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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

KURIKULUM STANDARD SEKOLAH RENDAH

MATHEMATICS
YEAR ONE
STANDARD DOCUMENT

KURIKULUM STANDARD SEKOLAH RENDAH


(PRIMARY SCHOOL STANDARD CURRICULUM)
(KSSR)

BASIC CORE MODULE

MATHEMATICS
YEAR ONE

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION

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Copyright © 2008 Curriculum Development Centre

First published 2009


Second published 2010
Third published 2011
Fourth published 2012
Fifth published 2013
© Ministry of Education Malaysia

Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic,
mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, and recording is forbidden without the
prior written permission from the Director of the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia, Level 4-8,
Block E9, Parcel E, Kompleks Kerajaan Parcel E,Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62604 Putrajaya

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CONTENTS

CONTENTS iii NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS


RUKUN NEGARA v WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 15
NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION vii ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 18
INTRODUCTION 1 FRACTION 19
THE RATIONALE OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 1 MONEY UP TO RM10 20
AIMS 1
FOCUS 2 MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY
NATIONAL CURRICULUM’S FRAMEWORK 2 TIME 21
STRUCTURE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL 3 LENGTH 22
MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
MASS 23
OBJECTIVES 3
VOLUME OF LIQUID 24
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM’S FRAMEWORK 3
SPACE 25
CONTENT STANDARD AND LEARNING STANDARD 10
STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING 10
ELEMENTS OF ADDED VALUES 11
ASSESSMENT 13

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RUKUN NEGARA
BAHAWASANYA negara kita Malaysia mendukung cita-
cita untuk mencapai perpaduan yang lebih erat
dalam kalangan seluruh masyarakatnya; memelihara
satu cara hidup demokratik; mencipta masyarakat
yang adil bagi kemakmuran negara yang akan
dapat dinikmati bersama secara adil dan saksama;
menjamin satu cara yang liberal terhadap tradisi-
tradisi kebudayaannya yang kaya dan berbagai-
bagai corak; membina satu masyarakat progresif
yang akan menggunakan sains dan teknologi
moden;

MAKA KAMI, rakyat Malaysia, berikrar akan


menumpukan seluruh tenaga dan usaha kami untuk
mencapai cita-cita tersebut berdasarkan atas prinsip-
prinsip yang berikut:

• KEPERCAYAAN KEPADA TUHAN


• KESETIAAN KEPADA RAJA DAN NEGARA
• KELUHURAN PERLEMBAGAAN
• KEDAULATAN UNDANG-UNDANG
• KESOPANAN DAN KESUSILAAN

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RUKUNEGARA
DECLARATION

OUR NATION, MALAYSIA, being dedicated


 to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples;
 to maintaining a democratic way of life;
 to creating a just society in which the wealth of
the nation shall be equitably shared;
 to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and
diverse cultural traditions;
 to building a progressive society which shall be
orientated to modern science and technology;

WE, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain


these ends guided by these principles:
 Belief in God
 Loyalty to King and Country
 Upholding the Constitution
 Rule of Law
 Good Behaviour and Morality

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Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha
berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi
potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan
bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang
seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek,
rohani, emosi dan jasmani berdasarkan
kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan.
Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat
Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan,
berketerampilan, berakhlak mulia,
bertanggungjawab dan berkeupayaan
mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta
memberikan sumbangan terhadap
keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga,
masyarakat dan negara.

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INTRODUCTION THE RATIONALE OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

“Sekolah Unggul Penjana Generasi Terbilang” (“Ideal Schools Mathematics is the best platform to develop individual intellectual
Generating an Illustrious Generation”) is the vision of the Malaysian proficiency in making logical reasoning, space visualization,
Ministry of Education. The education purpose in Malaysia is to abstract thinking skills and analyzing. Pupils develop numeracy
develop individual potential through quality education by preparing skills, reasoning, thinking and problem solving ways of thinking
committed citizens and a generation that has the ability to think. through learning and application of mathematics.
Ministry Of Education continuously reviews the curriculum to ensure
that the implementation of the curriculum in schools equips pupils Mathematics provides opportunities for students to perform creative
with knowledge, skills and values to face current and future tasks and experience the fun and excitement of learning something
challenges. new. Such experiences increase interest and are the driving forces
for students to learn mathematics outside the classroom and at the
Mathematics is a discipline that trains the mind to think logically and higher level of education.
systematically in problem solving and decision making. Inherently,
mathematical nature promotes meaningful learning and challenges
the mind. Due to this, mathematics is one of the most important AIMS
disciplines in any endeavor for human development. Based on the
National Philosophy of Education and to ensure the relevancy of the The Aim of the Primary School Standard Curriculum for
curriculum, the Primary School Standard Curriculum for Mathematics is to develop pupils’ understanding on the concept of
Mathematics is adapted and restructured. This restructuring takes numbers, basic calculation skills, understanding simple
into account the ongoing continuity to the next level. Measures mathematical ideas and are competent in applying mathematical
taken are consistent with the need to provide the knowledge and knowledge and skills effectively and responsibly in everyday life.
mathematical skills to pupils from various backgrounds and abilities.
With the knowledge and skills, they are able to explore the
knowledge, make adaptations, modifications and innovations in
managing changes and dealing with future challenges.

