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HV Impulse

Test Equipment
High Performance ...
While other companies have chosen to
replicate, Hipotronics has chosen to innovate.
100 Series Impulse Generators
Our wide range of high quality impulse test Our 100 Series Impulse Generators are unique in
products serve the varied needs of both their combination of cost, componentry, and versa-
laboratory and production testing. tility. Hipotronics doesn’t require you to choose
Our 100 Series Impulse Generator is a between high quality or low price—we offer a rugged
rugged, low internal inductance, compact Marx design with a superior mechanical structure. In addi-
cascade designed to generate millions of tion, our 100 Series has other features designed to
shots. It is the ideal choice for BIL test levels speed production, minimize equipment setups, and
on equipment rated up to 500kV class and, give consistent results.
due to its construction and control options, is
exceptionally well suited to high volume Specialized Electrical Components The 100 Series is
production testing. produced with high quality, specialized components
that are designed specifically for impulse use. To
Our 200 Series Impulse Generator is like
meet our exacting quality and technical require-
no other—quieter operation, most reliable ments, all electrical components (resistors, capaci-
firing, no moving parts, easier expandability, tors, charging supplies, etc.) are manufactured at
easier access for routine waveshaping resistor Hipotronics in specialized areas.
changes, and the lowest height for a given
voltage output. Most importantly, the ability Mechanical Design Attention to mechanical detail sep-
to test the largest loads with the lowest induc- arates our design from all others. Our 100 Series
tance impulse generator structure available. Impulse Generator frame is solidly constructed to
If your need is for very high voltage impulse last for many years of production use. The firing
levels or very large test loads in research or mechanism is manufactured with precision compo-
production environments, the 200 Series is nents to ensure smooth sphere gap travel and high
the right choice for you. firing reliability. The design uses a direct drive motor
Both the 100 and 200 Series Impulse eliminating gears that can wear out. Waveshaping
Generators come in a wide range of standard and charging resistors are held in machined brass
voltage and energy levels to meet any poten- brackets for quick changeout. With a Hipotronics 100
tial requirements. The basic arrangement is Series IG, you have confidence that your system will
modular, being both versatile and readily last in a rigorous testing environment.
expandable in voltage (and energy for the
Better By Design We have listened to our customers
200 Series) to meet future requirements. A
requirements for over 30 years. With the 100 Series,
wide range of ancillary equipment is available
you won’t sacrifice mobility, production testing speed,
to the same high standards of design and
precise triggering, efficiency, or ease of setup in
manufacture. Our team of highly experienced
order to save a little money during your initial pur-
engineers is available for correct sizing of the
chase. Many low-cost smaller impulse generators
test equipment, and consultation as to layout, come with limitations in load test capability, adaptabi-
grounding and testing techniques. lity, and ease of use. The 100 Series is the best
Hipotronics, your natural partner for impulse package available, and the standard by which all
test equipment. others are measured.


200 Series Impulse Generators pinpoint sounds emanating from the test object. Our
5 gap design assures the output voltage and wave-
shapes are linear over the full operating range.
Hipotronics 200 series impulse generators have no
moving parts to wear out or cause irregular operation.
Since every stage is triggered by a simple pulse
Our system triggers each stage independently and
transformer mounted on each gap assembly, there is
in parallel—not sequentially by overvoltage. Our
no chance of premature firing or of not firing when
impulse generators are more reliable, more easily
triggered. In addition, there is no visible flash of light
expandable, and can test larger loads than any
from stage gaps during triggering so as to allow the
other impulse generator.
test operator to focus on the device being tested.
Largest Test Capability Our horizontally opposed, twin
Expansion Voltage extension is easy with the polytron
tower mechanical design results in an impulse gen-
system since it requires no additional moving parts
erator with the lowest internal circuit inductance. In
to be aligned and installed. Our unique design permits
addition, our use of 200kV stage capacitors results
extension of voltage and energy rating without
in lower inductance than two 100kV capacitors in
replacing the existing stage capacitors.
series. The lower inductance value allows testing of
a greater load range while meeting the front time
Ease of Use The internal structure of the 200 Series
and overshoot requirements of IEC-60 without
contains work platforms to provide easy access to
adding cumbersome external HV circuitry.
change or store resistors, or add paralleling links.
This simplifies reconfiguration of the generator.
Size The mechanical design uses 8 stage supports
Access ladders and large work platforms on each
for lower height for a given voltage. The structure is
stage allow ample room for two individuals during
more stable mechanically than 3 or 4 post designs.
generator setup.
In addition, the high efficiency circuit design does
not use external wave shaping resistors. Elimination
of external wave-front resistors permits the test
Applications (100 Series)
object to be positioned closer to the generator, • LV and MV Switchgear/GIS
which reduces floor space requirements, laboratory • Instrument Transformers
costs and circuit inductance. • Distribution Transformers
• Power Transformers
Elegance The polytron gap triggering system has no • Power Cable
moving parts; there is nothing to align, adjust, or
• Reactors
wear out with use. Performance is unaffected by the
environment, by movement of the impulse generator, • Coupling Capacitors
or by the flatness of the floor. The gap triggering • Insulating Materials
system is sealed and pressurized to prevent any • Bushings/Line Hardware
exposure to dust or humidity. Filtered, dew point
controlled air is exchanged in the gap chamber twice Applications (200 Series)
per minute to ensure consistent firing, and impulse • Power Transformers
arc by-products are exhausted after each shot. The • Reactors
sealed gap permits extremely quiet operation—no
• HV Switchgear/GIS
loud firing noise makes it easier to diagnose and
• Power Cable
High Voltage Impulse Theory
In it’s most basic form, an impulse generator consists
of a capacitor discharged through an RC waveshaping
network and into an RLC load. The characteristics of
the waveshaping network and load determine the Cg

shape of the wave.

Theory of Operation An impulse generator “cascade” is
the unit that creates the actual impulse voltage pulse.
The circuit most commonly used by all impulse gener- Object Rf Cg
ator manufacturers is the multi-stage Marx circuit. In CL
this circuit, several energy storage stage capacitors Rt
are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The Rch Cc
discharge is arranged to give a total output voltage Rf
equal to the sum of all the individual stage capacitor
voltages. Additional devices, such as voltage dividers,
current shunts, digital impulse measurement systems, Rch
capacitive pre-loads, chopping gaps, and controls
serve to either measure and display the result, modify
Motor HVDC
the output waveform in some way, or provide unified Trigger
control over all of the test circuit components.
100 Series Impulse Generator Circuit.
Charging of the Marx Circuit A HVDC power supply is
used to charge the stage capacitors through charging
resistors Rch. The front and tail resistors are represented
by Rf and Rt, while CL is the test object. During charging,
current flows into the capacitors through Rch. Hipotronics
impulse generator designs uses a single-end ground,
which is inherently safer, makes safety ground systems
easier to implement, facilitates higher accuracy in
setting the stage voltage, and gives more precise test
results. In addition, complex bipolar charging supplies
are not required.

Discharging of the Marx Circuit When the stage capaci-

tors have been charged to the required voltage, the
discharge of the impulse generator is begun by the
breakdown of the first gap. This triggering is initiated
by injection of a HV pulse into a third electrode of the
first stage gap. Sequentially, the upper stages are
triggered by natural overvoltage. The output waveshape
into the test object is determined by the net generator
stage capacitance during discharge, the values of Rf
and Rt, the inductance of the generator and test circuit
connection, and CL. The mechanical design of 100
Series generators controls the stray capacitance
between stages to assure a wide firing range for all
charging voltages.
100 Series Impulse Generator photo showing gaps,
resistors, and capacitors.
Impulse Testing Application Terminology
Types of Impulse Tests Types of Impulse Evaluations
The IEEE-4 and IEC-60 Standard Techniques for HV It is not enough to simply apply a HV impulse test
Testing define various waveshapes to be used in HV voltage. The output waveform must be measured to
testing. Various ANSI, IEC, AEIC, and other standards ensure that it has the correct front and tail time, and
for T&D apparatus and other components define spe- peak voltage. HV Dividers and Digital Impulse
cific test requirements and test voltage levels for par- Measurement Systems (DIMS) perform this task.
ticular products. Per the appropriate standard, impulse Evaluation of the impulse waveform is performed
testing is done as a design test, a production test, or in one of two ways—simple pass/fail or comparison of
both. If you are unfamiliar with your test requirements, waveshapes. In addition, advanced signal processing
the Hipotronics Applications Engineering group can & analysis can also be performed for special fault
provide assistance and guidance in choosing the cor- detection.
rect equipment for your testing needs. In addition, we Pass/Fail Evaluation In this case, the impulse withstand
can provide test area layout, installation, commission- test is being done only to determine whether the basic
ing and training services. strength of the insulation system meets the require-
Lightning Impulse Waveshape A L.I. waveshape is ments. An impulse is applied at the specified test volt-
defined with a front time of 1.2µs and a tail time of age and the product passes if the insulation is not
50µs, within tolerances. The lightning impulse test sim- damaged or the test object does not suffer a flashover.
ulates a lightning strike on the T&D system. Lightning Waveform Comparison Evaluation On some types of
Impulse voltage levels are commonly referred to as equipment, an impulse test can generate a localized
BIL (Basic Insulation Level). breakdown in the insulation that does not result in the
Switching Impulse Waveshape A S.I. waveshape is immediate failure or flashover of the insulation system.
defined with a front time of 250µs and a tail time of Therefore, two impulse shots are made, with the first
2500µs, within tolerances. The switching impulse test being roughly half of the rated BIL. The two waveforms
simulates the switching of equipment into or out of the are normalized and compared, and differences
T&D system. Commonly referred to as BSL (Basic between them are noted. Our Windows™-based DIMS
Switching Level). Systems make this analysis quick and easy.
Chopped Impulse Waveshape A lightning impulse that is Advanced Signal Processing and Analysis A software
chopped to zero either just before or after the peak option for the Windows™-based DIMS allows transfer
voltage. This wave simulates the action of lightning function or coherence function analysis of waveforms
arrestors or transients in the power T&D system. To to permit frequency domain display and analysis.
create a chopped impulse waveshape, an additional
chopping gap is needed in the circuit.
Oscillating Impulse Waveshape With the addition of
Impulse Test Accessories
plug-in inductors, the impulse waveshape can be Depending on your application and test requirements,
made to oscillate around a zero reference within a additional test or measurement accessories may also
lightning impulse envelope. This test is primarily used be required. Consult Hipotronics for your specific needs.
for testing of HV switchgear.

