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Mental Ability Test

Panukat ng katalinuhang Filipino

By Aurora Palacio

 Appropriate to administer for ages range from 16 and above.


 Intended for use in school setting, business and industry as well as in any other situation where
assessment of intelligence of an adult Filipino is called for.
 It covers the individual’s verbal proficiency as manifested in his capacity to comprehend meanings
(vocabulary), ability to perceive relationships (analogy), apply simple mathematical concepts and
problem-solving (numerical-ability), and to think and reason out with abstract concepts and ideas.
o Vocabulary (Talasalitaan) – 30 items
o Analogy (Ugnayan) – 30 items
o Numerical ability (Kakayahan sa bilang) – 25 items
o Non-Verbal ability (Isinasalarawang problema)- 50 items
 Three types of intelligence are obtained from PKF:
o CIS or crystallized intelligence score obtained from the sum of the standard scores in vocabulary,
analogy and numerical ability. This represent the measure of one’s verbal ability
o FID or fluid intelligence score obtained from standard score of non-verbal sub-test. This indicates
ability to deal with abstract thinking and reasoning.
o GIS or general intelligence score obtained by adding the CIS and FIS. This gives an approximation
of one’s intellectual ability based on his verbal and nonverbal skills.
 The total working time for the entire test is 70 minutes.
 PKF salient features
o It is written in Filipino
o Items are based on the Filipino way of life and experiences
o It measures four generally accepted factors of human intelligence
o It is reliable
o It is valid
o It is easy to administer and sore
o Total working time is 70 minutes
o A manual for the user has been prepared
o It can be used in the school or business setting.

The Philippine Indigenized Preschool and Primary Intelligence Test (PIPPIT)


• It is based on the concept that all intellectual activities share a common “g” factors or general intelligence
which can be assessed through multiple cognitive abilities.
• It is composed of 8 test of abilities with a total of 113 content-indigenous items.
• It is useful for 5-9 years old since the items are in picture form which do not require writing skill from
children.
• The test are grouped into two scales:
o Verbal
 General Comprehension (Pag-unawa)
 Vocabulary (Talasalitaan)
 Numerical ability (Matematika)
 Discrimination (Katulad)
o Performance
 Visual Acuity (Maling Larawan)
 Logical Reasoning (Pagbuo ng kwento)
 Rote learning (Pagsasaulo)
 Spatial relations (Pag-aayos ng disenyo)

Wechsler Intelligence Scales

Intelligence as an effect rather than a cause and asserted that non-intellective factors such as personality,
contribute to the development of each person’s intelligence.

The principal goals of a Wechsler Scales administration are threefold:


– to assess current and/or premorbid levels of intelligence;
– to test or generate hypotheses about the presence of organic brain dysfunction and
psychopathological conditions; and
– to make predictions as to how these conditions will affect the client’s response to treatment.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – revised- 18 – 75 yrs)

Verbal
 Information
 Digit Span
 Vocabulary
 Arithmetic
 Comprehension
 Similarities

Performance
 Picture Completion
 Picture Arrangement
 Block Design
 Object Assembly
 Digit Symbol

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – revised (6 – 18 yrs.)

Verbal
 Picture Completion
 Picture Arrangement
 Block Design
 Object Assembly
 Coding
 (Mazes)

Performance
 Picture Completion
 Picture Arrangement
 Block Design
 Object Assembly
 Coding
 (Mazes)
Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence 4-6 ½ years old.

Verbal
 Information
 Vocabulary
 Arithmetic
 Similarities
 Comprehension
 (Sentences)

Performance
 Animal House
 Picture Completion
 Mazes
 Geometric Design
 Block Design

Subtests and their descriptions:


