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A Research

Presented to
the Faculty of the Graduate School
Capitol University

In Partial of the Requirements of the Course
Research Methodology in Business

October 2018

Chapter 1



Traffic congestion has long been an issue in Cagayan de Oro City with

the   increase   in   the   number   of   motor   vehicles   plying   the   national   roads.

Cagayan   de   Oro   City   is   one   of   the   leading   cities   in   the   country   when   it

comes to infrastructure and business establishments, it has been known as

the gateway to Northern Mindanao. It is geographically located at the central

coastline of Macajalar Bay to the North and the naurally­rich plateaus and

mountains of Bukidnon and Lanaodel Norte to the South.  

According to a study of Asian development Bank(2012) the Philippine

transport place a very vital role in the economic linkages across the islands.

Road transport has by far the foremost dominant use by 98% compare to

sea cargo which is 58%.   With Cagayan de Oro City named as the largest

city in Northern Mindanao with a territorial size of 3.4% of the region and

16.20% of Misamis Oriental.   Though it is an advantage that Cagayan de

Oro City has been the center of business in Northern Mindanao, there is an

underlying   issue   that   every   resident   of   Cagayan   de   Oro   is   experiencing.

According to the same study of Asian Development Bank (2016), by 2030

there will be a rapid urbanization in the Philippines and about 77% of the

population   will   live   in   urban   areas.     This   study   is   very   evident   on   the

housing   trend   of   Cagayan   de   Oro   City,   with   numerous   high   rise

condominiums located around the urban barangay this will surely reflect to

an   increase   of   population   and   increase   in   motor   vehicles.   The   study

elaborated   that   Philippines   should   have   a   seamless   transport   network

linkage   to   facilitate   the   cost­efficient   movements   of   good   around   the


Traffic congestion is one of the issues the city is currently going through

which is the aftermath of illegal parking and undisciplined drivers.Parking a

motor vehiclealongside restricted or unauthorized parking area in any road

or   building   is   a   violation.Parking   is   an   inevitable   requirement   for   the

accommodation   of   cars   while   they   are   not   in   use   (Young   1990).     As   per

record from Land Transportation Office Region X there were a total of 633

(six hundred thirty three) motor vehicle apprehended and settled in 2017

alone with a minimum of 40(forty) motor vehicles per month.   Appropriate

road safety policy is one of the essential elements of a well­balanced overall

transport policy (Ray 1995).  

Under the National Building Code of the Philippines otherwise known as

Presidential Degree 1096 ,all building whether be commercial or residential

have   parking   requirements   of   the   building/structure   within   two   hundred

meters radius, provided at least eighty percent of the parking requirements

are complied with and integrated in the building  design. It is also stated

that under no circumstances shall obstruction of any kind be allowed on

sidewalks, whether open or arcaded. This specifically refers to all forms of

commercial   signs   and   commercial   structures   that   impede   sight   lines   or

pedestrian traffic along the sidewalk. 

In   this   study,   we   come   toknow   the   different   factors   affecting   traffic

congestion   clearly   affects   not   just   commuters   but   the   whole   city.     As

population, transportation and employment increases the need to manage

traffic   congestion   must   be   instigated.     According   to   Carmudi   PH(2016),

longer commute time, absenteeism,wasted man­hours and tardiness cause

a enormous effect on commuter while motorist also are concern with their

fuel expenses due to slow moving of motor vehicle during peak hours. It also

states that due to traffic congestion there is an economic loss of PhP 2.6

billion   each   day,   this   figures   will  possible   arise   to  3billion   at   the  peal   of

rainy season.  As the economic structure of Cagayan de Oro is growing and

with the situation of the city’s traffic condition getting worse this will give a

negative impact to investors.  Traffic congestion is defined as a condition of

traffic delay because the number of vehicles trying to use a road exceeds the

design capacity of the traffic network to handle it (Weisbrod, Vary ,TReyz

2003).   The result of traffic in the city can have a wide range of negative

impact to the economy that will also have an effect not just the business

owners but their employees as well.

There can be a variety of ways to respond to these traffic changes but

business owners have to look into some important points that may affect

travel cost, operating cost and productivity cost.  With the presence of traffic

congestion this means that some trips will entail longer travel times which

can cause higher expenses on fuel and leads to higher operating cost for

vehicle   operators.     The   added   time   of   the   driver   and   commuters   due   to

traffic   congestion   may   also   demonstrate   an   added   expense   to   their   daily


  Traffic congestion can also inflict additional cost to business connected

with freights and service deliveries.  For instance, a delay in delivering goods

especially on areas that only had 2 lanes and no parking space.  With this

situation, drivers will wait for a vacant area for parking far distant from the

place of delivery.  The delivery time then will cost increase time table of the

deliveries and can cause delay in schedule of delivery.   With this problem

operators   tend   to   improve   their   delivery   system   by   adding   more   delivery

trucks   and   drivers   which   also   cause   operating   cost.With   the   effect   of

increase   time   of   delivery   due   to   congestion,   congestion   has   also   a   great

impact on the productivity rate of business due to longer amount of time of

delivery of goods.  According to Weisbrod, Vary ,TReyz (2003), The reduction

in   effective   market   reach   can   reduce   worker   access   to   jobs   and   shopper

access to stores.   It is evident that traffic congestion can lead to a domino

effect from economy to livelihood.

