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Learning Unit Template NAME: Andrew Simpson - 17464824

Biology Content for Programming: You are required to programme content from one of the following units in the HSC biology module, Maintaining a
Balance (9.2):

 (1) Most organisms are active in a limited temperature range.


 (2) Plants and animals transport dissolved nutrients and gases in a fluid medium.
 (3) Plants and animals regulate the concentration of gases, water and waste products of metabolism in cells and in interstitial fluid.

After selecting one of these units, programme content for all dot points under ‘students learn to’ and ‘students’ columns within the unit.

Note on ‘Resources’ Column: Do not just list the resources, but also describe your use of the resources support the learning/teaching activities. Provide
specific web-link, APA citation, or explain the type of resource you would create.

#2 Plants and animals transport dissolved nutrients and gases in a fluid medium
Adjust the number and height of rows in the table as needed.
Unit Content Skills Learning/Teaching Activities Resources (Fake/Real resources)
Students learn to…/Students… 9.1 Biology Skills What’s the activity? Who is leading it (teacher/student)?

1. Identify the form(s) in which 13.1 b Introductory activity: reviewing prior learning Prescribed textbook: Heinemann
each of the  Using the prescribed textbook students define the use Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
following is carried in 13.1 e of carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, salts, lipids, Edition). A provided worksheet for
mammalian nitrogenous waste, and other products of digestion students to work through with
blood: 14.2 a with examples. teacher instruction.
– carbon dioxide
– oxygen Jigsaw collaborative learning activity Prescribed textbook: Heinemann
– water  Students are divided into 7 groups, with each group Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
– salts focusing on one element (e.g. Group 1 is carbon Edition). A3 poster of group work
– lipids dioxide, group 2 is oxygen, etc.). Students will collaboration.
– nitrogenous waste research their element using the prescribed textbook
– other products of digestion identifying what form(s) their element is carried in
mammalian blood.
Analyse information from  After the groups have collaborated their information
secondary sources to identify each group will share their information. Information
the products extracted from will be displayed on the white board under their
donated blood and discuss the respectable element.
uses of these products  Each group will copy down the work while a single
group at a time will explain the form(s) of the
Analyse and present elements.
information from secondary
sources to report on progress Teacher lead group discussion Informative justification presented
in the production of artificial  Students will analyse the differences and/or and labelled on the whiteboard.
blood and use available similarities of the elements and justify why their
evidence to propose reasons element is in that certain form.
why such research is needed
Exploring information from secondary sources Better Health Channel: Blood
 Students view information from the projector via the Donation, viewing a fact sheet with
Teachers school computer outlining products various factors relating to content
extracted from donated blood. through classroom projector and
computer.
Group class discussion https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au
 The use of extracted products is discussed by the /health/conditionsand
groups to the class gathering collective information treatments/blood-donation
from other students.

Independent note taking activity Blood and Artificial Blood Worksheet


 An online video will be provided (justifying research relating to the online video link
for artificial blood). Students will take notes relevant shown:
to problems of using real blood, replacements for https://thebox.unsw.edu.au
blood, advantages of artificial blood, and the need of /video/justifying-research-for-
research. artificial-blood-mov
 The Teacher then labels the relevant information on Presented by classroom projector
the whiteboard with help from student’s and computer.
collaboration of information. Further detail is added
to correct any mistakes with independent note taking

Illustration activity
 Illustrations are constructed of extracted products
forms and the forms carried through mammalian Prescribed textbook: Heinemann
blood. Descriptions and information of the Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
illustrations are then completed. Edition).

Mind mapping revision


 Mind mapping on the class whiteboard with a
diagram covering content of the forms carried
through mammalian blood, products extracted from
donated blood and their use. Also, content on the
progress of artificial blood with evidence of the need
for research.

2. Explain the adaptive 11.2 c Group practical Prescribed textbook: Heinemann


advantage of haemoglobin  A deconstructed diagram model of haemoglobin is Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
11.3 a given to groups of 3 and/or 4 students. Students must Edition) to gather relevant
Analyse information from interpret what haemoglobin essentially is and what it information
secondary sources to identify 11.3 b is made up of. Explanation of the bonding and the
current technologies that allow purpose of haemoglobin is presented.
measurement of oxygen 11.3 c
saturation and carbon dioxide Online simulation
concentrations in blood and 12.4 d  In this task students have access to computers Haemoglobin: the structure and
describe and explain the viewing the molecular structure of haemoglobin, the function, Online simulation and
conditions under which these advantages of haemoglobin, the function, and the allocation of school computers.
technologies are used process of haemoglobin through the body.
 Students interact with the online program
investigating what haemoglobin does.
 Facts of haemoglobin for individual learning are
presented whilst accessing the program.

Group investigation practical Pulse oximeter used for practical


 In groups of 3 or 4, students are given a pulse investigation collecting data.
oximeter, students investigate the item by reporting
how it works, what is does, why it is used and the
conditions in that it is used.
 Using the pulse oximeter students perform an arterial
blood gas (ABG) analysis, reporting the same
information relevant to the pulse oximeter.
 Carrying out a risk assessment before practical begins.

