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MATHEMATICS

YEAR ONE

STANDARD DOCUMENT

(PRIMARY SCHOOL STANDARD CURRICULUM)

(KSSR)

MATHEMATICS

YEAR ONE

i

Copyright © 2008 Curriculum Development Centre

Second published 2010

Third published 2011

Fourth published 2012

Fifth published 2013

© Ministry of Education Malaysia

Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic,

mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, and recording is forbidden without the

prior written permission from the Director of the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia, Level 4-8,

Block E9, Parcel E, Kompleks Kerajaan Parcel E,Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62604 Putrajaya

ii

CONTENTS

RUKUN NEGARA v WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 15

NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION vii ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 18

INTRODUCTION 1 FRACTION 19

THE RATIONALE OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 1 MONEY UP TO RM10 20

AIMS 1

FOCUS 2 MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

NATIONAL CURRICULUM’S FRAMEWORK 2 TIME 21

STRUCTURE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL 3 LENGTH 22

MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

MASS 23

OBJECTIVES 3

VOLUME OF LIQUID 24

MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM’S FRAMEWORK 3

SPACE 25

CONTENT STANDARD AND LEARNING STANDARD 10

STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING 10

ELEMENTS OF ADDED VALUES 11

ASSESSMENT 13

iii

iv

RUKUN NEGARA

BAHAWASANYA negara kita Malaysia mendukung cita-

cita untuk mencapai perpaduan yang lebih erat

dalam kalangan seluruh masyarakatnya; memelihara

satu cara hidup demokratik; mencipta masyarakat

yang adil bagi kemakmuran negara yang akan

dapat dinikmati bersama secara adil dan saksama;

menjamin satu cara yang liberal terhadap tradisi-

tradisi kebudayaannya yang kaya dan berbagai-

bagai corak; membina satu masyarakat progresif

yang akan menggunakan sains dan teknologi

moden;

menumpukan seluruh tenaga dan usaha kami untuk

mencapai cita-cita tersebut berdasarkan atas prinsip-

prinsip yang berikut:

• KESETIAAN KEPADA RAJA DAN NEGARA

• KELUHURAN PERLEMBAGAAN

• KEDAULATAN UNDANG-UNDANG

• KESOPANAN DAN KESUSILAAN

v

RUKUNEGARA

DECLARATION

to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples;

to maintaining a democratic way of life;

to creating a just society in which the wealth of

the nation shall be equitably shared;

to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and

diverse cultural traditions;

to building a progressive society which shall be

orientated to modern science and technology;

these ends guided by these principles:

Belief in God

Loyalty to King and Country

Upholding the Constitution

Rule of Law

Good Behaviour and Morality

vi

Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha

berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi

potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan

bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang

seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek,

rohani, emosi dan jasmani berdasarkan

kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan.

Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat

Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan,

berketerampilan, berakhlak mulia,

bertanggungjawab dan berkeupayaan

mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta

memberikan sumbangan terhadap

keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga,

masyarakat dan negara.

vii

viii

INTRODUCTION THE RATIONALE OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

“Sekolah Unggul Penjana Generasi Terbilang” (“Ideal Schools Mathematics is the best platform to develop individual intellectual

Generating an Illustrious Generation”) is the vision of the Malaysian proficiency in making logical reasoning, space visualization,

Ministry of Education. The education purpose in Malaysia is to abstract thinking skills and analyzing. Pupils develop numeracy

develop individual potential through quality education by preparing skills, reasoning, thinking and problem solving ways of thinking

committed citizens and a generation that has the ability to think. through learning and application of mathematics.

Ministry Of Education continuously reviews the curriculum to ensure

that the implementation of the curriculum in schools equips pupils Mathematics provides opportunities for students to perform creative

with knowledge, skills and values to face current and future tasks and experience the fun and excitement of learning something

challenges. new. Such experiences increase interest and are the driving forces

for students to learn mathematics outside the classroom and at the

Mathematics is a discipline that trains the mind to think logically and higher level of education.

systematically in problem solving and decision making. Inherently,

mathematical nature promotes meaningful learning and challenges

the mind. Due to this, mathematics is one of the most important AIMS

disciplines in any endeavor for human development. Based on the

National Philosophy of Education and to ensure the relevancy of the The Aim of the Primary School Standard Curriculum for

curriculum, the Primary School Standard Curriculum for Mathematics is to develop pupils’ understanding on the concept of

Mathematics is adapted and restructured. This restructuring takes numbers, basic calculation skills, understanding simple

into account the ongoing continuity to the next level. Measures mathematical ideas and are competent in applying mathematical

taken are consistent with the need to provide the knowledge and knowledge and skills effectively and responsibly in everyday life.

mathematical skills to pupils from various backgrounds and abilities.

