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The purpose of this procedure is to establish the requirements to be followed, at the visual examination of
fusion welds in metallic materials.

2. SCO P E
This procedure is applied at visual examination of fusion welds in metallic materials, during joint
preparation, during welding, on the finished welds and on the repaired welds.


4.1. ISO 17637:2003 – Visual testing of fusion-welded joints;
4.2. ISO 9712:2012 – Non-destructive testing. Qualification and certifi cation of NDT personnel;
4.3. ISO 5817:2014 – Welding – Fusion welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys
(beam welding excluded) – Quality levels for imperfections.


5.1. Quality Control:

Quality Control is responsible for establishing, approving, implementing and revising
this procedure.
5.1.2. QC surveyors and NDT operators, are responsible for performing visual examination of
welding seams in accordance with the requirements of this procedure.
5.2. Production:
5.6.1. Production is responsible for following requirements of this procedure.
5.2.1. Production people are responsible for performing visual examination in accordance
with the requirements of this procedure.


6.1. Test conditions and equipment

6.1.1. The illuminance at the surface shall be a minimum of 350 lx. However, 500 lx is
6.1.2. For direct inspection, the access shall be sufficient to place the eye within 600 mm of the
surface to be examined and at an angle not less than 30 0 (see Figure 1).

6.1.3. When the access for testing in accordance with Figure 1 is not possible, or when is
specified by an application standard, shall be considered remote inspection using
mirrors, borescopes, fiber optic cables, or cameras.
6.1.4. If necessary, an additional light source can be used to increase the contrast and relief
between imperfections and background.
6.1.5. Where the result of visual testing is inconclusive, the visual test should be
supplemented by other non-destructive testing methods for surface inspections.
6.1.6. Examples of testing equipment:
- straight edge or measuring tape with a graduation of 1 mm or finer
- vernier caliper
- feeler gauge with a sufficient number of feelers to measure dimensions between 0.1
mm and 3 mm in steps of 0.1 mm at most
- radius gauge
- magnifying lens with a magnification 2x to 5x
- lamps
- profile measuring device with a wire diameter or width < 1 mm, where each wire end
is rounded
- mirrors, endoscopes, borescopes, fiber optics and TV -cameras
- specifically designed welding gauges, height/depth gauges, rulers or protractors

6.2. Personnel qualification

6.2.1. Visual testing of welds and the evaluation of results for final acceptance shall be
performed by qualified and capable personnel. It is recommended that personnel to be
qualified in accordance with ISO 9712 or an equivalent standard at an appropriate level,
in the relevant industry sector.