100 Series – Packaged to Perform
Impulse Generators are used to simulate lightning Series excels at high volume production testing where
or switching surge affects on transmission, distribution, 5-10,000 shots per day are required (such as in vacu-
and other electrical equipment in a laboratory, produc- um bottle or distribution transformer testing). In addi-
tion, or on-site environment. Reference Page 4 for tion, our range of control and measurement options
details on operation. All Hipotronics impulse test equip- provide unsurpassed operation for general purpose
ment meets all relevant IEEE, IEC, ANSI, AEIC, and testing up to 1600kV. Beyond 1600kV, consideration
other industry standards. should be given to a Hipotronics 200 Series (see
Due to their rugged mechanical construction and Page 10), depending on test voltage and load.
specially designed HV components, Hipotronics 100

Waveshaping Resistor Brackets Lowest Internal Inductance/

The front, tail, and charging resistors are Highest Efficiency
set in metal brackets and are easily The electrical circuit path and
changed when necessary. This permits component inductance is minimized
quick setup changes without having to with the 100 Series. The result is
manually unbolt resistor connections or move the highest efficiency/ratio of output
cumbersome external front resistors. In addition, voltage to rated voltage of any
all waveshaping resistor brackets are a solid, comparable generator.
machined brass assembly to resist corrosion.
Coupling Spheres
Specialized Waveshaping Resistors All triggered and untriggered spheres
All waveshaping resistors are manufactured by are of a 150mm solid copper wall
Hipotronics for the special requirements of with hard chrome plating. The first
impulse testing. All resistors are coated with a stage trigger gap is fitted with a
colored, high impact and abrasion resistant copper-tungsten electrode for long life.
conformal coating for long life. The resistor color
coding makes it easy to verify generator setups
from ground level. In addition, paralleling the Reliable Triggering at
generator can be done quickly and easily Low Voltages
without disassembling any components. On 5kJ/stage impulse generators,
an additional 200kV capacitor is
installed in parallel with the first two
Specialized HV Stage Capacitors stages of the impulse generator.
The HV stage capacitors are specially designed This provides more reliable triggering
and manufactured by Hipotronics for impulse at low voltage levels (in the range of
testing. Each capacitor consists of multiple 10kV/stage) to minimize setup and
layers of aluminum foil electrical grade capacitor reconnection time when testing at
tissue, synthetic film, and castor oil. Capacitors are low BIL levels.
made in either 0.5µF (2.5kJ) or 1.0µF (5kJ) ver-
sions to meet a wide variety of requirements.
In addition, the capacitors have a rated life of Allowance for Mobility
up to 100 million shots. The impulse generator is supplied
standard with casters for easy
mobility. In addition, the sphere
Smooth Operation of Gap System gaps do not need readjustment
Hipotronics’ simple but ingenious worm drive after the impulse generator has
gap control system provides the smoothest been moved.
possible travel of the sphere gap assembly.
There is no mechanical binding or skipping
over the operating range. The result is an
easy to adjust gap system, especially in
automatic mode, that moves to the
precise point you have set. Only one
gear box is required, eliminating
individual stage drive maintenance

Operational Characteristics
140 Trigger System (Gap Enclosure)
120 100 Series Trigger Range The 100 Series impulse generator is triggered by delivering
100 a HV pulse to the center electrode of the first stage gap.
Gap Position (kv)

The pulse causes localized ionization between the first
stage spheres, and subsequent breakdown of the upper
gaps. Generators with 5kJ/stage ratings contain an addi-
Self-Breakdown tional firing capacitor to improve the triggering range.
20 Installation in areas with high dust or pollution levels, or
0 condensing humidity, should be fitted with our optional gap
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Charting Voltage (kV) enclosure to improve the triggering stability and reduce the
noise associated with impulse firing. The typical triggering
range for the 100 Series is shown at left.
Capacitive Load Range
Full Series Connection
Lightning Impulse (L.I.) Maximum Load Range
The maximum load capacitance that can be tested with a
Load Capacitance (nF)

given impulse generator is determined primarily by the

10 value of the total circuit inductance. The chart at left shows
the various impulse generator voltage ratings and the cor-
0.5 µF/Stage responding maximum capacitive load that can be tested
while remaining within the IEC/IEEE requirements for front
1.0 µF/Stage
time and overshoot. Front and tail resistors are supplied to
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 match the expected load range. Systems intended for test-
Generator Rating (kV)
ing power cables may be used to test larger capacitive
loads than those listed since the standards allow front
100 times up to 3µs and the overshoot frequency is generally
L.I. Efficiency
less than 1 MHz.

Lightning Impulse Efficiency


The efficiency of the impulse circuit for L.I. waveforms

depends primarily on the ratio of net generator capacitance

to the load capacitance, and the circuit aspect ratio (the
ratio of tail to front time). The efficiency curves for a
practical load range of several typical generators is shown
at left. The practical load range is considered as the load
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
range over which the standard front time can be
Load (nF) maintained.

S.I. Efficiency
Switching Impulse (S.I.) Efficiency
95 The aspect ratio for standard S.I. is lower than for a standard
L.I. waveform. In addition, since the waveform is longer in
90 duration, higher values of front and tail resistance are

required. The result is a lower overall efficiency for S.I. waves

(see chart at left). However, the S.I. test requirements for
HV apparatus are typically lower than the L.I. requirements,
so sizing a generator for L.I. will usually cover the S.I. test
75 requirement. In addition, all Hipotronics 100 Series generators
may be charged to the full stage voltage rating when config-
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ured for S.I. waveforms.
Load (nF)

100 Series Impulse Generator Technical Data
Technical Data
Charge Net Series Min. Circuit L.I. Front L.I. Test S.I. Front
Model Voltage Capacitance Inductance Height Weight Resistors Load Range Resistors
Number (KV) (nF) (µH) in/m lbs/kg Ω (nF)* (optional)/ Ω
IG200-5 200 250 7 59/1.50 645/295 25/45/60 2.8-24.6 2500/3500
IG300-7.5 300 167 10 72/1.85 795/360 25/35/60 1.9-17.7 3000/3500
IG400-10 400 125 12 84/2.15 945/430 20/45/60 1.9-13.9 2500/3500
IG500-12.5 500 100 15 97/2.50 1095/500 20/35/75 1.0-11.5 2500/3500
IG600-15 600 83 18 110/2.80 1245/565 20/35/60 1.0-9.9 2500/3500
IG800-20 800 63 23 135/3.45 1545/700 20/35/60 0.7-7.9 2000/3000
IG1000-25 1000 50 28 161/4.10 4000/1800 20/35/60 0.6-5.9 2000/3000
IG1200-30 1200 42 34 187/4.75 4500/2000 20/35/60 0.5-5.0 1875/2500
IG1600-40 1600 31 44 238/6.05 5500/2500 20/35/60 0.4-3.7 1667/2500
IG2000-50 2000 25 55 289/7.35 6600/3000 20/35/60 0.3-3.0 1667/2500
IG200-10 200 500 7.5 65/1.65 975/440 15/25/35 4.8-42.2 2500/3500
IG300-15 300 333 10 79/2.00 1290/585 10/20/35 3.2-37.1 2000/3000
IG400-20 400 250 13 93/2.40 1600/730 10/20/30 2.8-28.6 1875/2500
IG500-25 500 200 15.5 108/2.75 1920/870 10/20/30 2.2-22.9 1875/2500
IG600-30 600 167 18 122/3.10 2235/1010 10/20/30 1.9-19.1 1667/2000
IG800-40 800 125 24 151/3.85 2865/1300 10/20/30 1.4-14.3 1667/2500
IG1000-50 1000 100 29 181/4.60 5600/2500 10/20/30 1.1-11.4 1500/2000
IG1200-60 1200 83 35 210/5.35 6400/3000 10/20/30 0.9-9.5 1500/2000
IG1600-80 1600 63 46 268/6.80 8200/3700 10/20/30 0.7-7.2 1000/1667
IG2000-100 2000 50 57 326/8.30 9900/4500 10/20/30 0.6-5.7 1500/2000
IG2400-120 2400 42 68 384/9.75 11750/5300 10/20/30 0.5-4.8 1000/1667

*The load range is for purely capacitive test objects and can be extended for higher load values.