1. Information- taps general knowledge, learning and memory;
2. Comprehension- taps social comprehension, the ability to organize and apply knowledge;
3. Similarities- taps the ability to analyze relationships and engage in logical, abstract thinking;
4. Arithmetic- taps learning of arithmetic, alertness, concentration and short-term auditory memory;
5. Vocabulary- a good measure of intelligence;
6. Receptive Vocabulary- taps auditory discrimination and processing, auditory memory and the
integration of visual perception and auditory input;
7. Picture Naming- taps expressive language and word retrieval ability;
8. Digit Span- taps auditory short-term memory, encoding and attention;
9. Letter-Number Sequencing- taps attention, sequencing ability, mental manipulation and processing
speed;
10. Picture Completion- draws on visual perception abilities, alertness, memory, concentration, attention
to detail and ability to differentiate essential from nonessential detail;
11. Picture Arrangement- taps the ability to comprehend or “size up” a situation, attention ,concentration
and the ability to see temporal and cause-and-effect relationships;
12. Block Design- draws on perceptual-motor skills, psychomotor speed, and the ability to analyze and
synthesize;
13. Object Assembly- taps on pattern recognition, assembly skills, and psychomotor speed;
14. Coding- draws on factors such as attention, learning ability, psychomotor speed and concentration
ability;
15. Symbol Search- taps cognitive processing speed;
16. Matrix Reasoning- taps perceptual organizing abilities and reasoning;
17. Word Reasoning- taps verbal abstraction ability and the ability to generate alternative concepts;
18. Picture Concepts- the ability to abstract as well as categorical reasoning ability;
19. Cancellation- visual selective attention and related abilities.

The Wechsler Scales can be used to develop hypotheses about the quality and character of the client’s
perceptual, cognitive and ideational processes .
A. Organicity
– Premorbid intelligence
• May be estimated by evaluating the strengths of the client’s performance on the
Information and Vocabulary subtests. Scores on these subtests are based on overlearned
material that is resistant to the effects of brain injury or severe psychopathology.
– Degree of impairment and probable cause
– Prognosis

B. Perceptual Processes
– Information processing ( encoding, memory and recall)
– Attention and concentration (distractability)
– Perceptual-motor functioning

C. Cognitive Processes
– Problem-solving skills ( concrete and abstract operations, integration, conceptualization,
generalization)
– Intelligence
– Intellectual strengths and weaknesses
– Psychopathology ( thought disorders)

The Wechsler Scales can also be used to generate hypotheses about client’s affective states, motivation and
investment in treatment and recovery.

A. Mood
– Dominant trait and state moods
– pre- and postmorbid affect
– Emotional responsiveness (range, lability, modulation)
– Degree of affective disturbance
– Chronicity versus acuteness

B. Motivation and Investment


– Attitude toward testing
– Response to frustration
– Client involvement and commitment to change.

The Full Scale IQ

The FSIQ is an “estimate of a person’s abilities”. The examiner may describe the client’s FSIQ as:
1. A percentile rank score;
2. A verbal descriptor; and
3. A value existing somewhere within a selected confidence interval.

The Verbal IQs

The VIQ, “an index of the person’s verbal comprehensive abilities”, assesses the individual’s proficiency in the
following areas:
1. The ability to work with abstract symbols;
2. The amount and degree of benefits a person has received from his or her educational background;
3. Verbal memory abilities;
4. Verbal fluency.

Performance IQs

The PIQ, “estimate of one’s perceptual organizational abilities”, reflects the ff.:
 Degree and quality of nonverbal contact with the environment;
 The ability to integrate perceptual stimuli with relevant motor responses;
 The capacity to work in concrete situations;
 The ability to work quickly.

1. Significantly higher VIQ than PIQ scores are associated with:

1. Higher levels of education;


2. Psychomotor retardation because of depression;
3. Conscientious, deliberate approach to problem solving that hinders quick responding; or
4. An overly eager response style that produces errors on timed performance tests but does not affect
verbal tests where multiple impulsive responses may eventually produce the correct answer.

Higher PIQ than VIQ scores are frequently observed among those with:

1. Poor educational backgrounds;


2. Keen perceptual and organizational abilities;
3. Ability to cope with the stress induced by timed tests;
4. Low socioeconomic background;
5. Language deficiency;
6. Problems with auditory conceptualizations; and
7. Ability to solve novel problems without the benefit of an extensive amount of accumulated
knowledge.

Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale

 It was developed by Binet and simon in 1095


 It samples a wide variety of tasks that involve the
processing of information, and measures the
individual’s intelligence by comparing his or her
performance on these tasks to the performance of
appropriate norm group.
 It measures fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative
reasoning, visual-spatial processing and working
memory.
 It is a standardized test that assesses intelligence and
cognitive abilities in children and adults aged 2 to 85+
 It is used as a tool in school placement, in determining the presence of learning disability or developmental
delay and in tracking intellectual development.
 Co-normed with the Bender-Gestalt Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, 2nd Edition, and linked to the Woodcock-
Johnson Tests of Achievement. Early SB-5 is based on a representative sample of 1,800 child
Major Cognitive Areas:
I. Verbal Reasoning
• Vocabulary
• Comprehension
• Absurdities
• Verbal Reasoning

II. Quantitative Reasoning


• Equation building
• Number series
• Quantitative
III. Abstract Reasoning
• Pattern Analysis
• Copying
• Matrices
• Paper folding & cutting

IV. Short – term Memory


• Bead memory
• Memory for sentences
• Memory for digits
• Memory for objects

1. Bead Memory
• Two levels
o Single & Double Bead displays for younger children
o Sequential displays for older individuals
• Used to test visual short-term memory
2. Quantitative
• Items presented visually, subject responds verbally
• Scrap paper is permitted
• Used to test quantitative skills (mathematics)
3. Memory for Sentences
• Tests auditory short-term memory
• Sentences are presented verbally, must be repeated verbally
4. Pattern Analysis
• Tests visual-spatial and motor skills
• Arrays of blocks presented visually, blocks must be assembled by hand to match patterns
5. Comprehension
• NOT a test of reading comprehension, but a test of social and moral reasoning
• Items are presented verbally, must be answered verbally
6. Absurdities
• Another test of social, logical reasoning
• Items are presented visually, must be answered verbally
7. Memory for Digits
• Two subtests
• digits forward
• digits backward
• BUT, both scores are combined for the subtest score
• Taps short-term auditory memory and active working memory
8. Copying
• Two levels
• Copying blocks for younger children
• Paper and pencil for older children
• Tests visual-motor integration and visual spatial skills
9. Memory for Objects
• Tests sequential, visual, short-term memory
10. Matrices
• Tests non-verbal, logical-deductive reasoning
11. Number Series
• Tests quantitative and logical-deductive reasoning
• Scratch paper is allowed
12. Paper Folding and cutting
• Tests visual-spatial reasoning
• No actual cutting occurs in actual test items, only for sample items
13. Verbal Relations
• Tests verbal, logical reasoning
14. Equation Building
• Tests quantitative, logical, deductive reasoning skills and active working memory

The SB Intelligence Model: The Subtests


• Routing Subtests used for “adaptive” testing
• Used to test knowledge of words and their meaning
• Highest level attained on vocabulary test indicates starting point for remainder of tests
• This is used to gauge “age group” for test
• “Vocabulary loads highly on g”
• Added an additional non-verbal routing subtest

Watson-Glasser Critical Thinking Appraisal

• Seeks to provide an estimate of an individual’s standing in a composite of abilities.


• Composition of the WGCTA:
– A. Attitudes
– B. Knowledge
– C. Skills
A. Attitudes of inquiry that involve an ability to recognize the existence of problems and an
acceptance of the general need for evidence in support of what is asserted to be true.
B. Knowledge of the nature of valid inferences, abstractions and generalizations in which the
weight or accuracy of different kinds of evidences are logically determined.
C. Skills in employing and applying the attitudes and knowledge.

Critical thinking abilities pertinent to the WGCTA:

1. The ability to define a problem.


2. The ability to select pertinent information for the solution of a problem.
3. The ability to recognize stated and unstated assumptions.
4. The ability to formulate and select relevant and promising hypotheses.
5. The ability to draw conclusions validly and to judge the validity of inferences.

