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PROJECT REPORT

on

PLANNING AND DESIGN OF NET ZERO ENERGY


RESIDENTAL BUILDING
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
in

CIVIL ENGINEERING
by

KARTHIK V (1010910090)
SASIDHAR K.V (1010910092)
NEERAJ PORWAL (1010910118)
ABHINAV N (1010910119)

Under the guidance of

Mrs. VASANTHI.P
Assistant Professor (O.G)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
SRM UNIVERSITY

1
(Under section 3 of UGC Act, 1956)

SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur- 603203


Kancheepuram District

MAY 2013
PROJECT REPORT
on

PLANNING AND DESIGN OF NET ZERO ENERGY


RESIDENTAL BUILDING
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
in

CIVIL ENGINEERING
by

KARTHIK V (1010910090)
SASIDHAR K.V (1010910092)
NEERAJ PORWAL (1010910118)
ABHINAV N (1010910119)

Under the guidance of

Mrs. VASANTHI.P
Assistant Professor (O.G)

2
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
SRM UNIVERSITY
(Under section 3 of UGC Act, 1956)

SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur- 603203


Kancheepuram District

MAY 2013

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report titled “PLANNING AND DESIGN OF

NET ZERO ENERGY RESIDENTAL BUILDING” is the bonafide

work of KARTHIK.V(1010910090), SASIDHAR

REDDY.K.V(1010910092), NEERAJ PORWAL (1010910118),

ABHINAV. N (1010910119) who carried out the research under my

supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work

reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation

on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier

occasion or any other candidate.

3
Signature of the Guide Signature of the HOD

Mrs. VASANTHI .P Dr. R. ANNADURAI


Assitant Professor (O.G) Professor & Head
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil
Engineering
SRM University SRM University
Kattankulathur- 603203 Kattankulathur- 603203

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL


EXAMINER

DATE:

ABSTRACT

The proposed Net zero residential building is located at


Urapakkam. The NZERB has G+1 floor. The total land surface covered by
the Net zero energy residential building is 99 square meters. A complete
design shall be done for the proposed NZERB using Indian standard
codes. There are three main phases in a construction project which are
planning, designing and estimation. The first stage in a project is planning,
in which preparation of layout of plot has to be done. To conclude the
project a detailed estimate of the residential building has also been prepared.

4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to alma mater for congenial


cooperation and granting me permission to accomplish a work on “PLANNING AND
DESIGN OF NET ZERO ENERGY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING”

The author is grateful and records his sincere thanks to Dr. T. P.


GANESAN
Pro Vice Chancellor (P&D) and Dr. C. MUTHAMIZHCHELVAN, Director, (E&T),
SRM UNIVERSITY for providing all the necessary facilities for carrying out this work.

5
The author expresses his sincere thanks and Gratitude to HOD Dr. R.
ANNADURAI, Department of Civil Engineering, for his valuable suggestions and
advice in carrying out this thesis work.

The author expresses his sincere thanks to Department Coordinator/Civil


Dr.K.GUNASEKARAN, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, for initiative and
motivation during the course of this work.

The author hereby acknowledges with deep sense of gratitude the valuable
guidance given by the Guide Mrs.VASANTHI P, Assistant Professor, Department of
Civil Engineering, for initiative and motivation during the course of this work.
The author is extremely grateful to the valuble advices given by the class
incharge Mr.K.PRASANNA, Assistant professor,Department of Civil Engineering, for
constant support.

The author is grandly indebted to all the Faculty Members of Department of


Civil Engineering, for their valuable help rendered during the course of study.

Finally, the author expresses his hearty thanks to Friends for their kind help and
encouragement throughout the course of this thesis work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

ABSTRACT iv

6
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v

LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x
ABBREVATIONS xi
1 OVERVIEW 1
1.1 OBJECTIVE 1
1.2 NECESSITY 1
1.3 SCOPE 2
1.4 METHODOLOGY 2
1.5 MAJOR DESIGN EXPERIENCE 2

1.6 REALISTIC DESIGN CONSTRAINTS 3


1.7 REFERENCE TO CODES AND STANDARS 3
1.8 APPLICATION OF EARLIER COURSE WORKS 4
1.9 MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND TEAM WORK 4
1.10 SOFTWARE USED 5
1.11 CONCLUSION 5
1.12 FUTURE SCOPE 5
2 INTRODUCTION 6
2.1 GENERAL 6
2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES FOR CHENNAI
METROPOLITAN AREA, 2004 8
2.3.1 Primary Residential Use Zone 8
2.4 CONFORMATION TO NATIONAL BUILDING
CODE OF INDIA 9
2.4.1 Fire Safety, Detection And Extinguishing
System 10

7
2.4.2 Security Deposits 10

3 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE 11


3.1 OBJECTIVE 11
3.2 SCOPE 12
3.3 MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY 12
4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 13
4.1 PLANNING 13
4.1.1 Selection of Site 13
4.1.2 Plot Layout 14
4.1.3 Plan of the Building 15
4.2 DESIGNS 16
4.2.1 Design of Hall 16
4.2.2 Design of Bedroom
20
4.2.3 Design of Bedroom 23
4.2.4 Design of Bathroom 27
4.2.5 Design of Portico 30

4.2.6 Design of Kitchen 33

4.2.7 Design of Dining Room 37


4.2.8 Design of Wall 40
4.2.9 Design of Footing 44
4.2.10 Design of Hollow Brick Wall 44
4.2.11 Design of Footing (Hollow Brick) 49
4.2.12 Design of Stair Case 51

8
4.3 DESIGN OF SOLAR PANEL AND ITS COMPONENTS 54
4.3.1 Solar power system components
54 4.3.2 Working of Solar Panel
55
4.3.3 Description of Individual Solar Panel components 55
4.3.3.1 Solar Panels 55
4.3.3.2 Solar Regulator 55
4.3.3.3 Power Inverter 56
4.3.3.4 Solar Batteries 56
4.3.4 Designing of Solar Panel 57
4.4 RATE ANALYSIS OF SOLAR PANELS 59
4.5 INFRARED THERMOMETER 60
4.6 HOLLOW BRICK 62
4.6.1 Parameters of Hollow Brick 62

4.6.2 Advantages of Hollow Bricks 64


4.7 ESTIMATION 65

4.7.1 Abstract Estimate of Conventional Building 65


4.7.2 Abstract Estimate of NZERB
67
4.7.3 Rate Analysis 70

5 CONCLUSION 72
5.1 CONCLUSION 72
5.2 FUTURE SCOPE 72
REFERENCES 73

9
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE TITLE
PAGE 1.1 Codes Used
3
1.2 Earlier Course Work Used
4

10
2.1 Front Setback
8
2.2 Rear Setback
9
2.3 Side Setback
9
4.1 Values of slenderness ratio
48
4.2 Stress reduction factor for slenderness ratio
48
4.3 Calculation of permissible stress
49
4.4 Safe allowable load
49
4.5 Calculations of loads
57
4.6 Abstract Estimate of Conventional Building
65
4.7 Abstract Estimate of NZERB
67
4.8 Rate Analysis of Proposed Conventional Building
70
4.9 Rate Analysis of Proposed NZERB
71

11
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE TITLE PAGE

4.1 Plot Layout 13


4.2 Ground Floor Plan 14
4.3 First Floor Plan 15
4.4 Footing Design 51
4.5 Working of Solar Panels 54
4.6 Infrared Thermometer 60
4.7 U- Values 63

12
ABBREVIATIONS

deff - Effective depth


c.c - Clear cover
D - Total depth
b - Width
Mu,lim - Ultimate limiting moment of resistance
fck - Characteristic compressive strength of concrete
Mu - Ultimate moment
Pt - Percentage of tension reinforcement
Pc - Percentage of compression reinforcement
Ast - Area of steel in tension zone
Asc - Area of steel in compression zone

13
Sv - Spacing of stirrups
fy - Yield stress of steel
Asv - Total cross sectional area of stirrup legs
kt - Modification factor for tension reinforcement
kc - Modification factor for compression reinforcement
kf - Reduction factors for flanged beams
Pu - Ultimate load
τc - Permissible shear stress
Ag - Gross area of cross section
Ly - Length in y direction
Lx - Length in x direction
Wu - Ultimate load
αx - Bending moment coefficient for short span
αY - Bending moment coefficient for long span
Mx - Moment in short span direction
My - Moment in long span direction
dreq - Required depth
dprov - Provided depth
Mu,max - Maximum ultimate moment
Ast( reqd) - Area of steel required
Ast (min) - Area of minimum steel required
ast - Area of 1 bar
D.L - Dead Load
L.L - Live Load
Φ - Angle of internal friction
NC , NY, Nq - Bearing capacity factors
CMDA - Chennai metropolitian development authority
PWD - Public works department
NBC - National Building Code

14
KKNP - Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant
W.h - Watt hour
A.h - Ampere hour

CHAPTER 1

15
OVERVIEW

1.1 OBJECTIVE

i. Design a building with Net zero energy concept.


ii. To eliminate the necessity of active energy loads on the building.
iii. Comparing the net zero energy building with conventional building.

1.2 NECESSITY

The basic necessities of such a building are:


i. As the country is developing day by day the consumption of power is also
very high.
ii. Now if we are going for NZERB building we can save energy locally
which mean to save energy in global level.
iii. The use of this technology used in residential buildings has shown huge
amount savings in the electricity bill.
iv. The proper design and alignment of the building can make the building
cheaper than that of the conventional type of buildings.
v. Usage of hollow bricks and avoidance of columns and beams will result
in lowering of temperature inside the building
vi. To achieve sustainability.

1.3 SCOPE

i. Functional planning of G+1 Residential building

16
ii. Design of load bearing structure using hollow bricks
iii. Design of solar panels
iv. Comparison of room temperature between NZERB and conventional
building
v. Comparison of energy consumption between NZERB and conventional
building.

