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CHE332:Heat Transfer Operations

Lecture 2: Conduction

Dr. Abdul Razzaq

Assistant professor, Chemical Engineering,

CIIT Lahore.

Contents Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction

Heat Diffusion Equation

Thermal conductivity

Thermal diffusivity

Thermal contact resistance

Heat conduction : Plane wall, Composite wall,

Pipe/Cylinder/Sphere

Transient Heat conduction

Conduction  Conduction   Conduction Rate of heat conduction

AreaTemperature difference

Thickness

Q/t α (A)(T 1 -T 2 ) / ∆x

Q/t = k (A)(T 1 -T 2 ) / ∆x Q/t= -k A ∆T/x

In differential form,

q x = -kA (dT / dx) [Fourier's Law]

Where,

Q = Rate of heat transfer

A = Heat flow area

-dT / dx = Temperature gradient

k = Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of the ability

of the material to conduct heat.

Thermal conductivity is defined as the rate of heat transfer ( Q)

transmitted through a unit thickness (L) in a direction normal to a

surface of unit area (A) due to a unit temperature gradient (Δ T)

Thermal Conductivity = (heat rate × distance) / (area ×

k = Q × L / ( A × Δ T)

Thermal conductivity: Solids Accordingly, transport of thermal energy may be due to two

effects: the migration of

Free electrons and

Lattice vibrational waves.

When viewed as a particle-like phenomenon, the lattice vibration

quanta are termed phonons .

In pure metals, the electron contribution to conduction heat

transfer dominates, while in nonconductors and semiconductors,

the phonon contribution is

Thermal conductivity: Solids  Thermal conductivity: Solids   Thermal conductivity: Fluids   Thermal conductivity: Fluids   Thermal diffusivity It measures the ability of a material to conduct thermal energy

relative to its ability to store thermal energy. Materials of large value will respond quickly to changes in their thermal environment, while materials of small value will respond more

sluggishly, taking longer to reach a new equilibrium condition. Conduction: Plane wall Rate of heat conduction

AreaTemperature difference

Thickness Q α (A)(T 1 -T 2 ) / ∆x Q = k (A)(T 1 -T 2 ) / ∆x Q = -k A ∆T/∆x Q x = kA (-dT / dx)

Q = ∆T /R

Plane wall Q = -(kA/x) ∆T or Q x = k A (-dT / dx)

kA/L = Conductance

Thus,

1/Conductance = Resistance

Q = T /R

Conduction: Composite wall  Q = T /R T = T o -T 3 / R T

Q = T o -T 1 / R a + T 1 -T 2 / R b + T 2 -T 3 / R c

R a , R b , R c

Thermal contact resistance An error caused in the measurement of thermal conductivity by

nature of bonds between hot and cold entities

By presence of any fluid / air

Almost impossible to exclude this error

Examples:

1. Solid receives heat by contacting another solid, it is impossible to exclude air between those solids

2. When a liquid contacts metal, the presence of minute pits or surface roughness may permanently trap small bubbles of air.

Thermal Contact Resistance  Pipe wall/Cylindrical system Q x = k A (-dT / dx)

Q =

k A (-dT / dr)

Q = -k 2πrL (dT / dr)

Q (1 / r) dr = -k 2πL dT

Integration r 1 & r 2 , T 1 & T 2

Q ln (r 2 /r 1 ) = 2πkL (T 1 -T 2 )

Q = 2πkL (T 1 -T 2 ) / ln (r 2 /r 1 ) And Diameters D1, D2?

Pipe wall: Composite  Pipe wall/Cylindrical system  Pipe wall/Cylindrical system  21 R b =

R a = 1/h a 2πr

dR/dr = 0 = 1/2πk b d ln r/r 1 + 1/h a 2π d1/r

1/2πk b ln r/r 1

1/2πk b r - 1/h a 2πr 2 = 0

at maximum heat loss r = r c

r c = K b /h a   General Conduction Equation  General Conduction Equation Let, an elemental cube of volume, dV = dx.dy.dz receives a differential quantity of heat dQ 1 (Btu) through its left yz plane. In the same interval, differential quantity of heat dQ 2 (Btu) leaves through its right yz plane. dQ = dQ 1 dQ 2 ' -------------------------(1)

From Fourier's law of heat conduction, the heat entering the left yz plane is given by, dQ ' 1 /dθ = k dy dz (- ∂T/∂x) ------------(2)

The temperature gradient (- ∂T/∂x) may vary with both time and position in the cube. Variation of (- ∂T/∂x) as a f(x) is ∂(- ∂T/∂x)/(∂x) = (-2 T/∂x 2 )

General Conduction Equation Over the distance dx from x to x+dx, the total change in Temperature gradient is (- 2 T/∂x 2 ).dx

Thus at x+dx, the Temperature gradient is (- ∂T/∂x - 2 T/∂x 2 .dx) Heat leaving can be written as

dQ 2 /dθ = k dy dz (- ∂T/∂x - 2 T/∂x 2 .dx)----------(3)

When the flow of heat in and out of the cube is constant as in the steady state, (∂T/∂x) is constant then (∂ 2 T/∂x 2 ) = 0 Equation (3) can be written as,

dQ’/dθ = k dy dz (- ∂T/∂x) Q x = - kA dT / dx

General Conduction Equation Putting values form equations 2 and 3 into equation 1 we have dQ /dθ = k dy dz (∂ 2 T/∂x 2 ).dx------(4)

Analysis based on elemental volume so the change in temperature

per unit time will be (dT/dθ) and over the time interval dθ, it will be

(dT/dθ).dθ

The volumetric specific heat (Cv) (Btu/ft 3 . o F), which is obtained by multiplying weight specific heat (c p ) by the density (ℓ).