3. Compare the structure of 11.1 e Structure and function activity Prescribed textbook: Heinemann
arteries, capillaries and veins in  On an A4 sheet of paper students are given a human Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
relation to their function 12.3 b model with arteries, capillaries and veins in black and Edition) used to label worksheet and
white for colouring and labelling. Arteries are the evaluate understanding.
Analyse and present 14.1 a colour red, veins the colour blue, and capillaries
information from secondary purple. The colour is to demonstrate blood with and
sources to report on progress without oxygen.
in the production of artificial  On another A4 sheet of paper a microscopic view of
blood and use available an artery and a vein is printed. Students distinguish
evidence to propose reasons the 3 layers and their structure.
why such research is needed
Teacher lead open discussion Prescribed textbook: Heinemann
 A discussion is held upon the similarities and Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
differences of the arteries, veins and capillaries. This Edition) to compare elements.
involves explaining the structure, function and
significance in the body. Circulation of the human body
 Students add notes to their model on the A4 sheet of model on A4 sheet of paper
paper while also writing other important notes in
their books.

Linking activity Artificial blood and the comparison


 With the help of prior work a video is watched online to real blood video online. Blood
acknowledging the problems of real blood and from a HIV donor and the
advantages of artificial blood. comparison of a normal blood donor
 Students collect information from the online video video online. Both viewed by a
about types of blood and their effect on circulation. classroom projector and computer.
 Students explore the benefits of types of blood on
circulation relating to arteries, veins and capillaries.
Then suggest the further need for research
 Another short video is viewed displaying the
variations in blood with a person who has HIV and a
person who doesn’t.

4. Describe the main changes 11.2 e Pre-practical learning Prescribed textbook: Heinemann
in the chemical composition of  In groups of 4 or 5 students examine and record the Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
the blood as it moves around 12.1 d changing chemical composition of blood through: Edition).
the body and identify tissues in  the lungs
which these changes occur 14.1 d  the digestive tract
 the liver and relation to the kidneys.
Perform a first-hand  the role of hormones in the blood and how they are
investigation using the light produced.
microscope and prepared
slides to gather information to Practical Investigation Investigation of blood samples in a
estimate the size of red and  A first-hand investigation is guided by the teacher to lab experiment and risk assessment.
white blood cells and draw demonstrate change in carbon dioxide and oxygen
scaled diagrams of each content of blood.
 Risk assessment is implemented to minimise potential
hazards. Appropriate equipment is set up accordingly,
teacher does an example of the procedure
demonstrating the use of equipment. The teacher
must predict issues that may arise and evaluate
strategies to address these issues.
 Students are encouraged to view a microscopic
sample of blood with oxygen through the microscope
and compare the sample to blood without oxygen.

Investigation follow up Prescribed textbook: Heinemann


 Individually students record the information they Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
found from the practical investigation, they then with Edition) further students
help from the prescribed textbook compare the understanding and recordings of
similarities and differences between blood samples. data from the first-hand
 Furthermore, students link haemoglobin and blood investigation.
and explain what oxygen does to haemoglobin.
 White and red bloods cells are distinguished and
compared from the investigation.
5. Outline the need for oxygen 11.2 a Comprehension activity Prescribed textbook: Heinemann
in living cells and explain why  In pairs, with limited teacher guidance, students Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
removal of carbon dioxide from 11.2 d collaborate their understanding of oxygen involving Edition) for individual collaboration.
cells is essential its function, the relation to energy and carbon MB.2.8. Role of oxygen and carbon-
12.1 b dioxide. dioxide in cells (HSC biology)
Perform a first-hand  Each pair may gather information from the prescribed presented through classroom
investigation to demonstrate 12.1 c textbook whilst also using secondary sources of projector and computer
the effect of dissolved carbon information provided by a YouTube video. https://www.youtube.com/
dioxide on the pH of water watch?v=joXjrLIOO-Q
Practical first hand investigation
Analyse information from  Method 1, There are groups of 3 or 4 students per Data sheet of practical investigation
secondary sources to identify group, exhaling air into limewater and recording the involving procedure and equipment
current technologies that allow data of change. used with risk assessment.
measurement of oxygen  Method 2, teacher lead investigation, calcium
saturation and carbon dioxide carbonate and hydrochloric acid were added to the
concentrations in blood and flask, students observe and record data based upon
describe and explain the universal indicator.
conditions under which these  Describe the process for the investigation
technologies are used  Outline the function of calcium carbonate and
hydrochloric acid together
 clarify carbon dioxide and its effect on the pH of
water

Teacher lead class discussion


 The teacher questions the results the students found
and the results were given.
 Teacher explains how the combination of calcium
carbonate and hydrochloric acid react to form carbon
dioxide to lower the pH of the water

Kahoot game Personal devices, classroom


 With the use of student’s personal devices, student’s projector and computer display the
log in to a game online viewed through the projector online kahoot game for students to
that revises over content. Students can either be in participate.
groups or test themselves individually, the game is a
multiple-choice quiz with allocated time for each
question. The quicker the response the better the
score depending whether it is correct or not.