1.4 METHODOLOGY

This entire project is an planning and design in nature and the methodology
followed in this project is listed as below.
i. Selection of site where renewable energy is available
ii. Study the climate conditions of area
iii. Aligning the building to utilize maximum amount of renewable resources
iv. Planning and design of proposed NZERB building
v. Comparison of the NZERB building with other conventional building

1.5 MAJOR DESIGN EXPERIENCE

Design experience in the following areas has been gained during the course of
the project
i. Design of slabs

ii. Design of footings

iii. Design of wall using Hollow bricks

iv. Design of solar panels

1.6 REALISTIC DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

17
i. Economic: Building shall be designed such that the entire energy requirements
are met by solar energy only due to shortage of conventional energy.
ii. Sustainability Constraints: The design shall be such that the requirement of
cooling do not fluctuate throughout the year.
iii. Economic Constraint: The materials adopted for construction are economical
compared to conventional materials.

1.7 REFERENCE TO CODES AND STANDARDS

The codes for design of buildings and structures, Design co-efficient, Limit
state design method and Fixing of dimensions are shown in Table 1.1

Table 1.1 Reference to codes and standards

Codes /Standards Context

Design loads for buildings and structures


IS 875 :1987 -1,2
(Dead load , Imposed load )

Design co-efficient, Limit state design


IS 456 :2000
method used for slab and footing
IS 2572-1963(R 1997) Design of Hollow bricks

IS 1905 :1987 Structural use of Unreinforced Masonry


Handbook of Masonry design and
SP 20 :1991
Construction

18
1.8 APPLICATION OF EARLIER COURSE WORK

The codes for Computer aided building drawing, layout and planning and
Byelaws, Setbacks, Open space, Floor area ratio are shown in Table 1.2
Table 1.2 Application of earlier course work
Course Code and Name Context
CE 0104- Computer aided building
Computer aided building drawing
drawing
CE0102- Elements of building science
layout and planning
and Architecture
Byelaws, Setbacks, Open space, Floor
CE0209- Building technology
area ratio
CE0303-Structural Design II R.C.C Design
CE0304-Structural Design III R.C.C Design

1.9 MULTIDISCIPLINARY COMPONENT AND TEAM WORK

i. This project involves in multidisciplinary team work and helps


interacting with the builders who deal with the non conventional building
methods and use of waste and cost effective building materials.
ii. It also involves interaction with software people to learn about the
function and operation of the software‟s used in this project for the design,
analyse and estimation of the parts of the structure.

1.10 SOFTWARE USED

i. Auto CAD
ii. MS EXCEL
iii. MS WORD

19
1.11 CONCLUSION

The two types of buildings are analyzed with respect to cost, time,
availability of skilled labour and ease in construction.
AVAILABILITY

COST ELECTRICITY OF
RESOURSES

NORMAL
It requires an Easily Available
CONVENTIONAL Low
active source
BUILDING

Produced on its Difficult


High
NZERB own

1.12 FUTURE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The building is designed as a NET ZERO ENERGY BUILDING which


produces its own electricity, thus we can save a huge amount in electricity bill.

20
CHAPTER 2

INTRODUCTION

2.1 GENERAL

Fast rate of urbanization and increase in the consumption of electricity has


become a major problem in Tamil Nadu. Due to increase in consumption of electricity
the Tamil Nadu electricity board is unable to fulfill the requirements of the public and
industrial sectors .In Tamil Nadu, This is the major problem faced. Officials were
banking on a number of projects, which would generate 14,000 MW of power, from
thermal, nuclear and other power projects. Most of these should have been completed by
2012. But the projects have got delayed, with the KKNP turning out to be a big
challenge .Hence requirement has brought in new building technologies by utilizing the
renewable energy resources.

In housing aspects it is necessary to design the material adopted structurally in a


proportion with reference standard codes. Designing of building is the most essential
work to be proposed in any projects. Before starting the project it is necessary to prepare
layout and plan in a plot as per the Government Rules and Regulation for getting an
approval without any delay and to execute the project. Overall cost of the project should
be economical so estimation of building is very important. As a whole we have
incorporated all the needs for a building to be built with efficient, eco-friendly and
economic, also abiding by the Government Rules.

21
This project envisages the preparation of a Residential layout by incorporating the
Tamil Nadu Government rules and the preparation of a plan for a residential building in
a plot by using software AutoCAD. Finally this project will end up with the preparation
of an estimation of the prepared plan (Ref 1).

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Anna Joanna,
Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering,
According to ANNA, “With energy conservation arrangements, such as high-
insulated constructions, solar heating system. Extra Energy supply for the electric
installations in the house is taken from the municipal mains” (Ref 2).
Saitoh, (1988) (JAPAN)
According to SAITOH, “… a multi-purpose natural energy autonomous
house will meet almost all the energy demands for solar panel and cooling as well as
supply of hot water. For this purpose, solar energy, the natural underground coldness and
sky radiation cooling are utilized.”
i. Solar panels are designed to harness.
ii. Solar energy in buildings include systems that capture heat (such as Solar water
heating systems and passive heating).
iii. It converts solar energy into electrical energy, its done with the help of
photovoltic (PV) systems (Ref 3).

22
2.3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES FOR CHENNAI METROPOLITAN
AREA, 2004

2.3.1 Primary Residential Use Zone

In this primary residential use zone, buildings shall be permitted only for the
following purposes and accessory uses.
(a) Professional consulting offices of the residents and incidental uses there to occupy a
floor area not exceeding 40 square meters.

(b) Petty shops dealing with daily essentials including retail sale of provisions, soft
drinks, cigarettes, newspapers, tea stalls, mutton stall and milk kiosks, cycle repair shops
and tailoring shops.

(c) Nursery, primary and high school.

(d) Parks and playgrounds occupying an area not exceeding 2 hectares.

(e) Taxi stands and car parking.

Front setback according to the CMDA code is shown in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 Front Set Back


Abutting Road Width Front Set Back
Above 30m 6.0m
Above 15m but less than 30m 4.5m
Above 10m but less than 15m 3.0m
Below 10m 1.5m

Rear setback according to Chennai Metro Development Authority (CMDA) code is


shown in Table 2.2.

23
Table 2.2 Rear Set Back
Depth of Plot Rear Set Back
Up to 15m 1.5m
Between 15m to 30m 3.0m
Above 30m 4.5m

Side setback according to CMDA code is shown in Table 2.3.


Table 2.3 Side Set Back
Width of Plot Side Set Back
Not more than 6m 1.0m on one side
More than 6m but not more than 9m 1.5m on one side
More than 9m 1.5m on either side

2.4 CONFORMATION TO NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA

In so far as the determination of sufficiency of all aspects of structural designs,


building services, plumbing, fire protections, construction practice and safety are
concerned the specifications, standards and code of practices recommended in the
National Building Code of India (Ref.4), shall be fully confirmed to any breach thereof
shall be deemed to be a breach of the requirements under these rules.

Every multi-storied development erected shall be provided with (i) Lifts as


prescribed in National Building Code; (ii) a stand-by electric generator of adequate
capacity for running lift and water pump, and a room to accommodate the generator; (iii)
a room of not less than 6 meters by 4.5 meters in area with a minimum head room of 3
meters to accommodate electric transformer in the ground floor; and (iv) at least one
meter room of size 2.4 meters by 2.4 meters for every 10 consumers or three floor
whichever is less. The meter room shall be provided in the ground floor.

24
2.4.1 Fire Safety, Detection and Extinguishing Systems

All building in their design and construction shall be such as to contribute


to and ensure individually and collectively and the safety of life from fire, smoke, fumes
and also panic arising from these or similar other causes.

In building of such size, arrangement or occupancy than a fire may not


itself provide adequate warning to occupants automatic fire detecting and alarming
facilities shall be provided where necessary to warn occupants or the existence of fires, so
that they may escape, or to facilitate the orderly conduct of fire exit drills. Fire protecting
and extinguishing system shall conform to accepted standards and shall be installed in
accordance with good practice a recommended in the National Building Code of India,
and for the satisfaction of the Director of Fire Services by obtaining a no objection
certificate from him (Ref.4).

2.4.2 Security Deposits

The applicant shall deposit a sum at the rate of Rs.100 per square meters
of floor area as a refundable non-interest earning security and earnest deposit. The deposit
shall be refunded on completion of development as per the approved plan as certified by
CMDA, if not, it would be forfeited.

25
CHAPTER 3

OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE

3.1 OBJECTIVE

i. Design a building with Net zero energy concept.

Net-zero energy buildings start with energy-conscious design A zero-energy


residential building is a building with zero net energy consumption A net-zero energy
(NZE) building is one that relies on renewable sources to produce as much energy as it
uses, usually as measured over the course of a year.
ii. To eliminate the necessity of active energy loads on the building.

Solar panels is one of the technologies used to achieve net-zero status. To


eliminate the necessity of active energy loads solar techniques are used which include
the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy.

iii. Comparing the net zero energy building with conventional building.

The comparison of NZERB and conventional building is shown in Table 3.1


Table 3.1 Comparison of NZERB and Conventional Building

Sl.no NZERB CONVENTIONAL


Brick Material
1 Hollow brick Normal brick
4 to 5 degree less compared
2 Temperature More than NZERB
To conventional building
It requires an active
3 Electricity Produced on its own
source
Less compared to
4 Initial Cost High
NZERB
5 Solar Panels 250 w panels Provided in NZERB Not provided
6 Energy Efficient Uses less energy Uses more energy

26
3.2 SCOPE

i. Functional planning of G+1 Residential building.


ii. Design of load bearing structure using hollow bricks.
iii. Design of solar panels.
iv. Comparison of room temperature between NZERB and conventional
building.
v. Comparison of energy consumption between NZERB and conventional
building.