With the knowledge and skills, they are able to explore the

knowledge, make adaptations, modifications and innovations in

managing changes and dealing with future challenges.

1

FOCUS

.

Mathematical teaching and learning process gives priority to mastering knowledge and understanding to enable pupils to apply concepts,

principles and the mathematical processes they have learned. Emphasis on the development of mathematical thinking is built and

developed through the teaching and learning in the classroom based on the following principles, which are, problem solving,

communication, reasoning, making connections, making representations and the application of technology in mathematics.

.

NATIONAL CURRICULUM

FRAMEWORK

The Standard curriculum is based on

six pillars, namely Communication; Spiritual, Attitudes .

and Values; Humanity; Physical Development and

Aesthetic; Personal Experience; and Science and

Technology. The six pillars are the main domain that

supports each other and are integrated with critical

thinking, creative and innovative thinking. This

integration aims to develop balanced, knowledgeable

and competent human capital as shown in the

adjacent figure.

2

PRIMARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS EDUCATION Communicate using mathematical ideas clearly and use correct

STRUCTURE symbols and terminologies.

Use mathematical knowledge and skills to be applied and

Each pupil in Malaysia has the opportunity to go through at least six adapted to various strategies to solve problems.

years of basic education in schools. This includes three years in Think, reason, and explore mathematically in daily life.

level I studies and three years in level II. After which, pupils Use various representations to deliver mathematical ideas and

can pursue education at a higher level. associations.

Appreciate and internalise the beauty of mathematics.

Use various mathematical instruments effectively including ICT

LEVEL AIMS to build conceptual understanding and apply mathematical

knowledge.

I Primary School Mathematics Curriculum Level

I aims to build understanding, mathematics

and basic application skills.

II Primary Mathematics Curriculum Level II aims to MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

build understanding, mathematical skills and more

complex application skills that can be used in The Mathematics curriculum framework shows a mathematical

effectively overcoming the challenges in the pupils’ programme that could be utilized at the primary level. Mathematical

daily life. Learning is planned with the aim of moulding pupils’ mathematical

thoughtful learning.

OBJECTIVES

MATHEMATICAL THOUGHTFUL LEARNING

The Primary School Mathematics Curriculum will enable pupils to:

The definition of “fikrah” (thoughtful learning) according to the fourth

Understand and apply the concepts and mathematical skills in edition of the Kamus Dewan (2005) has the same

various contexts. meaning with thinking and reasoning. In the context of mathematics

Expand the use of addition, subtraction, multiplication and education, thoughtful learning refers to the desired quality of pupils

division basic skills related to Numbers and Operations, to be delivered through the national mathematics education system.

Measurement and Geometry, Relationship and Algebra, and Pupils who are mathematically inclined are those capable of

Statistics and Probability. doing mathematics and understanding mathematical ideas, and

Identify and use the relationship in mathematical ideas, between responsibly applying the mathematical knowledge and skills in their

mathematical fields with other fields and with daily life. daily lives based on attitudes and values of mathematics.

3

MATHEMATHICS CURRICULUM DESIGN CONTENT ORGANISATION

Numbers and Operations Numbers and Operations

Measurement and Geometry Measurement and Geometry

Relationship and Algebra Relationship and Algebra

Statistics and Probability Statistics and Probability

Reasoning appreciation, Addition Length

Relating confidently resilient Subtraction Mass

and perseverance.

Problem Solving Multiplication Volume of Liquid

Personality,

Representing Division Three Dimensional Shapes

interaction, procedure,

Mixed Operations Two Dimensional Shapes

intrinsic.