6. Describe current theories 14.1 h Independent reading and discovery Prescribed textbook: Heinemann
about processes responsible  Independently reading through the prescribed Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
for the movement of materials 14.3 a textbook students interpret the function of xylem and Edition) for independent reading
through plants in xylem and phloem in transport. gathering information.
phloem tissue 14.3 c  Further reading is needed to extract the transpiration
theory in xylem, evidence of this theory and an
Choose equipment or explanation. Pressure flow theory in phloem is
resources to perform a first- explained while considering loading at the source,
hand investigation to gather offloading at the sink, and pressure flow.
first-hand data to draw
transverse and longitudinal Online investigation
sections of phloem and xylem  Students investigate illustrations of phloem and xylem The computer room is engaged to
tissue tissue with labels of the tissue, this is viewed on search on google for labelling of the
google images. diagram on A4 sheet of paper.
 On an A4 sheet of paper with the diagram, student
label the diagram accordingly by finding the same
illustration on google images.

Jigsaw activity
 Students are in groups of 2 or 3 each assigned a task Students textbooks are employed to
of covering content of work they covered in the unit answer questions in allocated
maintaining a balance: Plants and animals transport groups.
dissolved nutrients and gases in a fluid medium.
 Each group labels their section upon the whiteboard
and outline the key points explored through the unit.

Open book quiz activity Prescribed textbook: Heinemann


 Students are given a quiz sheet covering the unit, they Biology HSC Teacher Edition (3rd
may use the prescribed textbook, notes, and other Edition) assist in answering quiz
information gathered from students. questions on a sheet.
 This quiz is to revise and assess the knowledge of
students, they are encouraged to study beforehand.

Include completed tutorial activities here:


Week 1 Lecture Activity
As a HSC teacher, I feel obliged to spread awareness to about how students will complete school-based assessments as part of their HSC,
which together contribute 50% of their final HSC mark for a course (except VET courses). This acknowledgement will provide students with
prior organisation and preparation before assessments are due. Allowing the students to understand how serious the school-based
assessments are, especially towards there HSC final mark. I will explain the Assessment section of Students Online where students will find
information and advice about HSC assessments. Information includes what to expect with assessment tasks, what assessment ranks are and
how to check them after the exams, and the guide to completing assessment tasks honestly and with confidence.

Week 2 Lecture Activity


To investigate the effect of substrate concentration, pH levels and temperature on the rate of enzyme reaction. Enzyme Reactions (2017) has
broken the investigation up into 3 parts:
 Part 1 – Substrate concentration: The variables for this component of the experiment are (dependant) the enzyme activity and
(independent) the substrate concentration.
 Part 2 – Temperature: The variable for this component are (dependant) the substrate concentration, 6%, enzyme activity and
(independent) temperature.
 Part 3 – pH levels: The variable components for this experiment are (dependant) the substrate concentration, 6%, the temperature,
35°C 40°C, and the enzyme activity. The independent variable for this part of the experiment is the level of pH concentration.

Activity link:
http://stage6.pbworks.com/f/Enzymes+Practical.pdf

Risk assessment form


Chemical or Procedure or Hazard Precaution Source of
microorganism equipment taken to control information
risk
Liver Grind using a Low hazard Wearing safety School Policy &
mortar and glasses, gloves, Advisory Guide.
pestle and lab coat Personal
Protective
Equipment
(PPE)
Detergent Placement of Low hazard Wearing safety School Policy &
drops into test glasses, gloves, Advisory Guide.
tubes and lab coat Personal
Protective
Equipment
(PPE)
Hydrogen 5mL placed into Reacts violently Wearing safety The National
Peroxide a test tube via a with glasses, gloves, Institute for
beaker combustible and lab coat Occupational
and reducing Safety and
materials Health (NIOSH)
causing fire and
explosion
hazard
particularly in
the presence of
metals. Attacks
many organic
substances,
e.g., textile and
paper.
Hot water baths Placing the test Slowly place Teacher
tubes in and out and remove test knowledge
of the water tube from water
bath bath and avoid
spilling item
Removing hot High Protective Teacher
test tube temperature of gloves to knowledge and
test tube counteract the The National
high Institute for
temperature Occupational
Safety and
Health (NIOSH)

School Policy & Advisory Guide, link:


http://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/principals/spag/curriculum/Pages/safescience.aspx

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), link:
https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng0164.html

Students to have in their books to remind them of the risk assessment

Week 3 Lecture Activity


Metalanguage

What does it look like in classrooms?


Lessons explicitly name and analyse knowledge as a specialist language (metalanguage), and provide frequent commentary on language use
and the various contexts of differing language uses.

What does it look like in assessment tasks?


Tasks require the use of metalanguage, commentary on language use and the various contexts of differing language uses.

Describe in a paragraph how you can apply metalanguage to the design of lesson for your HSC subject. Give an example specific to a science
topic in the HSC syllabus that is different from any topic you are addressing in Assignment 1.