The   success   of   enforcement   is   dependent   on   its   ability   to   create   a

meaningful   deterrent   threat   to   road   users.   To   achieve   this,   the   primary

focus should be on increasing surveillance levels to ensure that perceived

apprehension risk is high (Zaal 1994).

The traffic congestion has cost a greater amount of economic and safety

of   the   riding   public   in   terms   of   slowdown   in   the   movement   of   access   of

goods due to congestion ,productive hours consumed by the riding public

because of travel time and public safety .   The daily strain of the current

traffic situation cannot be ignored by the government.  Therefore there is an

imperative to establish the need to improve the traffic situation of the city.

Conceptual Framework

The study is guided by a conceptual framework as shown in Figure 1

relating   the   dependent   and   independent   variables.     This   study   focuses

mainly   on   one   main   issue   which   is   traffic   congestion   of   Cagayan  de   Oro

City.     The   study   then   identifies   some   major   causes   on   how   this   current

traffic situation resulted.   With the fast development of the city, increase

number of infrastructure and increase number of motor vehicle along with

the   motorist   has   shown   a   great   impact   of   the   current   traffic   situation.

According to Weisbrod, Vary and Treyz(2003), the problem of these business

managers is that they do not explicitly track the cost of congestions, and

hence   seldom   make   any   specific   attributions   of   their   business   cost   to


congested roads. The government must act upon the obvious fact that this

growing   numbersof   motor   vehicle   and   population   will   worsen   the   traffic

situation of the city.

Schematic Diagram

The   independent   variables   constitute   the   factors   that   affects   traffic

congestion . The participants which are the walk in clients of a government

transportation agency will be the independent variable.  On the other hand,

dependent variables of the study are the factors affecting traffic congestion

in Cagayan de Oro City which primarily are insufficient traffic management,

insufficient capacity of the roads, inadequate public transport and poor land

use.   In   each   factors   there   are   three   identified   indicators   that   can   also

measure   on   how   traffic   congestion   affect   them.   In   this   diagram   we   will

understand   how   these   major   causes   had   greatly   affects   the   lives   of   the

people living in Cagayan de Oro City.

      Dependent Variables



Factors affecting traffic 
Demographic profile 1. Insufficient traffic 
1. Age
2. Sex
2. Insufficient capacity of the 
3. Educational
background roads
4. Occupation 3. Inadequate public transport
5. Place   were   you 4. Poor land use

Figure 1

Schematic Diagram

Statement of the Problem

1. What is the demographical information of the participants in terms 

of the following?

1.1 Age

1.2 Sex

1.3 Educational background

1.4 Employment status

1.5 Place where you live­Location

2. What are the factors affecting traffic congestion in Cagayan de Oro

City terms of?
2.1 Insufficient traffic management
2.2 Insufficient capacity of the roads
2.3 Inadequate public transport
2.4 Poor land use

3. What can be done to improve the current traffic situation?

Significance of the Study

The   important   aspect   of   this   study   is   to   determine   the   outcome   of

traffic congestion to livelihoodspecificallyin Cagayan de Oro City.   With the

assessment of the condition of the city in regards to traffic congestion the

concern agency will be able to give proper management of the issue.

Traffic   congestion   is   widely   viewed   as   a   growing   problem   in   many

urban areas because the overall volume of vehicular traffic in many areas

and motor vehicles continue to grow faster than the overall capacity of the

transportation   system   (Weisbrod   Vary   Treyz,   2003).     In   2017   alone   new

registered vehicle come up with a total of ninety one thousand eighty two

motor   vehicle,   seventy   nine   thousand   five   hundred   and   nine   from

motorcycle and eleven thousand five hundred seventy three for cars, utility

vehicle, sports utility vehicle and all kinds of trucks.   This date show that

there is a fast growing numbers of motor vehicle per year which means that

the government should compensate on how this increasing number of motor

vehicle   can   have   a   smooth   access   on   the   national   road.   The   no   contact

apprehension’s goal is to have a control of undisciplined. In Downs’ opinion

(2003), a further reason for traffic congestion is that older established cities

were laid out physically in pre­automotive eras; hence they lack streets and

roads  suitable  for  handling  automobiles,  trucks, and buses.    Though the

government make their effort in enlarging the capacity of streets in the city

for automotive traffic but some project takes longer than the allotted time

for   constructed   because   some   resident   are   opposing   the   road   widening,

since their dwellings would be torn down by widening streets. Therefore, the

growth of road capacity does not catch up with growth of vehicles and this

mismatch could cause lots of vehicles blocked on narrow roads.

  The worsening of traffic congestion can also differ depending on the

area   for   example   in   Cagayan   de   Oro   the   areas   of   C.M.   Recto   Avenue,

Corrales   street,   Pimentel   road   to   Camaman­an,Agoraroad,Puregold­

Valenzuela   Avenue,Osmena   street,   Gaabucayan­Corrales   street   and   Julio

Pacana are the most common areas in the city that has the worst traffic

situation.     Also   included   are   the   Cogon   market­Osmena,Osmena­


Pabayostreet,Corrales­Fernandez,Capistrano­Borja,Burgos­JrBorja.   This

certain areas are mostly located at the urbanized area of Cagayan de Oro

City where all the increasing number of infrastructure is being constructed.