Mathematical skills Fractions

Analytical skills Decimals

Problems solving skills Percentage

Research skills Money

Communication skills

Information Communication Technology skills

RELATIONSHIP AND ALGEBRA STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

Ratio and Proportion Likelihood

4

Pupils should develop and explore mathematical ideas in depth • Using correct standard mathematical language and applying

through various learning opportunities and experiences. Awareness logical reasoning.

should be fostered and developed among pupils that mathematical • Stating mathematical ideas concisely.

ideas are intertwined, and mathematics is comprehensive; not

• Creating, testing, and proving conjecture.

isolated bits of knowledge. With such awareness and

understanding, comprehending of mathematical ideas become • Extracting meaning from a mathematical writing.

more meaningful, and thus can enhance the capability of pupils to • Using mathematics to explain physical world.

apply mathematics.

actively engage the pupils in learning mathematics, help them to

form a deep understanding of mathematical concepts, and establish Analysing skills refer to the following abilities:

a more meaningful understanding of various mathematical ideas. • Thinking clearly.

Based on the understanding and comprehension developed, pupils • Giving attention and concentration to each aspect.

are able to relate and apply mathematical ideas, and subsequently, • Manipulating precised, concised and detailed ideas.

make pupils more confident in exploring and applying mathematics. • Understanding complex reasoning.

The use of teaching aids, technological equipment and the

• Constructing and persevering logical arguments.

implementation of assignments / practical / project work should be

encompassed in the learning experiences provided for pupils. • Debating illogical arguments.

SKILLS

Problem solving skills refer to following abilities:

Skills in mathematics that should be developed and instilled in • Construct problems precisely and identify the main issues.

pupils including numeracy, measuring and constructing, data • Present solutions clearly and explicate assumptions.

handling and interpretation, arithmetic manipulation, algebra

• Solving difficult problems by analysing simple and specific

manipulation, using alogarithm, and using mathematical

instruments and ICT. problems.

• Open-minded and using different approaches in solving the

same problem.

Mathematics Skills • Solving problems confidently even though the solutions are not

Mathematical skills refer to the following abilities: envisioned

• Asking for assistance if required.

5

Research Skills PROCESS

Research skills refer to the following abilities: Communication

• Refering notes, textbooks and other sources.

Communication about mathematical ideas can help pupils clarify

• Accessing books in the library.

and strengthen the understanding of mathematics. By sharing the

• Using database. understanding of mathematics in writing and orally with classmates,

• Gaining information from various individuals. teachers and parents, pupils will be able to increase their

• Thinking. confidence and facilitate their teachers in monitoring the progress of

their mathematics skills.

Communication Skills

Communication plays a vital role in ensuring the meaningful

Communication skills referring to the following abilities: learning of mathematics. Through communication, mathematical

• Listening effectively. ideas can be expressed and understood better. Mathematical

• Writing mathematical ideas clearly and precisely. communication, whether oral, written, in symbols and visual

• Writing essays and reports. representations (using charts, graphs, diagrams etc), can help

• Doing presentations. pupils understand and apply mathematics more effectively.

and teachers can help pupils to reflect, clarify and strengthen their

Information Communication Technology Skills

ideas and understanding on mathematics. To ensure the process of

Information communication technology skills refer to the ability in generating, sharing and increasing understanding, pupils should be

using and handling mathematical instruments such as abacus, given the opportunity to debate their mathematical ideas analytically

and systematically. Communication involves a variety of

calculators, computers, educational software, websites on the perspectives and these points of view can help pupils to increase

internet and educational packages for: their understanding of mathematics.

• Developing and understanding mathematical concepts in-depth.

• Doing, testing and proving conjecture. An important aspect of effective communication in mathematics is

• Exploring mathematical ideas. the ability to provide information effectively, understand and apply

• Solving problems. the correct mathematical notation. Pupils need to use mathematical

language and symbols correctly to ensure that mathematical ideas

can be explained accurately. Mathematical communication also

involves the use of the various media like charts, graphs

6

manipulatives, calculators, computers and others. Pupils should be conjecture, give a logical explanation, analyse, consider, evaluate,

able to use the various different media to explain mathematical and justify all mathematic activities. In addition, teachers need to

ideas and solve mathematical problems. provide space and opportunities for the discussion of mathematics

which is not only engaging but also allows each pupil to be involved

Effective communication requires a sensitive environment towards well.