3.3 METHODOLOGY

This entire project is an planning and design in nature and the


methodology followed in this project is listed as below.

i. Selection of site where renewable energy is available


Urappakam has a tropical wet and dry climate. The weather is hot and
humid for most of the year. The hottest part of the year is late May to
early June. Hence solar energy is available on the site which makes the
site suitable to harness solar energy
ii. Study the climate conditions of area
The city lies on the thermal equator and is also on the coast, which
prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. The weather is hot
and humid for most of the year. maximum temperatures is around 35–
40 °C (95–104 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 45 °C (113 °F)
iii. Aligning the building to utilize maximum amount of renewable
resources
Elongated east-west and oriented to astronomic south (Ref 5).
South-facing windows harvest solar energy.
iv. Planning and design of proposed NZERB building
v. Comparison of the NZERB building with other conventional building

27
CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 PLANNING
The key plan of the residential building is drawn by considering the alignment of
the building with respect to the CMDA.
The key plan of the site is shown in Figure 4.1

Fig. 4.1 Key Plan

28
The ground floor of the building consist of one hall, two bedrooms, one dinning,
one kitchen. The allocations of the rooms in the plan has been done with due
consideration of sun diagram as per the requirement of zero energy building. The plan
has been prepared using Auto CAD software.
The Ground Floor plan is shown in Figure 4.2

Fig.4.2 Ground Floor Plan

29
The first floor of the building consist of one hall, two bedrooms, one dinning, one
kitchen. The allocations of the rooms in the plan has been done with due consideration
of sun diagram as per the requirement of zero energy building. The plan has been
prepared using Auto CAD software.
The First Floor plan is shown in Figure 4.3

Fig.4.3 First Floor plan

30
4.2 ANALYSIS AND DESIGNS
SLAB DESIGN (Ref 6)
The analysis and designs of the slab for Hall, Bedroom, Bathroom,
Dinning, Kitchen, Stair case, Portico are done with proper considerations as per
IS 456:2000.
4.2.1 Design of Hall
Using M 20 Concrete
Fe 415 steel

Live Load = 2 (Ref 7)

1. Effective Span
Lx = 3.26 m
Ly = 5.1 m

Aspect ratio = = 1.56<2

Hence Two Way Slab


2. Load Calculation
Assuming Slab Thickness

Assume 10 bar, Clear Cover 20mm

Actual Depth (d) = 130-5-20 = 105 mm

Assume Floor Finish = 40 mm

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.04 × 24 = 0.96


Imposed Load = 2 (Ref 8)

Total Load = 6.21

31
Factored Load (Wu) = 1.5 × 6.21 = 9.315

Consider 1m width of slab

Load per meter Length = 9.127

3. Finding Design Bending Moment


Refer Table 26, Page No.91 of IS456
Two adjacent edges are discontinuous

(already found out )

Refer Table 26
Short Span αx = 0.068
Long Span αy = 0.037
[Note that Lx only to be taken, where it is long span or short span only
coefficient varies].
Mu = Wu × Co-efficient × Lx2 (4.1)
Mu is calculated by equation 4.1
Where,

Mu = Moment in short span direction


Wu= Ultimate load
Lx = Length in x direction
Mu(+) Short = 0.068 × 9.315 × 3.262 = 6.731 kN.m (Ref.9)
Mu(+) Long = 0.037 × 9.315 × 3.262 = 3.662 kN.m
Take the Highest Moment and check for adequacy of the section.

Mu,lim= * + (4.2)

(or)
= 0.138fckb d2

Mu,lim is calculated by equation 4.2


Where,

32
Mu,lim = Ultimate limiting moment of resistance
fck = Characteristic compressive strength of concrete
b = Width
d = Effective depth
= 0.138 × 20 × 1000 × 1052
=30.42 kN.m
(Mu Limit) > (Mu Short)
Hence its ok
4. Calculation of Steel

Ast(+) Short = [1 - 1-4.598 ] (4.3)

Ast(+) Short is calculated by equation 4.3


Where,
Ast(+) Short = Area of steel required
b = Width
d = Effective depth
fck = Characteristic compressive strength of concrete
fy = Yield stress of steel
R= = 6.731 × = 0.6105

Ast(+) Short = 1000 × 105 × ( ) × 415 [1 - 1-4.598

= 184.27 mm2
Minimum Steel = 0.12% × D × B
Ast,min = ( )× 130 × 1000 = 156 mm2

Ast(+) Short <Ast,min


5. Check for maximum Spacing
i. 3d = 3 × 105 = 315 mm
ii. 300

Max Spacing = 300 mm

33
d for long span bars

d = D – Clear Cover – -

= 130 – 20 – - 10 = 95 mm

6. Calculation of Ast for Long Span

Ast(+)Long [1 - 1- 4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R= d2

= × 952

= 0.4057
Ast(+)Long = 1000 × 95 × ( )× 415 [1 – 4.598 × ]

= 109.37 mm2
Ast(+)Long<Ast,min
7. Spacing for all Steel
i. 3d = 3 × 95 = 285 mm
ii. 300
Spacing = 285 mm
8. Check for Deflection
Short Span Lx = 3260 mm
Ast(+) Short = 116.37 mm2
Basic Value = 20

Fs = 0.58 × 415× =240.2


( )
Pt =( )

= 0.175%
Modification Factor = 1.62
Modified Basic Value = 20 × 1.62 = 32.8

= = 31.047

34
31.047 < 32.8
Hence its ok

4.2.2 Design of Bed Room


Using M20 Concrete
Fe415 steel

Live Load = 2

1. Effective Span
Lx = 3 m
Ly = 3.5 m

Aspect ratio = = Hence Two Way Slab

2. Load Calculation
Assuming Slab Thickness

Assume 10 bar, Clear Cover = 20mm

Actual Depth (d) = 125-5-20 = 100 mm

Self Weight of a Slab =

Assume 40 mm Floor Finish

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.04 X 24 = 0.96

Imposed Load =2

Total Load = 6.08

Factored Load (Wu) = 1.5× 6.96 = 9.127

Consider 1m width of slab

Load per meter Length = 9.127

3. Finding Design Bending Moment

35
Refer Table 26, Page No.91 of IS456
Two adjacent edges are discontinuous

( already found out )

Refer Table 26
Short Span αx = 0.043
Long Span αy = 0.035
[ Note that Lx only to be taken, where it is long span or short span only
coefficient varies ].

Mu = Wu× Co-efficient × Lx2


Same as equation 4.1
Mu(+) Short = 0.043 × 9.13 × 3.232 = 4.09 kN.m
Mu(+) Long= 0.035 × 9.13 × 3.232 = 3.33 kN.m
Take the Highest Moment and check for adequacy of the section.

Mu,lim= * +

(or)

Mu,lim = 0.138 fckbd2


Same as equation 4.2

Mu,lim = 0.138 × 20 × 1000 × 1002

Mu,lim = 27.6
(Mu Limit) > (Mu Short)
Hence its ok
4. Calculation of Steel

Ast(+) Short = [1 - 1-4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

36
R= = 4.1 × × 1000 = 0.41

Ast(+) Short = [1 - 1-4.598 × ]

= 116.37 mm2
Minimum Steel = 0.12% × D × B

Ast,min = × 125 × 1000 = 150 mm2

Ast(+) Short <Ast,min


5. Check for maximum Spacing
i. 3d = 3 X 100 = 300 mm
ii. 300
Max Spacing = 300 mm
d for long span bars

d= D – Clear Cover – -

d= 125 – 20 – 10/2 - 10
d= 90 mm
6. Calculation of Ast for Long Span

Ast(+)Long [1 - 1- 4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R=

= 3.33 ×

= 0.33

Ast(+)Long = 1000 × 100 × * – +

= 93.2 mm2
Ast(+)Long<Ast,min
7. Spacing for Steel
Ast ×102 = 78.5 mm2

37
Ast(+)Short = × 1000 = 674.5 mm

Ast(+)Long = × 1000 = 842.27 mm

8. Check for Deflection


Short Span Lx = 3230 mm
Ast(+) Short = 116.37 mm2
Basic Value = 20

Fs = 0.58 × 415 × =240.


( )
Pt

= (1.22 X 10-3) ×100


= 0.122%
Modification Factor = 1.7
Modified Basic Value = 20 × 1.7 = 34

32.3 < 34
Hence its ok

4.2.3 Design of Bed Room


Using M20 Concrete
Fe415 steel

Live Load = 2

1. Effective Span
Lx = 3.85 m
Ly = 3.95 m

Aspect ratio = = = 1.027<2

Hence Two Way Slab


2. Load Calculation
Assuming Slab Thickness

38
d = 120.31mm = 120 mm

Assume 10 bar, Clear Cover 20 mm

D = 120+ +20 = 145mm = 150 mm

Actual Depth (d) = 150-5-20 = 125 mm

Self Weight of a Slab = × 25 = ×25

= 3.75
Assume 40 mm Floor Finish

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.04 × 24 = 0.96

Imposed Load = 2

Total Load = 6.75

Factored Load (Wu) = 1.5 × 6.75 = 10.125

Consider 1m width of slab

Load per meter Length = 10.125

3. Finding Design Bending Moment


Refer Table 26, Page No.91 of IS456
Two adjacent edges are discontinuous

= 1.027 (already found out)

Refer Table 26
Short Span αx = 0.048
Long Span αy = 0.047
[ Note that Lx only to be taken, where it is long span or short span only
coefficient varies ].
Mu = Wu× Co-efficient × Lx2
Same as equation 4.1
Mu(+) Short = 0.048 × 10.125 × 3.852 = 7.203 kN.m

39
Mu(+) Long = 0.047 × 10.125 × 3.852 = 7.063 kN.m
Take the Highest Moment and check for adequacy of the section.

Mu,lim= * +

(or)
= 0.138fckb d2
Same as equation 4.2
= 0.138 × 20 × 1000 × 1252
= 43.125 kN.m
(Mu Limit) > (Mu Short)
Hence its ok
4. Calculation of Steel

Ast(+) Short = [1 - 1-4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R= = 7.203 × 106 = 0.460

Ast(+)Short = 1000 × 125 × ( ) × 415 [1 - 1-4.598 × ]

