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Essay on Globalization

Globalization
Outline:
• Introduction.
• Historical background of the concept.
• Tools of globalization.
• Different levels or aspects of globalization.
• Negatives of globalization
• Positives of globalization.
• Suggestions.
• Conclusion.

Essay on globalization

Globalization is an irreversible and irresistible phenomenon. It is very famous all over the
world. While dilating on the subject, it is important to note that globalization not only
affects us as a citizen but also as “producer-consumer in the global economy”.
In the modern contemporary world, intense debate revolves around the term
“globalization”, which is even today a continuous issue.
Before exploring the concept, we should take a look over the different definitions of the
phenomenon. Globalization can be defined as “closely interrelated integration of market in
terms of goods, services and capital”. It can also be defined as “gradual erosion of
boundaries between states through increased economic interdependence and interlinkages
can be termed as globalization.
From the above mentioned definitions, we can assume that globalization is the mutual
sharing of goods, services and capital between or among states. It is also gradually
making states closer and integrated. There are different theories about the beginning of
the concept of globalization.
Some are of the view that it started from the mid of 20th century with woods conference
1944. While the others are of the view that this concept was properly started with the
establishment of W.T.O in 1995. Whatever the reality is, it is true that the pace of
globalization was accelerated with World trading Organization. the main agenda of this
organization was to end border and fasten the trade between the states.
World bank also came in this battle of evolution of globalization and identifies three waves
of globalization focusing on economic integration.
1. First wave of globalization from 1854 to 1914.
2. Second wave of globalization from 1945 to 1973.
3. Third wave of globalization from 1973 till today.
In the post 1973 era, the cold war subsided and there was a quantum leap forward in the
“economic integration”. The free market economy became the guiding principal and global
economy spread to the larger part of the world.
There is a difference of opinion among people for beginning of the concept but nobody can
deny its importance in the modern contemporary world. From now to onward, we will
examine how trade, growth and poverty are interlinked and how best the benefits of
globalization acquired to ameliorate threat to humanity. Presumably, solutions to such
problems would then avert a backlash against globalization.
Tools of globalization:
There are two schools of thoughts about conjecture of globalization. First are of the view
that globalization is a blessing. It is the tool of peace and prosperity. It is the harbinger of
progress and prosperity. It is indispensible process in the modern contemporary world.
We cannot deny its importance in our daily life from kitchen utensils to industrial
machinery. One may approve or disapprove; the world is so prepared that it is
unavoidable.
Others are of the view that globalization is a tool of frustration. It is solely in the benefit
of rich and progress and progressive. They are also of the view that globalization is a
recipe of neu-colonialism. With the emergence of world trade organization and end of cold
war this concept evolved. Last but not the least they are of the view that it is a theory of
indirect occupation.
The third tool of globalization is telecommunication. Telecom has made things possible.
There was a time when kings took Six months to meet the counter part or a sovereign of
another state, now communication means made it so easy that an ordinary human can
talk to a person who is sitting hundreds and thousands miles away on a very cheap
expense. They are always interconnected. Physical distances have been made irrelevant
through these communication means. It is a first mean to exchange ideas. For example
face book, one can share his ideas and in no time he will get the feedback from friends or
people who are going to be affected by his idea. It is a quick way to engage into trade.
Furthermore, it is also helping people to involve in political discourses. The people today
are well aware of the governmental policies.
It is also important to note that there are more than one billion people who are the
telephone subscribers. During the decades of 1990’s the number of people using
telephone were doubled after every 20 months. So we can see that how quickly people of
this contemporary world are being use to of it.
Moreover electronic media is another tool of globalization. We can say that media is the
other way of squeezing the world into one whole. It has become the fastest way of
interrelating the world. Incident happening in one part of the world can be seen in other
parts of the globe through it very quickly. It is the strongest mean of knowing and
believing what’s happening. It is also a tool of propaganda. In the modern world, people
and states use it for their own self interest and secure support of others in their conduct.