The Blueprint of Life (9.3) with the topic: chromosomal structures provide the key to inheritance, addresses metalanguage by the identification
of the double-stranded DNA helix. The strands comprise of a sugar-phosphate backbone and attached bases that include adenine (A), thymine
(T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). Biological metalanguage can inherit a student’s self-regulation and connectedness to grasp a better
understanding of biological terms. The use of mnemonics and analogies may help metalanguage be understood better linking to student’s
external environment. An example is the analogy that DNA is like a twisted ladder and the mnemonic All Tigers Can Growl emphasis the
acronym ATCG for the DNA bases.
Week 4 Lecture Activity
Positive Reinforcement can be applied in a lesson for the learning outcome: discuss the difficulties of defining the terms ‘health’ and ‘disease’.
There are many variations of definitions that represent health and disease, which allows students to suggest there known definition. Students
are rewarded on their suggestion without the teacher or students harmfully criticising the student’s suggestion that emphasises positive
reinforcement. Challenging behaviours of students has shown to be managed by positive reinforcement and is a more acceptable approach
(Maag, 2001). Students exposed to positive reinforcement by teachers are more likely to act freely, developing numerous constructive and
beneficial outcomes, including improved self-esteem (Doughty & Shields, 2009).
Lesson Plan Template

Topic area: Maintaining a Stage of Learner: Stage 6 Syllabus Pages: 41


Balance

Safety Considerations: Safety Time: 40-60 minutes Printing/preparation:


Glasses, Protective Gloves, Lab, straw, beaker, universal
Enclosed Shoes and Lab Coat. indicator, test tube, water,
Personal Protective Equipment conical flasks, student practical
(PPE). worksheet, calcium carbonate
and hydrochloric acid.

Knowledge Outcomes in Unit – Skills Outcomes in Unit –


Students Learn To… Students…
Outline the need for oxygen in living cells and explain why Perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate the effect of
removal of carbon dioxide from cells is essential dissolved carbon dioxide on the pH of water

Links Between Lesson Content and Unit Contextual Outline


Multicellular organisms have specialised organ systems that are adapted for the uptake and transport of
essential nutrients from the environment, the utilisation or production of energy and the removal of waste
products arising from cellular activities.
H4
H8

Quality Teaching Elements (lesson focus) Highlight the appropriate areas


Intellectual Quality 1.1 Deep knowledge 1.4 Higher-order thinking
This refers to pedagogy focused on producing deep understanding of important, 1.2 Deep understanding 1.5 Metalanguage
substantive concepts, skills and ideas. Such pedagogy treats knowledge as something 1.3 Problematic 1.6 Substantive
that requires active construction and requires students to engage in higher-order knowledge communication
thinking and to communicate substantively about what they are learning.
Quality Learning Environment 2.1 Explicit quality criteria 2.4 Social Support
This refers to pedagogy that creates classrooms where students and teachers work 2.2 Engagement 2.5 Students’ self-regulation
productively in an environment clearly focused on learning. Such pedagogy sets high and 2.3 High Expectations 2.6 Student direction
explicit expectations and develops positive relationships between teacher and students
and among students.
Significance 3.1 Background 3.4 Inclusivity
This refers to pedagogy that helps make learning more meaningful and important to knowledge 3.5 Connectedness
students. Such pedagogy draws clear connections with students’ prior knowledge and 3.2 Cultural knowledge 3.6 Narrative
identities, with contexts outside of the classroom, and with multiple ways of knowing all 3.3 Knowledge
cultural perspective. integration

How are the quality teaching elements you have identified achieved within the lesson?

Teaching Indicators of presence in the lesson


element
2.4 Social The teacher and students assist each other in groups by setting up practical investigation
support equipment and guiding each other through the experiment. Discussions of the lesson
provide positive communication of tasks with the teacher and students. The appropriate
safe cleaning and packing away of equipment in groups assist class support.
2.5 Students’ Engagement with the practical investigation in set groups allows student reliability to
self-regulation display autonomy and initiative in effectively complete the experiment responsibly.
Personal study at the end of class identifies well-disciplined students to successfully
employ in biological study.
Lesson Script

Time Teacher’s Actions Students’ Actions Resources


Open ended questions tasks Students response (refer to web-
link, author and
year, or original
handout)
Intro Teacher introduction, marks the roll, then Students places bags accordingly to lab Lab, whiteboard
5 minutes introduces topic of the lesson. The teacher room and are seated in appropriate chairs at and marking roll.
explains the structure of the lesson. Clarifying desks with essential class equipment (pens,
what the students will be learning and what textbooks, etc.). During the introduction
the students should have learnt by the end of students listen and state whether if they are
the lesson. present with a reply of ‘here, yep, yes, etc.’
In their textbooks students copy down key
areas to be covered in this lesson and the
main points/questions discussed at the end
of the lesson.
Body Allocate students into groups of 3 or 4 each Sit with other class mates for investigation textbook
10 minutes (by selecting groups by friendship) with and get out PPE ready for the practical.
practical equipment collected by students to Answer questions asked of last lesson with
conduct the investigation. Make sure each help from students textbook whilst adding
student has personal protective equipment further information to their textbook.
(PPE), if a student has not brought their own, Questions are answered in detail relating to
there will be provided PPE. notes on last lesson. Practical worksheet is
Revision of last lesson is covered explaining received. Student practical
the role of oxygen in living cells in relation to worksheet (teacher
carbon dioxide. Ask students to use their developed
textbooks to gather information and write resource)
down further information learnt. Open-ended
question and answer response, targeting
confident students for responses. While
students are working, a practical worksheet is
given to students.