Operating Environment
Temperature Range 10 – 40°C
Humidity < 90% Non-Condensing
Pollution Level Low
Altitude < 1000 m MSL (mean sea level, without derating)

Typical Stage Data 2.5 kJ 5 kJ

Maximum Charge Voltage for L.I.* 100 kV 100 kV
Maximum Charge Voltage for S.I.* 100 kV 100 kV
Capacitance per Stage 0.5 µF 1.0 µF
Inductance per Stage including Standard
Front Resistors < 2 µH < 2 µH
Shots per Minute at Full Voltage 2 1
Standard Tail Resistor Sets for L.I. (per Stage) 200 // 450 = 139 Ω 200 // 200 // 200 = 67 Ω
Standard Front Resistor Sets for L.I. (per Stage) 3 Values
6 Combinations
(see chart above)

* Voltage ratings are based on clean, dust-free environments, without condensing humidity, at altitudes up to 1000 m MSL. A reduction of the
charge voltage of 10% for each 1000 m above 1000 m must be considered.
High Voltage Circuit Components
Mechanical Assembly Bases
The 100 Series generators all share the same modular design Bases are either expandable or non-expandable. Non-expand-
concept. Each stage consists of a single steel cased capacitor able bases are good for use on impulse generators 8 stages or
that is supported by four electrical grade FRP insulators. The less. Expandable bases are designed for larger generators or
stages are stacked making a stable mechanical assembly but generators that will be extended in the future.
also allowing capacitors to be changed easily. The front, tail and Both base designs are welded, tubular steel construction for light
charging resistors plug into clips at each stage where provision weight and high strength. Each base contains a precision motor drive
for up to four resistors is provided. Additional storage is provided mechanism for the gap, a feedback transducer for gap spacing
at each stage for unused resistors and the paralleling links. The control, and a high voltage pulse amplifier for triggering the gener-
firing gaps are also mounted on electrical grade FRP tubes; one ator. All bases are designed for mobility with urethane casters
of which is fixed and the other motorized. and safety wheel locks. Taller units are supplied with electrical
grade FRP guy rods for stability.
HV Stage Capacitors
At the heart of each impulse generator is a high quality, specially Base Dimensions
designed energy storage/discharge capacitor. Each capacitor Non-Expandable
has two arc resistant epoxy bushings with sheds. This design Standard Gap 60 x 74 in. (1524 x 1880mm)
assures trouble-free operation in normal industrial test areas Enclosed Gap 72 x 80 in. (1829 x 2032mm)
where dirt build-up is inevitable. Internal discharge resistors are Expandable
built into each capacitor for additional safety. (for more than 8 stages, extender legs are used)
The dielectric system used in the 100 Series impulse capaci- 81 x 85 in. (2057 x 2159mm)
tors consists of multiple layers of electrical grade capacitor tissue,
synthetic film, and castor oil. The resulting design has the follow- L.I. Front Resistors
ing life characteristics: The maximum capacitive load rating for each generator defines
No Reversal 1 x 108 Shots the minimum total front resistance required for the system. The
10% Reversal 1 x 107 Shots design of each front resistor set is calculated to cover the practi-
80% Reversal 1 x 106 Shots cal load range of the system with three specific ohmic values
that result in six resistance combinations. The overlap of resis-
Wave Shaping Resistors tance values gives a usable range of at least 5:1. The technical
All waveshaping resistors are manufactured by Hipotronics for data chart lists the minimum and maximum loads that can be
the special requirements of impulse testing. Each resistor is tested with the standard front resistor sets.
wound with synthetically insulated Ni-Cr wire rated for 200°C, It should be noted that if the system is supplied with a front
and they are multi-layer type with alternate layers wound in capacitor, the load range is extended from 0 to the maximum
opposite directions. The inductance values are designed to capacitance with only 3 resistors per stage. Using a reduced
provide an L/R time constant one order of magnitude faster number of stages or parallel connection of the stages may
than the waveshape being generated. reduce the circuit inductance and increase the maximum load
The energy rating of the front or tail resistor set is selected capacitance that may be tested with a given generator while still
to limit the maximum temperature of each resistor to <100°C at maintaining standard waveshapes.
the maximum repetition rate of the generator. The energy rating
for the charging resistors is selected to withstand a misfire of L.I. Tail Resistors
the generator at full stage voltage. The tail resistors control the time to half value for the impulse
Each resistor is wound on an electrical grade FRP form. waveshape. The standard lightning impulse tail time is 50 µs
After winding, each resistor is vacuum dried and pressure ±20%. The tail resistance supplied with each system is selected
impregnated with epoxy resin. After curing, a high gloss, impact to cover the maximum load range for each generator design
and abrasion resistant conformal coating is applied. Different without changing resistors.
values of resistance are color coded to simplify verification of
generator set-ups. Switching Impulse
Additional sets of resistors may be supplied for switching
Grounding Provisions impulse testing. Due to the long duration of the standard switch-
All generator bases are provided with a tin plated, copper clad, ing impulse (250 x 2500 µs), the inductance of the generator
welded ground pad. This ground connection provides a simple and the external circuit no longer govern the maximum load. In
tie point for either cable or copper foil. this case, it is determined by the reduction in the efficiency of
the circuit. S.I. front resistors are listed in table on Page 8 for
Top Electrodes each size impulse generator.
Generators with ratings up to 800 kV are supplied with a simple The standard S.I. Tail Resistor values for 100 Series
bolt connection at the HV terminal. Generators from 800 kV to Generators are as follows:
1600 kV are fitted with a 50 mm ring electrode and generators up
2.5 kJ per stage 9000 Ω
to 2400 kV use a 150 mm ring. Special electrodes for positive HV
5 kJ per stage 3500 Ω
switching impulse voltages can be supplied upon request.
200 Series – High Voltage, High Performance
At higher test voltage levels (>2MV) and higher test loads, The generator structure consists of welded steel platforms
consideration should be given to a Hipotronics 200 Series assembled in two columns and mounted on a base. Each stage
Impulse Generator. They are easily expandable in voltage platform consists of the stage capacitor(s), the pressurized gap
and energy, have quiet, consistent firing through the use of system, front and tail resistors, pulse feed resistor/capacitor,
our patented Polytron Sealed Gap Triggering system, and storage for additional waveshaping resistors, and paralleling
have unique mechanical construction features with proven links. The stages are stacked in a staggered, square pattern with
operator benefits. The proven reliability of this design and diagonal bracing to provide an extremely robust mechanical con-
ease of operation make it ideal for the most demanding struction. The complete structure combines exceptional strength
production facilities or research laboratories. with compactness, ease of access, and the lowest inductance of
any commercially available impulse generator.

Two Column Mechanical Design provides for the most stable

mechanical structure, lowest height and lowest internal induc-
tance. Tests may be performed at higher voltages in existing
factories and labs.
Insulated Case Capacitors have less inductance and allow
easy expansion in the energy rating of the generator without
requiring generator disassembly or replacement of existing
Easy to Access Stages for Work or Maintenance Safe and
strong work platforms for 2 technicians are provided. It is easy
to store or change waveshaping resistors or stage paralleling
links without using an aerial lift or additional ladder.
Stage Isolation Eliminates DC Stress on HV Components
All stages are fully isolated to 200kV for L.I. and S.I.
waveshapes. There is no DC leakage current flowing across
generator insulation structures; therefore, the output voltage of
our generator is always linear vs. the charging voltage, even at
full generator output voltage.
Fast Acting Pneumatic Grounding System without Belts
The grounding system operates in <1 second, is fail safe,
is easy to visually verify, and is air insulated. Grounding belts
can jam or break, or can become contaminated, causing
flashovers or uneven voltage charging of upper stages.
Reliable Operation is Unaffected by Environment with the
polytron sealed gap triggering system. In addition, performance
is unaffected by movement of the impulse generator or by flat-
ness of the floor.
Elimination of Misfires, Pre-Fires, and Non-Fires with the
sealed gap triggering system. Every stage is triggered separately.
Triggering system design ensures that the impulse occurs when
you want it.
No Visible Flash of Light permits the operator to focus on the
device being tested.
No Loud Firing Noise makes it easier to diagnose and pin-
point sounds emanating from the test object.
No Internal Wiring all connections are made via the HV com-
ponents. No cumbersome external wave shaping resistors are
used, so faster front times are possible. In addition, the test
object can be positioned closer to the generator, reducing test
area cost.

Operational Characteristics
Polytron Gap Triggering System
The Hipotronics 200 Series is not triggered like a con-
Gap RF
To Next Stage ventional Marx generator. The 200 Series Polytron Gap

system uses 5 compact, copper tungsten electrodes

Pulse Feed H.V.
R/C Electrodes

10KVDC Pulse Feed R/C

in a fixed geometry with a total gap spacing of 20mm.

PULSE PF To Upper Stage
Over RF

200KV Charge Input This small gap length produces a low arc resistance
Cc Cc Cc Cc Cc Cg Cg Stage Capacitors
path assuring consistent efficiency and waveshapes
regardless of charge voltage. The Hipotronics
Polytron Gap Triggering System has no moving parts.

There is nothing to align, adjust, or wear out with use.



Performance is unaffected by environment. The


Single stage polytron firing schematic. Hipotronics polytron gap is more reliable at high test
voltages for the following reasons:
• Since there is no conventional air gap system,
no impulse misfires due to stray capacitance
effects occur.
Supply Supply

Control Desk
10KV 10KV
in Base
5 Gap I.G.
• Since each stage is triggered, there is no reduction
Polytron Stage
of IG

Spiral Gen.
in the rise time of the impulse wave due to long
distance travel of an overvoltage triggering pulse.
• There is no premature firing due to imprecise
alignment of the sphere gaps or the environment.
Generator Generator Trans. To Upper