We have a recent example of Iraq war. Media played an important role in this particular
war. The U.S Government propagated on media that Saddam has nuclear weapons which
is the biggest threat to America himself and the whole world. Despite of the fact that 152
countries opposed him in United Nations, America attacked on Iraq under the article 52
(self defense) of the United Nations. Then again it is also important to note that it was the
same media who reported that there were no nuclear weapons found in Iraq. So it has
performed both the roles.
The story not ends here, another important tool of globalization is internet. It is the
internet which quickly and really summarized the world into a small box. Whatever you
need, whatever u wish for, you can have it through internet. There are 200 million people
who are using computer in their daily life and 95% of them are using personal computer.
One out of every 12 is using internet. It has something for everyone. The main purposes
for using internet are;
• To get information.
• To have access to news.
• To deal in business.
• To follow the modern styles.
• To have recreation or entertainment.
It is due to this tool of globalization that one can have access to all the things he wanted
through s single click. So internet is very important tool of globalization.
Moving forward, the means of transportation are also important tools of globalization. It is
a blessing for everyone in this modern contemporary world as it helps in movement of
goods, services and capital from one place to another. It made possible for one person to
deal with another in cool and good manners. It really, enables the modern man to tackle
the problems efficiently. The voyages which were of months, now summarized to hours.
Aero plane has made it possible to travel from one nook of the world to the other corner
in hours. Means of transportation are really helping people in development and progress.
Trade between sates became the hall mark of the globalization. It has helped the world to
squeeze. From the above discussion we came to know that how effectively and efficiently
the tools of communication are playing their part. It is also important to note that what
are the aspects of our daily human life which are to be directly or indirectly affected by
globalization.
Different levels or aspects of globalization:
The political globalization is first that will be discussed over here. When we come across
political globalization, three things quickly come in our mind.
• Political organization.
• International law.
• Human rights.
Political organization was started from the emergence of United Nation organization in
1945. It was a very noble step towards humanity. Earlier there was another organization
by the name of “league of nations”. It emerged right after the end of 1st World War in
1919. The main difference between these two organizations was that the membership of
“League of nations” was partial. The portfolio was almost the same. The emergence of
United Nations Organization was a very noble step towards integrity of mankind. Under
the article 2 of the UNO quotes “all states are equal”. It is also very important to note that
the difference between the 1st World War and 2nd World War was of 20 years only and
because of the UNO the 3rd World War prevented a couple of times in the history. The
incidents of U2 and Cuban Missile Crises certainly stood the both super powers in front of
each other. It was UNO who handled the affairs very efficiently. Any insurgency can be
stopped through the platform of UNO. There is no blinking fact that the theory and
practice of UNO are at daggers drawn with each other.
Second thing which comes in political organization is International Law. It was broadly
implemented through international court of justice (ICJ). International law symbolizes the
world as globe. It prevents strong from doing any unlawful act which can harm the
inferior. The international court of justice also warns the country to not do that again.
International law is a very significant achievement of the world. All the issues between the
countries can be settled down here relating to war prisoners, territorial issues, resources
issues of neighbor/peripheral countries. International law shows world as a single entity
governed by a single law, although there is a clash among theory and practice.
Thirdly, human rights are no more a personal issue. It is a universal problem. Earlier
human rights were not a global concern. No other state was allowed to interfere in these
matters of any other state. This statement is also written in the article 2 of the UNO. Then
in 1990’s, a rule was passed by UNO that if there is a violation of human rights in any part
of the world the whole world or the UNO will stand against it. Furthermore it is also
mentioned that culprit will be treated strictly.