the pupils’ needs to feel comfortable in a conversation, ask

questions, answer questions and explain the statements to Reasoning can be done inductively through mathematical activities

classmates and teachers. Pupils should be given the opportunity to that involve the identification of mathematical patterns and making

communicate actively in various situations, for example conclusions based on the patterns.

communicating during activities in pairs, groups or providing

explanations to the entire class. Reasoning elements in teaching and learning prevents pupils from

assuming mathematics as only one set of procedures or algorithms

Assessment of the ability of pupils to communicate in mathematics that need to be followed to obtain a solution, without actually

effectively should show evidence that they are able to generate, understanding the true concepts of mathematics. Reasoning does

explain and share their mathematical ideas through various forms of not only change the paradigm of pupils from just learning to

communication in various environments. Pupils, who are always thinking, but also gives an intellectual empowerment when pupils

given opportunities and encouragement to speak, read, write and are guided and trained to make a conjecture, prove the conjecture,

listen during the teaching and learning of mathematics will be able provide a logical explanation, analyse, evaluate and justifiy all

to communicate in learning mathematics and learn to communicate mathematic activities. This training will produce pupils who are self-

mathematically. confident and resilient in line with the aspiration to mould

mathematics thinkers with high capabilities.

Reasoning

Relating

Reasoning is fundamental in understanding mathematics more

effectively and making the delineation of mathematics more In implementing the mathematics curriculum, the opportunities for

meaningful. The development of mathematical reasoning is closely making connections need to be established so that pupils can link

related to intellectual development and communication of the pupils. conceptual and procedural knowledge and also able to relate topics

Reasoning has the ability to expand not only the capacity of logical in mathematics particularly and mathematics in other areas in

thinking but also increase the capacity of critical thinking, which is general. This will enhance pupils’ understanding of mathematics

also the basis for a deeper and meaningful and in-depth and make mathematics clearer, more meaningful and interesting to

understanding of mathematics. To achieve this objective, pupils them.

should be trained and guided to make a conjecture, prove the

7

Mathematics curriculum generally consists of several discrete areas The various uses of general strategies in problem solving including

such as calculation, geometry, algebra, measurement and problem steps in solving need to be expanded more in the use of this

solving. Without relating these areas, pupils will have to learn and subject. In carrying out learning activities to build problem solving

remember too many concepts and skills separately. Instead, skills, problems based on human activities should be introdued.

recognizing how the concepts or skills in different fields relate Through these activities, pupils can use mathematics when facing

to each other, mathematics will be seen and studied as a new situations and reinforce themselves in dealing with various

disciplined and comprehensive knowledge and can be easily challenges every day. Some of the problems solving strategies that

understood. can be considered are:

When these mathematical ideas are related with everyday 1. Try an easier problem;

experience inside and outside the school, pupils will be more aware 2. Try and error;

of the use, importance, strength and beauty of mathematics. In 3. Draw a diagram;

addition, pupils have the opportunity to use mathematics

4. Identifying patterns

contextually in other fields and in their daily lives. Mathematical

models are used to describe real life situations mathematically. 5. Create a table, chart or a systematic list;

Pupils will find this method can be used to find solutions to 6. Simulation;

problems or to predict the likelihood of a situation based on the 7. Using analogy;

mathematical model. 8. Work backwards;

9. Logically reasoning; and

10. Using algebra

Problem Solving

Representing

mathematics. Thus, teaching and learning need to involve problem

solving skills comprehensively and across the whole curriculum. Mathematics is often used to represent the world that we live in.

The development of problem solving skills needs to be given proper Therefore, there must be similarities between aspects of the

emphasis so that pupils are able to solve various problems represented world and aspects that are represented by the world.

effectively. These skills involve the following steps : The abstract relationship between these two worlds can be depicted

Understanding and interpreting problems; as follows:

Planning the strategy;

Carrying out the strategy; and

Checking the solutions.