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FOCUS
.
Mathematical teaching and learning process gives priority to mastering knowledge and understanding to enable pupils to apply concepts,
principles and the mathematical processes they have learned. Emphasis on the development of mathematical thinking is built and
developed through the teaching and learning in the classroom based on the following principles, which are, problem solving,
communication, reasoning, making connections, making representations and the application of technology in mathematics.
.

NATIONAL CURRICULUM
FRAMEWORK
The Standard curriculum is based on
six pillars, namely Communication; Spiritual, Attitudes .
and Values; Humanity; Physical Development and
Aesthetic; Personal Experience; and Science and
Technology. The six pillars are the main domain that
supports each other and are integrated with critical
thinking, creative and innovative thinking. This
integration aims to develop balanced, knowledgeable
and competent human capital as shown in the
adjacent figure.

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PRIMARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS EDUCATION  Communicate using mathematical ideas clearly and use correct
STRUCTURE symbols and terminologies.
 Use mathematical knowledge and skills to be applied and
Each pupil in Malaysia has the opportunity to go through at least six adapted to various strategies to solve problems.
years of basic education in schools. This includes three years in  Think, reason, and explore mathematically in daily life.
level I studies and three years in level II. After which, pupils  Use various representations to deliver mathematical ideas and
can pursue education at a higher level. associations.
 Appreciate and internalise the beauty of mathematics.
 Use various mathematical instruments effectively including ICT
LEVEL AIMS to build conceptual understanding and apply mathematical
knowledge.
I Primary School Mathematics Curriculum Level
I aims to build understanding, mathematics
and basic application skills.
II Primary Mathematics Curriculum Level II aims to MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
build understanding, mathematical skills and more
complex application skills that can be used in The Mathematics curriculum framework shows a mathematical
effectively overcoming the challenges in the pupils’ programme that could be utilized at the primary level. Mathematical
daily life. Learning is planned with the aim of moulding pupils’ mathematical
thoughtful learning.

OBJECTIVES
MATHEMATICAL THOUGHTFUL LEARNING
The Primary School Mathematics Curriculum will enable pupils to:
The definition of “fikrah” (thoughtful learning) according to the fourth
 Understand and apply the concepts and mathematical skills in edition of the Kamus Dewan (2005) has the same
various contexts. meaning with thinking and reasoning. In the context of mathematics
 Expand the use of addition, subtraction, multiplication and education, thoughtful learning refers to the desired quality of pupils
division basic skills related to Numbers and Operations, to be delivered through the national mathematics education system.
Measurement and Geometry, Relationship and Algebra, and Pupils who are mathematically inclined are those capable of
Statistics and Probability. doing mathematics and understanding mathematical ideas, and
 Identify and use the relationship in mathematical ideas, between responsibly applying the mathematical knowledge and skills in their
mathematical fields with other fields and with daily life. daily lives based on attitudes and values of mathematics.