The aspects of globalization regarding economy are also important. The economical
globalization is as important as any other. Its roots can be traced from 1944 with the
emergence of I.F.I. World trading Organization was formed in 1955 and later on it
transformed into GATT (general agreement on trade and tariff). The main agenda of
W.T.O. was to make border irrelevant. The second main concern of this organization was
to promote free movement of goods, services and capital. Another point of its concern is
the free movement of labour through elimination of trade barriers which include tariffs,
quotas and sub subsidies. World Trade Organization is working on same agenda. It
augmented the magnitude of the trade between two countries. By its performance and
effectiveness we can assume that it is the order of the day. Every state is interdependent
on the other. This interdependence becomes the general norm of international politics.
State welfare and development are interrelated very closely and W.T.O. paved the way for
trade instead of aid. There are some other institutions like I.M.F who are playing a pivotal
role for globalization. These international organizations give debts to the needy countries
for their betterment and prosperity.
In addition to this, the financial globalization is also an important aspect. It is the first
layer of mutual borrowing. It is the hallmark of the contemporary world. Every country of
the world is in some ways borrower and lender in the other way. This phenomenon
creates the relationship of mutual borrowing among the states. We can take the example
of U.S.A and China relations; it is a fact that United States of America is the largest
borrower of China.
There is a term used in this concept named “mutual friction”. Dollar ($) is the America’s
national currency. It assumed the role of international currency. Wherever we are in the
world and whatever we want to buy, we shall see two price tags on that particular thing.
One will be in local currency and the other will be in Dollars. All the international treaties
are signed under this currency. There are also some other financial institutions, like Asian
Development Bank and European union, who are playing their part of act in their areas of
jurisdiction and around the world.
Cultural globalization is also a highlighting level of globalization. Every area of the world
has its own cultural values. Through the tools of globalization e.g. media, internet, the
cultural globalization is also on the rise in the modern world. McDonalds, KFC and Pizza
hut are not the parts of our culture. Foods, fads and clothing patterns are parts of all
cultures. The amalgamation of cultures in the modern contemporary world is defined as
“acculturation”. When two cultures meet with each other and a new culture comes into
existence, which is called as acculturation.
This phenomenon of acculturation can only be developed when there is a mutual
interaction between two cultures.
Previously it was done by migration. People migrate from one place to another in search
of food, shelter or better life style. In ancient times, there was no exposure to superior or
inferior culture due to the lack of interaction and transportation means. In today’s our life
no culture can remain in isolation. We can say that due to acculturation, a new global
culture is taking place.
Environmental problems are no more a personal issue. Different pollutions are no more an
indigenous or local problem .it’s a worldwide phenomenon. The question is why is it a
global problem? And the answer is that emission of carbon from one state would damage
the atmosphere and the whole world might bear one’s wrong doing.
In this regard a protocol had been signed by the name of Kyoto protocol among all the big
countries except United States of America whose carbon emission is the largest in the
world.
• America 25% carbon emission. ( check statistics)
• China 12.5% carbon emission. (check statistics please)
The third number is of India. There is no use of such protocol if the American government
is not willing to be part of it.
Another important aspect of globalization is global migration. The global organizations
promote free movement of labour and free movement of people across the borders.
From 1998-2002, every year 20 million refugee people qualified for and receive UNO’s
aid. For example, if war occurs in any area it will triggers the mass migration of people.
As happened in Afghan war. About four million Afghani people migrated to Pakistan.
Different states relax their immigration rules for their own problems. Like lack of skilled
professional, they promote the migration of people as they are facing the problem of
aging. By fore seeing human resource deficit, they have relaxed immigration rules.
As we are discussing the aspects of globalization the next aspect is globalization of health.
It has two layers. Firstly, there is a general dissemination of awareness campaigns. Under
W.H.O the world was declared as “small pox free” in 1986. After that a vigorous campaign
had been launched against Polio. Presently the campaign against HIV AIDs is on its peak
which is funded by W.H.O.
The second layer is positive as well as negative aspect of it. Like AIDs, it was confined to
to a specific area of the world. Now it spread all over the world. Same is the case with
Swine Flu, bird Flu and narcotics. Presently 95% of the opium is cultivated in Afghanistan.