8

Representation is necessary for pupils’ understanding in

mathematical conceptual relationship. It allows pupils to

communicate approaches, debates and understanding of

mathematics to themselves and others. It also allows

pupils to recognize the relationships between related concepts and

apply mathematics to realistic problems.

mathematical understanding and quantitative thinking. As a whole,

without representation, mathematics is an abstract, mostly

philosophic, and unapproachable by most of the population. With

the representation, ideas can be formed into a mathematical

model, important relationship can be elaborated, understanding can

be stimulated through a construction and sequencing of suitable

Representation can be regarded as a facilitator that allows the experiences and observations.

relationship between the real world and the world of mathematics.

Formula, table, graph, equation etc. are mathematical objects used

to represent various conglomerates and real world relationships. ATTITUDES AND VALUES

Representation can be defined as any configuration of letters, The aim of the nurturing of values and attitudes in Mathematics

images or concrete objects that can reflect or represent other curriculum is to produce competent individuals with virtuous moral

delegates. The representation system is naturally divided into standards. In addition, the appreciation of attitudes and values can

internal and external. The internal representation of the system shape a well mannered and noble younger generation.

exists in the mind of individual, whereas the external Understanding and awareness of the attitudes and values in the

representation is easily shared and viewed by others. Malaysian society should be directly or indirectly fostered in line

Internal representation consists of ideas that help in describing the with universal values.

human process of learning and solving problems in

mathematics, and external representation consists of items such Values and attitudes are instilled through learning experiences

as diagrams, the formal language, and notational symbols. Using provided by teachers. It involves an element of trust, interest,

multiple representations in order to show a concept helps to appreciation, confidence, efficiency and endurance. Instilling of

develop better understanding and also to strengthen one's ability in values and attitudes also include personal aspects, interaction,

solving problems. procedural and intrinsic.

9

In mathematics, attitudes and values need to be moulded through CONTENT STANDARD AND LEARNING STANDARD

appropriate context. Attitudes in mathematics refer to the affective

aspects of mathematical learning that covers: Primary School Mathematics Standard Curriculum is formulated

positive response towards mathematics and the usefulness of with emphasis on Content Standard and Learning Standard should

mathematics. be known and can be done by pupils. This standard is presented

Interest and joy in learning mathematics. in a modular form divided into topics based on areas of learning.

Appreciation of the beauty and mathematical ability.

Confidence in using and applying mathematics. Content Standard

Steadfast and perseverance in solving problems related to General statements of the cognitive domain (knowledge) and

mathematics. affective (attitudes and values) can be achieved by pupils through a

subtopic.

Personal values refer to the values that are related with the

formation of individual traits and personality such as Learning Standard

honesty, systematic, perserverence, hardworking and steadfast,

creative, confidence, conscientious, good time managers, Specific statement of what pupils should know and do in terms of

independent, trustworthy, efficient, responsible, patience and knowledge or concepts and the ability to show their proficiency in

dedication. measureable knowledge acquisition, skills and values.

Interaction values are related with the instillation of good behavior in Learning Standard does not show the steps of teaching and

the classroom context. The value refers to the emphasized values learning. It gives teachers space and opportunity to prepare a

in the interaction during mathematical activities such as conducive learning environment creatively. Thus, pupils are able to

appreciation for mathematics, teamwork, discussion and sharing of form concepts and develop skills, attitudes and values in

ideas, tolerance, fair, open-minded, and respectful. mathematics.

Procedural values associated with specific activities in mathematics STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING

such as reasoning, making representations, solving problems,

communication, making connection, and using technology. Mathematical thoughtful learning is transferred into teaching and

learning practices. Teaching and learning is guided by the principle

Intrinsic values associated with the formation of mathematical of mastery learning and the learning occurs in access and self-

content and its discipline such as the epistemology, cultural directed and in accordance with its own pace.

and historical values.

10

Teaching and learning strategies should be pupil-centred to enable ELEMENTS OF ADDED VALUES

them to interact and master the learning skills through their own

experience. Pupils-centered inquiry or discovery approach with the CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION

aid of appropriate technology is comprehensively and

effectively used to make the experience of learning There are many definitions of creativity. According to the Kamus

mathematics fun, meaningful, useful and challenging. Dewan, 1997 creativity means the capability or the ability to create.