= 164.08 mm2
Minimum Steel = 0.12% × D × B
Ast,min = ( )× 150 × 1000

= 180 mm2
Ast(+) Short <Ast,min
5. Check for maximum Spacing
i. 3d = 3 × 125 = 375 mm
ii. 300
Max Spacing = 300 mm
d for long span bars

d= D – Clear Cover – -

d= 150 – 20 – - 10

40
d= 115 mm
6. Calculation of Ast for Long Span

Ast(+)Long [1 - 1- 4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R= =

= 0.553
Ast(+)Long = 1000 × 115 × ( ) × 415 [1 – 4.598 × ]

= 181.11 mm2
Ast(+)Long<Ast,min
7. Spacing for all Steel
i. 3d = 3 × 115 = 345 mm
ii. 300
Spacing = 300 mm
8. Check for Deflection
Short Span Lx = 3850 mm
Ast(+)Short = 181.11 mm2
Basic Value = 20

Fs = 0.58 × 415 × =240.2


( )
Pt =( )

= 0.157%
Modification Factor = 1.8
Modified Basic Value = 20 × 1.8 = 36

= = 30.8

30.8 < 35.6


Hence its ok

41
4.2.4 Design of Bathroom
Using M20 Concrete
Fe415 steel

Live Load = 2

1. Effective Span
Lx = 2.38 m
Ly = 4.28 m

Aspect ratio = = = 1.798<2

Hence Two Way Slab


2. Load Calculation
Assuming Slab Thickness

d= = 74.375 mm = 80 mm

Assume 10 bar, Clear Cover 20 mm

Actual Depth d = 110-5-20 = 85 mm

Self Weight of a Slab =

= 2.75
Assume 40 mm Floor Finish

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.04 × 24 = 0.96

Imposed Load = 2

Total Load = 5.75

Factored Load (Wu) = 1.5 × 5.75 = 8.625

Consider 1m width of slab

Load per meter Length = 8.625

42
3. Finding Design Bending Moment
Refer Table 26, Page No.91 of IS456
Two adjacent edges are discontinuous

= 1.798 (already found out)

Refer Table 26
Short Span αx = 0.085
Long Span αy = 0.047
[ Note that Lx only to be taken, where it is long span or short span only
coefficient varies ].
Mu = Wu× Co-efficient × Lx2
Same as equation 4.1
Mu(+) Short = 0.085 × 8.625 × 2.382 = 4.127 kN.m
Mu(+) Long = 0.047 × 8.625 × 2.382 = 2.29 kN.m
Take the Highest Moment and check for adequacy of the section.

Mu,lim= * +

(or)
= 0.138fckb d2
Same as equation 4.2
= 0.138 × 20 × 1000 × 852
=19.94 kN.m
(Mu Limit) > (Mu Short)
Hence its ok
4. Calculation of Steel

Ast(+) Short = [1 - 1-4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R = = 4.1527 ×( = 0.574
)

Ast(+) Short = 1000 × 85 × ( ) × 415 [1 - 1-4.598 × ]

43
= 139.92 mm2
Minimum Steel = 0.12% × D × B
Ast,min= ( ) × 110 × 1000 = 132 mm2

Ast(+) Short <Ast,min


5. Check for maximum Spacing
i. 3d = 3 × 855 = 255 mm
ii. 300
Max Spacing = 255 mm
d for long span bars

d= D – Clear Cover – -

d= 110 – 20 – - 10

d= 75 mm
6. Calculation of Ast for Long Span

Ast(+)Long [1 - 1- 4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R=

= 0.4082
Ast(+) Long = 1000 × 75 × ( ) × 415 [1 – 4.598 × = 86.88 mm2

Ast(+) Long <Ast,min


7. Spacing for all Steel
i. 3d = 3 × 75 = 225 mm
ii. 300
MaxSpacing = 225 mm
8. Check for Deflection
Short Span Lx = 2380 mm
Ast(+) Short = 139.92 mm2

44
Basic Value = 20

Fs = 0.58 × 415 × = 240.2


( ) ( )
Pt = ( )

= 0.1646%
Modification Factor = 1.9
Modified Basic Value = 20 × 1.9 = 38

= = 28

28 < 38
Hence its ok

4.2.5 Design of Portico


Using M20 Concrete
Fe415 steel

Live Load = 2

1. Effective Span
Lx = 3.78 m
Ly = 6.93 m

Aspect ratio = = 1.83<2

Hence Two Way Slab


2. Load Calculation
Assuming Slab Thickness

d = 118.124 mm = 120 mm

Assume 10 bar, Clear Cover 20 mm

D = 120 = 150 mm

Actual Depth (d) = 150-5-20 = 125 mm

Self Weight of a Slab = ×25

45
= 3.75
Assume 40 mm Floor Finish

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.04 × 24 = 0.96

Imposed Load = 2

Total Load = 6.75

Factored Load (Wu) = 1.5 × 6.75 = 10.125

Consider 1m width of slab

Load per meter Length = 10.125

3. Finding Design Bending Moment


Refer Table 26, Page No.91 of IS456
Two adjacent edges are discontinuous

(already found out)

Refer Table 26
Short Span αx = 0.087
Long Span αy = 0.047
[ Note that Lx only to be taken, where it is long span or short span only
coefficient varies ].
Mu = Wu× Co-efficient × Lx2
Same as equation 4.1
Mu(+) Short = 0.087 × 10.125 × 3.782 = 12.58 kN.m
Mu(+) Long = 0.047 × 10.125 × 3.782 = 6.79 kN.m
Take the Highest Moment and check for adequacy of the section.

Mu,lim= * +

(or)
= 0.138fckb d2
Same as equation 4.2

46
= 0.138 × 20 × 1000 × 1252
= 43.125 kN.m
(Mu Limit) > (Mu Short)
Hence its ok
4. Calculation of Steel

Ast(+) Short = [1 - 1-4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R= = = 0.805

Ast(+) Short = 1000 × 125 × [1 - 1-4.598 × ]

= 184.27 mm2
Minimum Steel = 0.12% × D × B
Ast,min = ( )× 130 × 1000

= 156 mm2
Ast(+) Short <Ast,min
5. Check for maximum Spacing
i. 3d = 3 ×105 = 315 mm
ii. 300
Max Spacing = 300 mm
d for long span bars

d= D – Clear Cover – -

d= 130 – 20 – 10/2 - 10
d= 95 mm
6. Calculation of Ast for Long Span

Ast(+)Long [1 - 1- 4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R=

47
=

= 0.4057
Ast(+)Long = 1000 × 95 × ( )× 415 [1 – 4.598 × ]

= 109.37 mm2
Ast(+)Long<Ast,min
7. Spacing for all Steel
i. 3d = 3 × 95 = 285 mm
ii. 300
Spacing = 285 mm
8. Check for Deflection
Short Span Lx = 3260 mm
Ast(+) Short = 116.37 mm2
Basic Value = 20

Fs = 0.58 × 415× = 240.2


( )
Pt = ( )

= 0.175%
Modification Factor = 1.62
Modified Basic Value = 20 × 1.62
=32

= = 31.047

31.047 < 32.8


Hence its ok

4.2.6 Design of Kitchen


Using M20 Concrete
Fe415 steel

Live Load = 2

1. Effective Span

48
Lx = 2.23 m
Ly = 3.73 m

Aspect ratio

Hence Two Way Slab


2. Load Calculation
Assuming Slab Thickness

d= = 65 mm

Assume 10 bar, Clear Cover 20 mm

D = 65+ +20 = 90 mm

Actual Depth (d) = 90-5-20 = 65 mm

Self Weight of a Slab =

= 2.25
Assume Floor Finish = 40 mm

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.04 × 24 = 0.96

Imposed Load = 2

Total Load = 5.25

Factored Load (Wu) = 1.5 × 5.25 = 7.875

Consider 1m width of slab

Load per meter Length = 7.875

Finding Design Bending Moment


Refer Table 26, Page No.91 of IS456
Two adjacent edges are discontinuous

= 1.67 (already found out)

Refer Table 26
Short Span αx = 0.06

49
Long Span αy = 0.035
[ Note that Lx only to be taken, where it is long span or short span only
coefficient varies ].
Mu = Wu× Co-efficient × Lx2
Same as equation 4.1
Mu(+) Short = 0.06 × 7.88 × 2.232 = 2.35 kN.m
Mu(+) Long = 0.035 × 7.88 × 2.232 = 1.373 kN.m
Take the Highest Moment and check for adequacy of the section.

Mu,lim= * +

(or)
Mu,lim = 0.138 fckb d2
Same as equation 4.2
= 0.138 × 20 × 1000 × 652
=11.66 kN.m
(Mu Limit) > (Mu Short)
Hence its ok
3. Calculation of Steel

Ast(+) Short = [1 - 1-4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R= = 2.735 × = 0.55

Ast(+) Short = 1000 × 65 × × 415 [1 - 1-4.598 × ]

= 103.56 mm2
Minimum Steel = 0.12% × D × B
Ast,min × 90 × 1000

= 108 mm2
Ast(+) Short <Ast,min
4. Check for maximum Spacing

50
i. 3d = 3 × 65 = 195 mm
ii. 300
Max Spacing = 195 mm
d for long span bars

d= D – Clear Cover – -

d= 90 – 20 – - 10

d= 55 mm
5. Calculation of Ast for Long Span

Ast(+)Long [1 - 1- 4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R= = 1.373 ×

= 0.115
Ast(+) Long =1000 × 55 × × 415 [1 – 4.598 × ]

= 71.05 mm2
Ast(+) Long <Ast,min
6. Spacing for all Steel
Ast = × 102 = 78.5 mm2

Ast(+) Short = × 1000 = 758.01 mm

Ast(+) Long = × 1000 = 1104.8 mm

7. Check for Deflection


Short Span Lx = 2230 mm
Ast(+) Short = 103.56 mm2
Basic Value = 20

Fs = 0.58 × 415 × = 240.7


( )
Pt =

= 0.16%

51
Modification Factor = 1.8
Modified Basic Value = 20 × 1.8 = 36

34.3 < 36
Hence its ok

2.4.7 Design of Dinning Room


Using M20 Concrete
Fe415 steel

Live Load = 2

1. Effective Span
Lx = 2.6 m
Ly = 3.73 m

Aspect ratio

Hence Two Way Slab


2. Load Calculation
Assuming Slab Thickness

d=

Assume 10 bar, Clear Cover 20 mm

Actual Depth (d) = 105-5-20 = 80 mm

Self Weight of

= 2.625
Assume Floor Finish = 40 mm

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.04 × 24 = 0.96

Imposed Load =2

52
Total Load = 5.62

Factored Load (Wu) = 1.5 × 5.62 = 8.43

Consider 1m width of slab

Load per meter Length = 8.43

3. Finding Design Bending Moment


Refer Table 26, Page No.91 of IS456
One edge discontinuous

= 1.43 (already found out)

Refer Table 26
Short Span αx = 0.049
Long Span αy = 0.028
[ Note that Lx only to be taken, where it is long span or short span only
coefficient varies ].
Mu = Wu× Co-efficient × Lx2
Same as equation 4.1
Mu(+) Short = 0.049 × 8.43× 2.62 = 2.79 kN.m
Mu(+) Long = 0.028 × 8.43 × 2.62 = 1.595 kN.m
Take the Highest Moment and check for adequacy of the section.