The city has now been eyed also by big construction company for high rise

condominium located mostly at the center of the city.  With this, commuters

and road users will definitely have constriction on the use of the national


 Newman and Kenworthy (1999) mainly focus on reducing automobile

dependence   through   three   main   approaches:   technological   improvements,

economic instruments, and planning mechanisms.   The main objective of

this study is to establish the capacity of the government and prepare the

city for more infrastructure projects.  

This study will help identify the problem of traffic congestion that can

be   related   to  some   other   sub   causes   which   are  mismanage  of   traffic   law

enforcers, slower development of roads and undisciplined drivers. And with

the   aid   of   this   study   government   will   widen   their   understanding   on   the

current   issue   the   city   has   yet   to   overcome.     Along   this   study,   the

government will be able to open some points that will lessen or solve the

current traffic situation of Cagayan de Oro City.

Scope of Limitations

The study relied mainly on existing date gathered under a government

transportation agency,government on Public Works and Highways  and City

Assessment of Cagayan de Oro City.   A primary data collection activity or

survey was undertaken.

The   data   that   will   be   gathered   will   provides   a   comprehensive

collection of settled apprehension on illegal parking in Cagayan de Oro City.

While the date gathered from a government on Public Works and Highways

provides the apprehended vehicle in various barangay in Cagayan de Oro


Definition of Terms

Traffic congestion.A condition of traffic delay because the number of

vehicles   trying   to   use   a   road   exceeds   the   design   capacity   of   the   traffic

network to handle it.

Law enforcement.Responsible in enforcing the rules and regulations

specifically   Republic   Act   4136   and   other   law   pertaining   to   traffic   law


Illegal   parking.Parking   alongside   restricted   and   unauthorized

parking area

License   Driver.Drivers   that   had   passed   the   written   and   actual

examination undergone by the land Transportation office.

Infrastructure.Is   a   system   of   public   works   of   a   country,   city,   or

region   that   are   building   resources   such   as   personnel,   buildings,   or


Motor  vehicle.A motor vehicle shall mean any vehicle propelled by

any power other than muscular  power using the public highway.

Chapter 2


The purpose of this literature review is to describe the relevant studies

of   traffic   congestion   and   its   causes.     Traffic   congestion   is   a   sequential

condition   on   urban   areas   as   utility   increases,   and   it’s   characterized   by

slower   speeds,   longer   trip   times,   and   amplified   queuing.     According   to

Weisbrod, Vary and Treyz (2003), traffic congestion is widely  viewed as a

growing problem in any urban areas because of the overall volume of vehicle

traffic in many areas.  The resulting traffic flow slow­downs can have a wide

range of negative impacts on people, with the congestion of urban roads it

will hamper travel time of the riding public.  

The   study   of   Weisbrod   et   al(2003)   focuses   specifically   on   the   latter

type of impact how roadway traffic congestion affects the economy, in term

of business cost, productivity and output.  The city of Cagayan de Oro has

been recognized to be the fastest growing city in the Philippines.  With the

heavy   traffic   congestion   in   the   city,   this   will   cause   a   regression   on   the

economic side of the city.

Bass   (2008)   also   discussed   in   her   study   that   congestion   is   a

contradiction to business.   He states that if traffic congestion will worsen

this may cause businesses and economic activities into deep threat.   Bass

(2008)   also   elaborated   on   her   study   that   there   are   many   costs   on   which

congestion will affect business owners and consumers. One of which is that

clients   are   discouraged   to   go   to   the   congested   business   area   because   of


increased   travel   time   to   obtain   goods   and   services.   With   these   banks,

healthcare facilities, hotels suffer a moderate degree of congestion cost.

The leading cause of traffic congestion is illegal parking.  According to

Cullinane and Polak (1992), illegal parking has given a potential impact of

such magnitude that it is widely recognized that policies aimed at its control

should be incorporated into any sensible transport plan.   This means that

the government must prioritize the increasing problem of illegal parking in

the   city.     With   the   increasing   number   of   apprehended   drivers   for   illegal

parking base on the data, it is but a point in time that enforcement must be

implemented strongly.  According to Cullinane and Polak (1992), the role of

the   law   traffic   law   enforcement   is   important   because   of   widespread

undisciplined drivers.  They state that it is essential to develop a strategy to

follow regarding the use of the parking area, especially in urban areas. As

the OECD (1981) point out, it is crucial when developing parking strategies

to follow an unified approach which takes into consideration not only the

available   measures   but   also   there   concrete   probability   for   their

implementation and subsequent enforcement It is also important that these

strategies be implemented subsequently and thoroughly evaluated that may

also help in the redesigning of the parking area in the city.  The study also

discusses   that   the   individual   behaviour   of   the   driver   improves   by   other

means   of   enforcement   such   as   the   use   of   technologies   and   by   giving

information   drive   on   the   proper   parking   areas   of   the   city.     It   is   very


important   that   traffic   law   enforcer’s   role   is   not   only   to   apprehend   the

violators but traffic law enforcers must also actively give traffic information

and especially road safety in the street and encourage them to adhere by the

rules   and   regulations.     The   study   also   states   that   this   traffic   congestion

trend is not likely to lessen the influence of illegal parking but it is also an

eye­opener   to   the   government   whether   be   local   government   unit   or   a

national transportation agency.