An analogy is described to students to better The analogy is noted in student textbooks to


understand the role of carbon dioxide. remember the role of carbon dioxide in the
“Carbon dioxide is like the human body's body.
exhaust. Our lungs are where gas is
exchanged and in the lungs, there are
capillaries. When inhaling oxygen-rich air, the
carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen in the
blood therefore exhaling carbon dioxide.”
10 minutes A risk assessment is completed by the teacher Students attentively listen to the risks and Risk assessment
and justified to students with an example of hazards of the practical investigation. online
the practical investigation shown. The https://www.
Teacher asks, “What will happen to the riskassess.com.
limewater when you exhale air into the au/docs/
limewater?” (choosing students across the “The limewater turns cloudy.” UserGuide.pdf
class).
“Good, correct, why does it turn cloudy?” “It was cloudy because our exhaled air Straw, beaker,
“Yes, that is right, thank you.” contained carbon dioxide.” universal
indicator, test tube,
The teacher tells each group to collect The collection of equipment is completed is water, and
practical equipment safely and watches the a safe appropriate manner. Students check limewater.
students carefully. The practical worksheet is off practical worksheet and answer
emphasised to be read and completed questions that relate to the experiment.
through practical.

“I will now come around to your desks and Students wait for teacher guidance and
place the limewater in your beakers, once I confirmation to begin practical.
am finished each subject I select exhales air Acknowledgement of how to perform the
into their beaker with lime water. Do not task is initiated with a ‘yes’. Then the
exhale to hard through the straw, please students exhale air into their own beaker of
avoid making a mess and come to me if you limewater, once the teacher has allowed
do. Also, please take notes on the practical them to do so.
worksheet of the change you experience and
what happens to the pH level, you may Students take notes of the reaction of
begin.” carbon dioxide and limewater. They also
“If you need any assistance or have a question identify what is happening to pH level.
do not hesitate to ask.” The teacher checks on Students raise their hands for any assistance
student behaviour and anticipates if help is or help.
required.
10 minutes After each group has finished exhaling enough Students finish their experiment of mixing Whiteboard,
carbon dioxide (air) into limewater the the air from their lungs with the limewater. textbooks, universal
teacher assesses the class with the student’s The universal indicator is used to indicator, student
recordings and outcome. Teacher selects demonstrate the pH level of water. Students practical worksheet
students for questioning. reveal what information they have collected (teacher developed
“Overall what did we find when combining and discuss with the class from the practical resource)
our air from our body with the limewater?” worksheet.
“Correct, why did it change to this colour “The limewater turned to an orange to red
though? What is happening with the pH colour.”
level?” “The pH level is lowered by carbon dioxide
“Right again, very good.” causing it to turn a darker orange to red
“What was the independent variable and colour.”
dependent variable of this experiment?”
“Excellent, that is it.” “The independent variable was the number
“I would now like you to all copy down the of breaths of carbon dioxide and the
results and information we found I will place dependent variable was the pH of the
them up on the board for you to copy.” water.”
Teacher walks around the room to each group Taking notes in their books from the
checking data and correction of information. whiteboard relevant to information found.
Groups share information to teacher for
class to collect.
15 minutes Another practical investigation is prepared Students watch the teacher lead practical Conical flasks,
lead by the teacher that is performed at the investigation and take notes based on what calcium carbonate,
front of the class. happens. hydrochloric acid,
“In this experiment, I will combine calcium The change of water is taken and students test tube, water,
carbonate and hydrochloric acid.” suggest why the colour changed due to the and universal
The calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid mix of calcium carbonate and hydrochloric indicator.
are mixed together with water. A universal acid. The universal indicator from groups
indicator is used distinguishing the change in allows students to distinguish pH level of
colour. teacher lead experiment.
“What did we notice about this experiment
and the last one? Also, what reaction did Gather information of what happened doing
calcium carbonate have with hydrochloric the experiment, why it happened and try to
acid and water?” “I will give you a minute to explain the chemical reactions.
gather your answers?” Questions are labelled
on the whiteboard.
“Okay, students what information did we “When the calcium carbonate and
gather from this experiment?” Choosing a few hydrochloric acid mixed together with water
students to propose their findings. they formed to create carbon dioxide. That
lowered the pH level of the water as we
noticed in the first experiment. This
lowering of the pH level, like the last
“Excellent class, great collaboration of experiment, causes the colour of the water
information.” to turn an orange to red colour”.
5 minutes Experiment clean up, cleaning practical Wash up equipment used for the
equipment, whipping down desk, making sure experiment responsibly and appropriately.
there is no mess left over or any harmful Clean up any other messes and make sure
substances and all hazards are removed. there are no hazards. Avoid any danger by
“Class, I now require you to gather all not carrying too much equipment, dry glass
equipment, safely wash the items in the sinks objects to avoid dropping them. When done
provided and whip down the desk. Please wait for teacher to check off work station
make sure there is no mess left over and (desk).
hazards are removed. I will come to each desk
and check to make sure everything is tidy and
clean, okay, go.” “Yes sir.”
“Done.”
Once checked off and desks are all clear Bags and personal equipment is collected
students may now collect their bags and and put away.
personal equipment is put away.
“That is the end of class students, next class “thank you, have a good day too, cya.”
we will be going into further detail of today’s
practicals. Please come to me for any further
questions. Thank you, have a good day.”

