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DOI 10.1515/jcde-2013-0013 JCDE 2013; 1(1): 137 – 148

DOI 10.1515/jcde-2013-0013

JCDE 2013; 1(1): 137148

Maria Elena Capitani

Dealing with Bodies: The Corporeal Dimension in Sarah Kane s Cleansed and Martin Crimps The Country

Abstract: This article explores the continuities and discontinuities between Sarah Kanes and Martin Crimp s approaches to corporeality. Even if they differ from a variety of points of view, both Cleansed and The Country share a conspicuous concern with figurations of the body as a fraught and disturbing object. Although its horrific tortures are not meant to be performed in a realistic way, Cleansed develops a discourse on the body which is entirely in keeping with experiential theatre. This investment in graphic violence starkly contrasts with Crimp s prac- tice in The Country , in which the corporeal component is more alluded to than openly staged. Yet, despite its allusive and symbolical import, The Country is another viscerally physical play which subtly and disturbingly interweaves sev- eral senses. Exemplifying two different possible treatments of the body on the contemporary British stage, these plays make the physical hyperbolically visible yet also remove it from sight, offering different but subtly complementary ways of problematising corporeality and its performance.

Keywords: Sarah Kane, Martin Crimp, Cleansed , The Country , violence

Maria Elena Capitani: E-Mail: mary.cap@virgilio.it

Martin Crimp and Sarah Kane comfortably fit into one sentence. Apart from the mutual esteem of the two playwrights, their dramas engage in an intertextual dialogue. 1 They share, among other things, a strong dissatisfaction with naturalis- tic theatrical conventions, a purist attitude towards language, and a remarkable Beckettian influence. Both playwrights explore the darker sides of the human and the complexity as well as the deepening crisis of contemporary subjectivity, often associated with and inscribed onto the body. Focussing on two of their most significant plays, Cleansed (1998) and The Country (2000), this article examines the physical from both a dramatic and a

1 For details on their points of connection, see Saunders, About Kane 49; Love Me 111; Sierz, Crimp 168; Playwriting 233.

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138 Maria Elena Capitani theatrical perspective in order to throw light on the significant continuities and

theatrical perspective in order to throw light on the significant continuities and discontinuities between Kanes and Crimp s approaches to corporeality. Indeed, even if they differ from a variety of points of view (first and foremost, in Cleansed physicality is overtly displayed, while in The Country it seems to conceal itself in linguistic traces), both texts share a conspicuous concern with figurations of the body as a fraught and disturbing object. After seeing Cleansed , John Peter of the Sunday Times wrote:

I came out of the theatre [ ] feeling bruised to the bone, tight in the stomach and hopeless. I think this is what Kane intended. Cleansed [ ] is a nightmare of a play: like a nightmare, it unreels somewhere between the back of your eyes and the centre of your brain with an unpredictable but remorseless logic. As with a nightmare, you cannot shut it out because nightmares are experienced with your whole body. (564)

The brutal stage images merge love and physical suffering. The play undermines and deconstructs the normative boundaries between sex and gender, it experi- ments with nudity, mutilation, and pain by explicitly staging unacceptable bodies and intolerable actions. Although its horrific tortures are not meant to be per- formed in a realistic way, the feeling of nausea and discomfort experienced by Peter indicates the workings of a theatre of sensation(Sierz, In-Yer-Face 4). And indeed, Kanes third play develops a discourse on the body which is entirely in keeping with the type of experiential theatre (Kane qtd. in Sierz, In-Yer-Face 92) that aims to put[ ] you in direct physical contact with thought and feeling (Kane qtd. in Campbell 80). In Cleansed , the perpetration of violence is obviously concentrated in Tinker s hands. This terrifying and ambiguous figurea doctor who is not a doctor, a strange mix between healer and dealer tests how far the alienated inmates of a frightening institution can go in the name of love and manipulates their related loss

of identity. In an eerie crescendo of threats which is concretely translated into ritual

mutilation, he dismembers and recomposes the patients bodies, thereby assuming

a sort of demiurgic connotation. Significantly, his punitive actions are highly

symbolical: in order to make him atone for lying, Tinker brutally cuts off Carls tongue, then forces him to swallow Rods ring. Throughout Cleansed , as Stefani Brusberg-Kiermeier remarks, each punishment is a direct violent representation of the corresponding crime ’” (86). Indeed, in scene eight, Tinker cuts off Carls

hands when, no longer able to speak, he writes a message in the mud for Rod; then, in scene thirteen, Carls feet are amputated after having danced for his lover. Towards the end of the play, Carls genitals are transplanted: he has now been completely mutilated and dehumanised according to Tinker s ritual design: The bodys desire to inscribe itself into the world is answered by the inscription of violence on to the body(Brusberg-Kiermeier 86). What we can assume, there-

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Dealing with Bodies 139 fore, is a textualisation of bodies, which function as pages onto

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fore, is a textualisation of bodies, which function as pages onto which torture is inscribed. However, the Frankenstein-like doctor s repulsive masterpiece is not Carls amputation but Grace s sex change. The young woman loves her dead brother Graham, and her deepest desire is to physically become him in order to overcome the split between inside and outside:

GG

RAHAMRAHAM /R/R OBINOBIN

What

would you change?