       According to National Center for Transportation Studies(NCTS), traffic

congestion has cost the economy quite heavily in terms of the slowdown in

the movement of goods and delivery of services, increased vehicle operating

cost, and otherwise productive man­hours consumed as travel time, which

may be quantified. The study states that the rapid increase in motorization

cannot be denied and in fact, it is proceeding at an alarming rate in Metro

Manila though still low compared to other countries. The emergent use of

private car has been an experienced to most industrialized countries.   The

study states that the problem here in the Philippines is that the government

policies are weak and is seemingly lacking an effective alternative to public

transport modes.  The percentage of car­owning households in Metro Manila

has jumped from 10% in 1980 to 20% in1996, however, it is slightly lower

in adjoining provinces.  The study also elaborated that it is expected that in

the coming   years  a sharply  increasing  number  of  cars to  increase  in  the

income level and population.

While Cullinane and Polak (1992) discussed the other way to alleviate

illegal parking by use of technology and information dissemination to the

drivers, Fesler (2013) on the other hand study about its mitigating strategies

and   its   cost.     Mitigation   strategies   have   had   varying   levels   of   success   in

combating traffic congestion.   Fesler states that the government must act

upon according to the identified strategies such as road widening.  Though

this strategy has to accumulate a bigger funding for this project, it is also

important to differentiate between costs borne by individual such as extra

fuel consumed an extra cost of fare due to traffic congestion.  Fesler (2013)

also   discussed   that   when   the   roadway   reaches   its   congestion   point   each

additional   vehicle   entering   a   congested   road   exacerbates   this   effect   and

eventually bringing the flow of traffic to a halt.  

According to Omar Khalik on “Issues on Traffic Congestion”, Without

transportation there is no economy banks need transportation so people can

deposit/withdraw   money   and   for   banks   to   transfer   money.   People   need

transportation to get to or go to school to visit the doctor to visit friends.

Stores   rely   on   shipments   arriving   on   time   so   people   can   buy   groceries.

Given that the majority of the United States is still powered by coal which is

hauled to power plants via trucks and trains the energy in the United States

is super dependent on transportation.  

Fesler (2013), also discussed in his paper that no one did not experience the

effects of traffic congestion.   He states that most commuters suffer traffic

congestion during the morning when they go to work or in the evening after

office hours.   This frustration does not just affect the time the commuter

and the motorist endure but traffic congestion also cause a great amount of

wasted social cost from increased travel time.

Adeokun,   Olagunju,   Olawoore,   Raheem   (2015)   sited   on   their   paper   that

increase in population and activities that are held in urban areas are most

likely to cause traffic congestion due to the growth of motor vehicle either

park or moving along the small street of urban areas.  As a result, a need for

greater   road   space   has   been   a   demand   in   the   most   country   affected   by

traffic congestion.   Adeokun et al. (2015) also elaborate on the increase in

population   that   can   vastly   affect   and   expected   to   be   an   effect   of   more

commuters resulting to an increase in a motor vehicle due to demand of

transportation.   With this slow movement of the motor vehicle, commuters

often experience stressed and frustrated.

        Ye  (2012)   on  the  other   hand  elaborated   on  the  importance  of   proper

scientific   planning,   support   of   the   public   and   public   transportation

development.   However,   due   to   demand   for   road   expansion,   these   roads

become   the   problem   of   congestion   due   to   lane   closure   and   no   proper

construction facilities which also lead not only congestion but an accident.  

Chapter 3


This section outlines the types of data and how they are collected.  It

also presents the instruments adopted in the collection of date and how the

date collected will be analyze. The approach to establish as to why traffic

congestion   has   always   been   the   major   problem   among   the   resident   of

Cagayan de Oro City.

Research Design

A descriptive research design was used for the study.  The study used

survey   questionnaire   demonstrating   the   different   factors   affecting   traffic

congestion   and   its   indicators.     The   primary   data   was   collected   using

questionnaire as instrument.  It will contain data collection that will provide

the effects of traffic congestion among motorist and riding public.

Research Locale

The researcher evaluated the urban and rural barangay of Cagayan de

Oro City.Cagayan de Oro City is one of the leading cities in the country that

has   known   as   the   gateway   to   Northern   Mindanao.   The   city   has   been

geographically   located   in   the   central   of   Northern   Mindanao   containing

almost one­fourth of Northern Mindanao. Cagayan de Oro is geographically

between   the   central   coastline   of   Macajalar   Bay   to   the   North.     The

municipality of Opol bounds the city on the west while the municipality of

Tagoloan   bounds   to   the   east.     The   city   is   divided   into   two   districts   by

Republic Act No. 9371 namely first district comprises of 24 barangay and

second district with 56 barangay.

Sampling Design

The participants were taken from the walk­in clients of a particular

government   transportation   agency   catering   renewal   and   miscellaneous

transaction   of   motor   vehicles.   The   agency   caters   an   average   of   500

transactions   per   day   from   8:00am   to   5:00pm   Monday   to   Friday.

Aconvenience  sampling   was  done   to  determine  the  population  size   of  the

participants.  The survey process was conducted for two working days and

participants werechosen randomly.     These groups were targeted with the

view that they could provide relevant information in relation to the research

survey question since they are the stakeholder in the use of transportation.

The   sample   is   designed   to   measure   the   experienced   and   how   they

manage traffic congestion in Cagayan de Oro City 

Participants of the study

The   participants   of   the   study   was   the   walk­in   clients   availing   the

services of a government transportation agency in Cagayan de Oro City.  A

data collection from the 100 participants was carried out by the researcher.

