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No. 17A, Jalan Indah 16/12, Taman Bukit Indah

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Part 1: Understanding Waves (cont.)

Wave Speed
 Speed (v), wavelength (λ) and frequency (f)
 Wave speed:
 distance moved by a wave in one second
 depends on the medium through which the
wave is travelling
 Vsolid > Vliquid > Vgas
 If frequency of waves is 10Hz, it mean it produces
10 complete waves in 1 second
 How to determine 1 complete wave?
2 oscillations 3 oscillations

1 1
2 oscillations 3 oscillations
2 4
Important to Understand
Example 5 Example 6
A vibrating system produces James Bond dropped a rock into a
waves at a frequency of 25 Hz. If pool produces waves with a speed
the wavelength of the waves is 1.0 of 0.8 ms-1 and wavelength of 0.20
cm, what is the wave speed? m. Calculate the frequency of the
Example 7 Example 8
A tuning fork produces sound Figure below shows the pattern of
waves with a frequency of 170 Hz. sea waves striking the coast with a
If the speed of sound in air is 350 speed of 16 ms-1. Calculate the
ms-1, find the wavelength of the frequency of the sea waves.
sound waves.
Example 9 Solution
Figure shows the displacement-
time graph and displacement-
distance graph of a source of wave.
Find the value of wave speed.
 Ideal situation – no energy is lost from the
oscillating system Energy

-A A Displacement
Ideal oscillating system

 The energy alternates between potential energy and

kinetic energy with no energy loss to the
surroundings. This is not possible in real life.
 Actual situation – a system
undergoes damping and is
energy is lost to the

 Amplitude of oscillation
will gradually decrease and
finally becomes zero when
oscillation stops.
 This is caused by air resistance and frictions

 An oscillating system undergoes damping when

the system losses energy to the surrounding in the
form of heat energy.
Real Life Application (Damping)
Damping (Actual Situation)
Displacement / cm

T1 T2 T3 Time / s

Used in shock absorbers in cars so

that passengers won’t bounce
for too long
 Damping – a process where oscillations die down
due to loss of energy

 Two types;

 Internal – caused by compression and

rarefaction of molecules

 External – caused by friction between

oscillation system and air
 Resonance occurs when a system is made to
oscillate at a frequency equivalent to its natural
frequency by an external force.

 The resonating system will oscillate at maximum

Resonance Experiment
2. Oscillating motion is transmitted along supporting string


3. All pendulum starts to oscillate

1. Driver pendulum is
pulled back and released
Factors of Natural Frequency
Oscillating Natural
System Frequency
Length of pendulum increases

Simple Mass of bob increases

Acceleration due to gravity
Length of spring increases

Loaded Mass of load increases

Stiffness of spring increases