(Pulse Feed R/C)
• There is no requirement to realign gaps when the

generator is moved.
• There is no migration of dust particles into the
One-line diagram of triggering system. sealed polytron gap system.
• There are consistent waveshapes and efficiency
vs. charge voltage.
Stage Capacitors
The stage capacitors are specially designed for
impulse applications to minimize inductance and equiv-
alent series resistance, and to maximize peak current
rating. The high quality of materials used in conjunction
with a precisely controlled vacuum impregnation
process results in a long mean life.
Stage capacitors are not a structural part of the
Impulse Generator Assembly, so expanding in energy
rating by adding capacitors is easy. The Hipotronics
capacitor design has:
• Lowest Inductance The absence of long capacitor
bushings or external series connections yields
an inductance value 1/4 to 1/2 the value of other
designs. This allows for the fastest possible
rise times.
• No Dangerous Porcelain Bushings to Break or Fail
This also means that oil cannot leak from our
capacitor design in a catastrophic way. Each
capacitor is fitted with a pressure relief, safety
Side view of 200 Series showing HV Capacitor. valve in the event of internal pressure buildup.
200 Series Impulse Generator Technical Data
Technical Data
Charge Net Series Min. Circuit L.I. Front L.I. Test S.I. Front
Model Voltage Capacitance Inductance Energy Height Weight Resistors Load Ranges Resistors (ohms)
Number (kV) (nF) (mH) (kJ) (in/m) (lbs/kg) (ohms) (nF)* (optional)
1 Capacitor per stage, 10 kJ per stage
IG1200-60 1200 83 27.1 60 209/5.32 25375/11510 30, 50, 90 0.62 - 6.8 2090, 2990
IG1600-80 1600 63 34.5 80 262/6.65 30159/13680 30, 50, 90 0.47 - 5.2 2090, 2990
IG1800-90 2000 56 39.6 90 314/7.98 32551/14765 30, 50, 90 0.41 - 4.7 2090, 2990
IG2400-120 2400 42 52.1 120 367/9.31 39727/18020 30, 50, 90 0.31 - 3.5 2090, 2990
IG2800-140 2800 36 60.5 140 419/10.64 49511/20190 30, 50, 90 0.27 - 3.1 2090, 2990
IG3200-160 3200 31 68.8 160 471/11.97 49295/22360 30, 50, 90 0.23 - 2.7 2090, 2990
IG3600-180 3600 28 77.2 180 524/13.30 54079/24530 30, 50, 90 0.21 - 2.4 2090, 2990
IG4000-200 4000 25 85.5 200 576/14.63 58863/26700 30, 50, 90 0.19 - 2.2 2090, 2990
IG4400-220 4400 23 93.8 220 628/15.96 63647/28870 30, 50, 90 0.17 - 2.0 2090, 2990
IG4800-240 4800 21 102.2 240 680/17.28 68431/31040 30, 50, 90 0.16 - 1.8 2090, 2990
2 Capacitors per stage, 20 kJ per stage
IG1200-120 1200 167 25.3 120 209/5.32 29806/13520 30, 50, 90 0.62 - 7.3 1040, 1490
IG1600-160 1600 125 33.0 160 262/6.65 36068/16360 30, 50, 90 0.47 - 5.6 1040, 1490
IG2000-200 2000 100 40.8 200 314/7.98 42329/19200 30, 50, 90 0.37 - 4.5 1040, 1490
IG2400-240 2400 83 48.5 240 367/9.31 48590/22040 30, 50, 90 0.31 - 3.8 1040, 1490
IG2800-280 2800 71 56.3 280 419/10.64 54851/24880 30, 50, 90 0.27 - 3.3 1050, 1500
IG3200-320 3200 63 64.0 320 471/11.97 61112/27720 30, 50, 90 0.23 - 2.9 1050, 1500
IG3600-360 3600 56 71.8 360 524/13.30 67373/30560 30, 50, 90 0.21 - 2.6 1050, 1500
IG4000-400 4000 50 79.5 400 576/14.63 73634/33400 30, 50, 90 0.19 - 2.3 1050, 1500
IG4400-440 4400 45 87.2 440 628/15.96 79896/36240 30, 50, 90 0.17 - 2.1 1050, 1500
IG4800-480 4800 42 95.0 480 680/17.28 86157/39080 30, 50, 90 0.16 - 1.9 1050, 1500
Note: These are some of the units included in our product offering. 200 Series Impulse Generators range from 200 - 6000 kV and from 10 - 1200 kJ
depending upon the number of stages and the number of capacitors on each stage. Consult factory for systems not listed here.

*The load range is for purely capacitive test objects and can be extended for higher load values.

Frame Sizes Base Designs

Two frame sizes are available that determine the maximum ener- All 200 Series generator bases are designed to accept air
gy rating to which the generator may be extended to. cushions. The result is that all base designs are movable
designs and only require the optional air cushion system to
Small Frame make them movable.
The small frame will accommodate up to two capacitors
per stage. Top Electrodes
Stage Capacity (µ) Stage Energy (kJ) Generators up to 1.6MV (8 stages) are provided with a 150mm
diameter ring as an output connection. This ring is sufficient for
0.5 10.0
positive and negative lightning impulse voltages up to 1600kV,
1.0 (2 x 0.5) 20.0 and positive and negative switching impulse voltages up to
If one capacitor per stage is initially purchased, space is 1200 kV.
provided on each platform for the addition of a second capacitor For systems above 8 stages with no requirements for either
at a later date. positive lightning impulses at rated generator voltage, or for
positive switching impulses above 1200 kV, a 150mm ring may
Large Frame also be used.
The large frame design will accommodate up to four capacitors When positive switching is > 1200 kV, a larger multi-dish
per stage. type electrode is used to prevent uncontrolled flashovers to other
Stage Capacity (µ) Stage Energy (kJ) objects.
0.5 10.0
1.0 (2 x 0.5) 20.0
1.5 (3 x 0.5) 30.0
2.0 (4 x 0.5) 40.0

High Voltage Circuit Components
Pressurized Gap Triggering System Safety Discharge Resistor
Each stage has a triggered gap system that does not require The first stage of the generator has a safety discharge resistor
physical adjustment. The fixed gap spacings are set for a with- and an electrically operated grounding switch. The discharge
stand voltage of 225 kV @ 3 Bars (45 KPa) to ensure that no resistor is in series with the output of the charging supply and
false triggers will occur. A complete triggering unit consists of with the charging resistors at each capacitor. When power is
five series gap elements, paralleled with high ohmic value resis- interrupted, the air insulated grounding switch closes. The ener-
tors for voltage equalization during DC charging, and a common gy of the capacitors is dissipated by the charging
triggering electrode with a coupling capacitance between it and resistors and the first stage safety discharge resistor.
each element. The component parts are cast in a resin block to
form a single rigid unit, connected to a separately encapsulated Stage Grounding Resistor
HV pulse transformer. This assembly is mounted in a tubular Each stage is fitted with a visible pneumatic grounding switch
housing. Spurious firing will not occur even in dusty or humid (connected directly across each stage capacitor). In normal
conditions. Pressurization and air conditioning systems are operation, the Stage Grounding Switches close after the Safety
built-in to assure consistent operation. Discharge Resistor discharges the impulse generator. The
switches provide positive grounding for safety and actuate in less
Stage Capacitors than one second. This system is safer, more reliable, and more
The 200 kV stage capacitors consist of a number of low induc- convenient than grounding belts for the following reasons:
tance, castor oil impregnated, paper and polypropylene dielectric 1. It is faster (seconds to operate).
elements connected in series and parallel. The internal connec- 2. When disengaged, the insulation in our system is air.
tions are wide, flat copper conductors used to minimize induc- Grounding belts can become contaminated and create
tance and equivalent series resistance, and to maximize peak unwanted DC leakage current paths to ground when
current rating. The high quality materials used with a precisely charging, resulting in flashovers or uneven voltage charg-
controlled vacuum impregnation process results in a long life. ing of upper stages. Belts can also often lose contact due
The outside of the case is coated with a special material in order to mechanical wearing of the rollers.
to prevent DC flashover due to irregularities in leakage currents 3. It is fail-safe. If power is lost, the air switches close auto-
and the buildup of surface charges. matically. A belt system which can jam or break is driven
The capacitors are arranged on platforms to permit easy by a motor.
removal, and expanding the generator capacity at a later date 4. The status of the air switches can be seen from
simply requires adding additional capacitors. ground level.
Resistors 5. The switches can carry high currents without damage in
the event that other laboratory equipment flashes over to
Each impulse generator is supplied with a standard set of light- the impulse generator during a test.
ning impulse waveshaping resistors. Charging and discharge
resistors are supplied with all impulse generators. Resistor sets 200 kV DC Charging Equipment
for switching impulse tests are optional. The charging power supply is mounted on an extension of the
Front Resistor Sets (L.I. and S.I.) generator base and consists of a HV step-up transformer with
a rectifier assembly connected to form a full wave bridge circuit.
Three values of front L.I. resistors are supplied with each gener- This circuit has better voltage regulation characteristics than
ator. The ratio between the values will give a continuous overlap voltage doubler circuits and does not require any capacitors
of load capacitance coverage while staying within the ±30% for “voltage doubling.” The HV circuit components and the
tolerance for front time. Front resistor values are given on the motor operated polarity switch are mounted in a single oil-filled
previous page. steel tank.
Tail Resistor Sets (L.I. and S.I.) An external, precision, compensated resistance divider is
Depending on the energy rating of the impulse generator, one connected to the output of the charging supply and is used for
or two resistors are provided for each stage to allow adjustment the measurement of the Impulse Generator stage voltage.
of tail time. Overall charging voltage recording accuracy is better than 0.5%.
There is an automatic, electrically operated grounding switch
that is held in a horizontal position when the switch is energized.
# of caps Total Tail Resistance (Ω) When the charging supply is turned off, the switch returns to a
per stage L.I. S.I. vertical position, making contact with the main discharge resis-
1 140 6900 tor, which in turn discharges and grounds all stage capacitors.
2 70 3500 Since the charging equipment incorporates a motor operated
3 50 2300 polarity change switch, the desired output polarity may be
4 30 1700 selected from the control desk. Polarity change cannot take
place while the generator is energized, nor can the generator
be energized while polarity change is in operation.

970IG-DS Programmable Digital
Impulse Generator Control System
LCD Display Stage Voltage Meter
4 x 20 character LCD displaying menu selections, prompts, A large, clear display showing DC stage
and status indications. voltage at all times when HV is ON.

Simple Operation
Local/Remote Key Switch All controls necessary for basic, single shot
Allows the system to run internally, or mode are on the front panel. Setup is quick
be run from the the Hipotronics and easy.
DIMS software.

Calibration Setup
Allows the operator to enter the password Emergency Off Pushbutton
protected calibration and setup portions of Stops the charging process and drops the shorting
the program. switch on the first stage of the impulse generator.

Block Diagram Indicator Lamps

Provides a visual display of the tree structure of the control Positively indicates status of impulse generator in
software, helping the operator run the software. a logical sequence to aid operator during test.