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MATHEMATHICS CURRICULUM DESIGN CONTENT ORGANISATION

The Mathematics Curriculum encompasses four learning areas:


 Numbers and Operations  Numbers and Operations
 Measurement and Geometry  Measurement and Geometry
 Relationship and Algebra  Relationship and Algebra
 Statistics and Probability  Statistics and Probability

The contents of the KSSR Mathematics are as follows:

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

 Communicating  Perception, interest,  Whole Numbers  Time


 Reasoning appreciation,  Addition  Length
 Relating confidently resilient  Subtraction  Mass
 and perseverance.
Problem Solving  Multiplication  Volume of Liquid
  Personality,
Representing  Division  Three Dimensional Shapes
interaction, procedure,
 Mixed Operations  Two Dimensional Shapes
intrinsic.
 Mathematical skills  Fractions
 Analytical skills  Decimals
 Problems solving skills  Percentage
 Research skills  Money
 Communication skills
 Information Communication Technology skills
RELATIONSHIP AND ALGEBRA STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

 Coordinate  Data Management


 Ratio and Proportion  Likelihood

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Pupils should develop and explore mathematical ideas in depth • Using correct standard mathematical language and applying
through various learning opportunities and experiences. Awareness logical reasoning.
should be fostered and developed among pupils that mathematical • Stating mathematical ideas concisely.
ideas are intertwined, and mathematics is comprehensive; not
• Creating, testing, and proving conjecture.
isolated bits of knowledge. With such awareness and
understanding, comprehending of mathematical ideas become • Extracting meaning from a mathematical writing.
more meaningful, and thus can enhance the capability of pupils to • Using mathematics to explain physical world.
apply mathematics.

Opportunities and a variety of learning experiences provided should Analysing Skills


actively engage the pupils in learning mathematics, help them to
form a deep understanding of mathematical concepts, and establish Analysing skills refer to the following abilities:
a more meaningful understanding of various mathematical ideas. • Thinking clearly.
Based on the understanding and comprehension developed, pupils • Giving attention and concentration to each aspect.
are able to relate and apply mathematical ideas, and subsequently, • Manipulating precised, concised and detailed ideas.
make pupils more confident in exploring and applying mathematics. • Understanding complex reasoning.
The use of teaching aids, technological equipment and the
• Constructing and persevering logical arguments.
implementation of assignments / practical / project work should be
encompassed in the learning experiences provided for pupils. • Debating illogical arguments.

Problem Solving Skills


SKILLS
Problem solving skills refer to following abilities:
Skills in mathematics that should be developed and instilled in • Construct problems precisely and identify the main issues.
pupils including numeracy, measuring and constructing, data • Present solutions clearly and explicate assumptions.
handling and interpretation, arithmetic manipulation, algebra
• Solving difficult problems by analysing simple and specific
manipulation, using alogarithm, and using mathematical
instruments and ICT. problems.
• Open-minded and using different approaches in solving the
same problem.
Mathematics Skills • Solving problems confidently even though the solutions are not
Mathematical skills refer to the following abilities: envisioned
• Asking for assistance if required.
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Research Skills PROCESS
Research skills refer to the following abilities: Communication
• Refering notes, textbooks and other sources.
Communication about mathematical ideas can help pupils clarify
• Accessing books in the library.
and strengthen the understanding of mathematics. By sharing the
• Using database. understanding of mathematics in writing and orally with classmates,
• Gaining information from various individuals. teachers and parents, pupils will be able to increase their
• Thinking. confidence and facilitate their teachers in monitoring the progress of
their mathematics skills.
Communication Skills
Communication plays a vital role in ensuring the meaningful
Communication skills referring to the following abilities: learning of mathematics. Through communication, mathematical
• Listening effectively. ideas can be expressed and understood better. Mathematical
• Writing mathematical ideas clearly and precisely. communication, whether oral, written, in symbols and visual
• Writing essays and reports. representations (using charts, graphs, diagrams etc), can help
• Doing presentations. pupils understand and apply mathematics more effectively.

Communication among themselves or with peers, parents, adults


and teachers can help pupils to reflect, clarify and strengthen their
Information Communication Technology Skills
ideas and understanding on mathematics. To ensure the process of
Information communication technology skills refer to the ability in generating, sharing and increasing understanding, pupils should be
using and handling mathematical instruments such as abacus, given the opportunity to debate their mathematical ideas analytically
and systematically. Communication involves a variety of
calculators, computers, educational software, websites on the perspectives and these points of view can help pupils to increase
internet and educational packages for: their understanding of mathematics.
• Developing and understanding mathematical concepts in-depth.
• Doing, testing and proving conjecture. An important aspect of effective communication in mathematics is
• Exploring mathematical ideas. the ability to provide information effectively, understand and apply
• Solving problems. the correct mathematical notation. Pupils need to use mathematical
language and symbols correctly to ensure that mathematical ideas
can be explained accurately. Mathematical communication also
involves the use of the various media like charts, graphs