Research Instrument

The   main   tool   used   in   this   study   was   a   researcher   made

questionnaire.    The  questionnaire  has  3  main  parts,  part  I  describes  the

demographical   profile   of   the   respondents,   part   II   has   12   closed   ended

questions which specify the indications of traffic congestion and part III of

the questionnaire has open ended question.

The researchers used a descriptive method to analyze the data

gathered. The statistical tools used for the study were percentage, frequency

and weighted mean.

Data Gathering Procedure

A letter request for approval of the distribution of the questionnaire

was   submitted   to   the   head   of   office   of   the   transportation   agency   for   the

dissemination   of   the   survey   questionnaire.     After   it   has   been   approved,

questionnaire was distributed to agency for two consecutive dates a total of

50   participants   per   day.       The   researcher   tabulated,   analyzed   and

interpreted the gathered data after all questionnaires are answered.

For validation, the researcher asked for validation of the questionnaire

from  Director  Esteban  M. Baltazar, former   LTO 10  Regional Director  and


currently   the   Director   for   Traffic   Adjudication   Section   at   the   Land

Transportation Office Central in Metro Manila.

The research instrument and its questions were found by the expert

to be valid.

Scoring procedure

This   study   used   the   percentage   frequency   distribution   that   will

display data that specifies the percentage of observations that exist for each

data point or grouping of data points.  The method was particularly useful

in   expressing   the   relative   frequency   of   survey   responses   and   other   data.

Results will be displayed as figures through tables.   In the part two of the

questionnaire a Likert Scale was used to measure the weighted mean.

Scale Range Response Interpretation

4 3.26­4.00 Frequently Affects to a great extent
3 2.51­3.25 Occasionally Affects to some extent
2 1.76­2.50 Rarely Affects to little extent
1 1.00­1.75 Never at all Affects none at all

Statistical Treatment of Data

The   questions   under   the   study   were   treated   using   descriptive

statistics.     Frequency,   distribution   and   percentages   measuring   the   data

about   the   participants’   profile.     For   part   I,the   percentage   was   computed

using the formula:

P= F/N x 100 where P Percentage

F  Frequency

N   Total number of participants

While   a   Likert   Scale   was   used   in   measuring   the   part   II   of   the

questionnaire to determine to which extent the participants each handle the

indications of traffic congestion that was given in the questionnaire.

Chapter 4


This chapter presents the results, analysis and interpretation of the

data   gathered   by   the   researchers.     It   presents   answers   to   the   questions

earlier posed in the statement of the problem.

1. What is the demographical information of the participants in

terms of the following?

1.1 Age

1.2 Sex

1.3 Educational background

1.4 Employment status

1.5    Place where they live­Location

Table 1.1
Frequency Distribution of Age of Participants

Age Frequency, f Percentage

18­39 years old 61%

40­59 years old 29 29%

60 years old and above 10 10%

Total 100 100%

Table 1.1 presented the demographic information of the respondents,

the study considered that age 18­39 years old shows the highest percentage

of the respondents.  This means that this age level has bigger presentation

among   the   drivers   and   motorist   in   Cagayan   de   Oro   City.     According   to

human   development,   early   adulthood   is   the   period   in   human   lifespan   in

which  full physical  and  mental ability  is  achieved.   At  this  age,  they  are

mature enough to handle situation on the road and ability to know what is

right and what is wrong during a situation.  Drivers and motorist at this age

also has the full physical capacity to handle any physical situation in which

it is very common in a driver and motorist.  The 29% which represents 40­

59   years   old   suggest   that   human   development   at   this   stage   faces   many

anatomical   and   physiological   changes.   Agility   at   this   age   decrease   and

physical   activity   is   lower   compare   to   young   adulthood   therefore   certain

people at this age to not go to strenuous activity such as transacting their


Table 1.2

Frequency Distribution of Sex of Participants

Sex Frequency, f Percentage

Male 57 57%
Female 43 43%
Total 100 100%

Table 1.2 below show that there is a slight difference between female

and   male   participants.   The   study   presented   that   there   is   a   presence   of

gender sensitivity among the participants in which there is a difference of 7

%   among   the   participants.     Gender   sensitivity   is   the   awareness   and

understandingto the others sex,with reference to historical roots of sexist

stereotyping,   discrimination   and   violence.     In   this   result,   the   study   also

shows that in this generation there is an equal opportunity between female

and male participants.   That drivers and motorist represent both the sex

without any discrimination.

Table 1.3

Frequency Distribution of Educational Background

Educational Background Frequency,f Percentage

Undergraduate 24 24%

College Graduate 68 68%

Master’s Graduate 6 6%

Others 2 2%

Total 100 100%

Table 1.3 presents a significant percentage of 68% with participants

having a college degree.   This only show that most participants have the

minimum requirement to cognize what the law has provide for the drivers

and   the   motorist.     Though   the   second   highest   percentage   is   the

undergraduate with a 24%, this means that drivers and motorist in regards

to rules and regulation pertaining to the law is not hard to comprehend.  In

this matter, we could say that what has been provided for the people is very

basic and that this should be easily apprehend by the drivers and motorist. 