The 970IG-DS microprocessor-based control system is the the system manually, to run statistical test routines, to run
most advanced and flexible control system. It be used in either application based test protocols, or to create custom test
a MANUAL or AUTOMATIC mode. In MANUAL mode, the sys- protocols. Features include:
tem functions much like the C100-S control system with easy • Microprocessor control with built in test routines for
to use pushbuttons for a single-shot mode. In AUTOMATIC standard apparatus
mode, the operator has the capability to store, recall, and run • Easy setup menus with storage for up to 99 test
multi-shot or RFW/FW test sequences. The controller automati- configurations
cally sets correct sphere gap position charges, and triggers the
• Repeatability of charge voltage to within 0.5% from 10%
generator, minimizing setup time, and operator interaction dur-
to 100%
ing production testing to pushing a single button at the begin-
ning of the test. • Programmable scale factor for easy re-calibration of
A “Self Test” mode is provided to allow the operator to charge voltmeter
mimic the full operation of the control system without actually • Automatic Gap spacing adjustment
charging the impulse generator. This is especially helpful for • Built in optical interface for a remote control from DIMS
training and diagnostics. Of course, fault indications are also • Multi-Language ready
provided on the display screen to announce system misfiring • Internal Diagnostic information displayed for easy
of the generator, change in the safety interlock status or troubleshooting
incomplete triggering. • CE marked and approved
When used with a Digital Impulse Measurement System, • Self Test Feature for operator training and troubleshooting
the software included in the DIMS adds the capability to run

970IG-DS Technical Specifications
Operation Modes Setup Storage up to 99
Altitude Preset 0 - 5000 meters
Manual Mode
The controller can be run manually with the following
Mechanical Specifications
function selections: Dimensions 21" W x 13.5" H x 20" D
• Polarity • Open Gaps • Start/Stop Test 535mm W x 345mm H x 510mm D
• Set Charge Voltage • Close Gaps • Trigger Weight 45 lbs. / 20 kg
During operation in the manual mode the system will display: Trigger and Control Output Provisions
• Actual Charge Voltage • Trigger Status
The control system operates with Hipotronics’ charging supplies
• Gap Spacing position • Error messages
and impulse generators. The contact closures and analog feed-
calibrated in charge voltage when necessary
back signals are connected via an optically isolated interface in
Automatic Mode the control module. The microprocessor controller is supplied by
The following automatic test routines are pre-programmed: multiple filtered mains to assure interference free operation.
The controller has built in pulse amplifiers for triggering the
• Single Shot Test setting is used for general purpose
hardware contained in the impulse system including:
impulse testing.
• Stage Firing Triggatron (Fixed delay time 0µs)
–Test Voltage setting
• Electronic Chopping Gaps (Adjustable delay time up to 99.9 µs)
–Chop Wave Delay for electronic or sphere gap
chopping systems Automatic Gap Adjustment
–AC Phase synchronization The gap lookup table consists of 20 points with linear interpola-
• Reduced Wave/Full Wave is used mainly for production tion between each 5 kV charge interval. The lookup table is
impulse testing of distribution voltage class products such established during factory tests with computer control to estab-
as transformers, switchgear, connectors, hardware and lish the self breakdown spacing and the maximum successful
insulators. trigger spacing. The manual mode overrides this feature.
–Full Wave Voltage setting The controller also has a special feature that allows custom
–Reduced Full Wave percentage setting gap spacing lookup tables or individual point spacings to be pro-
–Rest time between shots grammed. This feature is helpful for generators used at higher
• Multi Shot is used mainly for tests on high voltage altitudes or for conditions of extreme atmospheric conditions,
switchgear and power cables. particularly for generators without enclosed sphere gaps.
–Test Voltage Setting
–Number of Shots Interconnecting Cables
–Chop Wave Delay for electronic or sphere gap The control system uses a combination of coaxial, multi-conduc-
chopping systems tor and optical cables to connect to the high voltage impulse
–AC Phase synchronization testing hardware. The following Cables are supplied:
Calibration and Setup Mode Application Type Quantity
Pulse Triggering Coaxial RG8/u 3
The calibration mode of operation is a set of menus to enable or
Interconnect to Charging Supply Shielded Multicond. 2
disable the various control features, to set the scale factor for
Thyristor Control Coaxial RG8/u 1
the stage kilovoltmeter and to enter the lookup table for the 100
Stage Voltage Measurement Coaxial RG8/u 1
series gap spacings.1 The calibration mode is password protect-
Optional Interconnect to DIMS Optical 1
ed to prevent accidental changes to the pre-programmed setup.
The Calibration/Setup mode also allows the operator to run Interface for External Computer Control
the “Self Test” routine that mimics the control functions without
The 970 system includes a transmitter and optical connection
actually charging the impulse generator.
link. The system can use this connection to add computer control
Electrical Specifications from the computer included in a Hipotronics DIMS measurement
system. The DIMS computer takes over the control of the
Charge Voltage Preset 0-100.0 kV for 100 series generators
impulse system and adds advanced preprogrammed testing
0-200.0 kV for 200 series generators
protocols or can also be set up for special test procedures.
Charge Voltage Accuracy + 0.5% from 10 to 100%
Minimum Charging Time 6 Seconds for systems <5 stages Note 1 Gap Setting is not required on 200 Series Impulse Generators
30 Seconds for systems up to 1.6 MV with polytron gaps.
60 Seconds for systems above 1.6 MV Note 2 The chop gap delay can be used to trigger pulse amplifiers in
Rest time between Shots 0-99.9 seconds (automatic mode) electronic chopping gaps or triggered sphere gaps.
Chop Gap Delay2 0-99.9 µs
Max. Shots in Automatic 0-999

DIMS—A Complete Impulse
Measurement Solution
Quick Calibration Verification Display Standard Software
When used with a calibrator, our DIMS Multiple waveforms can be Our standard Windows™ package is
can quickly establish instrument performance, displayed at the same time. Each is the same for all resolutions of DIMS.
and store all cal results for future lookup. color coded with its own parameters
for operator convenience.
Zooming Waveform Smoothing
The software has unlimited zoom- True piecewise cubic spline smoothing (not
ing for pinpointing anywhere on the exponential curve fit) is available should you
waveshape. need to use this tool to aid analysis.

Automatic Calculation Microsoft Compatibility

Front time, tail time, peak voltage, and time to chop data is The DIMS software allows easy cut and paste to MS Word
all calculated automatically—no need for hand calculations. and Excel for creation of professional looking, customized
Password Protection test reports.
Sensitive areas are password protected to avoid inaccuracy Complete Analysis Packages
of test results or needless setups. Normalization, subtraction, and smoothing of waveforms are
Waveform Conversion all part of the standard package. Transfer function analysis
All waveforms can be converted and exported into ASCII is optional.
format for compatibility with other programs.

The Hipotronics DIMS8-2/C, DIMS10D and DIMS12D Series time, tail time, and peak voltage. With a stand-alone digitizer,
of Digital Impulse Measurement Systems (DIMS) completely an operator is required to calculate these values. This greatly
integrate a powerful software acquisition and analysis pro- simplifies the operator’s job, and ensures measurement accu-
gram, a high speed Windows™-based computer, and an racy and consistency. In addition, the software is the same
EMI/RFI shielded enclosure to make HV impulse measure- regardless of digitizer resolution.
ment easy, accurate, and worry free. Compared to a stand- For those who are budget conscious, Hipotronics offers a
alone digitizer, the above DIMS are much easier to operate, basic DIMS-8 that consists of an off-the-shelf digitizer in a
automate many tasks, and are protected against the radiated shielded EMI/RFI enclosure with HVDC isolation and installed
interference and elevated ground planes common in HV attenuators to reduce the HV signals (typically about 2000V)
impulse test environments. In addition, they automatically cal- to a level that can be safely measured by the digitizer. It does
culate key parameters from the impulse test, such as front not have a computer or the analysis software.
One-Key Production Test Software
The Hipotronics DIMS is ideal for production testing of
distribution transformers. It’s one-key capability allows the
operator to set up the BIL rating for the full wave, start the
test process, and wait for the results. The DIMS software
will automatically charge the IG to the reduced full wave
level, trigger the generator, display the voltage and current
waves, then charge to the full wave level, trigger, and
display the results. Then do an automated analysis of
normalized current waveforms based on user-defined

Calibration Verification
The DIMS makes calibration checks to IEEE-1122 and
IEC-1083 quick and easy. Built-in routines analyze 20
calibration waveforms and automatically calculate key
parameters per the standard. Calibration results are stored
in the DIMS database program for easy recall and trace-
ability, and raw data is stored in an Excel spreadsheet for
easy access, if necessary.

Transfer Coherence Function

The Transfer Function software is a powerful analytical tool
for performing tests on power transformers. The software
converts time domain wave information into the
frequency domain. This yields useful information about
the winding condition of the transformer under test. The
Hipotronics transfer function allows complete control, with
smoothing, over the conversion with options for voltage/
voltage, voltage/current, current/voltage, and current/
current transfer functions.

Automated Test Capability

Many types of tests are repetitive in nature, or require sta-
tistical analysis at the conclusion of the test. The DIMS
has the capability to control the 970IG-DS, all aspects of
its operation, and automate its functions. RFW/FW, Multi-
Shot, Up Down, Modified Up Down, and user defined test
profiles are all supported from within the Automated Test
program optionally available for the DIMS.