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manipulatives, calculators, computers and others. Pupils should be conjecture, give a logical explanation, analyse, consider, evaluate,
able to use the various different media to explain mathematical and justify all mathematic activities. In addition, teachers need to
ideas and solve mathematical problems. provide space and opportunities for the discussion of mathematics
which is not only engaging but also allows each pupil to be involved
Effective communication requires a sensitive environment towards well.
the pupils’ needs to feel comfortable in a conversation, ask
questions, answer questions and explain the statements to Reasoning can be done inductively through mathematical activities
classmates and teachers. Pupils should be given the opportunity to that involve the identification of mathematical patterns and making
communicate actively in various situations, for example conclusions based on the patterns.
communicating during activities in pairs, groups or providing
explanations to the entire class. Reasoning elements in teaching and learning prevents pupils from
assuming mathematics as only one set of procedures or algorithms
Assessment of the ability of pupils to communicate in mathematics that need to be followed to obtain a solution, without actually
effectively should show evidence that they are able to generate, understanding the true concepts of mathematics. Reasoning does
explain and share their mathematical ideas through various forms of not only change the paradigm of pupils from just learning to
communication in various environments. Pupils, who are always thinking, but also gives an intellectual empowerment when pupils
given opportunities and encouragement to speak, read, write and are guided and trained to make a conjecture, prove the conjecture,
listen during the teaching and learning of mathematics will be able provide a logical explanation, analyse, evaluate and justifiy all
to communicate in learning mathematics and learn to communicate mathematic activities. This training will produce pupils who are self-
mathematically. confident and resilient in line with the aspiration to mould
mathematics thinkers with high capabilities.

Reasoning
Relating
Reasoning is fundamental in understanding mathematics more
effectively and making the delineation of mathematics more In implementing the mathematics curriculum, the opportunities for
meaningful. The development of mathematical reasoning is closely making connections need to be established so that pupils can link
related to intellectual development and communication of the pupils. conceptual and procedural knowledge and also able to relate topics
Reasoning has the ability to expand not only the capacity of logical in mathematics particularly and mathematics in other areas in
thinking but also increase the capacity of critical thinking, which is general. This will enhance pupils’ understanding of mathematics
also the basis for a deeper and meaningful and in-depth and make mathematics clearer, more meaningful and interesting to
understanding of mathematics. To achieve this objective, pupils them.
should be trained and guided to make a conjecture, prove the
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Mathematics curriculum generally consists of several discrete areas The various uses of general strategies in problem solving including
such as calculation, geometry, algebra, measurement and problem steps in solving need to be expanded more in the use of this
solving. Without relating these areas, pupils will have to learn and subject. In carrying out learning activities to build problem solving
remember too many concepts and skills separately. Instead, skills, problems based on human activities should be introdued.
recognizing how the concepts or skills in different fields relate Through these activities, pupils can use mathematics when facing
to each other, mathematics will be seen and studied as a new situations and reinforce themselves in dealing with various
disciplined and comprehensive knowledge and can be easily challenges every day. Some of the problems solving strategies that
understood. can be considered are:

When these mathematical ideas are related with everyday 1. Try an easier problem;
experience inside and outside the school, pupils will be more aware 2. Try and error;
of the use, importance, strength and beauty of mathematics. In 3. Draw a diagram;
addition, pupils have the opportunity to use mathematics
4. Identifying patterns
contextually in other fields and in their daily lives. Mathematical
models are used to describe real life situations mathematically. 5. Create a table, chart or a systematic list;
Pupils will find this method can be used to find solutions to 6. Simulation;
problems or to predict the likelihood of a situation based on the 7. Using analogy;
mathematical model. 8. Work backwards;
9. Logically reasoning; and
10. Using algebra
Problem Solving

Problem solving is the main focus in the teaching and learning of


Representing
mathematics. Thus, teaching and learning need to involve problem
solving skills comprehensively and across the whole curriculum. Mathematics is often used to represent the world that we live in.
The development of problem solving skills needs to be given proper Therefore, there must be similarities between aspects of the
emphasis so that pupils are able to solve various problems represented world and aspects that are represented by the world.
effectively. These skills involve the following steps : The abstract relationship between these two worlds can be depicted
 Understanding and interpreting problems; as follows:
 Planning the strategy;
 Carrying out the strategy; and
 Checking the solutions.

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Representation is necessary for pupils’ understanding in
mathematical conceptual relationship. It allows pupils to
communicate approaches, debates and understanding of
mathematics to themselves and others. It also allows
pupils to recognize the relationships between related concepts and
apply mathematics to realistic problems.