Mu,lim= * +

(or)
Mu,lim = 0.138fckb d2
Same as equation 4.2
Mu,lim = 0.138 × 20 × 1000 × 802
Mu,lim =17.66 kN.m
(Mu Limit) > (Mu Short)
Hence its ok
4. Calculation of Steel

53
Ast(+) Short = [1 - 1-4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R= = 2.79 × = 0.435

Ast(+) Short = 1000 × 80 × 415 [1 - 1-4.598 ]


= 99.15 mm2
Minimum Steel = 0.12% × D × B
Ast,min= × 105 × 1000

= 126 mm2
Ast(+) Short <Ast,min
5. Check for maximum Spacing
i. 3d = 3 × 80 = 240 mm
ii. 300

Max Spacing = 240 mm


d for long span bars

d= D – Clear Cover – -

d= 105 – 20 – - 10

d= 70 mm
6. Calculation of Ast for Long Span

Ast(+)Long [1 - 1- 4.598 ]

Same as equation 4.3

R=

= 1.595 ×

= 0.325
Ast(+) Long =1000 × – 4.598 × ]

= 64.34 mm2

54
Ast(+) Long <Ast,min
7. Spacing for Steel
Ast = × 102 = 78.5 mm2

Ast(+) Short = 1000 = 791.7 mm

Ast(+) Long = × 1000 = 1200.08 mm

8. Check for Deflection


Short Span Lx = 2600 mm
Ast(+) Short = 99.15 mm2
Basic Value = 20

Fs = 0.
( )
Pt

= 0.14%
Modification Factor = 1.8
Modified Basic Value = 20 × 1.8 = 36

= 32.5

32.5 < 36
Hence its ok

4.2.8 Design of Wall


Design of a wall
1.Calculation of Loads
Maximum short span = 3.60 m
Width of corridor = 1.50 m
Height of the storey =3m

Live load =2

2. Assumptions

55
Height of the Plinth from ground = 0.5 m
Height of the Plinth above Footing = 1 m
Height of the Parapet Wall =1m
Thickness of Roof Slab =110 mm
Brick Size = 230 × 115 × 75
3. Slenderness Ratio and Stress Factor
Ground Floor + First Floor
H = 3+0.115+0.5+3+0.115+1 = 7.73 m
Effective Height (h) = 0.75H = 0.75 × 7.73 = 5.797 m

Slenderness Ratio

4. Shape modification factor:

Crushing Strength of Modular Brick = 5

Shape Modification Factor = Kp = 1 ( From table 10 of IS: 1905-1987)


5. Area reduction factor:
Area Reduction Factor
Ka = 0.7 + 1.5 A = 0.7 + 1.5X0.3 = 1.15
A > 0.2 m2
Ka = 1 ( From clause 5.4.1.2)
6. Stress Reduction Factor:
ks = 0.46 ( from table 9)
7. Permissble Stress
Fc = Ks × Ka × Kp× Basic compressible stress (4.4)
Fc is calculated by equation 4.4
Where,
Ks= Stress reduction factor
Ka= Area reduction factor
Kp= Shape modification factor

56
Fc = 0.44 × 0.48 × 1 × 1

8. Safe Load

Q=( )

= 63

9. Wall Area
Outer wall = Total Perimeter x 3(floor height)
= ((11.31×2) + (8.93×2))×3
= 40.83 m3
Inner wall = (4.87×3) + (4.87×3) + (3.5×2×3)
= 29.22 + 21 = 50.22 m3
Total wall volume = 91.05 m3
10. Deductions:
Outer Deductions = 1.098+1.089+2.226+1.089+1.4884+1.4884+1.4884+
1.4884+1.4884+1.098
= 14.042 m3
Inner Deductions = 1.89+1.89+2.496+1.746+1.746
= 9.768 m3
Total Deduction =23.81 m3
Total wall volume – Total Deductions = 91.05 -23.81 = 67.25 m3
% Opening =

= 35.4 %
Thickness = 1 Brick thick wall (using nomograms)
11. For Hall :

Wu= × {3- ( ) 2} (4.5)

Wu is calculated by equation 4.5

57
Where,
Wu= Factored load
W=Load from the slab
Lx=Short span
Ly=Long span
( ))
Wu =( * }

Wu = 13.11 103

For bed room:

Wu= * ( ) }
( ))
= (9.127 × × {3- * + }

= 11.055 103

For dinning room:

Wu= × {3- *( )+2}


( ( )) ( ) 2
= × {3- [ ( ]}
)

= 9.81 103

Total : 13.11 + 11.055 + 9.81 = 33.98 103

63>33.98

Hence the design is ok

4.2.9 Design of Footing

Load from Walls = 126.7

10% for the weight of the Building = 63+6.3 = 70

58
1. Area of Footing =

Assume SBC = 150

A = = 0.47 m2

Consider 1m Length room

Breadth of the Footing Required = = 0.47

2. Minimum Width = (2w+300)mm


= (2x230+300) = 760 mm
Provide Width of P.C.C= 760 mm
It is customary to provide 150 to 300 mm P.C.C thickness
Provide = 300 mm
The Projection of P.C.C beyond the brick work should not be more than ½ of
the thickness of P.C.C
Projection = = 150 mm

Actual work of Brick work = 760 – 300 = 460 mm


Brick work projection beyond the wall
1.Depth of the Brick work = 115 × 2 = 230 mm
These depth has to be Provided by means of series steps
The thickness of each step is given by modular brick = 200 mm
The offset in the brick is also given as modular = 100 mm

4.2.10 Design of Hollow Brick Wall


Step 1: Calculation of loads
Maximum short span = 3.6 m
Height of the storey = 3 m

Live load =2

Step 2: Assumptions

59
Height of the Plinth from ground = 0.5 m
Height of the Plinth above Footing =1m
Height of the Parapet Wall =1m
Thickness of Roof Slab = 0.120 m
Hollow Brick Size = 0.40 × 0.20 ×0. 20 m

EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF WALL


(From Table 5 of IS 1905-1987)
Wall A = 3.82×0.9=3.438 m (continuous on one end & discontinuous on other
end)
Wall B = 3.23×0.8=2.584 m (continuous on both ends & supported by cross
wall)
Wall C = 3.7×0.9 =3.33 m (continuous on one end & discontinuous on other end)
Wall D = 3.2×0.9 =2.88 m (continuous on one end & discontinuous on other end)
Wall E = 2.57×0.8=2.056 m (continuous on both ends & supported by cross wall)
Wall F = 2.8×0.9 =2.52 m (continuous on one end & discontinuous on other end)
Wall G = 3.7 m (discontinuous on both ends and braced by cross wall)
Wall H = 3.23×0.9 =2.907 m (continuous on one end & discontinuous on other
end)
Wall I = 3.82 × 0.9=3.438 m (continuous on one end & discontinuous on other
end)
Wall J = 3.438 m (continuous on one end & discontinuous on other end)
Wall K = 3.72 × 0.8=2.976 m (continuous on both ends & supported by cross
wall)
Wall L = 2.15 × 0.9 =1.935 m (continuous on one end & discontinuous on other
end)
Wall M = 5.07 m (continuous on one end & discontinuous on other end)

60
Step 3: Slenderness ratio and stress factor
Ground floor:
H = 2.6+0.6+1 = 4.2 m
Effective height = 0.75 × H = 3.15 m
=
Slenderness ratio = = 15.75

Step 4: Shape modification factor

Crushing Strength of Hollow Brick= 4.1

=
=1

Shape Modification Factor = Kp =1.2( From table 10 of IS: 1905-1987)

Step 5: Stress Reduction Factor


ks = 0.74( From table 9)

Step 6: Area reduction factor


Gross area = 200 × 1000 = 200000 mm2
A = 0.2 m2
Ka= 1( From clause 5.4.1.2)
Step 7: Permissible stress

Fc= 0.74 × 1.2 × 1× 0.44 = 0.39

Safe allowable load per meter length is q = 0.39 × 2 × 105 = 78

Step 7: Slenderness ratio and stress factor


First floor:
H = 2.6+0.8 = 3.4 m

61
Effective height = 0.75 × H = 2.55 m

Slenderness ratio = = = 12.75

Step 8: Shape modification factor

Crushing Strength of Hollow Brick = 4.1

= = =
1

Shape Modification Factor = Kp =1.2

Step 9: Stress Reduction Factor


ks = 0.81

Step 10: Area reduction factor


Gross area = 200 × 1000 = 200000 mm2
A = 0.2 m2
Ka= 1

Step 11: Permissible stress

Fc= 0.81 × 1.2 × 1 × 0.44 = 0.427

Safe allowable load per meter length is q = 0.427 × 2 × 105 = 85

The values of slenderness ratio for effective length and height of the building is
given in Table 4.1

Table 4.1 Values of slenderness ratio (Ref 10)