Assessment: How am I measuring/assessing the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement/assessment


Need for oxygen in living cells. The introduction of the lesson revising over last lessons
content with the teacher assessing students by open-ended
questions with relevant answers.
Carbon dioxide and the effect The first practical investigation evaluates students’
on pH level. knowledge to follow guidelines and complete the
experiment effectively. The teacher observes students
during the experiment and views data recorded.

The second practical investigation is measured by students


notes taken during the teacher lead experiment performed
in front of the class. A discussion is held after with student’s
response to questions.

Other considerations

Complete the table blow by inserting the AISTL graduate standards that you are
demonstrating and indicates the evidence from this lesson that should comply with the
standard.

Graduate Evidence within this lesson


Standards
2.2 Content The practical investigations involved throughout the lesson explain why
selection and removal of carbon dioxide from cells is essential. By performing the first-
organisation hand investigation this demonstrates the effect of dissolved carbon dioxide
on the pH of water.
4.2 Manage Before the first practical investigation the teacher provides a trial run of
classroom how the experiment is supposed to be done. The layout of questioning with
activities tasks and class discussions provide clear directions for students to follow.
The teacher lead tasks organise and guide students to complete
appropriate work.
Lesson Plan Template

Topic area: Maintaining a Stage of Learner: Stage 6 Syllabus Pages: 41


Balance

Safety Considerations: Tripping Time: 40-60 minutes Printing/preparation: Practical


hazards, class and student worksheet, question sheet, hsc
equipment. biology syllabus, and
information of last lesson.

Knowledge Outcomes in Unit – Skills Outcomes in Unit –


Students Learn To… Students…
Outline the need for oxygen in living cells and explain why Perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate the effect of
removal of carbon dioxide from cells is essential dissolved carbon dioxide on the pH of water

Links Between Lesson Content and Unit Contextual Outline


Multicellular organisms have specialised organ systems that are adapted for the uptake and transport of
essential nutrients from the environment, the utilisation or production of energy and the removal of waste
products arising from cellular activities.
H4
H8

Quality Teaching Elements (lesson focus) Highlight the appropriate areas


Intellectual Quality 1.1 Deep knowledge 1.4 Higher-order thinking
This refers to pedagogy focused on producing deep understanding of important, 1.2 Deep understanding 1.5 Metalanguage
substantive concepts, skills and ideas. Such pedagogy treats knowledge as something 1.3 Problematic 1.6 Substantive
that requires active construction and requires students to engage in higher-order knowledge communication
thinking and to communicate substantively about what they are learning.
Quality Learning Environment 2.1 Explicit quality criteria 2.4 Social Support
This refers to pedagogy that creates classrooms where students and teachers work 2.2 Engagement 2.5 Students’ self-regulation
productively in an environment clearly focused on learning. Such pedagogy sets high and 2.3 High Expectations 2.6 Student direction
explicit expectations and develops positive relationships between teacher and students
and among students.
Significance 3.1 Background 3.4 Inclusivity
This refers to pedagogy that helps make learning more meaningful and important to knowledge 3.5 Connectedness
students. Such pedagogy draws clear connections with students’ prior knowledge and 3.2 Cultural knowledge 3.6 Narrative
identities, with contexts outside of the classroom, and with multiple ways of knowing all 3.3 Knowledge
cultural perspective. integration

How are the quality teaching elements you have identified achieved within the lesson?

Teaching Indicators of presence in the lesson


element
1.3 Problematic Discussing the similarities between carbon dioxide and mixture of calcium carbonate
knowledge with hydrochloric acid. Evaluating and elaborating on carbon dioxide and the reaction of
water, cells, and the bloodstream while considering pH level.
Lesson Script