Representation is an important component in the development of


mathematical understanding and quantitative thinking. As a whole,
without representation, mathematics is an abstract, mostly
philosophic, and unapproachable by most of the population. With
the representation, ideas can be formed into a mathematical
model, important relationship can be elaborated, understanding can
be stimulated through a construction and sequencing of suitable
Representation can be regarded as a facilitator that allows the experiences and observations.
relationship between the real world and the world of mathematics.
Formula, table, graph, equation etc. are mathematical objects used
to represent various conglomerates and real world relationships. ATTITUDES AND VALUES

Representation can be defined as any configuration of letters, The aim of the nurturing of values and attitudes in Mathematics
images or concrete objects that can reflect or represent other curriculum is to produce competent individuals with virtuous moral
delegates. The representation system is naturally divided into standards. In addition, the appreciation of attitudes and values can
internal and external. The internal representation of the system shape a well mannered and noble younger generation.
exists in the mind of individual, whereas the external Understanding and awareness of the attitudes and values in the
representation is easily shared and viewed by others. Malaysian society should be directly or indirectly fostered in line
Internal representation consists of ideas that help in describing the with universal values.
human process of learning and solving problems in
mathematics, and external representation consists of items such Values and attitudes are instilled through learning experiences
as diagrams, the formal language, and notational symbols. Using provided by teachers. It involves an element of trust, interest,
multiple representations in order to show a concept helps to appreciation, confidence, efficiency and endurance. Instilling of
develop better understanding and also to strengthen one's ability in values and attitudes also include personal aspects, interaction,
solving problems. procedural and intrinsic.

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In mathematics, attitudes and values need to be moulded through CONTENT STANDARD AND LEARNING STANDARD
appropriate context. Attitudes in mathematics refer to the affective
aspects of mathematical learning that covers: Primary School Mathematics Standard Curriculum is formulated
 positive response towards mathematics and the usefulness of with emphasis on Content Standard and Learning Standard should
mathematics. be known and can be done by pupils. This standard is presented
 Interest and joy in learning mathematics. in a modular form divided into topics based on areas of learning.
 Appreciation of the beauty and mathematical ability.
 Confidence in using and applying mathematics. Content Standard
 Steadfast and perseverance in solving problems related to General statements of the cognitive domain (knowledge) and
mathematics. affective (attitudes and values) can be achieved by pupils through a
subtopic.
Personal values refer to the values that are related with the
formation of individual traits and personality such as Learning Standard
honesty, systematic, perserverence, hardworking and steadfast,
creative, confidence, conscientious, good time managers, Specific statement of what pupils should know and do in terms of
independent, trustworthy, efficient, responsible, patience and knowledge or concepts and the ability to show their proficiency in
dedication. measureable knowledge acquisition, skills and values.

Interaction values are related with the instillation of good behavior in Learning Standard does not show the steps of teaching and
the classroom context. The value refers to the emphasized values learning. It gives teachers space and opportunity to prepare a
in the interaction during mathematical activities such as conducive learning environment creatively. Thus, pupils are able to
appreciation for mathematics, teamwork, discussion and sharing of form concepts and develop skills, attitudes and values in
ideas, tolerance, fair, open-minded, and respectful. mathematics.

Procedural values associated with specific activities in mathematics STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
such as reasoning, making representations, solving problems,
communication, making connection, and using technology. Mathematical thoughtful learning is transferred into teaching and
learning practices. Teaching and learning is guided by the principle
Intrinsic values associated with the formation of mathematical of mastery learning and the learning occurs in access and self-
content and its discipline such as the epistemology, cultural directed and in accordance with its own pace.
and historical values.