Brickwork Ground floor First Floor

62
H L S.R H L S.R
A 3.15 3.44 15.75 2.55 3.44 12.75
B 3.15 2.58 12.92 2.55 2.58 12.75
C 3.15 3.33 15.75 2.55 3.33 12.75
D 3.15 2.88 14.4 2.55 2.88 12.75
E 3.15 2.056 10.28 2.55 2.056 10.28
F 3.15 2.52 12.6 2.55 2.52 12.6
G 3.15 3.7 15.75 2.55 3.7 12.75
H 3.15 2.90 14.5 2.55 2.9 12.75
I 3.15 3.44 15.75 2.55 3.44 12.75
J 3.15 3.44 15.75 2.55 3.44 12.75
K 3.15 2.976 14.88 2.55 2.976 12.75
L 3.15 1.935 9.7 2.55 1.935 9.675
M 3.15 5.07 15.75 2.55 5.07 12.75
The values of stress reduction factor for slenderness ratio of the building is given
in Table 4.2

Table 4.2 Stress reduction factor for slenderness ratio


Wall type Ground floor First floor
A 0.74 0.81
B 0.81 0.81
C 0.74 0.81
D 0.75 0.81
E 0.89 0.89
F 0.83 0.83
G 0.74 0.81
H 0.75 0.81
I 0.75 0.81
J 0.74 0.81
K 0.75 0.81
L 0.88 0.88
The calculation of permissible stress of the building is given in the Table 4.3
Table 4.3 Calculation of permissible stress

63
Fc=ks×kp×ka× basic compressive stress
Permissible stress- ground Permissible stress- first
Wall type
floor(N/mm2) floor(N/mm2)
A 0.528×0.74=0.390 0.528×0.81=0.427
B 0.528×0.81=0.427 0.528×0.81=0.427
C 0.528×0.74=0.390 0.528×0.81=0.427
D 0.528×0.75=0.396 0.528×0.81=0.427
E 0.528×0.89=0.469 0.528×0.89=0.469
F 0.528×0.83=0.4382 0.528×0.83=0.4382
G 0.528×0.74=0.390 0.528×0.81=0.427
H 0.528×0.75=0.396 0.528×0.81=0.427
I 0.528×0.75=0.396 0.528×0.81=0.427
J 0.528×0.74=0.390 0.528×0.81=0.427
K 0.528×0.75=0.396 0.528×0.81=0.427
L 0.528×0.88=0.4646 0.528×0.88=0.4646
M 0.528×0.75=0.390 0.528×0.81=0.427

The values of safe allowable load for the building is given in Table 4.4

Table 4.4 Safe allowable load

q = fc×2×105 kN/m(ground q = fc×2×105 kN/m(first


Wall type
floor) floor)
A 78 85.4
B 85 85.4
C 78 85.4
D 79.2 85.4
E 93 93.8
F 87.6 87.6
G 78 85.4
H 79.2 85.4
I 79.2 85.4
J 78 85.4
K 79.2 85.4
L 92 92
M 78 85.4

4.2.11 Design of Footing for Hollow Brick wall: (Ref 11)

64
Load from Wall = 78

Load from wall (critical wall M) +10% for the weight of the Building + weight
of slab (hall, bed room & dining) + floor finish

= 78 + 7.8 + 4.6575 + 4.125 + 4.5635 + 1

=100.236

=100

Factored load= 1.25 × 100=125

1. Area of Footing = = = 0.833 m2

Assume SBC = 150

Consider 1m Length room


2. Minimum Width = (2w+300) mm
= (2 x 200+300) = 700 mm
Provide Width of P.C.C = 700 mm
It is customary to provide 150 to 300 mm P.C.C thickness
Provide = 300 mm

The Projection of P.C.C beyond the brick work should not be more than ½ of the
thickness of P.C.C

= = 150 mm

Actual work of Brick work = 700 – 300 = 400 mm


Brick work projection beyond the wall
Depth of the Brick work = 200 x 2 = 400 mm
These depth has to be Provided by means of series steps

65
The thickness of each step is given by hollow brick = 200 mm
The footing design is shown in the Figure 4.4

Fig.4.4 Footing Design

4.2.12 Design of Stair Case:


Length =4m

Live load =2

Rise = 150 mm
Thread = 250 mm
Using M20 Concrete and Fe415

Step1: Calculation of self weight


Assume waist slab thickness = = 200 mm

D = 200 mm

Self weight = × × 2 = 5.83 (4.6)

Self weight is calculated by equation 4.6


Where,

66
D =Diameter
R =Rise
T =Thread

Step 2: Calculation of load on waist slab


1. Assume 40 mm Floor finish

Floor Finish = × 24 = 1

2. Weight of steps= ×R×T× × 25 = 1.875

3. Live load =3

4. Self weight = 5.83

Wu = 11.075

Wu=1.5 × 11.075 =17.55

Step3: Calculation of Mu
Mu = = 35 kN.m

Mu,lim = * +

35 × 106 = 0.36 × 0.48(1-0.42 × 0.48) × 1000 × d2 × 20


d=113 mm
Assume Clear cover 20 mm
Diameter of bar = 20 mm
D= 113+20+10 = 143 mm
D= 150mm (approximately)
d= 150-20-10 = 120 mm

Step 4: Calculation of Ast

67
R= = 2.43

Ast = = 970.6 mm2

Number of Bars = = 4 bars

Ast actual = 4 × × 202 = 1256 mm2

Pt = × 1000 = × 1000 = 1.04%

Step 5: Check for deflection


Basic value = 20

Fs = 0.58fy = 0.58 × 415 × = 185.89

For Pt =1.04% , Modification factor = 1.2 (Fig 4 of IS 456-2000)

drequired = = = 104.166 mm

dactual = 120 mm

Step 6: Providing distribution steel

Astmin= × = 480 mm2

Spacing of 8mm diameter = × × 82 = 270 mm

Main steel = 4No.s 20 bars


Distribution = 8 mm dia bars @ 270 mm c/c

68
4.3 DESIGN OF SOLAR PANEL AND ITS COMPONENTS
4.3.1 Solar Power System Components
Brief revision of the major components found in a basic solar power system.
A basic solar powered system is shown in Figure 4.5

Fig.4.5 Working of solar panels


The solar panel consists of solar regulator it is connected to DC storage battery
and then DC is converted to AC by an inverter. AC can be directly used for the
appliances.

69
4.3.2 Working of solar panels
The solar panel converts sunlight into DC power or electricity to
charge the battery.
i. This DC electricity (charge) is controlled via a solar regulator which
ensures the battery is charged properly and not damaged and that power is
not lost/(discharged).
ii. DC appliances can then be powered directly from the battery.
iii. AC appliances need a power inverter to convert the DC electricity into
220 Volt AC power.

4.3.3 Description of individual solar power components

4.3.3.1 Solar Panels


Solar panels are classified according to their rated power output in Watts.
Different geographical locations receive different quantities of average peak sun hours
per day. As an example, in Tamil Nadu, the annual average is around 6am sun hours per
day. This means that an 80W solar panel based on the average figure of 6 sun hours per
day, would produce a yearly average of around 480W.H per day. Solar panel output is
affected by the cell operating temperature. Panels are rated at a nominal temperature of
25 degrees Celcius. The output of a solar panel can be expected to vary by 0.25% for
every 5 degrees variation in temperature.
4.3.3.2 Solar Regulator
The purpose of solar regulators, or charge controllers as they are also
called, is to regulate the current from the solar panels to prevent the batteries from
overcharging. Overcharging causes gassing and loss of electrolyte resulting in damage
to the batteries. A Solar regulator is used to sense when the batteries are fully charged
and to stop, or decrease, the amount of current flowing to the battery. Most solar
regulators also include a Low Voltage Disconnect feature, which will switch off the
supply to the load if the battery voltage falls below the cut-off voltage. This prevents the
battery from permanent damage and reduced life expectancy. Solar regulators are rated
by the amount of current they are able to receive from the solar panel or panels.

70
4.3.3.3 Power Inverter
The power inverter is the main component of any independent power system
which requires AC power. The power inverter will convert the DC power stored in the
batteries and into Ac power to run conventional appliances. There are three waveforms
produced by modern solid state power inverters. The simplest, a square wave power
inverter, used to be all that was available. Today, these are very rare, as many appliances
will not operate on a square wave. True Sine wave inverters provide AC power that is
virtually identical to, and often cleaner than, power from the grid. Power inverters are
generally rated by the amount of AC power they can supply continuously. Manufacturers
generally also provide 5 second and ½ hour surge figures. The surge figures give an idea
of how much power can be supplied by the inverter for 5 seconds and ½ an hour before
the inverter‟s overload protection trips and cuts the power.
4.3.3.4 Solar Batteries
Deep cycle batteries are usually used in solar power systems and are designed to
be discharged over a long period of time (e.g. 100 hours) and recharged hundreds or
thousands of times, unlike conventional car batteries which are designed to provide a
large amount of current for a short amount of time. To maximize battery life, deep cycle
batteries should not be discharged beyond 50% of their capacity. i.e. 50 % capacity
remaining. Discharging beyond this level will significantly reduce the life of the
batteries. Deep cycle batteries are rated in Ampere Hours (Ah). This rating also includes
a discharge rate, usually at 20 hours. This rating specifies the amount of current in Amps
that the battery can supply over the specified number of hours. As an example, a battery
rated at 120A.H at the 100 hour rate can supply a total of 120A.H over a period of 100
hours. This would equate to 1.2A per hour for 100 hours.

