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# PUSAT TUISYEN NEWTON

## No. 17A, Jalan Indah 16/12, Taman Bukit Indah

Contact: 07 – 234 9168

## Part 1: Understanding Waves (cont.)

Wave Speed
 Speed (v), wavelength (λ) and frequency (f)
 Wave speed:
 distance moved by a wave in one second
 depends on the medium through which the
wave is travelling
 Vsolid > Vliquid > Vgas
 If frequency of waves is 10Hz, it mean it produces
10 complete waves in 1 second
 How to determine 1 complete wave?
2 oscillations 3 oscillations

1 1
2 oscillations 3 oscillations
2 4
Important to Understand
Example 5 Example 6
A vibrating system produces James Bond dropped a rock into a
waves at a frequency of 25 Hz. If pool produces waves with a speed
the wavelength of the waves is 1.0 of 0.8 ms-1 and wavelength of 0.20
cm, what is the wave speed? m. Calculate the frequency of the
waves.
Example 7 Example 8
A tuning fork produces sound Figure below shows the pattern of
waves with a frequency of 170 Hz. sea waves striking the coast with a
If the speed of sound in air is 350 speed of 16 ms-1. Calculate the
ms-1, find the wavelength of the frequency of the sea waves.
sound waves.
Example 9 Solution
Figure shows the displacement-
time graph and displacement-
distance graph of a source of wave.
Find the value of wave speed.
Damping
 Ideal situation – no energy is lost from the
oscillating system Energy

-A A Displacement
Ideal oscillating system

##  The energy alternates between potential energy and

kinetic energy with no energy loss to the
surroundings. This is not possible in real life.
Damping
 Actual situation – a system
undergoes damping and is
energy is lost to the
surroundings.

 Amplitude of oscillation
finally becomes zero when
oscillation stops.
 This is caused by air resistance and frictions

##  An oscillating system undergoes damping when

the system losses energy to the surrounding in the
form of heat energy.
Real Life Application (Damping)
Damping (Actual Situation)
Displacement / cm

T1 T2 T3 Time / s

## Used in shock absorbers in cars so

that passengers won’t bounce
for too long
 Damping – a process where oscillations die down
due to loss of energy

 Two types;

##  Internal – caused by compression and

rarefaction of molecules

##  External – caused by friction between

oscillation system and air
 Resonance occurs when a system is made to
oscillate at a frequency equivalent to its natural
frequency by an external force.

##  The resonating system will oscillate at maximum

amplitude
Resonance Experiment
2. Oscillating motion is transmitted along supporting string

Driver
pendulum

## 3. All pendulum starts to oscillate

1. Driver pendulum is
pulled back and released
Factors of Natural Frequency
Oscillating Natural
Factors
System Frequency
Length of pendulum increases

## Simple Mass of bob increases

Pendulum
Acceleration due to gravity
increases
Length of spring increases