MECG Multiple Element Chopping Gaps
Some HV T&D Apparatus requires application of a
chopped lightning impulse wave. The timing of the chop is
usually required to occur between 2 and 5 µs from the Nominal 480 kV
start of the wave, although an earlier front-of-wave chop is
sometimes required. Since the repeatability of the chop
time is important, simple rod gaps or other untriggered Upper 240 kV sections
devices are not sufficient.
Hipotronics MECG Series of Multiple Element Chopping Tapping points

Gaps is capable of Front of Wave or Tail of Wave chopping

with high precision. The system may be used with impulse Gauze elements at
sparking faces
generators of any make or vintage and can be fitted with
Nominal 240 kV
the proper connectors to match other triggatrons. Each
MECG assembly is mounted on a welded steel, tripod Voltage dividing
type base with soft rubber or urethane wheels. The high
voltage gap assemblies are made up
Triggatron sphere
of 240 kV sections and bolt together for systems rated up assemblies with
bleed resistors
to 3600 kV. The sections, which contain the individual
gap elements, are mounted in an insulating cylinder with 1st 240 kV section
aluminum alloy end castings. The outer housing is wound
with specially insulated Ni-Chrome wire in a non-inductive
arrangement to control the voltage division along the col- Trigger source

umn. Taps are provided at 40 kV intervals. The number of

gaps can easily be selected depending on the chop wave
test level. Systems with more than four 240 kV sections Schematic representation of multiple gap
are supplied with guy rods for mechanical stability. Ring chopping triggatron.
type top electrodes are provided to maintain discharge
Effective Working Range of Multi-element
Curve H.V.C. 323
free operation for all systems rated above 960 kV. Chopping Gap Negative Polarity
Extended Range (FOW) Version
Upper Limit Curve – Gap Self Spark Over
Features Lower Limit Curve – Random Variation in
2000 Chopping Time (Jitter) Exceeds ±.05 Microseconds
• Ability to accurately control time of chop to within 42
0.1µs over a wide range. Working Range of Gap – Area Bounded
Upper & Lower Limit Curves 36
• Jitter (random variation in breakdown delay) of less 1600

than ± 25 ns makes possible the comparison of



neutral current impulse waveforms during chopped

wave tests. 1200

Kilovolts Curve A

Upper Limit 24 it
Curve “A” Lim ”
• Enclosed gaps for quiet chopping and no visible 1000 w er “A
Lo urv
flash of light. 18 ap
800 o f G 78 3600
e r
• No moving parts to align or adjust. mb 72 3400
600 12 B” 3200
e“ 66
• Modular design allows expandability up to 3.6MV in Cu
rv 3000
Kilovolts Curve B

im 60 2800
240 kV increments. 400
p er
6 2600
5 Up 54
• Compact and space efficient compared to sphere 200 4
2 2200
and rod gaps. 1
42 2000
Lower Limit
• Repeatable and accurate without environmental Curve “B”
influences. 0 18 24 30 36 42 1400
48 54 60 66 72 78
Number of Gaps

MECG effective operating range.

HV Impulse Voltage Dividers and Preloads
RVD Series Resistive Voltage Dividers Typical Data
The RVD Series of HV dividers are designed for measur- Temperature Coefficient of Capacitance < 0.025%/degree C
ing standard lightning impulses and chopped waves. The Voltage Coefficient of Capacitance < 0.1%
HV arm of the divider consists of specially wound resistors Temperature Coefficient of Resistance 100PPM/degree C
placed in an oil-filled housing. Due to the low resistance
Voltage Coefficient of Resistance < 1% (0.1 to 1.0Un)1
value of the upper arm, these dividers can only be used
Numeric Ratio Value within 2% of nominal
for waveforms with a pulse duration of less than 500µs.
Each divider is supplied with a specially designed “umbrel- Measured Ratio +/1%
la” electrode to provide capacitive grading and to optimize Temperature Range 10-40 degrees C
the step response. In addition, a damping resistance is Humidity 95% non-condensing
provided with some models to damp the travelling wave Environment clean
oscillation on the HV lead. Faster response time versions
Note 1 – linearity exceeding the component data is assured by using
for special applications are available upon request. the same type of components in the LV and HV arms.

CMD Series Mixed R-C

Voltage Dividers
The CMD Series of HV dividers are general purpose,
series damped, resistive-capacitive dividers for measuring
Impulse or AC voltages. They are capable of measuring
lightning impulses, chopped waves, switching impulses,
and AC voltages from 50 Hz to 400 Hz. For applications
where switching impulses need to be measured, or when
the impulse test voltage is greater than 1200kV, a CMD
Series divider is necessary.

CPL Series Preload/Front Capacitors

Preload capacitors are normally used in HV impulse cir-
cuits to simplify waveshape adjustment. By considering the
+/-30% tolerance on the front time for the standard light-
ning impulse, the addition of a preload capacitor overshad-
ows a wide variation of load changes without requiring
front resistor changes, and holds the waveshape within
tolerance. When testing many different loads that vary
within 60% of a given value, the preload capacitor will
save time in changing front resistors, particularly for larger
multi-stage generators.
Another application for preload capacitors is for use in
performing switching impulse tests. If the capacitance of
the test object is low, a high value of front resistance will
be required. The higher the front resistance value, the
CMD Series Mixed R-C Voltage Divider.
lower the generator efficiency. When performing wet
switching impulse tests, a preload capacitor is required
unless the test object has a large capacitance.

MSG Measuring Sphere Gaps
IEEE-4 and IEC-60 allows verification of voltage by operator can then infer, from that information, the volt-
means of a sphere gap. Hipotronics MSG Series age level present at a flashover. The gap may also be
Measuring Sphere Gaps provide a means of calibra- used as an overvoltage protection device.
tion and verification for AC and impulse peak voltage The MSG Series is a base mounted, vertical sphere
levels. Each sphere gap consists of two spheres of the gap system that is available in a wide range of sphere
same diameter. One sphere is at high voltage and the sizes. All units are motorized to allow adjustment of
other is at ground potential. The gap between the two the gap without entering the HV area. Units are also
spheres is adjusted to correspond to a voltage break- available with electronic triggering for chopped impulse
down point, per tables published in IEEE-4 and IEC-60. tests, although an MECG Multiple Element Chopping
Manual correction factors are made to account for Gap is generally a more suitable device for this
temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. The application.

Catalog Number Sphere Dia Min Peak Max Peak Min Peak Max Peak
kV + kV + kV – kV –
MSG6.25 6.25cm 17.2 82 17.2 79.5
MSG12.5 12.5 16.8 160 16.8 150
MSG25 25 72.7 299 72.5 282
MSG50 50 138 555 138 530
MSG75 75 138 770 138 735
MSG100 100 266 1040 266 875

Note: All voltages are peak values and are for measuring purposes. The sphere gaps may be opened wider to operate as a
simple spark gap for over voltage protection or where accuracy of > 3% is acceptable.

Reference Dividers
Current IEC and IEEE standards allow the use of RC Series: Designed for use in laboratories that
traceable reference dividers for checking voltage calibrate AC, DC Voltage and Switching Impulse waves.
measuring equipment.
Hipotronics offers two separate divider designs Advantages
depending on the waveshape of the test voltage. This
• Complies with IEC and IEEE.
eliminates the problem of having to choose different
ratios for different waveshapes as found in some “all • Can be used for direct certification of a working
purpose” dividers. Reference dividers are normally standard and approved (everyday use) divider.
rated for at least 20% of the rated voltage of the • Eliminates the cost of sending working standards
divider to be checked. and approved dividers out for calibration.
Reference dividers are available in either the RVD
or RC series of Hipotronics dividers. • Traceable calibration.
• Detailed Record of Performance provided.
RVD Series: These fast response, purely ohmic dividers
are an ideal solution for users who perform only stan-
dard lightning impulse tests (1.2 x 50 µs).

Impulse Testing Accessories
C100-S Standard Analog
Impulse Controller
For operators who prefer a basic, less expensive analog
control system, the C100-S is ideal. Analog meters display gap
position and stage voltage (+/-2% accuracy). Triggering, polari-
ty reversal, charging rate, and gap open/close functions are
incorporated for easy use. This controller is very simple to use,
requires little training, and is ideal for budget conscious
customers, or those who do infrequent impulse testing. (Note:
only available for 100 Series of impulse generators, and not
recommended on generators with >800kV output.)

IG1.5-CAL Precision
Impulse Calibrator
The IG1.5-CAL is a precision, multi-output pulse generator
designed to demonstrate the stability of HV Digital Impulse
Measurement Systems (such as a Hipotronics DIMS Series)
according to IEEE-1122 (Section 8.6.1) and IEC-1083 (Section When connected to the impulse measurement system,
an operator can verify that the equipment is operating within
the stated parameters. When used with a Hipotronics DIMS,
software in the DIMS greatly reduces the time required to do a
complete calibration check.

CS-2000 Current Shunt

Transformer impulse testing requires measurements of neutral
currents in the transformer during the lightning impulse test.
The CS-2000 is a wide band current pulse measuring device
designed for this application. The coaxial type shunt design has
provisions for quick and easy parallel insertion of any combina-
tion of ten measuring resistors. The design permits measure-
ment of neutral current levels from 20-2000A. A 5000A current
shunt (CS-5000) is also available.

HG-1B Stepwave Generator

The HG-1B is a battery powered pulse generator designed
specifically to measure response time of impulse measurement
circuits per IEEE-4 and IEC-60. It contains a regulated voltage
power supply for charging the capacitance of the measuring
system up to 200V, and a “bounce free” mercury wetted relay
discharge switch for shorting the load. The resulting oscillating
pulse may be evaluated to determine the measurement system
response parameters. The unit may also be used to measure
divider voltage ratio on capacitive or mixed divider.