4.3.4 Designing of Solar Panel


Power rating of each appliance that will be drawing power from the system.
Calculation of Loads
The calculation of loads for the Solar Panels are given below in Table 4.5

71
Table 4.5 Calculation Of Loads (Ref 12)

PARTICULA USAGE VOLTA CONSUM INVER


ITEMS UNITS
RS IN HRS GE W PTION TORS

CFL (Ref
HALL 4 5 20 400 80
13)
FAN 2 5 50 500 100
T.V 1 5 80 400 80
BED ROOM 1 CFL 2 3 15 90 30
FAN 1 10 50 500 50
BED ROOM 2 CFL 2 3 15 90 30
FAN 1 10 50 500 50
KITCHEN OVEN 1 1 900 900 900
CFL 3 4 15 180 45
EXHAUS
1 4 50 200 50
T
Mixer 1 1 450 450 450
DINING AUTO-
1 18 150 2700 195
ROOM FRIDGE
CFL 3 4 15 180 45
FAN 1 3 50 150 50
TOILET 1 CFL 1 1 15 15 15
TOILET 2 HEATER 1 1 150 150 150
CFL 1 2 15 30 15
WATER
1 1 750 750 750
PUMP
WASHING
1 2 90 180 90
MACHINE
8365 3175

72
Power Invertor Sizing
Appliance total power draw = 3175 W
To provide a small buffer or margin your minimum size inverter choice should be
around 3500W.
A modified sine wave inverter with a 3500W continuous power rating will therefore
be your obvious choice in this specific solar system design.
Determining the Size And Number Of Solar Panels
Divide the total daily power requirement by the number of charge hours for that
geographic region eg. (8365×1.2)\6=1673 WATTS
250 Watt Solar Panel
Total watt/ 250 watt solar panel =

=7 PANELS
= 7 x 250 W panels.
Number of Batteries
250W panels produce 4.8Amps, thus 14x 4.8 A = 67.2A x 6 Hrs
= 403.2.Ah
105Ah batteries, should be discharged to no more than 50%, thus we divide total
amps by 105A x 50% = 50A.h
= 8.08 x 105Ah batteries.

For ease of possible 24V or 48V configuration, this would mean 3 in series of 3
batteries.
Size of Regulators
Let‟s say we had 20A regulators at our disposal.
One 250W panel produces around 4.8Amps.
The regulators are put in series
14 x 4.8A=67.2
So 14 solar panels would need 4 x 20 A solar regulators
.

Complete the solar power system


Well we have the following:
i. 7x2x 250W solar panels
ii. 4 x 20A solar regulators
iii. x 105A.H deep cycle batteries( 3 in series)
iv. 1 x 3500W modified sine wave power inverter

4.4 RATE ANALYSIS

Solar panels =Rs.32/W


Regulator = Rs 1800
Batteries = Rs 8000/series
Inverter = Rs 4800
Total Cost
Solar panels =14x250x32=Rs 112000
Regulator = Rs 1800
Batteries = Rs 8000x3=24000=Rs 24000
Inverter = Rs 4800
Total=112000+1800+24000+4800= Rs. 142600/-

The total cost of the solar panel is Rs. One lakh forty two thousand six hundred for
our residential building .In these solar panel cost is based on the solar panels, regulator,
batteries and inverter. The output of solar panel can be expected to vary by 0.25% for every 5
degrees variation in temperature.
In NZERB, decrease in temperature for using of hollow bricks and solar panels
produces the electricity. When compared to conventional building, the intial cost is high but
in future the electricity cost is reduced.

4.5 INFRARED THERMOMETER

ii
Fig.4.6 Infrared Thermometer
The instrument Infrared Thermometer is shown in Figure 4.6
I. An infrared thermometer is a thermometer which infers temperature from a
portion of the thermal radiation sometimes called blackbody radiation emitted
by the object being measured.
II. They are sometimes called laser thermometers if a laser is used to help aim the
thermometer, or non-contact thermometers or temperature guns, to describe
the device's ability to measure temperature from a distance refer Figure.4.6
III. By knowing the amount of infrared energy emitted by the object and
its emissivity, the object's temperature can often be determined.
IV. Infrared thermometers are a subset of devices known as "thermal radiation
thermometers".
V. The most basic design consists of a lens to focus the infrared thermal radiation
on to a detector, which converts the radiant power to an electrical signal that
can be displayed in units of temperature after being compensated for ambient

iii
temperature. This configuration facilitates temperature measurement from
a distance without contact with the object to be measured.
VI. Infrared thermometers can be used to serve a wide variety of temperature
monitoring functions. A few examples provided to this article include:
VII. Detecting clouds for remote telescope operation
VIII. Checking mechanical equipment or electrical circuit breaker boxes or outlets
for hot spots
IX. Checking heater or oven temperature, for calibration and control purposes
X. Detecting hot spots / performing diagnostics in electrical circuit board
manufacturing
XI. Checking for hot spots in fire fighting situations
XII. Monitoring materials in process of heating and cooling, for research and
development or manufacturing quality control situations
XIII. The distance-to-spot ratio (D:S) is the ratio of the distance to the object and
the diameter of the temperature measurement area. For instance if the D:S
ratio is 12:1, measurement of an object 12 inches (30 cm) away will average
the temperature over a 1-inch-diameter (25 mm) area. The sensor may have an
adjustable emissivity setting, which can be set to measure the temperature of
reflective (shiny) and non-reflective surfaces.
XIV. The most common infrared thermometers is the:
XV. Spot Infrared Thermometer or Infrared Pyrometer, which measures the
temperature at a spot on a surface (actually a relatively small area determined
by the D:S ratio).

iv
4.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOLLOW BRICKS

4.6.1 Parameters of Hollow Brick Used In Net Zero Energy Residential Building
I. LENGTH : 400 mm
II. WIDTH : 200 mm
III. HEIGHT: 200 mm
IV. WEIGHT: 11.1 kg
V. DENSITY: 694 kg/m³
VI. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH : 4.1

VII. WATER ABSORPTION : 15%


VIII. U-VALUE : 1.1 W/m²
IX. SOUND INSULATION : 46 DB
X. FIRE RESISTANCE 240 min

Available Sizes

I. 400 X 200 X 200 mm


II. 400 X 150 X 200 mm
III. 400 X 100 X 200 mm
IV. 200 X 200 X 200 mm
V. 200X 150 X 200 mm
VI. 200 X 100 X 200 mm

Hollow Brick
Bigger Size
I. Hollow brick is same in size as that of concrete blocks
II. 1 Hollow brick = 9 Clay Bricks
III. Less mortar joints, hence less plumb & alignment
IV. Faster construction

Light Weight
I. Ease of handling, Transportation
II. Saves labour
III. Less dead load, Savings in Structural Cost
IV. (Steel & Concrete) by 10 to 15%

v
Thermal Insulation
I. Savings on mortar
II. Low „U‟ Values – 1.0 W/m²
III. Better Thermal Insulation = less energy loss through walls
IV. Savings on Energy consumption ,Comfortable inside temperature

U-value determines thermal Insulation.Lesser the Value higher the Insulation and vice
versa. U-values are mentioned in Figure 4.7

Fig.4.7 U-VALUES

4.6.2 Advantages Of Hollow Bricks

i. Highly Durable: The good concrete compacted by high pressure and


vibration gives substantial strength to the brick.
ii. Low Maintenance, Colour and brilliance of masonry withstands
outdoor elements.

vi
iii. Fire Resistant
iv. Provide thermal and sound insulation: The air in hollow of the brick,
does not allow outside heat or cold in the house. So it keeps house cool
in summer and warm in winter.
v. Environment Friendly, fly ash used as one of the raw materials.

Constructional Advantages

i. No additional formwork or any special construction machinery is


required for reinforcing the hollow brick masonry.
ii. Only skilled labour is required for this type of construction.
iii. It is a faster and easier construction system, when compared to the
other conventional construction systems.
iv. Savings on RCC-Frame structure (steel/concrete).
v. Faster construction and ease for handling at site.
vi. Hollow brick consist of four elements earth, water, fire, air which
makes easy work of construction.
vii. Less wastage through half bricks.
viii. Excellent thermal insulation.
ix. Reduction in energy consumption.
x. World class and best walling materials.

4.7 ESTIMATION
4.7.1 Abstract estimate of conventional building
The quantities of the various materials in conventional building are calculated as
shown in the Table 4.6
The abstract estimate of conventional building is given in Table 4.6
Table 4.6 Abstract estimate of conventional building
Length Breadth Depth Quantity
S.No Description Nos
(m) (m) (m) (m3)
1 Excavation
Exterior wall 1 39.48 0.76 0.53 15.9
Interior wall 1 22.51 0.76 0.53 9.06
24.96
vii
2 P.C.C
Exterior wall 1 39.48 0.76 0.3 9
Interior wall 1 22.51 0.76 0.3 5.13
14.13
3 Brick work
1st Footing
Exterior wall 1 39.48 0.46 0.115 2.08
Interior wall 1 22.51 0.46 0.115 1.19
2nd Footing
Exterior wall 1 39.48 0.31 0.115 1.4
Interior wall 1 22.51 0.31 0.115 0.8
3 Wall
Exterior wall 1 39.48 0.23 7.5 68.1
Interior wall 1 22.51 0.23 7.5 38.82
112.39
Deductions
Window W 1×2 1.22 0.23 0.9 0.51
Window W1 1×5 1.22 0.23 1.22 1.71
Window W2 1×2 0.9 0.23 1.21 0.5
Door D 1×2 0.84 0.23 2.1 0.81
Door D1 1×3 0.75 0.23 2 1.035
Door D2 1 0.9 0.23 2.1 1.035
Spacing S1 1 1.2 0.23 2.08 0.57
Spacing S2 1 0.9 0.23 2.1 0.43
6.6
4 Earth Filling
Hall 1 3.03 4.87 0.5 7.378
Water closet 1 3.62 2.15 0.5 3.89
Bed Room1 1 3.62 3.72 0.5 6.73
Bed Room2 1 3.5 3 0.5 5.25
Dinning 1 3.5 2.37 0.5 4.147
Kitchen 1 3.5 2.6 0.5 4.55
31.649
5 Flooring Concrete
Hall 1 3.03 4.87 0.1 1.48
Water closet 1 3.62 2.15 0.1 0.778
Bed Room1 1 3.62 3.72 0.1 1.346
Bed Room2 1 3.5 3 0.1 1.05
Dinning 1 3.5 2.37 0.1 0.829
Kitchen 1 3.5 2.6 0.1 0.91
5.473
6 R.C.C
Lintel & Sun shades
Door D 1×2 1.4 0.23 0.15 0.078