Earlier the area of Golden Triangle was on top of its cultivation.
The last but not the least is educational globalization. The main factors which are involved
in this globalization are:
• Internet.
• Visa relaxation for students.
• Scholarships.
Internet as discussed earlier is a very important factor in every student of the world. It is
through internet that one can find the people of likewise. Through internet one can have
essay on any topic or phrase. Secondly the visa relaxation for students also making it a
strong factor of globalization.
Although the concept of globalization is famous all over the world, like all the other things
this concept also has some merits and demerits. We will discuss negatives of globalization
first.
Negatives of globalization:
• There is a famous saying “money gets money” The first point in this discipline is that it
aims at making rich the richer and poor the poorer because of its policies, it is very much in
the habit of profiting the rich. The concept of free movement of services, labour and capital
with the end of trade barriers (tariffs and subsidies) if these barriers removed from between
and let these big multi-national companies and others to fight with the local industry, they
will eat these small companies.
Globalization basically creates discrimination between the poor and the rich which is a big
flaw of this concept.
• Another demerit of globalization is that it breeds credit based economies. The first world
countries intentionally do not allow the deficit countries to stand on their feet. The third
world countries are unable to run their economies by their own, so they have to open their
palm in front of big crocodiles. These developed countries and organizations string
conditions with that debt and don’t let the smaller countries to utilize their own resources
and stand on their feet.
• Prevalence of global culture means dominance of Western culture:- the West have means
to promote their culture and traditions. Modern media and entertainment sources are totally
influenced by the West. The younger generation fantasizes the west and is also playing
totally in the hands of western culture. We do not have those tools to promote our culture
and traditions. It is also important to note that Eastern and Western cultures stands for
Islamic and the rest of the world. The Muslims are lacking the modern sources of interaction
to the other world so globalization is totally in the lap of Western culture.
• It is also important to note that it is eroding the role of nation state fastly. The concept of
nation state is very important in the existence of a state. The concept of global village is
eroding this nation state concept.
• International relations of politics mean new-imperialism. The first world countries involve
themselves in the internal affairs of the unstable countries and uses money to have the
people of their own in the government. By this way, they become able to use that country
for their own self interest and exploit these countries. The politicians of third world countries
are not able to develop good plans for their prosperity and progress. So the developed
countries and MNC’s give them aid with some conditions and in that way they control the
whole country.
• International law is a week law for rich and strong tool against poor. There are many
examples in support of this argument. We have some in near past too. The Iraq war and to
some extent the case of R. Davis. Although he was released after the settlement with the
victim family. But there are some issues on which he can hold behind bars. The Israeli
brutality against the unarmed Palestinians. It is also important to note that since 1991
America have used his right of veto 14 times from which 11 times he vetoed actions against
Israel. International law proceeds with international court of justice and if someone goes in
ICJ against any other. It has to take permission from the accused country for preceding the
case. This makes it week and ill working law.
• The governments respond more to the MNC’s than to the interest of their own people.
Positives of globalization:-
The merits of globalization are as follows:-
• The first important merit of globalization is that it is a blessing of comparative adventure
and interdependence. The famous saying of Aristotle “man is a social animal’ is true even
today. Every state is interdependent and no state can live in isolation. History witnessing
the fact that if anyone tried to live in isolation, he faced great difficulties in response. We
have the examples of Sudan, South Korea.
• The next thing which we discuss in the merits of it is promotion of trade instead of aid.
Now the states are giving preference to trade and helping other regional and worldwide
economies to stand on their feet. The aid system has certain ambiguities with it as we
discussed in the demerits. Instead of being burden to the world, every state introducing free
market systems.