Whereas according to PPK, 1999 creativity means the ability to

Teaching and learning of primary school mathematics encourage digest and produce new and original ideas. The idea is developed

the use of diverse methods. Teachers can choose appropriate through inspiration or combination of existing ideas.

teaching and learning approach and methods depending on pupils’

Creativity should be embedded effectively in teaching and learning

abilities. The effectiveness of teaching and learning depends on the

in which teachers need to be creative and innovative in their role as

processing techniques and the use of teaching aids and technology

triggers of ideas and produce pupils who are knowledgeable, able

that can stimulate and encourage pupils to think criticaly and

to master and practise the good attitudes and values as well as to

creatively, innovatively, and interact.

expand pupils’ creativity and innovation.

The inculcation of attitudes and values should be considered when This is important as creativity and innovations need to be developed

planning the teaching and learning of a distinctive skill. Moral among pupils at an early stage of schooling. This is to enable them

values could be instilled appropriately according to the well planned to know their potential and personal preferences as well as to

lesson. trigger the hidden potential in themselves.

Elements of history, patriotism, environment and science can be Creative and innovative teaching and learning can be applied

applied accordingly to the appropriate topics to enable pupils to through problem solving, logical reasoning, communication, making

appreciate mathematics and stimulate their interest on a particular connections and the use of technology, where pupils:

topic. Elements of history can be a specific event about a

mathematician or a brief history of a concept or symbol. Build a mathematical model through patterns and relationships.

Apply mathematical skills in estimation, measurement and

Problem solving is an important aspect that must be embedded visualization of data in everyday situations.

in teaching and learning of mathematics to enhance pupils’ Make interconnections between mathematical skills with other

analytical thinking and creativity. Solutions presented for problems disciplines of knowledge.

should be appropriate accordance to the pupils’ level. In Apply mathematical knowledge to find solutions for routine and

addition, pupils are also encouraged to communicate and non-routine problems.

courageously make decisions. Make a conjecture (extrapolation, projections, cause and effect).

11

The process of building a creative and innovative skills can be INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

initiated from the preparation phase, imagination, development and

action in planning a preparation of teaching and learning in the Explosion of progress in various technology now and in future make

classroom. Through this process, pupil-centered teaching and this element important in teaching and learning in classroom.

learning is formed to instigate the creative skills among pupils. Exposure of ICT application in teaching and learning Mathematics

can be applied successfully in:

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MATHEMATICS Learning about ICT

Pupils are taught about ICT knowledge and skills in handling

An effort to build the entrepreneurship characteristics and practice it hardware and software.

to make it as a culture among pupils. The entrepreneurship Learning through ICT

characteristics and practices can be formed by: Use ICT to access information and knowledge through media

such as CD, DVD, Internet and etc.

Practicing the entrepreneurs’ attitude.

Learning with ICT

Applying the entrepreneur’s thinking.

Teachers and pupils use ICT as their teaching and learning aids

Applying the knowledge and skills of business management.

ICT teaching and learning

Formulating either entrepreneurship concept, process or

This can be as an access to make learning more interesting and

product.

fun. Pupils are exposed to various kind of latest communication

Practice moral values and good ethics in entrepreneurship.

information and its effective usage will produce a quality

Therefore, this element can be applied in the appropriate learning teaching and learning.

areas of mathematics such as in numbers and operations,

measurement and geometry, statistics and probability in primary

schools.

12

ASSESSMENT Problem solving

Making decisions.

Assessment is an integral part of the teaching and learning process.

It has to be well-planned and carried out continuously as part of Career and Life Skills: Needs more than thinking skills and

classroom activities. By focusing on a broad range of mathematical knowledge. Students develop life and career skills to face complex

activities, the strengths and weaknesses of pupils can be assessed. and working environment in a world that is becoming more

Different methods of assessment can be conducted using various challenging. These are:

assessment techniques including oral and written work as well as Communication Skills

demonstrations. These may be carried out in the form of interviews, Information and Communication Technology

open-ended questions, observations and research. Based on the Cooperation

results, teachers can rectify the pupils’ misconceptions and Entrepreneurship

weaknesses and at the same time improve their teaching skills. As Leadership

such, teachers can take subsequent effective measures in

Lifelong learning

conducting remedial and enrichment activities to upgrade pupils’

Flexibility

performance.

Ability to Adapt

Initiative and Self-direction.