viii
Door D1 1×3 1.05 0.23 0.15 0.108
Door D2 1 1.2 0.23 0.15 0.04
Sun Shade 1 1.2 0.45 0.075 0.04
Window W 1×2 1.52 0.23 0.15 0.104
Sun Shade 1×2 1.52 0.45 0.075 0.103
Window W1 1×5 1.52 0.23 0.15 0.2622
Sun Shade 1×5 1.52 0.45 0.075 0.26
Window W2 1×2 1.2 0.23 0.15 0.083
Sun Shade 1×2 1.2 0.45 0.075 0.081
1.1592
Roof Slab
Hall, Water Closet, Bed Room1 1 6.65 4.87 0.1 3.24
Bed Room2,Dinning,Kitchen 1 3.5 7.97 0.1 2.79
6.8496
7 Plastering
Exterior wall 1 39.48 - 7.5 296.1
Interior wall 1 22.51 - 7.5 168.8
464.92
Deductions
Window W1 1×2 1.22 - 0.9 2.196
Window W2 1×5 1.22 - 1.22 7.442
Window W3 1×2 0.9 - 1.21 2.178
Door D 1×2 0.84 - 2.1 3.528
Door D1 1×3 0.75 - 2 4.5
Door D2 1 0.9 - 2.1 1.89
Spacing S 1 1.2 - 2.08 2.496
Spacing S1 1 0.9 - 2.1 1.89
26.12
8 White Washing - - - - 438.8
9 Colour Washing - - - - 438.8

The abstract estimate of NZERB is given in Table 4.7

Table 4.7 Abstract Estimate of NZERB

Length Breadth Depth Quantity


S.No Description NoS
(m) (m) (m) (m3)
1 Excavation
Exterior wall 1 39.24 0.7 0.5 13.734
Interior wall 1 22.51 0.7 0.5 7.87
21.604
2 P.C.C
Exterior wall 1 39.24 0.7 0.3 8.24
Interior wall 1 22.51 0.7 0.3 4.72
12.96

ix
3 Brick work
1st Footing
Exterior wall 1 39.24 0.4 0.2 3.13
Interior wall 1 22.51 0.4 0.2 1.8
2nd Footing
Exterior wall 1 39.24 0.25 0.2 1.96
Interior wall 1 22.51 0.25 0.2 1.12
3 Wall
Exterior wall 1 39.24 0.2 7.5 58.86
Interior wall 1 22.51 0.2 7.5 33.76
Deductions
Window W 1×2 1.22 0.2 0.9 0.4392
Window W1 1×5 1.22 0.2 1.22 1.4884
Window W2 1×2 0.9 0.2 1.21 0.432
Door D 1×2 0.84 0.2 2.1 0.705
Door D1 1×3 0.75 0.2 2 0.9
Door D2 1 0.9 0.2 2.1 0.378
Spacing S1 1 1.2 0.2 2.08 0.504
Spacing S2 1 0.9 0.2 2.1 0.378
95.02
4 Earth Filling
Hall 1 3.03 4.87 0.5 7.378
Water closet 1 3.62 2.15 0.5 3.89
Bed Room1 1 3.62 3.72 0.5 6.73
Bed Room2 1 3.5 3 0.5 5.25
Dinning 1 3.5 2.37 0.5 4.147
Kitchen 1 3.5 2.6 0.5 4.55
31.649
5 Flooring Concrete
Hall 1 3.03 4.87 0.1 1.48
Water closet 1 3.62 2.15 0.1 0.778
Bed Room1 1 3.62 3.72 0.1 1.346
Bed Room2 1 3.5 3 0.1 1.05
Dinning 1 3.5 2.37 0.1 0.829
Kitchen 1 3.5 2.6 0.1 0.91
5.473
6 R.C.C
Lintel & Sun shades
Door D 1×2 1.4 0.23 0.15 0.0684
Door D1 1×3 1.05 0.23 0.15 0.0945
Door D2 1 1.2 0.23 0.15 0.036
Sun Shade 1 1.2 0.45 0.075 0.0405
Window W 1×2 1.52 0.23 0.15 0.07512

x
Sun Shade 1×2 1.52 0.45 0.075 0.1026
Window W1 1×5 1.52 0.23 0.15 0.228
Sun Shade 1×5 1.52 0.45 0.075 0.0256
Window W2 1×2 1.2 0.23 0.15 0.072
Sun Shade 1×2 1.2 0.45 0.075 0.081
0.8237
Roof Slab
Hall, Water Closet, Bed Room1 1 6.65 4.87 0.1 3.24
Bed Room2,Dinning,Kitchen 1 3.5 7.97 0.1 2.79
6.8496
7 Plastering
Exterior wall 1 39.24 - 7.5 294.3
Interior wall 1 22.51 - 7.5 168.82
463.12
Deductions
Window W1 1×2 1.22 - 0.9 2.196
Window W2 1×5 1.22 - 1.22 7.442
Window W3 1×2 0.9 - 1.21 2.178
Door D 1×2 0.84 - 2.1 3.528
Door D1 1×3 0.75 - 2 4.5
Door D2 1 0.9 - 2.1 1.89
Spacing S 1 1.2 - 2.08 2.496
Spacing S1 1 0.9 - 2.1 1.89
26.12
8 White Washing - - - - 437
9 Colour Washing - - - - 437

xi
4.7.3 Rate Analysis
The rate analysis for various description of work are calculated based on the PWD.
The rate analysis proposed for conventional building is given in the Table 4.8
Table 4.8 Rates Proposed Conventional Building
QTY in QTY in
S.NO DESCRIPTION OF WORK RATE PER AMOUNT
m³ cft
1 Earth Work Excavation 24.96 882.33 9.50 Cft 8382.00

2 Sand Filling with good river sand 31.65 1118.82 35.00 Cft 39158.00

3 PCC 1:5:10, 14.13 499.51 90.00 Cft 44955.00

4 Brick Work in C.M. 1:5, using country


brick For Basement level 112.39 3973.00 90.00 Cft 357570.00

5 Flooring Work
PCC 1:4:8 5.50 194.23 90.00 Cft 17480.00

R.C.C (LINTEL,SUNSHADES & ROOF


6
SLAB) 7.19 253.91 350.00 Cft 88868.50

7 Plastering in C.M 1:4, Inside and outside


wall surface 439.00 15518.60 30.00 Sft 465559.00
8
White washing 439.00 15518.60 3.00 Sft 46555.80
9
Colour washing 439.00 15518.60 5.00 Sft 77593.00
10
Steel 501kg 60.00 kg 30060.00
TOTAL 1176181.30

xii
The rate analysis proposed for NZERB building is given in the Table 4.9
Table 4.9 Proposed NZERB Building
QTY in
S.NO DESCRIPTION OF WORK QTY in cft RATE PER AMOUNT

1 Earth Work Excavation 21.60 763.56 9.50 Cft 7253.82

Sand Filling with good river


2 sand 31.65 1118.80 35.00 Cft 39158.00

3 PCC 1:5:10, 12.96 458.10 90.00 Cft 41229.00

4 Brick Work in C.M. 1:5, using


country brick For Basement
level 95.50 3376.00 125.00 Cft 422000.00

5 Flooring Work
PCC 1:4:8 5.50 194.23 90.00 Cft 17480.50

R.C.C (LINTEL,SUNSHADES
6
& ROOF SLAB) 6.84 241.55 350.00 Cft 84542.50

7 Plastering in C.M 1:4, Inside


and outside wall surface 463.12 16371.29 30.00 Sft 491139.00
8
White washing 437.00 15448.00 3.00 Sft 46344.00

9
Colour washing 437.00 15448.00 5.00 Sft 77240.00
10
Steel 501.00 60.00 kg 30060.00
11
Solar Panel System 142600.00
TOTAL 1399046.82

CHAPTER 5

xiii
CONCLUSION

5.1 CONCLUSION

In this project we has completed the design of the Conventional building by using
modular bricks and Net Zero Energy Residential Building by using Hollow Brick .The plan
of the building was prepared by Auto-Cad software. IS 456:2000 code book was used to
design Slab and Footing. Design of wall was done by using IS 1905:1987.

The Comparison of the Conventional Building and NZERB was completed by using
the parameters such as the temperature by using instrument infrared thermometer which was
found to be 4oC less in NZERB compared to conventional building under same condition.
Hence by using the renewable resources the impact on the active energy loads can be
reduced, Thus we can conserve electricity locally and globally.

5.2 FUTURE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The building designed as a NET ZERO ENERGY BUILDING produces its own
electricity, thus it can save a huge amount in electricity bill. These kind of buildings are
environmental friendly reducing the environmental hazards (eg. It would release zero carbon
content that would help in controlling global warming).The design for the building should be
such that the requirement of temperature regulation does not fluctuate throughout the year.

REFERENCES

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-energy_building
2. http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/annajohanna
3. http://zeb.buildinggreen.com/saitoh

xiv
4. National Building Code of India (NBC) and Chennai Metropolitan
Development Authority (CMDA).
5. S.P. Arora and S.P Bindra .(2010), Building Construction , Fifth edition,
Dhanpat Rai publishing company limited, New Delhi.
6. IS: 456 : 2000, Indian Standard Code of practice for plain and reinforced
concrete (Fourth Revision ), Bureau if Indian Standards, New Delhi
7. IS: 1905 (1987), Code of Practice for Structural use of unreinforced masonry.
8. IS 875 : Part 2 : 1987 Code of practice for design loads (other than
earthquake) for buildings and structures: Part 2 Imposed loads
9. IS 875 : Part 1 : 1987 Code of practice for design loads (other than
earthquake)for buildings and structures Part 1 Dead loads - Unit weights of
building material and stored materials (Incorporating IS:1911-1967)
10. SP 20 (S & T):1991 Handbook on masonry design and construction.
11. IS 2572:1963(R 1997) Code of practice for design of Hollow bricks
12. http://www.solarpanel.co.za/solar-power-calculator.htm

xv