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Teaching and learning strategies should be pupil-centred to enable ELEMENTS OF ADDED VALUES
them to interact and master the learning skills through their own
experience. Pupils-centered inquiry or discovery approach with the CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION
aid of appropriate technology is comprehensively and
effectively used to make the experience of learning There are many definitions of creativity. According to the Kamus
mathematics fun, meaningful, useful and challenging. Dewan, 1997 creativity means the capability or the ability to create.
Whereas according to PPK, 1999 creativity means the ability to
Teaching and learning of primary school mathematics encourage digest and produce new and original ideas. The idea is developed
the use of diverse methods. Teachers can choose appropriate through inspiration or combination of existing ideas.
teaching and learning approach and methods depending on pupils’
Creativity should be embedded effectively in teaching and learning
abilities. The effectiveness of teaching and learning depends on the
in which teachers need to be creative and innovative in their role as
processing techniques and the use of teaching aids and technology
triggers of ideas and produce pupils who are knowledgeable, able
that can stimulate and encourage pupils to think criticaly and
to master and practise the good attitudes and values as well as to
creatively, innovatively, and interact.
expand pupils’ creativity and innovation.
The inculcation of attitudes and values should be considered when This is important as creativity and innovations need to be developed
planning the teaching and learning of a distinctive skill. Moral among pupils at an early stage of schooling. This is to enable them
values could be instilled appropriately according to the well planned to know their potential and personal preferences as well as to
lesson. trigger the hidden potential in themselves.
Elements of history, patriotism, environment and science can be Creative and innovative teaching and learning can be applied
applied accordingly to the appropriate topics to enable pupils to through problem solving, logical reasoning, communication, making
appreciate mathematics and stimulate their interest on a particular connections and the use of technology, where pupils:
topic. Elements of history can be a specific event about a
mathematician or a brief history of a concept or symbol.  Build a mathematical model through patterns and relationships.
 Apply mathematical skills in estimation, measurement and
Problem solving is an important aspect that must be embedded visualization of data in everyday situations.
in teaching and learning of mathematics to enhance pupils’  Make interconnections between mathematical skills with other
analytical thinking and creativity. Solutions presented for problems disciplines of knowledge.
should be appropriate accordance to the pupils’ level. In  Apply mathematical knowledge to find solutions for routine and
addition, pupils are also encouraged to communicate and non-routine problems.
courageously make decisions.  Make a conjecture (extrapolation, projections, cause and effect).

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The process of building a creative and innovative skills can be INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
initiated from the preparation phase, imagination, development and
action in planning a preparation of teaching and learning in the Explosion of progress in various technology now and in future make
classroom. Through this process, pupil-centered teaching and this element important in teaching and learning in classroom.
learning is formed to instigate the creative skills among pupils. Exposure of ICT application in teaching and learning Mathematics
can be applied successfully in:
ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MATHEMATICS  Learning about ICT
Pupils are taught about ICT knowledge and skills in handling
An effort to build the entrepreneurship characteristics and practice it hardware and software.
to make it as a culture among pupils. The entrepreneurship  Learning through ICT
characteristics and practices can be formed by: Use ICT to access information and knowledge through media
such as CD, DVD, Internet and etc.
 Practicing the entrepreneurs’ attitude.
 Learning with ICT
 Applying the entrepreneur’s thinking.
Teachers and pupils use ICT as their teaching and learning aids
 Applying the knowledge and skills of business management.
 ICT teaching and learning
 Formulating either entrepreneurship concept, process or
This can be as an access to make learning more interesting and
product.
fun. Pupils are exposed to various kind of latest communication
 Practice moral values and good ethics in entrepreneurship.
information and its effective usage will produce a quality
Therefore, this element can be applied in the appropriate learning teaching and learning.
areas of mathematics such as in numbers and operations,
measurement and geometry, statistics and probability in primary
schools.

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ASSESSMENT  Problem solving
 Making decisions.
Assessment is an integral part of the teaching and learning process.
It has to be well-planned and carried out continuously as part of Career and Life Skills: Needs more than thinking skills and
classroom activities. By focusing on a broad range of mathematical knowledge. Students develop life and career skills to face complex
activities, the strengths and weaknesses of pupils can be assessed. and working environment in a world that is becoming more
Different methods of assessment can be conducted using various challenging. These are:
assessment techniques including oral and written work as well as  Communication Skills
demonstrations. These may be carried out in the form of interviews,  Information and Communication Technology
open-ended questions, observations and research. Based on the  Cooperation
results, teachers can rectify the pupils’ misconceptions and  Entrepreneurship
weaknesses and at the same time improve their teaching skills. As  Leadership
such, teachers can take subsequent effective measures in
 Lifelong learning
conducting remedial and enrichment activities to upgrade pupils’
 Flexibility
performance.
 Ability to Adapt
 Initiative and Self-direction.
SKILLS FOR THE 21st CENTURY
Values: Is the guideline for students to become noble individuals
A student must be equipped with skills, knowledge and values that who are capable of make decisions and take actions like carrying
need to be mastered to survive in life and career of in 21st century. out responsibilities to family, society and country. The values are:
 Spirituality
The Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) has identified the skills  Humanity
and values that each student needs to have to face the 21st  Patriotism
century. Skills and values are split into 3 aspects:  Integrity
 Responsibility
Thinking skills: Prepares students to face life challenging as well  Oneness.
as the current working environment. The skills are:
 Creativity
 Critical thinking
 Reasoning
 Innovative