Subtests of the WGCTA

1. Inference: ability to discriminate among degrees of truth or falsity ofinferences drawn from
given data.
2. Recognition of Assumption: ability to recognize unstated assumptions or presuppositions
which are taken for granted in given statements or assertions.
3. Deduction: ability to reason deductively from given statements or premises; recognize the
relation of implication between propositions; determine whether what may seem to be an
implication or a necessary inference from given premises is indeed such.
4. Interpretation: ability to weigh evidence and to distinguish between:
(a) Generalizations from given data that are not warranted beyond a reasonable doubt; and
(b) Generalizations which, although not absolutely certain or necessary, do seem to be
warranted beyond a reasonable doubt.
5. Evaluation of Arguments: ability to distinguish between arguments which are strong and
relevant and those which are weak or irrelevant to a particular question at issue.

Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM)

• is a group or individually administered test that nonverbally assesses intelligence in children and
adults through abstract reasoning tasks.
• It is sometimes called Raven's, although the SPM is only one of three tests that together
comprise Raven's Progressive Matrices.
• Appropriate for ages 8-65, the SPM consists of 60 problems (five sets of 12), all of which involve
completing a pattern or figure with a part missing by choosing the correct missing piece from
among six alternatives. Patterns are arranged in order of increasing difficulty.
• The test is untimed but generally takes 15-45 minutes and results in a raw score which is then
converted to a percentile ranking. The test can be given to hearing and speech-impaired
children, as well as non-English speakers.
• The Standard Progressive Matrices is usually used as part of a battery of diagnostic tests, often
with the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales. The SPM is part of a series of three tests (Raven's
Progressive Matrices) for persons of varying ages and/or abilities, all consisting of the same kind
of nonverbal reasoning problems. The SPM is considered an "average"-level test for the general
population.
• It is a non-verbal measure of mental ability, helping to identify individuals with advanced
observation and clear thinking skills who can handle the complexity and ambiguity of the
modern workplace.
• The SPM was designed to assess non-verbal reasoning in the general population, and is used
widely in clinical, educational, occupational, and research settings.
• The SPM score indicates a candidate’s potential for success in professional, management and
high-level technical positions that require:
o Clear thinking
o Problem identification
o Holistic situation assessment
o Monitoring of tentative solutions for consistency with all available information

The National Achievement Test (NAT)

• It is a set of examinations taken in the Philippines by students in Years 6, 10, and 12. Students
are given national standardized test, designed to determine their academic levels, strength and
weaknesses. It also aims to measure learning outcomes in the elementary level in response to
the need of enhancing quality education. It is designed to assess abilities and skills.
The National Career Assessment Examination

• The NCAE basically aims to determine the learner’s aptitude and occupational interest on any of
the Senior High School (SHS) tracks. Occupational interest is the learner’s preference in specific
vocations and career categories.
• This will provide the basis for profiling learner’s aptitude in the four SHS tracks such as
Academic, Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, Sports, and Arts and Design. Under the Academic
track are the following strands: Accountancy, Business, and Management (ABM); Science,
Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), and Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS)
• The career assessment covers three domains such as General Scholastic Aptitude (GSA),
Occupational Interest Inventory (OII), and Aptitude for SHS tracks.
1. The GSA refers to the student’s scientific ability, reading comprehension, verbal
ability, mathematical ability and logical reasoning ability.
2. The OII pertains to the checklist of occupational interests which provides an
assessment of preferences for comprehensive career guidance.
3. The Aptitude test measures the innate ability of the student to succeed in the SHS
tracks.

Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) with Career Interest Inventory - 5th Edition
• It is a battery of tests is designed to measure students' ability to learn or to succeed in a number
of different areas.
• It comprises two levels that collectively measure the aptitudes of students in grades 7-12. Level
1 is designed primarily for students in grades 7-9, and Level 2 is designed primarily for students
in grades 10-12. Each level contains 510 items. Both levels can also be used with adults who may
or may not have completed twelve years of schooling.
• These tests assess eight important aptitudes: verbal reasoning, numerical reasoning, abstract
reasoning, perceptual speed and accuracy, mechanical reasoning, space relations, spelling, and
language usage. These tools can be used alone or in conjunction with the Career Interest
Inventory, which is available separately and also comprises two levels.
• The Career Interest Inventory is a career-guidance tool designed to provide information about
students' educational goals, interest in various subjects, and activities, as well as various fields of
work.
o The DAT for Personnel & Career Assessment Subtests Help Measure Aptitude for
Success:

• Verbal Reasoning - is appropriate for measuring general cognitive ability and for
placing employees in professional, managerial, and other positions of responsibility
requiring higher order thinking skills.