Miscellaneous Specifications
Clearances and Floor Plans for 100 Series
Generator Minimum Ceiling Floor
Rating Clearance L.I. Height Area
(kV) in mm in m in m
100 8 205 60 1.50 64 x 120 1.60 x 3.05
200 16 410 80 2.05 80 x 120 2.05 x 3.05
300 24 610 94 2.40 96 x 120 2.45 x 3.05
400 32 815 125 3.20 110 x 140 2.80 x 3.55
500 40 1015 148 3.75 128 x 160 3.25 x 4.10
600 48 1220 170 4.30 144 x 180 3.65 x 4.60
800 64 1630 215 5.45 176 x 220 4.50 x 5.60
1000 80 2030 260 6.60 232 x 290 5.90 x 7.35
1200 96 2440 306 7.80 264 x 330 6.70 x 8.40
1600 125 3175 395 10.00 322 x 402 8.20 x 10.20
2000 160 4065 485 12.30 392 x 490 9.95 x 12.45
2400 190 4825 575 14.60 452 x 565 11.50 x 14.35

Recommended floor area estimates are based on the HV generator, voltage divider, and front capacitor being arranged in a
layout of the recommended clearances to the walls. The recommended floor area dimensions do not include space for the
test object.

Special Application
Transformer Loads
Transformer loads represent a complex impedance
of capacitance and inductance. The figure shows the
net series generator capacitance required for several
classes of power transformers. Typically, the impulse
generator is sized for testing the HV windings and
then the low voltage windings can be tested by
reducing the number of stages used or by paralleling
stages to get a higher net capacitance. As a guide to
the figure, if the impedance of a transformer is high-
er than a similar one listed, the net capacitance
required will be lower. In the case of distribution
transformers, their design usually results in a very
high capacitance and low impedance, making it diffi-
cult to achieve the waveshapes according to the
standards on the low voltage windings, regardless of
the capacitance of the generator. For these cases,
external waveshaping components can be supplied
to solve this problem. Computer simulations of
specific transformer loads can be performed for
customers to optimize the size of a generator and to Load Range Data.
make recommendations on termination impedances
to provide the most flexible and economic test equip-
ment solution.

DIMS Technical Specifications
DIMS8-2 Software
The DIMS8-2 contains HV Attenuators, an isolation The Deluxe Software package featuring Windows™-
transformer, and an 8-bit digital recorder mounted in a based software for the DIMS8-2/C, the DIMS10D,
benchtop cabinet. The digital recorder contains a flop- and the DIMS12D, contains the following standard
py diskette drive and a Centronics/RS232 interface to modules:
allow downloading of test results. • General Test
• Interactive Smoothing and Analysis
DIMS8-2/C, DIMS10D and DIMS12D • Waveform Subtraction and Comparison
The DIMS8-2/C, DIMS10D, and the DIMS12D are • Step Response
configured similarly. Each contains HV Attenuators, • Reduce-Full Test
isolation transformers, a digital recorder (8-bit digital • Automatic Calibration
recorder for DIMS8-2/C, 10-bit for DIMS10D, and
12-bit for DIMS12D) and a computer. The DIMS10D Optional Software
and DIMS12D are mounted in EMI shielded cabinets. • Transfer function
Each also includes the same Windows™-based • IG970-DS Control
analysis software and a laser printer.

Computer DIMS8-2/C, DIMS10D and DIMS12D Software Windows™-based operating system

Type IBM compatible with Printer HP Laser Jet, with 600 DPI
Intel Pentium Processor resolution (standard)
Processor 400 MHz or higher Data Storage 4 GB hard disk plus 1.44
Memory 32 MB RAM or higher MB 3" diskette drive; CD-ROM
Display 15" SVGA Color for DIMS8 Backup optional Zip drive
19" for DIMS10D and DIMS12D

Hardware Specification
Temperature 10-40°C Storage 0-60°C, Storage 0-60°C,
Operating 15-35°C Operating 15-35°C
Humidity < 95% non-condensing < 95% relative < 95% relative
Environment Clean Clean Clean
Max. Input <400 Vac <500 Vac <500 Vac
HV Attenuators
Number 2 2 2
Bandwidth 250 MHz 120 MHz 40 MHz
Input Resistance 10 MΩ 10MΩ 10 MΩ
Input Capacitance 2 pF to 75 pF 2.5 pF 2.5 pF
Rise Time 15 ns 15ns 15 ns
Maximum Input 2000 VPK 2000 VPK 2000 VPK
Digital Recorder
Type Tektronix TDS 430A Nicolet Power Pro 610 Gage 8012A
Resolution 8 bits 10 bits 12 bits
Number of Channels 2 channels std.(4 optional) 2 channels (4 optional) 2 channels std.
Sampling Rate 100MS/sec on all channels 75 MS/s 100MS/sec on all channels
Max. Record Length 120K standard 1M standard 1M standard
Accuracy 1.5% 0.5% 0.5%
Linearity meet or exceed meet or exceed meet or exceed
IEC/IEEE standards IEC/IEEE standards IEC/IEEE standards
Diskette Drive yes yes yes
Printer Port yes yes yes
HV Dividers Technical Information
General Electrical Information Base leg lengths given in the divider charts are from the
center of the base out. Square bases are provided on dividers
HV Capacitors <400kV. Tri-legged bases are provided on dividers >400kV and
All HV Capacitor sections are manufactured by Hipotronics. <1600kV and 4-legged bases are provided >1600kV.
Each design is based on a mixed dielectric system of electrical
grade kraft paper, polypropylene film, and mineral oil. All sec- HV Sections
tions are designed for minimum inductance using multi-tab con- The HV section housings are made of electrical grade FRP
struction which results in lower inherent inductance than extend- or electrical grade phenolic cylinders. These materials are
ed foil construction. mechanically strong, and have excellent electrical properties.
Each housing is coated with electrical grade paint to protect the
HV Resistors outer surfaces.
The HV low resistance components are fabricated by Hipotronics
using specially insulated Ni-Chrome alloy wire. After winding, the Guy Rods
resistors are vacuum pressure impregnated with epoxy resin to Larger dividers are supplied with guy rods for stability. All guy
provide additional turn-to-turn insulation and long life. rod assemblies are made of electrical grade FRP.
All HV high resistance components are precision thick film
type designed for stability and linearity in HV applications. Top Electrodes
The HV measurement resistors are tested by Hipotronics to Three different types of electrodes are supplied depending on
withstand frequent flashovers without resistance changes. the application. Smooth aluminum electrodes are supplied for
indoor laboratories. Multipipe electrodes are supplied for outdoor
General Mechanical Information or rough handling applications. Multidish electrodes are supplied
Base Assembly for the higher voltage ranges. In some cases, special require-
ments may call for substituting one type of electrode for another.
Each divider is a free-standing column mounted on a mobile or
fixed base. The standard models above 400kV are supplied LV Arm Assemblies
with urethane coated caster wheels with locks. The larger base
All dividers are supplied with either UHF, BNC, or C type coaxial
assemblies have a welded steel center structure with bolt-on
connectors, as appropriate.
leg extensions. This allows for extension at a later date and also
reduces the shipping size. The LV arm assembly is enclosed in
a welded, shielded steel box in the center portion of the base to
minimize EMI. Each base is provided with a solid ground for
cable or foil connections.

Specifications RVD CMD

Response Time 10 – 80ns 50 – 100ns
Load Impedance 50 Ω // 75 Ω 10 MΩ // 50 pF
Measuring Cable RG 8/U or RG 11/U RG II/U
Duty Cycle 4 shots per minute 4 shots per minute

RVD Series
The low voltage arms for the RVD series consist of a shielded, coaxial, plug-in resistance element of either 50 or 75 ohms. Each
system is provided with a matching LV arm for use at the measuring end of the cable to provide a perfectly balanced system. The
RVD series is capable of driving low or high input impedance instrumentation.

Model L.I. R (HV) R (LV) Z Cable Ratio Total Height Weight Base Leg Length
kV Ω Ω Ω ft m in mm lbs kg in mm
RVD-100 100 1875 75 75 25 7.6 50:1 16 410 25 10 14 350
RVD-200 200 3750 75 75 25 7.6 100:1 29 740 35 15 14 350
RVD-300 300 5625 75 75 25 7.6 150:1 41 1040 60 30 18 460
RVD-400 400 7500 75 75 25 7.6 200:1 51 1300 70 35 18 460
RVD-500 500 9375 75 75 35 10.7 250:1 76 1930 185 85 24 610
RVD-600 600 11250 75 75 35 10.7 300:1 88 2240 190 90 24 610
RVD-800 800 13125 75 75 35 10.7 400:1 110 2790 250 115 36 915
RVD-1000 1000 12500 50 50 50 15.2 500:1 140 3560 280 130 36 915
RVD-1200 1200 15000 50 50 50 15.2 600:1 164 4170 305 140 36 915

CPL Series
The CPL series is typically not used for voltage measurement. An optional LV arm can be supplied for measurement of AC and
switching impulse voltages only.

Model L.I. - S.I. + S.I. AC kV C(HV) Col. Height Total Height Weight Base Leg Length
kV kV kV RMS nF in mm in mm lbs kg in mm
CPL-100 100 90 90 50 10 24 610 29 735 45 20 14 350
CPL-200 200 180 180 75 7.5 30 760 35 890 50 25 14 350
CPL-300 300 270 270 100 5 36 915 41 1040 60 30 14 350
CPL-400 400 360 360 150 4 48 1220 53 1350 75 35 14 350
CPL-500 500 450 450 175 4 60 1525 75 1905 195 90 24 610
CPL-600 600 540 540 200 4 72 1830 87 2210 215 100 24 610
CPL-800 800 720 720 250 2 84 2135 100 2540 250 115 24 610
CPL-1000 1000 900 900 350 2 120 3050 149 3785 370 170 36 915
CPL-1200 1200 1100 1050 400 2 144 3660 183 4650 460 210 36 915
CPL-1600 1600 1400 1200 500 2 168 4270 212 5385 580 265 36 915
CPL-2000 2000 1800 1600 700 1 240 6100 289 7340 1350 610 72 1830
CPL-2400 2400 2100 1700 800 1 288 7315 343 8715 1650 750 96 2440
CPL-3000 3000 2700 1900 1000 1 336 8535 420 10660 1995 905 108 2745
CPL-3600 3600 3200 2200 1200 1 380 9650 484 12295 3120 1415 108 2745
CPL-4000 4000 3600 2300 1500 1 420 10670 524 13310 3710 1680 132 3350

CMD Series
The CMD type divider is supplied with a shielded, coaxial, plug-in R/C LV arm with a built-in cable matching resistance. The CMD
series dividers can be supplied, upon request, with Birch type LV arms for higher ratios. CMD LV arm assemblies are designed to drive
high impedance instrumentation.