The rate of heat transfer to raise the volume (dx.dy.dz) by (dT/dθ).dθ in the cube is given by, dQ /dθ = c p .ℓ.dx.dy.dz. (∂T/∂θ) -------- (5)

By combining eq. (4) & (5) c p .ℓ.dx.dy.dz. (∂T/∂θ) = k dy dz (∂ 2 T/∂x 2 ).dx (∂T/∂θ) = (k/ℓ. c p ).(∂ 2 T/∂x 2 ) ----------(6)

General Conduction Equation The eq. (6) is Fourier’s General Conduction Equation in one

dimension (x-axis), which may be written as, (∂T/∂θ) = (α).(∂ 2 T/∂x 2 ) ------------(7)

α is known as thermal diffusivity of the medium.

In the special case of heat propagation in an isotropic and homogeneous medium in a 3-dimensional space (x,y,z), the Fourier’s General Conduction Equation in

T

k

. c

p

  T

2

2

x

2

2

T

2

y

2

T

2

2

z

2  29  30 A furnace is installed in the synthesis laboratory of chemical engineering department for the

purpose of high temperature oxidation. It is required to keep the inner temperature of the furnace at 300 ºC, with the air inside having heat transfer coefficient of 5 W/m 2 · º C. The

. The temperature of the

material of the furnace wall have thermal conductivity of

outer air is 25 ºC with heat transfer coefficient of 7 W/m 2 · º C. Consider a steady state heat transfer in one dimension (x-axis direction) through one of furnace’s wall having thickness of

0.3 m, height of 0.8 m, and width of 0.5m then

0.8 W/m·

C

 (a) Sketch the problem with clear depiction of heat transfer modes involved in it (b) Calculate the steady rate of heat transfer from the inner of furnace to outside

(c) If another wall of insulating material is placed over the furnace’s considered wall with

and thermal contact

C/W, then what will be the rate of steady state heat

similar dimensions (height, width and thickness) and

resistance at interface to be 0.05
º
 k = 0.1 W/m· º C

transfer? Will it be beneficial or not? Justify your logic.  32

Transient Heat Transfer Lump system analysis  Transient Heat Transfer: Lump system Consider a body of arbitrary shape initially at a uniform temperature Ti

At time t = 0, the body is placed into a medium at temperature T , and heat transfer takes place between the body and its environment, with a

heat transfer coefficient h Transient Heat Transfer: Lump system This heat transfer is due to convection heat transfer at the solidliquid

interface.

The essence of the lumped capacitance method is the assumption that the temperature of the solid is spatially uniform at any instant during the transient process. This assumption implies that temperature gradients within the solid are negligible.

This approximation implies that resistance to conduction is very small, a

compared to the resistance to heat transfer between the solid and its surrounding.

Applying energy balance: 35

Transient Heat Transfer: Lump system  Transient Heat Transfer: Lump system  Where, Transient Heat Transfer: Lump system Energy balance

h A s ( T - Ti ) dt = m C p dT

d (Ti- T ) / (Ti- T ) = -(hA s /ρVC p ) dt

Integrating from t =0, where T=T i and t=t where T=T

ln[(T(t)- T ) / (Ti- T )] = -(hA s /ρVC p ) dt

[T(t)- T ) / (Ti- T )] = e -bt

b = hA s /ρVC p = 1/b = τ =Time constant

Transient Heat Transfer: Lump system  Transient Heat Transfer: Lump system   Transient Heat Transfer One surface is maintained at a temperature T s,1 and the other surface is exposed to a fluid of temperature T < T s,1. The temperature of this surface will be some intermediate value, T s,2 , for which T < T s,2 < T s,1 , hence under steady-state conditions the surface energy balance Transient Heat Transfer   Transient Heat Transfer   43    The formulation of the problems for the determination of the one

dimensional transient temperature distribution T( x , t) in a wall

results in a partial differential equation, which can be solved using advanced mathematical techniques.

The solution, however, normally involves infinite series, which are inconvenient and time-consuming to evaluate. Therefore, there is clear motivation to present the solution in tabular or graphical form.

However, the solution involves the parameters x , L, t , k , ɑ, h, and

T, which are too many to make any graphical presentation of the

results practical. In order to reduce the number of parameters, we nondimensionalize the problem by defining the dimensionless

quantities.   