SKILLS FOR THE 21st CENTURY

Values: Is the guideline for students to become noble individuals

A student must be equipped with skills, knowledge and values that who are capable of make decisions and take actions like carrying

need to be mastered to survive in life and career of in 21st century. out responsibilities to family, society and country. The values are:

Spirituality

The Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) has identified the skills Humanity

and values that each student needs to have to face the 21st Patriotism

century. Skills and values are split into 3 aspects: Integrity

Responsibility

Thinking skills: Prepares students to face life challenging as well Oneness.

as the current working environment. The skills are:

Creativity

Critical thinking

Reasoning

Innovative

13

STUDENTS’ PROFILE Teamwork: They can work together effectively and harmoniously

with others. They take on responsibility while respecting and

The critical factor that contributes to social growth, culture and appreciating the contributions given by all team members. They

economy of a country is the development of model individuals who obtain interpersonal skills through collaborative activities, and make

are innovative and highly skilled. With that, each student would be them better leaders and team mates.

well balanced physically, emotionally, spiritually and intellectually as

stated in the National Education Philosophy. Curious: They develop natural curiosity to explore strategies and

new ideas. They learn skills that are needed to carry out inquiry

MOE has outlined 10 Pupil Profiles that each student needs to have and research, as well as behave independently in learning. They

in order to compete globally. Student Profiles are characterised as: enjoy continuous lifelong learning experiences.

Balanced: They are balanced physically, emotionally, spiritually Principled: They are honest and have integrity, equality, fair and

and intellectually to achieve personal satisfaction, as well as show respect individual, group and community dignity. They are

empathy, compassion, and respect for others. Able to contribute responsible for their actions, consequences and decisions.

towards the harmony of family, community and country.

Informative: They gain knowledge and form wide and

Thinker: They think critically, creatively and innovatively; able to balanced understanding across various knowledge disciplines.

handle complex problems and make ethical decisions. They think They explore knowledge effectively and efficiently in the context of

about learning and themselves as students. They come up with local and global issues. They understand ethical issues/laws related

questions and are open to perspective, values and individual to the information that was gained.

traditions and societal traditions. They are confident and creative in

handling new learning fields. Caring: They show empathy, compassion and respect towards

needs and feelings of others.

Resistant: They are able to face and overcome difficulties,

challenges with wisdom, confidence, tolerance and empathy. Attentive: They are committed to the country and ensure the

sustainability of nature.

Communicator: They can confidently voice and express their

thoughts, ideas and information. The thoughs and ideas can be Patriotism: They portray love, support and respect towards the

conveyed verbally, in written form or using various media and country.

technology in a creative manner.

14

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

1. WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...

1.1 State the quantity (i) State the quantity by comparing “many or few”, “equal or unequal” and

intuitively. “more or less” by:

(a) groups of more and less objects,

(b) comparing two groups of objects by matching,

(c) using two groups of objects with different pattern.

1.2 Name and determine the value. (i) Name numbers up to 100:

(a) counting objects in groups,

(b) name the number to represent the quantity of objects in a group,

(c) determine ”more or less” group by comparing two groups of objects

within one to nine,

(d) name the numerals.

(ii) Determine the value of numbers up to 100:

(a) show the quantity of numbers mentioned by using real objects,

pictures, number lines and abacus 4:1,

(b) match groups of object with the numbers,

(c) compare the value of two numbers and state the relation using ”more

than” and ”less than”,

(d) arrange group of objects, picture cards and number cards in ascending

and descending order,

(e) compare two numbers and say any number in between.

(a) numerals,

(b) words.

15

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

1. WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...

1.4 Complete any number (i) Count numbers within 100 by:

sequence. (a) ones,

(b) twos,

(c) fives,

(d) tens,

in ascending and descending order by using various objects and number

line.

(ii) Complete any number sequence within 100 by:

(a) ones,

(b) twos,

(c) fives,

(d) tens,

in ascending and descending order.

1.5 Determine the place value of (i) State the place value for numbers up to 100.

any number. (ii) State the digit value for numbers up to 100.

(iii) State the place value and digit value for numbers by using abacus 4:1.

1.6 Estimate. (i) Give reasonable estimation for the number of objects by:

(a) stating the quantity,

(b) using ”more than” and ”less than”.