Table 1.4

Frequency Distribution of Occupation

Occupation Frequency,f Percentage

student 5 5%

Public/Private Employed 75 75%

Business Owner 16 16%

None of the above 4 4%

Total 100 100%

Table   1.4   reveals   a   substantial   presentation   with   75%   of   the

participants   is   public/private   employed.     This   clearly   shows   that   a   vast

population of the employed walk­in clients indicates that participants are

stable enough to own a particular motor vehicle.  The table also shows that

16% of the participants belongs to business owners which means that in

transacting registrations there are only few business owners who register

their motor vehicle themselves.

Table 1.5

Frequency Distribution of Location

Place where you live Frequency,f Percentage

Uptown Rural Barangay 35 35%

14 14%
Urban Barangay

Downtown Rural  51 51%
Total 100 100%

Table 1.5  shows that 51% of the participants are living in downtown

rural barangay and 35% in uptown rural barangay.  According to the socio

economic   profile   of   Cagayan   de   Oro   there   is   an   estimate   of   population

increase for rural areas of Cagayan de Oro City of about 93,785 population

increase   estimate   for   the   year   2020.     This   only   shows   that   the   city   of

Cagayan de Oro City is vastly increasing in terms of population every year

and   a   possibility   of   overcrowded   city.This   statement   was   also   cited   by


Adeokun,   Olagunju,   Olawoore,   Raheem   (2015)   ,which   states   that   the

increase in population of a city and with the various activities that is done

in   urban   areas   will   greatly   affect   the   movement   of   vehicle   especially   in

Cagayan de oro City where most of the urban barangays had narrow roads

and   could   not   accommodate   the   increasing   amount   of   population   and

motorist of the city.  A 14% of the participants also came from urban areas

of   Cagayan   de   Oro   City   which   determines   that’s   most   of   the   participant

living near the city likely are commuters.

2.  What are the factors affecting the traffic congestion in Cagayan de

Oro City in terms of?

2.1 Insufficient Traffic Management

Table 2.1

Mean Distribution of Insufficient Traffic Management

Insufficient Traffic  Mean(X Response Interpretation

management )
a. Increase of man  3.41 Frequently Affects to a great
travel time due to traffic  extent
b. Increase number of  3.17 Occasionally Affects to some
violator extent
c. Increase of  2.92 Occasionally Affects to some
incidence of road  extent
Overall Mean 3.17 Occasionally Affects to some

Increase   of   man   travel   time   due   to   traffic   delay   shows   that   this

indication affects the participants in a great extent.  According to Carmudi

PH(2016), increase/longer travel time seriously affects commuters in their

work   routine   which   cause   employees   towards   absenteeism   and   tardiness

cause an enormous effect on commuter while motorist also are concern with

their   fuel   expenses   due   to   slow   moving   of   motor   vehicle   during   peak

hours.Fesler (2013) , also discoursed in his study that the frustration with

the   time   the   commuters   are   wasted   it   also   cause   a   great   amount   of

increased travel time.

While increase number of violators and increase of incidence of road

rage   shows   that   only   some   of   the   participants   are   only   affected   to   some

extent.   This   only   shows   that   though   there   are   some   areas   that   are   not

rigidly   monitored   my   traffic   enforcers   which   cause   violators   to   become

abusive. Overall the insufficient traffic management shows that this factor

only   affects   participants   to   some   extent.     According   to   Cullinane   and

Polak(1992),   the   traffic   law   enforcement   is   very   important   because   of

prevalent undisciplined drivers. In this statement, it is understandable that

traffic congestion is not only cause by slow moving of cars but it is also the

way drivers are handling the traffic situation.

2.2 Insufficient Capacity of the road

Table 2.2

Mean Distribution on Insufficient Capacity of the road

Insufficient Capacity of Mean(X Response Interpretation

the road )
a. Lack of parking  3.53 Frequently Affects to a great
space extent
b. Illegal Parking 3.59 Frequently Affects to a great
c. Too many vehicle  3.49 Frequently Affects to a great
pile­up on the same extent
Overall Mean 3.54 Frequently Affects to a
great extent

Table 2.2 shows that Illegal parking come to be the highest mean in

all   the   indicators   mentioned.     According   to   Cullinane   and   Polak   (1992),

illegal   parking   has   given   probable   effect   of   such   extent   that   it   is   widely

recognized that policies aimed to control should be incorporated into any

sensible transport plan. Traffic congestion is one of the issues the city is

currently   going   through   which   is   the   aftermath   of   illegal   parking   and

undisciplined drivers.  With the evident of illegal parking in this study it is

but rightful time to modify the policies implemented in the city.  Lee(2015)

also states in his study that illegal parking can also lead to a social conflict

as   disorganized   parking   on   any   urban   barangays   which   can   interrupt

passage of emergency vehicles and pedestrians and parking area that can

cause shortage of the pathway.

The table also implies that participants are affected greatly with

too   many   vehicles   piling   up   on   the   same   road   and   also   leads   to   lack   of

parking space.  These indicators also affected the participants greatly which

the   National   Center   for   TransportationStudies(NCTS)   states   that   the

alarming   increase   of   motor   vehicle   which   cannot   be   denied   should   be

strictly monitored due to lack of parking space.  Though there is an evident

that under the National Building Code of the Philippines, commercial and

residential areas should have  a parking requirements.  This policy should

be implemented especially in urban areas wherein commercial spaces are

located in areas that have no proper parking area.

