour state and has a low pressure and low temperature.
The refrigerant, which is now gaseous again, discharges from the evaporator.
In this phase, the refrigerant is in a gaseous state again and has a low pressure and low temperature.
It is drawn in again by the compressor and again flows through the system. The cycle is now complete.
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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Air recycle mode

What do we understand by 'air recycle mode'?


The air conditioning system is able to draw in ambient air (fresh air) or interior air (recycled air).
In air recycle mode, the air used for interior cooling is extracted from the vehicle interior. The air inside the vehicle
is recirculated and temperature-controlled.
Why air recycle mode?
In air recycle mode, the vehicle interior is cooled most quickly. This is achieved through multiple use of the interior
air, which becomes increasingly cooler. The opposite effect occurs when heating the vehicle, i.e. faster heating.

Advantages of the air recycle mode:


In cooling mode, the required evaporator output, i.e. the driving power of the compressor in air recycle mode, is
more than halved.
In air recycle mode, ingress of contaminated ambient air into the vehicle interior is largely prevented.

Drawbacks of the air recycle mode:


In air recycle mode, no exchange of air takes place. The air is "used up".
It should, therefore, not be used for longer than necessary (max. 15 min.).
In air recycle mode, the humidity inside the occupant cell increases due to moisture release by the occupants. As
soon as the dew point of the interior air exceeds the temperature of the windows, the windows will inevitably
begin to mist up.
In the Defrost setting, therefore, air recycle mode is automatically disabled.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Backpressure control

What do we understand by 'backpressure control'?

The fresh air flow rate is speed-sensitive and increases with increasing vehicle speed. Depending on the
interior temperature, blower speed and vehicle speed, the air flow flap is adjusted in such a way that the fresh
air flow rate stays nearly constant.

Residual heat

You can activate the 'Residual heat' function when the ignition is "off" by pressing the button.
The residual heat from the coolant is used to heat the vehicle interior.

The 'Residual heat' function can be started within 30 min. after the ignition (terminal 15) is turned "off" and heats
the vehicle interior for up to 10 min.

To start the function, the coolant temperature and the battery voltage must be sufficiently high.

When the 'Residual heat' function is started, the coolant is recirculated in the heat exchanger by an electrical
pump and the fresh air blower is activated.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Sunlight penetration photo sensor G - 107


The sunlight penetration photo sensor G107 contains 2 photo sensors. It measures the incident solar radiation in
the passenger compartment and supplies a voltage value for separate temperature control on the driver and front
passenger sides to the climatronic control unit J255.
If G107 fails, a default substitute value is used.

Climatronic control unit, J255

Signal line from right photo sensor

Sunlight penetration photo Signal line from left photo sensor


sensor, G107

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Air quality sensor G - 238 with automatic air recirculation control

Air quality sensor • Operating principle: similar to oxygen sensor


Combined G238
• Mixed oxide sensor (SnO2) in semiconductor
Fresh air intake filter
technology
• Sensitivity to toxic gases through platinum and
palladium additives
• Self-adaptive, compares average pollutant
concentration in the ambient air with peak pollution
levels, requests air recirculation in the form of a
Airborne pollutants square-wave signal to the control unit.
Square-wave signal to • The air recirculation and fresh air flap is closed in
operating unit E87 dependence on the ambient temperature, driver
input, compressor OFF/ON and pollutant
concentration.
• The function can be deactivated using the
control panel or the MMI.
• Note the different electrical specifications:
Output signal: PWM or CAN signal.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Additional heating heater element - Z35

The heater element, which is complementary to the heat


exchanger, ensures that the passenger compartment heats up
quickly.
It is fitted only in combination with TDI engines.
Evaporator
The heater element is positioned in the air stream downstream
of the evaporator and the heat exchanger.
Heat exchanger

Auxiliary heating element Z35

The heater element consists of multiple ceramic PTC resistors


and louvres.
If the heater element is activated, an electrical current flows
through the individual PTC resistors.
This heats the PTC resistors up to a certain temperature.
The louvres absorb the heat and dissipate it to the air stream.
The resistance of PTC resistors increases with rising
temperature, with the result that current flow is reduced.
Overheating is thereby prevented.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Humidity sender G - 355

At low ambient temperatures, when the windscreen


becomes very cold, the upper third of the windscreen is
prone to misting.
To monitor this area, the humidity sender G 355 is
fittedin front of the base of the rear-view mirror.
Before water vapour from the air inside the vehicle can
condense on the windows, the output of the air
conditioning compressor and the RPM of the blower are
increased, and the defroster flap is opened further. Dry
air is then directed to the windscreen and side windows
via the evaporator and the heat exchanger from the
open defrost outlets