6.3. Visual examination

6.3.1. The examiner shall have access to the necessary inspection and required production
documentation. Any visual testing prior to, during and after completion of the weld
should be carried out while physical access is still possible. This may include the visual
testing of surface treatments.
6.3.2. Visual examination of joint preparation
When visual testing is required prior to welding, the joint shall be examined to check
a) The shape and the dimensions of the weld preparation meet the requirements of the
welding procedure specifications;
b) The fusion faces and adjacent surfaces are clean and any re quired surface treatment
has been carried out in accordance with the application or product standard;
c) The parts to be welded are correctly fixed in relation to each other according to
drawings and instructions;
6.3.3. Visual examination during welding
When required, the weld shall be tested during the welding process to check that :
a) Each run or layer of weld metal is cleaned before it is covered by a further run,
particular attention being paid to the junctions between the weld metal and the
fusion face;
b) There are no visible imperfections, ex. cracks or cavities; if imperfections are
observed, they shall be reported so that the remedial actions to be taken before the
deposition of further weld metal;
c) The transition between the runs and between the weld and the parent metal is so
formed that satisfactory melting can be accomplished when welding the next run;
d) The depth and shape of gouging is in accordance with the WPS or compared with
the original groove shape in order to assure complete removal of the weld metal as
e) After any necessary repairs/remedial actions, the weld conforms to the original
requirements of the WPS.
6.3.4. Visual examination of the finished weld
(1) General
The finished weld shall be examined to determine whether it meets the requirements of
the application or product standard or other agreed acceptance criteria, ex. ISO 5817. In
accordance with the requirements established by contractual documents, the quality
levels according to ISO 5817 are B, C, and D. Finished welds shall be at least examined
in accordance with the requirements from para. 6.3.4. (2), (3), (4), (5).
(2) Cleaning and dressing
The weld shall be examined to check that:
a) All slag has been removed by manual or mechanical means in order to avoid
imperfections being obscured.
b) There are no tool impressions or blow marks
c) When weld dressing is required, overheating of the joint due to grinding is avoided
and that grinding marks and an uneven finish are also avoided
d) For fillet welds and butt welds to be dressed flush, the joint merges smoothly with
the parent metal, without under flushing
If imperfections are observed, they shall be reported so that remedial actions can be
(3) Profile and dimensions
The weld shall be examined to check that:
a) The profile of the weld face and the height of any excess weld metal meet the
requirements of acceptance standard (Ex.: ISO 5817).
b) The surface of the weld is regular: the pattern and the pitch of weave marks present
an even and satisfactory visual appearance, the distance betw een the last layer and
the parent metal or the position of runs has been measured where required by the
c) The weld width is consistent over the whole of the joint and that it meets the
requirements given in the weld drawing or acceptance standard (Ex.: ISO 5817); in
the case of the butt welds, the weld preparation shall be checked to ensure that it
has been completely filled.
(4) Weld root and surfaces
The visually accessible part of the weld, for example the weld root for a single -
sided butt weld and the weld surfaces, shall be examined for deviations from the
acceptance standard.
The weld shall be examined to check that:
(1) In the case of single-sided butt welds, the penetration, root concavity and any
burn-through or shrinkage grooves are within the li mits specified in the
acceptance standard over the whole of the joint;
(2) Any undercut is within the requirements of the acceptance standard;
(3) Any imperfections such as crack or porosity, detected using optical aids when
necessary, in the weld surface or heat affected zones comply with the
appropriate acceptance criteria;
(4) Any attachments temporarily welded to the object to facilitate production or
assembly and which are prejudicial to the function of the object or the ability to
examine it are removed so that the object is not damaged; the area where the
attachment was fixed shall be checked to ensure freedom of cracks.
(5) Post-weld heat treatment
(1) After performing of post-weld heat treatment, further visual examination
may be required.
6.3.4. Visual examination of repaired welds
(1) General
When weld fail to comply wholly or in part with the acceptance criteria and repair
is necessary, the welded joint shall be examined prior to re -welding. Every
repaired weld shall be re-examined to the same requirements as the o riginal weld.
(2) Partially removed weld
The excavation shall be sufficiently deep and long to remove all imperfections.
The excavations shall be tapered from the base of the cut to the surface of the weld
metal at the both ends and sides of the cut. The widt h and profile of the cut shall
be such that there is adequate access for re -welding.
(3) Completely removed weld
When a defective weld has been completely removed, with or without the need for
a new section to be inserted, the shape and dimensions of the weld preparation
shall meet the specified requirements for the original weld.

7 .1 . If a n e x a mi n at io n r eco r d is r eq u ired , t h e rep o r t s ho uld co nta i n at lea s t: na me o f t he
co mp o n e nt ma n u f act ur e r , na me o f t he te st i n g b o d y, id e nt it y o f t h e o b j ect te st ed ,
ma ter ia l, t yp e o f t he j o in t, ma t eri al t hic k n e ss , we ld i n g p ro c e ss, ac cep t an ce c ri teri a,
i mp er fe ct io n s e x ceed i n g t he ac cep ta nc e cr it e ria a nd t hei r lo ca tio n, t he e x te nt o f
te st i n g wi t h r e fer e n ce to t he d ra wi n g s as ap p ro p riat e, te s t d e vic es u sed , re s u lt o f
te st i n g wi t h r e fer e nce to accep ta n ce c rit eri a, na me o f t es ter a nd d a te o f te st.
W eld s t h at h a ve b e e n t e st ed a nd ap p ro ved s ho ul d b e s u it ab l y mar ked o r id e nt i fi ed .
If a p er ma ne n t v i s ual r e co r d o f a n e x a mi n ed we l d is req u ired , p ho to g rap h s o r acc ur at e
s ke tc he s o r b o t h s ho uld b e mad e wi t h a n y i mp er fe ct io ns cl ear l y i nd ica te d .

8. AN NE X
8.1. ISO 5817, Table 1.