2.3 Poor Land Use

Table 2.3

Mean Distribution on Poor land use

Poor land use Mean(X Response Interpretation

a. Obstruction of  3.09 Occasionally Affects to some
commercial  extent
structure on the 
b. Lane closure due to 3.3 Frequently Affects to a great
utility work extent
c. Road narrowing  3.09 Occasionally Affects to some
down extent
Overall Mean 3.16 Occasionally Affects to some

Lane   closure   due   to   utility   work   shows   that   it   had   affected   the

participants   greatly.     According   to   Ye(2012),   due   to   the   demand   of   road

expansion   and   no   proper   construction   facilities   this   leads   to   not   only

congestion   but   also   road   accidents.     With   the   government   implement


projects   to   projects   it   should   also   be   elaborated   on   the   constructor   that

there should be a proper scientific planning and public support especially

with the local government unit.  While Obstruction of commercial structure

and   narrowing   of   the   road   affects   the   participants   in   some   extent.     This

shows that these indicators are interconnected with one denominator which

is improper planning of construction on the roads.  These indicators with a

3.16  overall mean shows  that  though the government  are  addressing  the

demand   of   the   commuters   and   motorist   to   expand   roads   for   their

convenience,   it   is   also   important   to   take   consideration   on   the   proper

planning with the traffic management group and the public works which are

responsible for road constructions.

2.4 Inadequate Public Transport

Table 2.4

Mean Distribution of Inadequate Public Transport

Inadequate Public Mean(X Response Interpretation

Transport )

a. Longer travel time  3.28 Frequently Affects to a great

demonstrate added  extent
expense to daily 
b. Roads are badly  3.18 Occasionally Affects to some
maintained and  extent
c. Routes are not  3.0 Occasionally Affects to some
properly established extent
Overall Mean 3.15 Occasionally Affects to some

According to CarmudiPH(2016), due to longer travel time motorist are

concern with their fuel expenses due to slow moving of their motor vehicle.

Table   2.4   clearly   represents   that   longer   time   travel   affected   greatly   their

budget due to increase in fuel expense and wasted man hours.

As Cagayan de Oro is known to be the gateway of Northern Mindanao,

the table shows that there an apparent problem with the maintenance of the

road   as   the   tables   shows   that   participants   are   affected   in   some   extent,

which means that there are some roads in the city that are not maintain by

the government due to overuse of heavy vehicles.

3. What can be done to improve traffic situation?

Table 3

Frequency Distribution on Ways to Improve Traffic Situation

   Frequency  Percentage
Road widening 8 8
Increase enforcers 7 7
Discipline Drivers and obey rules 19 19
Strict implementation of the rules and
regulations 9 9
More parking space 12 12
Proper implementation of 
infrastructure 9 9
build more skyway 11 11
study traffic management 8 8
avoid double parking 8 8
No Comment 9 9
  100 100

For this question, an interview was conducted to know their concepts

on what can be done to improve traffic congestion.   The table shows that

participants   are   in   high   regards   towards   the   discipline   of   the   drivers.

According   to  Zaal(1994),  to achieve  the  success  of  enforcement   the  focus

should be on increasing  surveillance level.Cullinane and Polak(1992) also

expounded   that   it   is   necessary   to   develop   a   strict   policy   on   the   use   of

parking area especially in urban areas. The study also go into detail that by

utilizing the new technologies like CCTV most likely improves the behavior

of   drivers   and   in   this   way   through   technology,   an   information   drive   on

proper parking areas of the city can also be facilitated.

The   table   also   show   that   participants   suggested   further   on   more

parking   space   needed.     According   to   Young(1990),   parking   is   an

unavoidable requirement for accommodation of cars while they are not in

use,   this   means   that   commercial   or   residential   there   must   be   a   parking

space intended for parking.   Under Presidential degree 1096, all buildings

whether be commercial or residential there must be an 200 meter radius

parking  requirement. The  law  also  provides  that   under   no circumstances

shall obstruction of any kind be allowed on sidewalks whether be open or

arcaded.   This clarifies the suggestions of the participants that there must

be a strong implementation of the rules and regulations of traffic.

The   participants   also   suggested   with   a   total   of   9%,   that   proper

implementation of infrastructure must be instigated so as not to delay the

on project and can provide traffic congestion. Ye(2012), discussed that it is

very   important   that   a   proper   scientific   planning   and   a   support   with   the

public transportation development must be organize.

The participants noticeably suggested that the city must have more

enforcers   readily   available   in   any   corner   especially   in   urban   areas.     The

National   Center   for   Transportation   Studies(NCTS)   also   expressed   their

concern the problem in the Philippine government is that policies are weak

and lack of alternative public transport modes.

Chapter 5



The study was conducted at a government transportation agency to

gather   data   on  the  factors  affecting   traffic  congestion   in  Cagayan  de   Oro

City.     The   outcome   of   the   study   conducted   may   give   enlightenment   to

improve traffic situation.

Descriptive   Research   design   was   used   and   walk­in   client   of

government transportation agency was the participants of the study.  A self­

made   questionnaire   was   used   as   a   tool   in   collecting   data.   Frequency,

percentage   and   weighted   mean   were   utilized   in   interpreting   the

demographical profile and 4­point Likert scale for the part II which is factors

affecting traffic congestion was utilized in the statistical treatment.