Model L.I. - S.I. + S.I. AC C(HV) R(HV) Ratio Col. Height Total Height Weight Base Leg Length
kV kV kV kV pF Ω in mm in mm lbs kg in mm
CMD-100 100 90 90 50 1500 50 50:1 24 610 29 735 45 20 14 350
CMD-200 200 180 180 75 1500 50 100:1 30 760 35 890 50 25 14 350
CMD-300 300 270 270 100 1500 50 150:1 36 915 41 1040 60 30 14 350
CMD-400 400 360 360 150 1500 50 200:1 48 1220 53 1350 75 35 14 350
CMD-500 500 450 450 175 1500 50 250:1 60 1525 75 1905 195 90 24 610
CMD-600 600 540 540 200 1500 50 300:1 72 1830 87 2210 220 100 24 610
CMD-800 800 720 720 250 1500 60 400:1 84 2135 100 2540 250 115 24 610
CMD-1000 1000 900 900 350 750 100 500:1 120 3050 149 3785 370 170 36 915
CMD-1200 1200 1100 1050 400 750 100 600:1 144 3660 183 4650 460 210 36 915
CMD-1600 1600 1400 1200 500 750 120 1000:1 168 4270 212 5385 580 265 36 915
CMD-2000 2000 1800 1600 700 500 150 1000:1 240 6100 289 7340 1350 610 72 1830
CMD-2400 2400 2100 1700 800 500 180 1500:1 288 7315 343 8715 1650 750 96 2440
CMD-3000 3000 2700 1900 1000 375 240 1500:1 336 8535 420 10660 1995 905 108 2745
CMD-3600 3600 3200 2200 1200 375 240 2000:1 380 9650 484 12295 2750 1250 108 2745
CMD-4000 4000 3600 2300 1500 300 280 2000:1 420 10670 524 13310 3200 1455 132 3350

MECG Series Technical Specifications
Operating Principal The chop delay is selected by a series of switches on
the MECG control. When an MECG system is integrat-
Hipotronics MECG Series uses no moving parts,
ed with a Hipotronics 970IG-DS impulse generator con-
reducing the variable jitter and misfiring present in
troller, the delay time is set at the impulse control.
adjustable sphere systems. Our fixed geometry, copper
Normally the chop gap is left in the circuit for the full
tungsten electrodes eliminate problems associated
wave tests and can serve as a protective device in case
with wear, alignment, and precision of adjustment. The
the impulse generator is accidentally overcharged.
design is modular, with triggered (base) and non-trig-
gered (upper) 240 kV modules that stack for up to 3.6
Routine Operation
MV chopping. Each module contains six fixed
electrodes. All six of the 240 kV base section To minimize jitter, the operator must select the proper
electrodes are positively triggered simultaneously. number of gaps to be used in the MECG column
Upper 240 kV modules also consist of six fixed elec- based on the chop wave voltage. Taps at every 40kV
trodes. These are triggered by natural overvoltage. All make the setup quick and easy to optimize for any
gap elements are voltage graded with non-inductive chop voltage. Generally, a simple connection is made
resistive windings to provide uniform voltage distribu- from the top terminal of the MECG down the column to
tion. All non-triggered electrode arcing surfaces are the desired tapping point. Tap selection becomes less
formed of a brass mesh that allow each gap to “see” critical as the selected chop voltage is increased since
the gap above it. This design feature aids the propaga- the MECG firing range widens as the voltage increases.
tion of an ultraviolet light channel within the module,
which promotes the ionization of the upper gaps, and Electrical Specifications
assures consistent and reliable chopping (low jitter). Input requirements1 115/220 V, 50/60 Hz, 500 VA
The complete assembly has a high withstand rating Chopping Range 40 kV - 3600 kV
to ensure that there are no misfires below the chop Polarity +ve or -ve
voltage rating. Chop Times 0.1 µs to 10 µs in 0.1 µs increments
Two modes of control are possible with Hipotronics Repeatable System Delay2 0.3 µs
MECG systems. Impulse generators without IG970-DS Jitter ±25 ns
controls use a supplied coupling network connected to Grading Resistance 1 k ohm / 40 kV (6 kohm/section)
the first stage of the impulse generator. Upon sensing
firing of the IG, an electronic pulse generator located in Note 1 The supplied double shielded isolation transformer allows the
the base of the MECG transmits a HV trigger pulse to ground for the chassis of the MECG control unit to be connected to
the earth grid of the impulse test area, eliminating any potential
the triggered (base) electrodes of the MECG. When the ground loops with the mains neutral.
MECG assembly is triggered, a low impedance path to Note 2 The fastest chop time required by the standards is 0.5 ms,
ground results and the voltage waveform is chopped. less than the repeatable system delay.

Model Voltage (kV) Height (in/mm) Weight (lbs/kg) Base #Guys

MECG-1 0-240 75/1900 230/100 48" Trileg -
MECG-2 0-480 102/2590 260/118 48" Trileg -
MECG-3 0-720 129/3275 290/130 48" Trileg -
MECG-4 0-960 156/3965 320/145 48" Trileg -
MECG-5 0-1200 183/4650 450/205 72" Trileg 1
MECG-6 0-1440 210/5335 480/220 72" Trileg 1
MECG-7 0-1680 237/6020 510/230 72" Trileg 1
MECG-8 0-1920 264/6700 540/245 72" Trileg 2
MECG-9 0-2160 290/7390 820/370 96" Trileg 2
MECG-10 0-2400 317/6050 850/585 96" Trileg 2
MECG-11 0-2640 344/8740 880/400 96" Trileg 3
MECG-12 0-2880 370/9425 1160/525 120" Trileg 3
MECG-13 0-3120 397/10.085 1190/540 120" Trileg 3
MECG-14 0-3360 424/10.77 1220/550 120" Trileg 3
MECG-15 0-3600 451/11.45 1250/570 120" Trileg 3
Technical Specifications
CS-2000 Current Shunt C100-S Analog Control System
The current shunt is connected (via the extended tabs) between Electrical Data
the neutral terminal of the transformer under test and ground.
Input Voltage - A for 115V/60Hz
The supplied output connection cable has an impedance of 75
Ohms, and a termination for this cable is supplied with the shunt. - B for 230V/50Hz
With this termination in place, the voltage observed at the Voltmeter Accuracy +/-2% F.S.
measurement device is 1000V peak. Gap Meter Accuracy +/-2% F.S.
Electrical Data Charge Rate Selector Switch LOW/MED/HIGH
Resistance 1 Ohm to 10 Ohms1, +/-5% Gap Adjustment Switch OPEN/CLOSE
Capacitance 0.1µF and 0.01 µF1
Mechanical Data
Maximum Current 2000A
Dimensions 12" W x 8" D x 7" H
Response Time <100ns
305 x 203 x 178mm
Maximum Pulse Width 5000µs
Weight 12 lbs. (5.4kg)
Maximum Output Voltage 2000V, peak
Mechanical Data IG1.5-CAL Precision Calibrator
Dimensions 6" diameter x 5" H The IG1.5-CAL incorporates a highly stabilized HV power supply,
150mm diameter x 125mm H separate L.I. and S.I. waveshaping circuits, front of wave chop-
ping provision, a synchronizing pulse for triggering external
Weight 6.5 lbs. (3 kg) devices, four output voltage levels for each waveshape, and a
digital voltmeter to indicate charge voltage.
Note 1 Any combination of resistors or capacitors may be used, up to The IG1.5-CAL is designed to prove the stability of a digital
10 total pieces. impulse measurement system according to clause of
IEC-1083 and clause 8.6.1 of IEEE-1122, and not the absolute
HG-1B Stepwave Generator accuracy. The unit can be used to check absolute accuracy by
The unit contains a binding post connection for the HV side of obtaining certification from a national laboratory.
the divider and a clamping bar for low inductance connection to The unit is factory calibrated using the 2m coaxial cable con-
ground. The HG-1B has provisions for convenient insertion of nected to a test load of 10MΩ//2.5pF. This load represents the
circuit damping resistance so that the divider may be quickly input impedance of Hipotronics Digital Impulse Measurement
evaluated. Systems as well as most conventional analog impulse oscillo-
scopes. Use of the IG1.5-CAL with load capacitances higher
Electrical Data than 50pF will affect the output parameters.
Input Charging Voltage - A for 115V/60Hz Electrical Data
- B for 230V/50Hz
Input Voltage - A for 115V, 50/60Hz
Output Voltage Switch Selectable, - B for 230V, 50/60Hz
50, 100, 200V
Output Voltage Switch Selectable, 375, 750, 1125,
Repetition Rate - 30 pulses/minute 1500Vpk
- 25 pulses/minute
Repetition Rate 1 pulse/second
Battery On Time 6 hours Load Impedance 1M Ω
Battery Recharge Time 12 hours Output Connection RG11/U
Mercury Relay Closing Time <5ns Temperature 23 degrees C +/-2 degrees
Mechanical Data Output Cable 6 feet (2m)
Dimensions 12" W x 8" D x 7" H Relative Humidity 45-75%
305 x 203 x 178mm Trigger Sync. 15V (LV), 90V (HV)
Weight 12 lbs. (5.4kg) Mechanical Data
Dimensions 11" W x 13.5" D x 7" H
280 x 340 x 180mm
Weight 12 lbs. (5.4kg)

Hipotronics, Inc. For more information, call:
A subsidiary of Hubbell, Incorporated 1-800-727-HIPO
Route 22, P.O. Box 414 Tel: 845-279-8091 Fax: 845-279-2467
Brewster, NY 10509 USA