• Numerical Ability - test the understanding of numerical relationships and facility in


handling numerical concepts. Good prediction of success of applicants in such fields as
mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering, and in occupations such as laboratory
assistant, bookkeeper, statistician, shipping clerk, carpenter, tool-making, and other
professions related to the physical sciences.

• Abstract Reasoning - is a nonverbal measure of the ability to perceive relationships in


abstract figure patterns. Useful in selection when the job requires perception of
relationships among things rather than among words or numbers, such as mathematics,
computer programming, drafting, and automobile repair.

• Clerical Speed and Accuracy (Paper Administration Only)- measures the speed of
response in a simple perceptual task. This is important for jobs such as filing and coding,
and for jobs involving technical and scientific data.

• Mechanical Reasoning - closely parallels the Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test


and measures the ability to understand basic mechanical principles of machinery, tools,
and motion. It is useful in selection decisions about applicants for jobs such as
carpenter, mechanic, maintenance worker, and assembler.

• Space Relations - measures the ability to visualize a three dimensional object from a
two dimensional pattern, and how this object would look if rotated in space. This ability
is important in fields such as drafting, clothing design, architecture, art, die making,
decorating, carpentry, and dentistry.

• Spelling (Paper Administration Only) - measures an applicant's ability to spell common


English words, a basic skill necessary for success in a wide range of jobs including
business, journalism, proofreading, advertising, or any occupation involving written
language.

• Language Usage - measures the ability to detect errors in grammar, punctuation, and
capitalization. When Language Usage and Spelling are both administered, they provide a
good estimate of the ability to distinguish correct from incorrect English usage, which is
important in business communication.

Flanagan Industrial Tests


• are a set of 18 short tests designed specifically for use with adults in personnel selection
programs for a wide variety of jobs.
• They are based on the identified job elements; each represents a distinct function.
• The 18 job elements covered by the FIT battery are:
1) Arithmetic;
2) Assembly;
3) Components;
4) Coordination;
5) Electronics;
6) Expression;
7) Ingenuity;
8) Inspection;
9) Judgment and Comprehension;
10) Mathematics and Reasoning;
11) Mechanics;
12) Memory;
13) Patterns;
14) Planning;
15) Precision;
16) Scales;
17) Tables; and
18) Vocabulary.

Philippine Aptitude Classification Test (PACT)

• It is an instrument developed by the Center for Educational Measurement, Inc. in response to


the need for a comprehensive system of identifying specific abilities of high school students for
the purpose of educational and vocational guidance.
• It attempts to predict a student’s probable performance in various courses of study.
• It measures a number of dimensions that have been found to be useful in the classification of
students into different fields of study.
• It is a battery of aptitude tests with multiple-choice items which are largely dependent on innate
abilities and minimally on academic experience.
• Subtest of the PACT
o Symbol Discrimination
o Form Discrimination
o Verbal English
o Number Facility
o Induction
o Flexibility of Closure
o Verbal Filipino
o Spatial Closure
o Mechanical Reasoning
o Perceptual Acuity

Reference:

De Jesus, E. & Caparas, M.V. (2008). Psychological Assessment Theory and Practice. Educational
Publishing House

De Jesus, E. & Caparas, M.V. (2008). Uses of Psychological Test. Educational Publishing House

Franco, M. L. M. The philippine aptitude classification test: why shift from classical test theory to item
response theory. Center for Educational Measurement, Inc., Philippines.

Harcourt Assessment, Inc. (2017). Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT). Retrieved [08.11.2017] from
http://www.creativeorgdesign.com/tests_page.php?id=83

Horn, J. (1966). Flannagan Industrial test. Journal of Educational Measurement, 3(2), 191-196. Retrieved
from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1433899

Munárriz, N. J. & Cervera, V.M. (2013). Psychological Testing in the Philippines: Practice, Directions and
Perspectives. Great Books Publication