1.1 Age

On   the   demographical   profile,   the   study   considered   that   on   the

frequency distribution of age the age group of 18­39 years old garnered the

highest percentage followed by age 40­59 years old 29% and 60 years old

below with 10%.  

1.2 Sex

On the frequency distribution of sex, findings of the study shows that

there is slight difference between male and female participants with male

57%   and   female   43%.     This   findings   recognize   the   there   is   an   equal

opportunity between male and female.

1.3 Educational Background  

On   the   frequency   distribution   of   educational   background   college

graduate   garnered   the   highest   percentage   which   is   68%   of   the   total

respondents followed by 24% undergraduate, 6% master’s graduate and 2%

for   others.     The   findings   reveals   that   with   college   graduate   garnered   the

highest the representation shows that on the walk­in clients the standard of

knowledge had been met in regards to understanding the basic rules and

regulations of traffic.  

1.4 Occupation

On   the   frequency   distribution   of   occupation   a   75%   garnered   the

participants   who   are   private/public   employed.     This   finding   shows   that

among the registrant walk­in clients most of them are have the capacity in

terms of financial. 

1.5 Place where you live­Location

The finding of the frequency distribution in terms of location specifies

that 51% of the participants are living in downtown rural barangay and 35%

in uptown rural barangay

Factors affecting traffic congestion

2.1 Insufficient Traffic Management

  The   finding   shows   that   increase   of   man   travel   time   due   to   traffic

delay garnered  the highest  mean among  the indicators under  insufficient

traffic management followed by increase number of violators and increase

incident   of   road   rage.   The   total   overall   mean   on   insufficient   traffic

management interprets that participants are affected on some extent.

2.2 Insufficient Capacity of the road

The findings of study clearly show that among the illegal parking had

garnered   the   highest   mean   with   an   interpretation   that   participants   are

affected into a great extent. The second highest mean identifies the Lack of

parking space with 3.53 mean and indicator of too many vehicle pile­up in

the same road garnered the lowest mean.

2.3 Poor Land Use

The finding  shows that Obstruction of commercial structure on the

road   and   Road   narrowing   down   both   were   identified   to   be   the   highest

ranking mean on poor land use with and Lane closure due to utility work

garnered the lowest mean. The overall mean on poor land use is 3.16 which

interpret that participants were affected to some extent.

2.4 Inadequate Public Transport

Under Inadequate public transport, the findings shows that   Longer

travel   time   demonstrate   added   expense   to   daily   budgeting   garnered   the

highest   mean   which   interpret   that   this   indicators   frequently   affects

participants   into   great   extent.     While   indicator   on   roads   are   badly

maintained and managed shows that this indicator affects the participants

in some extent and routes are not properly established also garnered the

mean of 3.0 which interprets that this indicator affected the participants in

some extent.  Overall mean of inadequate public transport garnered 3.15

which   interpret   that   inadequate   public   transport   had   affected   the

participants in some extent.


Cagayan de Oro City has become one of the primary cities that are

taking its leap in becoming a metro city.   With the fast growing economy

and   infrastructure   we   can   clearly   state   that   the   city   is   at   its   peak,   but

despite of the advantages brought by the coming of big business deals in the

city this study signifies a negative response in regards illegal parking which

clearly   shows   in   the   study   that   this   indicator   had   clearly   affected   the

participants in a great extend.     A further disadvantage of traffic problems

that   cause   many   cities   and   towns   of   the   world   is   that   car   ownership   is

increasing in almost every day, especially in developing like Cagayan de Oro

City, and the amount of available roadway in city is not increasing at an

equal pace. This scenario evidently defines that the interpretations on the

data  gathered impose that  indeed Cagayan de Oro is experiencing  Traffic

congestions   in   regards   to   the   factors   indicated   on   the   study   which   are

Insufficient   Traffic   Management,   Insufficient   Capacity   of   the   road,   Poor

Land Use and Inadequate Public Transport.

In   conclusion,   while   it   is   an   immense   advantage   that   the   city   of

Cagayan de Oro if fast growing, the problem of traffic congestion in the city

has to be resolve to alleviate the problem that the commuters and motorist

had long been affected.


This study had the opportunity to assess the factors affecting traffic

congestion   in   Cagayan   de   Oro   City.     All   the   following   recommendations

should be addressed across a wide range of sectors and disciplines if they

are   to   achieve   success.     Nevertheless,   the   recommendations   should   be

treated   as   flexible   guidelines   for   improve   of   the   city.   The   following

recommendations are made by the researchers:

1. The   government   specifically   those   agencies   involved   in   obtaining

drivers license should embark on strict implementation and thorough

education drive to sensitize the road users on effective utilization of

the roads.
2. There must be a proper implementation of infrastructure and a firm

implementation   of   the   Building   Code   of   the   Philippines   to   utilize

parking   space   on   commercial   buildings   that   are   located   in   urban

areas that have narrow roads.
3. Expanding transit capacity particularly building of light railways and

skyways as an alternative route for road users.

4. Traffic management of the city should fixed all dysfunctional traffic

lights   especially   on   heavy   traffic   areas   and   ensure   regular

maintenance to avoid traffic congestion.
5. Traffic management policy makers should instigate the provisions in

order   to   come   up   with   a   quick   response   team   in   case   of   traffic

6. Reduce   automobile   dependence   through   three   main   approaches:

technological   improvements,   economic   instruments,   and   planning