Time Teacher’s Actions Students’ Actions Resources


Open ended questions tasks Students response (refer to web-
link, author and
year, or original
handout)
Intro Teacher introduction, marks the roll, then Students places bags accordingly to lab room Lab, whiteboard
5 minutes introduces topic of the lesson. The teacher and are seated in appropriate chairs at desks and marking roll.
explains the structure of the lesson. Clarifying with essential class equipment (pens, textbooks,
what the students will be learning and what etc.). During the introduction students listen
the students should have learnt by the end of and state whether if they are present with a
the lesson. reply of ‘here, yep, yes, etc.’ In their textbooks
students copy down key areas covered in this
lesson and the main points/questions discussed
at the end of the lesson.
Body Allocate students into pairs of 2 each (by Sit with other class mates for revision of last Textbook,
10 minutes friendship allocation) and make sure each lesson and to compare information. prescribed
student has their textbook, practical Answer questions asked of last lesson with help textbook:
worksheet and biology textbook. from student’s textbook, biology textbook and Heinemann Biology
Revision of last lesson is covered explaining other students. HSC Teacher
the practical investigations completed Edition (3rd
through experiments in relation to carbon Edition), and
dioxide. Ask students to get out their practical worksheet
textbooks and recordings of data to write
down further information to be learnt this
lesson.
20 minutes Have students evaluate the production of Students collect information they have recorded Prescribed
carbon dioxide and why it is removed from from the previous experiments and further textbook:
the cells. Recall the analogy used in the last information from the biology textbook, relevant Heinemann Biology
lesson for a better understanding. Then to the role of carbon dioxide. The analogy from HSC Teacher
elaborate what the reaction of carbon dioxide last lesson is recalled and addressed identifying Edition (3rd
with water has and the effect this reaction has the role of carbon dioxide. Edition), and
on cells and the bloodstream. whiteboard.
“Class, the following questions I have placed
up on the board need to be answered with In their textbooks students write down each
information based on the practical question, answering each question to the best
experiments with help from the prescribed of their knowledge with further assistance from
biology textbook. Please take your time, work the prescribed biology textbook, last lessons
in pairs if you like, and I will allow plenty of information and other students if necessary.
time before asking for your answers.”

The teacher addresses the class for their Answers to questions are provided from the
answers to be written up on the board for all teacher questioning the class, each answer is
students to compare and correct their noted by students for beneficial learning of
answers. Confident students are selected correct information. Students share their
from pairs across the class to write down information on the board with the class.
answers to questions on the board.
10-15 Clarification of content used from the biology Summarisation of the two lessons is concluded Biology HSC
minutes syllabus is summarised from the previous with students discussing syllabus content syllabus, students
lesson to the present lesson. relevant to carbon dioxide in maintaining a textbook and study
An open class discussion is engaged by balance. Revision of both lessons is extracted to notes.
students revising over the previous and provide collaboration of correct information.
present lesson to classify content on carbon
dioxide.

“Class, from the syllabus that has been “The content point: ‘outline the need for
provided to you, what content in ‘students oxygen in living cells and explain why removal
learn to’ do you believe we have covered?” of carbon dioxide from cells is essential’.”
“Well done, what about the content in “Perform a first-hand investigation to
‘students’?” demonstrate the effect of dissolved carbon
“Very good.” dioxide on the pH of water.”

Personal study, revision, and/or preparation Further study or questioning is encouraged by


for next lesson is explained. Teacher allows students to address any enquiries to better
time at the end of each lesson for students to understand of biological knowledge from the
ask any questions relevant to the previous two lessons. Note taking, self-study, revision
lesson and the present lesson or general and/or lesson preparation is applied by students
inquiries about biology. Summary of major in the classroom.
points and checking for understanding is
encouraged.
5 minutes The extra 5 minutes of time also gives Personal and school equipment used for the Personal and school
students to pack up their belongings lesson is put away safely without rushing. equipment.
effectively without rushing. Reducing chance Students help each other with packing or
of risks or hazards. Guidance and carefully cleaning up necessary areas used. Appropriate
watching students as they pack their safe collection of personal equipment is
belongings away is accomplished. undergone.

Reflection

The Biology stage 6 consecutive lesson plans created, both together address three Australian
Professional Standards for Teachers (APST) and three NSW Quality Teaching model
elements. Each lesson plan constructed involves two learning outcomes overall for students
to be assessed during the lessons that are extracted from the HSC Biology syllabus (Board of
Studies NSW, 2002). Two HSC course outcomes are incorporated throughout the
consecutive lessons selected from the prescribed focus area and Domain: Knowledge. H2
and H8 are the two HSC course outcomes that are utilised by a practical investigation based
on the effect of carbon dioxide (Board of Studies NSW, 2002).

The use of an analogy was expended in lesson plan one then recalled again in lesson plan
two, to interpret and better understand the role of carbon dioxide for students to
comprehend the knowledge of syllabus content. Analogies are important, especially for
Biology in the learning unit, to provide explanations of content by familiarising abstract
concepts with real-world examples so students that offer a clear understanding (Chou &
Shu, 2015). Distinguishing carbon dioxide in the lesson plan through an analogy develops
students own understanding of content improving student’s metacognition (Iding, 1977).
The example of the analogy is presented in the first lesson plan explaining how carbon
dioxide is like the bodies exhaust.

Analogies are similes and metaphors constructed to breakdown important or necessary


information so a person can then comprehend information based off their own perception.
Secondary school students require the use of analogies to better their understanding of
content being taught. Justifying the implementation of the analogy in the first lesson then
recalled back into the second lesson applying the students’ knowledge of significant key
content in the learning unit. Carbon dioxide is the key element used over the two lessons
based on why removal of carbon dioxide from cells is essential combining with the effect of
carbon dioxide on the pH of water (Board of Studies NSW, 2002).