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Electric rear auxiliary heater on A8

An electrical auxiliary heater is located in each of


the air ducts for rear air conditioning in the footwell
under the front seats. These auxiliary heaters heat
the air flowing into the vehicle interior using electrical
energy sourced from the onboard power supply.
If colder air is supplied to the rear climate zones
(rear compartment) is colder than to the front, this
is regulated via the centre vents.
Power output: 2 x 250 W
Function at term. 15 ON is dependent on the
battery's state of charge

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi A4, A5, Q5 Triple-zone deluxe automatic air conditioning plus

Separately preselectable temperature for driver and front


passenger with third climate zone for the rear passengers
(temperature can be adjusted with rotary controls on the vents)
Separate air temperature control for driver and front passenger
Sunlight dependent temperature control
Dust and pollen filter
*Integrated button for seat heating / seat ventilation.
*Glove box cooling
With backpressure control and air recycle mode with recirculating
air filter
Air quality sensor with automatic air recycle and activated charcoal
filter unit
*Air humidity sensor
* Key identification
Vehicles with diesel engines are fitted with additional heating
heater element -Z35

187 * These features are optional.

APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi A4, A5, Q5 networking

In the Audi A4/A5, the climatronic control unit J255 no longer


Legend
receives all signals directly from the senders/sensors, rather
from other control units via data bus. G17 Ambient temperature sensor
N280 Air conditioning system
compressor regulating valve
J519 Onboard power supply control unit
J255 Climatronic control unit
J393 Convenience system central control unit
J533 Data bus diagnostic interface
J364 Additional heater control unit
G395 Refri.pressure / temperature sender
G238 Air quality sensor
J126 Fresh air blower control unit
V107 Flap control motors
G355 Humidity sender
J245 Sliding sunroof control unit

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi A6 dual-zone deluxe automatic air conditioning

Separately preselectable temperature for driver and front passenger


Separate water temperature control for driver and front passenger
Sunlight dependent temperature control
Dust and pollen filter
*Integrated button for seat heating / seat ventilation.
With backpressure control and air recycle mode with recirculating air
filter
*Key identification
Vehicles with diesel engines are fitted with additional heating heater
element -Z35

* These features are optional.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi A6 dual-zone deluxe automatic air conditioning plus

Separately preselectable temperature for driver and front passenger


Separate water temperature control for driver and front passenger
Sunlight dependent temperature control
Dust and pollen filter
*Integrated button for seat heating / seat ventilation.
With backpressure control and air recycle mode with recirculating air
filter
Air quality sensor with automatic air recycle and activated charcoal
filter unit
*Air humidity sensor integrated in control panel
*Key identification
Residual heat function
Vehicles with diesel engines are fitted with additional heating heater
element -Z35

* These features are optional.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi A8 4-zone automatic air conditioning system

Additional operating and display unit in rear


compartment
Electrical auxiliary rear heater
Separately preselectable temperature for driver and front
passenger
Separate air temperature controls for left and right in air
conditioner
*Integrated button for seat heating / seat ventilation.
If the child lock is activated, the control panel is "off".

* These features are optional.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi Q7 four-zone deluxe automatic air conditioning system

Additional operating and display unit in rear


compartment
Separately preselectable temperature for driver and front
passenger
Separate air temperature controls for left and right in air
conditioner
*Integrated button for seat heating / seat ventilation.
Additional air conditioner in rear compartment with
evaporator and heat exchanger.
There is no separate dust and pollen filter since cleaned
cabin air is already being drawn in (in the luggage
compartment, left).

* These features are optional.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi Q7 air distribution, four-zone deluxe automatic air conditioning system

Rear vent, centre


console
Front air
conditioner unit

Rear air
conditioner
unit

B-post vent

C-post vent

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi TT single-zone automatic air conditioning system

Preselectable temperature
Air temperature control
Sunlight dependent temperature control
Dust and pollen filter with activated charcoal filter unit.
*Integrated button for seat heating.
With backpressure control and air recycle mode with
recirculating air filter
* Key identification

* These features are optional.

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APB 001 P.1 Audi - Brand & Product

Audi R8 single-zone automatic air conditioning system

Preselectable temperature
Air temperature control
Sunlight dependent temperature control
Dust and pollen filter with activated charcoal filter unit.
*Integrated button for seat heating.
With backpressure control and air recycle mode with
recirculating air filter
* Key identification

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