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STUDENTS’ PROFILE Teamwork: They can work together effectively and harmoniously
with others. They take on responsibility while respecting and
The critical factor that contributes to social growth, culture and appreciating the contributions given by all team members. They
economy of a country is the development of model individuals who obtain interpersonal skills through collaborative activities, and make
are innovative and highly skilled. With that, each student would be them better leaders and team mates.
well balanced physically, emotionally, spiritually and intellectually as
stated in the National Education Philosophy. Curious: They develop natural curiosity to explore strategies and
new ideas. They learn skills that are needed to carry out inquiry
MOE has outlined 10 Pupil Profiles that each student needs to have and research, as well as behave independently in learning. They
in order to compete globally. Student Profiles are characterised as: enjoy continuous lifelong learning experiences.

Balanced: They are balanced physically, emotionally, spiritually Principled: They are honest and have integrity, equality, fair and
and intellectually to achieve personal satisfaction, as well as show respect individual, group and community dignity. They are
empathy, compassion, and respect for others. Able to contribute responsible for their actions, consequences and decisions.
towards the harmony of family, community and country.
Informative: They gain knowledge and form wide and
Thinker: They think critically, creatively and innovatively; able to balanced understanding across various knowledge disciplines.
handle complex problems and make ethical decisions. They think They explore knowledge effectively and efficiently in the context of
about learning and themselves as students. They come up with local and global issues. They understand ethical issues/laws related
questions and are open to perspective, values and individual to the information that was gained.
traditions and societal traditions. They are confident and creative in
handling new learning fields. Caring: They show empathy, compassion and respect towards
needs and feelings of others.
Resistant: They are able to face and overcome difficulties,
challenges with wisdom, confidence, tolerance and empathy. Attentive: They are committed to the country and ensure the
sustainability of nature.
Communicator: They can confidently voice and express their
thoughts, ideas and information. The thoughs and ideas can be Patriotism: They portray love, support and respect towards the
conveyed verbally, in written form or using various media and country.
technology in a creative manner.

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NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS
1. WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 Year 1
CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD
Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...
1.1 State the quantity (i) State the quantity by comparing “many or few”, “equal or unequal” and
intuitively. “more or less” by:
(a) groups of more and less objects,
(b) comparing two groups of objects by matching,
(c) using two groups of objects with different pattern.

1.2 Name and determine the value. (i) Name numbers up to 100:
(a) counting objects in groups,
(b) name the number to represent the quantity of objects in a group,
(c) determine ”more or less” group by comparing two groups of objects
within one to nine,
(d) name the numerals.
(ii) Determine the value of numbers up to 100:
(a) show the quantity of numbers mentioned by using real objects,
pictures, number lines and abacus 4:1,
(b) match groups of object with the numbers,
(c) compare the value of two numbers and state the relation using ”more
than” and ”less than”,
(d) arrange group of objects, picture cards and number cards in ascending
and descending order,
(e) compare two numbers and say any number in between.

1.3 Write numbers. (i) Write numbers up to 100 in:


(a) numerals,
(b) words.

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NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS
1. WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 Year 1
CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD
Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...
1.4 Complete any number (i) Count numbers within 100 by:
sequence. (a) ones,
(b) twos,
(c) fives,
(d) tens,
in ascending and descending order by using various objects and number
line.
(ii) Complete any number sequence within 100 by:
(a) ones,
(b) twos,
(c) fives,
(d) tens,
in ascending and descending order.

1.5 Determine the place value of (i) State the place value for numbers up to 100.
any number. (ii) State the digit value for numbers up to 100.
(iii) State the place value and digit value for numbers by using abacus 4:1.

1.6 Estimate. (i) Give reasonable estimation for the number of objects by:
(a) stating the quantity,
(b) using ”more than” and ”less than”.

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NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS
1. WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 Year 1
CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD
Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...
1.7 Round off whole numbers. (i) Round off whole numbers to the nearest tens by using number lines.

1.8 Complete the number pattern. (i) Identify pattern for a given number series.
(ii) Complete various simple number patterns.