The integration of a learner-centred or student-centred classroom incorporates the teacher


to be responsive and respectful of student’s diverse needs (Dunn & Rakes, 2011). The lesson
plans constructed both support student achievement and student-centred practices applying
a constructivist approach. This approach is associated with the learning activities presented
throughout providing opportunities for students to experience various skill and build
knowledge for themselves isolating learning unit content. Class discussions, sharing student
knowledge and the engagement in practical investigations (social interactions) play a role in
this constructivist approach that is focussed in the lesson plans (Üredi, 2013).

Lesson plan and learning unit activities support student-centred learning that has been
shown to improve student motivation and skills forming effective learning environments
(Boddy et al., 2003). The placement of students into groups and pairs establish collaborative
group work, student opinions and open discussions that may outline students contradictions
against each other. Guidance is executed by the teacher throughout the lesson plans so
students can discover and construct information (Ayaz & Sekerci, 2015). This approach
allows the students to learn and develop information for themselves connecting to the
constructivist approach employed in the lessons and learning unit.

The teacher-centred approach is another strategy opposing the constructivist approach that
is implicated in the lesson plans for effective student learning. This teacher-centred
approach is demonstrated by the teacher presenting, explaining, and delivering direct
instruction to students shown throughout the learning unit (Santoyo & Zhang, 2016).
Research from Tüzün & Özgelen (2012) has shown that lecturing and demonstration were
preferred methods to teaching Biology concepts that has been indicated in the consecutive
lesson plans. Additionally, a teacher-centred approach was found to generally use basic
scientific process skills implementing effective instruction and student learning (Tüzün &
Özgelen, 2012).

In the second practical investigation, the teacher is appointed to the centre of the learning
environment lecturing information of the experimental procedure to students. Students
become dependent on teacher’s action and knowledge for efficient learning, however the
teacher-centred approach includes barely any class participation effecting various learning
strategies (Yeung et al., 2014). Engaging in a teacher-centred approach and student-centred
approach shows a high correlation that suggest they relate and are both effective teaching
strategies for the learning unit (Yeung et al., 2014). Both approaches are displayed in the
learning activities of the lesson plans presented through student collective group work and
teacher lead instruction.

Pedagogical approaches emphasised in the learning environment differentiate between


students and lessons based on praxis, relating to the learning unit content. Teachers benefit
from evaluating and reflecting on teaching strategies that impacts a teacher’s belief of
effective teaching approaches (Yeung et al., 2014). Acknowledgement of students learning
ability needs to be assessed and constructed to cater these needs for effective pedagogy.
Theory-based approaches are implemented and reflected in lessons to engage teachers to
identify what works and what needs improvement. For this reason, the teacher-centred
approach and student-centred approach are both applied to assess what works.

Assessment: How am I measuring/assessing the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement/assessment


The function of carbon Students evaluate and elaborate on carbon dioxide, with
dioxide in the body. help from the prescribed biology textbook, relating to cells
and the bloodstream. The teacher quizzes each student
individually with questions presented on the board. Then
answers are shared after students have provided adequate
information for each question or until time is up.
Revise over the role of carbon An open class discussion at the end of class assesses
dioxide. student understanding and of information learnt through
the lesson. Students outline and justify key issues and
important terms to better their understanding. The teacher
provides feedback to correct information enhancing
students’ knowledge.

Other considerations
Complete the table blow by inserting the AISTL graduate standards that you are
demonstrating and indicates the evidence from this lesson that should comply with the
standard.

Graduate Evidence within this lesson


Standards
5.1 Assess Providing students with constant open-ended questions about the
student experiments and content learnt of the lesson assess student learning. The
learning testing of students’ knowledge includes diagnostic, formative and
summative approaches. These approaches are completed by the teacher
questioning students’ knowledge before, during, and after activities and
tasks.
References

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Resources Attached
You must provide all the resources that will be used with this lesson in their entirety (e.g. all
power point slides, entire student handouts, etc.).
Student Practical Worksheet

Name:____________________ Date:____/_____/_____

Class:_____________________

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Check off:


 Glasses
 Gloves
 Lab Coat

Equipment Check off:


 Straw
 Beaker
 Universal Indicator
 Test tube
 Limewater

Practical Procedure Guideline


a) Groups of 3 or 4 each, selected by Teacher, collect practical equipment to
conduct the investigation.
b) Teacher fills beaker with limewater and a subject is chosen from each group
to perform experiment.
c) The subject exhales air through straw into limewater (that is in beaker).
d) Take notes of the reaction of carbon dioxide (air) and limewater and identify
what is happening to pH level.
e) Finish experiment of mixing the air from their lungs with the limewater.
Reveal what information has been collected.
f) Taking notes in books from the whiteboard relevant to information found.

Safety Clean Up of Equipment


Wash up equipment used for the experiment responsibly and appropriately.
Clean up any other messes and make sure there are no hazards. Avoid any
danger by not carrying too much equipment, dry glass objects to avoid
dropping them. When done wait for teacher to check off work station (desk).

Notes
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