16

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

1. WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...

1.7 Round off whole numbers. (i) Round off whole numbers to the nearest tens by using number lines.

1.8 Complete the number pattern. (i) Identify pattern for a given number series.

(ii) Complete various simple number patterns.

17

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...

2.1 Identify pair of numbers to (i) State possible pairs of numbers for the given total.

form a related number. (ii) State the total of two numbers.

(iii) List combinations of two numbers for the given total.

2.2 Identify symbols. (i) Use and vary the relevant vocabulary in context of addition and subtraction.

(ii) Introduce the symbols of addition, subtraction and equal sign.

(iii) Use the symbols of addition, subtraction and equal sign to write number

sentence based on situation given.

2.3 Add and subtract within 100. (i) Add and subtract in the range of basic facts:

(a) state spontaneously basic facts of addition.

(b) state spontaneously basic facts of subtraction.

(c) state the inverse relationship between addition facts dan subtraction

facts.

(d) use certain strategies to construct and state basic facts of addition and

subtraction.

(e) use abacus 4:1 to represent calculation in addition and subtraction.

(ii) Add and subtract within 100:

(a) perform the calculation of addition and subtraction.

(b) use abacus 4:1 to represent calculation in addition and subtraction.

(c) use mental calculation strategies in addition and subtraction.

2.4 Create story and solve

(i) Create story involving addition and subtraction within 100.

problems involving addition

(ii) Solve problems involving addition or subtraction using simulation model.

and subtraction in real life

(iii) Solve problems involving addition or subtraction in real life situations.

situations.

18

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

3. FRACTIONS Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...

3.1 Identify concept of one half (i) Identify one over two and one over four as ”half” and ”quarter” using

and one quarter. concrete materials, pictures and folded papers.

19

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

4. MONEY UP TO RM10 Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...

4.1 Identify ringgit and sen. (i) Identify coins and notes of Malaysian currency.

(ii) Represent the value of money in:

(a) sen up to RM1,

(b) ringgit up to RM10.

(iii) Represent value of money using abacus 4:1.

(iv) Convert money in:

(a) coins up to RM1,

(b) notes up to RM10.

(a) sen up to RM1,

(b) ringgit up to RM10.

(ii) Add and subtract involving money using abacus 4:1.

20

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

5. TIME Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to … Pupils will be able to …

5.1 Name days and months and (i) State time in a day.

explain the activities according (ii) State the sequence of events in a day (schooling days only).

to schooling days. (iii) Name days of a week in sequence.

(iv) Name months of a year.

5.2 Say and write time. (i) Identify and state ”half” and ”quarter” based on the clock face.

(ii) Say and write time in hour and half an hour using analogue clock.

21

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

6. LENGTH Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...

6.1 Use relative units for measuring (i) Measure length of objects using non-standard units.

length. (ii) Compare the length of two or more objects using non-standard units.

(iii) Use and vary the vocabulary in the context of length.

22

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

7. MASS Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...

7.1 Use relative units of mass. (i) Measure mass of objects using non-standard units.

(ii) Compare the mass of two or more objects using non-standard units.

(iii) Use and vary the vocabulary in the context of mass.

23

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

8. VOLUME OF LIQUID Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...

8.1 Use relative units of volume of (i) Carry out activities related to the volume of liquid using non-standard

liquid. units.

(ii) Compare two or more liquid containers using non-standard units.

(iii) Use and vary the vocabulary in the context of volume of liquid.

24

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

9. SPACE Year 1

STANDARD CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING

Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...

9.1 Identify three-dimensional (i) Name the shapes: cuboid, cube, cone, square based pyramid, cylinder and

shapes. sphere.

(ii) Describe face, edge and vertex of three-dimensional shapes.

(iii) Arrange objects according to the pattern.

(iv) Build three-dimensional models and describe them.

9.2 Identify two-dimensional (i) Name the shapes: square, rectangle, triangle and circle.

shapes. (ii) Describe straight line, edge, corner and curved line of two-dimensional

shapes.

(iii) Arrange two-dimensional shapes according to the pattern.

(iv) Create design based on two-dimensional shapes.

25

26

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

Level 4-8, Block E9

Precinct 1

Federal Government Administrative Centre

62604 PUTRAJAYA

Tel: 03-8884 2000 Faks: 03-8888 9917

http://www.moe.gov.my/bpk

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