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NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS
2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
Year 1
CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD
Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...
2.1 Identify pair of numbers to (i) State possible pairs of numbers for the given total.
form a related number. (ii) State the total of two numbers.
(iii) List combinations of two numbers for the given total.

2.2 Identify symbols. (i) Use and vary the relevant vocabulary in context of addition and subtraction.
(ii) Introduce the symbols of addition, subtraction and equal sign.
(iii) Use the symbols of addition, subtraction and equal sign to write number
sentence based on situation given.
2.3 Add and subtract within 100. (i) Add and subtract in the range of basic facts:
(a) state spontaneously basic facts of addition.
(b) state spontaneously basic facts of subtraction.
(c) state the inverse relationship between addition facts dan subtraction
facts.
(d) use certain strategies to construct and state basic facts of addition and
subtraction.
(e) use abacus 4:1 to represent calculation in addition and subtraction.
(ii) Add and subtract within 100:
(a) perform the calculation of addition and subtraction.
(b) use abacus 4:1 to represent calculation in addition and subtraction.
(c) use mental calculation strategies in addition and subtraction.
2.4 Create story and solve
(i) Create story involving addition and subtraction within 100.
problems involving addition
(ii) Solve problems involving addition or subtraction using simulation model.
and subtraction in real life
(iii) Solve problems involving addition or subtraction in real life situations.
situations.

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NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS
3. FRACTIONS Year 1
CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD
Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...
3.1 Identify concept of one half (i) Identify one over two and one over four as ”half” and ”quarter” using
and one quarter. concrete materials, pictures and folded papers.

19
NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS
4. MONEY UP TO RM10 Year 1
CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD
Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...
4.1 Identify ringgit and sen. (i) Identify coins and notes of Malaysian currency.
(ii) Represent the value of money in:
(a) sen up to RM1,
(b) ringgit up to RM10.
(iii) Represent value of money using abacus 4:1.
(iv) Convert money in:
(a) coins up to RM1,
(b) notes up to RM10.

4.2 Add and subtract money. (i) Add and subtract:


(a) sen up to RM1,
(b) ringgit up to RM10.
(ii) Add and subtract involving money using abacus 4:1.

20
MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY
5. TIME Year 1
CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD
Pupils are guided to … Pupils will be able to …
5.1 Name days and months and (i) State time in a day.
explain the activities according (ii) State the sequence of events in a day (schooling days only).
to schooling days. (iii) Name days of a week in sequence.
(iv) Name months of a year.

5.2 Say and write time. (i) Identify and state ”half” and ”quarter” based on the clock face.
(ii) Say and write time in hour and half an hour using analogue clock.

21
MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY
6. LENGTH Year 1
CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD
Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...
6.1 Use relative units for measuring (i) Measure length of objects using non-standard units.
length. (ii) Compare the length of two or more objects using non-standard units.
(iii) Use and vary the vocabulary in the context of length.

22
MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY
7. MASS Year 1
CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD
Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...
7.1 Use relative units of mass. (i) Measure mass of objects using non-standard units.
(ii) Compare the mass of two or more objects using non-standard units.
(iii) Use and vary the vocabulary in the context of mass.

23
MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY
8. VOLUME OF LIQUID Year 1
CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARD
Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...
8.1 Use relative units of volume of (i) Carry out activities related to the volume of liquid using non-standard
liquid. units.
(ii) Compare two or more liquid containers using non-standard units.
(iii) Use and vary the vocabulary in the context of volume of liquid.

24
MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY
9. SPACE Year 1
STANDARD CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING
Pupils are guided to ... Pupils will be able to ...
9.1 Identify three-dimensional (i) Name the shapes: cuboid, cube, cone, square based pyramid, cylinder and
shapes. sphere.
(ii) Describe face, edge and vertex of three-dimensional shapes.
(iii) Arrange objects according to the pattern.
(iv) Build three-dimensional models and describe them.

9.2 Identify two-dimensional (i) Name the shapes: square, rectangle, triangle and circle.
shapes. (ii) Describe straight line, edge, corner and curved line of two-dimensional
shapes.
(iii) Arrange two-dimensional shapes according to the pattern.
(iv) Create design based on two-dimensional shapes.

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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA
Level 4-8, Block E9
Precinct 1
Federal Government Administrative Centre
62604 PUTRAJAYA
Tel: 03-8884 2000 Faks: 03-8888 9917
http://www.moe.gov.my/bpk