• The next blessing of globalization is that it is the era of franimies giving birth to peace. We
can quote the example of United States of America and People Republic China. They are the
biggest rivals in current scenario. Yet, America is the biggest lender of China. Although they
have tussles but they will not fight with each other
• Globalization also helps us in creating harmony among different cultures. There is nothing
which the other world does not know about a specific culture. Every country has institutions
to read about the other cultures. Course of Central Asian countries in G. C. University. And
department of regional studies in American leading universities is the perfect examples of it.
It helps us to come to know the cultures of different areas of the world.
• Furthermore it is globalization which brings people very close to each other. The concept
of specific language and culture for specific region is emitting from the map of the world.
The harmony among the cultures is possible with the role of globalization which
consequently results into peace.
• It is not ended over here, the concept of globalization also helping us in recognizing the
human rights. Earlier it was the sole responsibility of the state to ensure the rights of people
and no one was allowed to interfere. Every state must facilitate its citizens with basic rights.
It was announced by the UNO that there will be no boundary for human rights. Every child
who comes in this world must enjoy all the rights
• Another positive of globalization which cannot be neglected is that it is always a blessing
for consumer. The competitors will lose their profit margin for attracting more and more
consumer and in this way the consumer not only has lot more choices but the quality goods
too. Whatever the multi nationals do, it is always a blessing for the consumer. In this way it
proves to be the biggest merit of globalization for a common man. With the decrease in
prices of the goods and utensils, the consumer will be able to have more on cheaper price.
On the other hands it is important to note that it is bound to succeed. It is directly linked
with capitalism. Capitalism is the only system prevailing in the contemporary world. We
have examples in the shape of European Union; shanghai cooperation organization, SAARC,
and some other regional unions are proves of its success.
• The story not ends here; globalization is maximizing the wealth of the world. We are
witnessing the fact that when a multi-national company goes in a region, it creates an
opportunity of employment. It gives financial support for the betterment of roads and
transportation. Sudan is the case study in this context. The oil, gold and gas reservoirs were
giving no benefit to the people of Sudan. The multi-national companies went over there.
They explored these reservoirs and now the government is receiving taxes. The people are
getting more jobs, the economy is growing. It can be said that it changed the life style of
the people of Sudan.
• The last but not the least positive point of globalization is free movement of capital. It
allows people throughout the world to run their business wherever they want. The free
movement of capital is bridging gaps between the countries.
Suggestions:-
• Investing in human capital. Strategies for promoting economic growth and poverty
reduction should be an important part of every country’s economic policy. There is a need to
encourage investment through economic liberalization, privatization and reduced trade
barriers. There is a need to invest in human capital, such as health and education and
creating effective institutions of governance and eradicate corruption.
• Democracy and economic growth are interlinked with each other. Economic growth can
only be possible if there is a stable system of politics. The politicians are willing to develop
their state efficiently. It can happen only when there is democratic system in the state.
• Need for a new consensus. The political leaders must take choices amid debates if they
intend to seize the opportunities to promote democracy and economic growth. A new
approach is needed. One possible approach would be to set realistic economic goals, new
guidelines for provision of international assistance and to integrate democracy building
programmes into efforts to reduce poverty.
• A real dialogue:- if the goal is to reduce poverty, the governments international financial
institutions and civil society needs to conduct a real dialogue on how to make globalization
work for the poor.
• Trade policy and poverty reduction:- the trade policy should be formulated in such a way
that takes into account the national strategies for poverty reduction and redistribution.
• UN Recommendations:-
i. Democracy and rule of law should be promoted and there should be efforts to integrate
marginalized groups into mainstream.
ii. There is a need to reduce inequalities in access to resources and opportunities.
iii. Conditions in the informal economies should be improved by providing social protection
programmes and better linkages between formal and informal economies to improve wages,
benefits and working conditions of the workers in the developing countries.
iv. There should be more opportunities for employment.
v. Youth should be the focus of the unemployment policies.
Conclusion:-
The success of globalization would depend on how different actors that is governments;
multinational institutions, private business and NGO’s pursue the goals, not only globally but
also collectively.