GG

RACERACE

My body. So it looked like it feels.

Graham outside like Graham inside. (Kane, Cleansed 126)

Grace s discomfort and displacement of sexual identity is even more evident when her yearning to be a man brings her to say My balls hurt (134), even though she still has a female anatomy ( Youre a woman ; 134). After being beaten, raped, and lobotomised, Grace s wish is satisfied by Tinker, who surgically transforms her body by stitching Carl s penis on her and amputating her breasts. Never- theless, the fulfilment of her desire is absolutely traumatic: soon after the opera- tion, Grace is upset and almost aphasic (she is only able to say the letter F):

GG

RACERACE

F F

TT

INKERINKER

What you wanted, I hope you

GG

RACERACE

F F F [ ]

GG

RACERACE

( Touches her stitched-on genitals.)

F

F

TT

INKERINKER

Do you like it?

GG

RACERACE

F

TT

INKERINKER

Youll get used to him.

Cant call you Grace anymore. Call you Graham. Ill call you Graham. [ ] Im sorry. Im not really a doctor. (He kisses GG RACERACE very gently.)

TT INKERINKER /G/G RAHAMRAHAM

Goodbye, Grace. (145 146)

Grace s process of transformation into her brother and her resulting loss of self are now complete: even her name changes to Graham. In the last scene, the absolute mental/bodily fusion between brother and sister is even more evident (Waddington 144): the stage direction significantly says GG RACERACE now looks and sounds exactly like GG RAHAMRAHAM (149), and her/his first words are Body perfect (149). The double character, moreover, thanks Tinker ( Thank you, Doctor; 150), thus symbolically concluding the rite of passage (Brusberg-Kiermeier 85). Nevertheless, the end of the play is extremely elusive and prevents the audience from transferring what is going on into a meaningful framework. Grace/Graham and (what remains of) Carl touch and seem to create a

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140 Maria Elena Capitani common bond. Everything slips towards indecipherability. The sunlight blinds the characters (and,

common bond. Everything slips towards indecipherability. The sunlight blinds the characters (and, metaphorically, the spectators ability to interpret and judge), the rats (agents of violence throughout the play, which in this scene disturbingly chew at the characterswounds) squeak louder and louder until their sound becomes deafening, then blackness engulfs everything. Far from a holistic solu- tion, this ambiguous end does not offer any catharsis. Instead, it suggests that absolute love implies a dissolution of identity which, as Clare Wallace observes, is mapped out on the body(94). Kane draws a parallel between disidentity 2 and dismemberment: the atomisation of self is indeed written on a body which, in turn, is increasingly fragmented. In Cleansed , the body becomes a contested locus, a battlefield in which the identity conflict is explicitly situated. The fragmentation of bodies and deconstruction of meanings are closely interwoven with stage imagery, which in Cleansed takes up a central position. In an interview, director James Macdonald elucidated: Cleansed confirmed for me that the images are there to tell the story more powerfully and immediately than the text. On the first day of rehearsal the play took half an hour to read, whereas finally it took ninety minutes to perform, so you could say there is an hour of imagery (qtd. in Saunders, Love Me 122). Remarkably, much of the imagery is set down by Kane in copious stage directions (Campbell 86), which to the readerplay the role of a quasi-narrator (Fordyce 112). These exhaustive indications contribute to the fascinating paradox of Cleansed : from a physical (and emotional) point of view, this piece is extremely brutal but at the same time structurally harmonious. Even if its twenty short scenes could be read/seen as autonomous images, the storylines converge towards the end of the play. Clashing with the horrific violence of what is shown on stage, some intensely lyrical passages seem to be choreographed like a ballet. The first part of scene five, for example, enacts the fusion of Grace and Graham through dance and gestures, before they make love:

GG RAHAMRAHAM dances a dance of love for GG RACERACE .

GG RACERACE dances opposite him, copying his

Gradually, she takes on the masculinity of his movement, his facial expression. Finally, she no

longer has to watch himshe mirrors him perfectly as they dance exactly in time. When she speaks, her voice is more like his. [ ] They begin to dance slowly, very close together. They sing the first verse of You Are My Sunshineby Jim Davis and Charles Mitchell. Their voices trail off and they stand staring at each other. (119)

movements.

2 Élisabeth Angel-Perez borrows the term désidentité(162) from Évelyne Grossman, while Laurens De Vos opts for de-subjectivity(131).

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Dealing with Bodies 1 4 1 Conversely, the lines spoken by the characters are much

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Conversely, the lines spoken by the characters are much less eloquent than the stage directions. Kane indeed opts for strict verbal compression, verging on minimalism: I wanted to strip everything down. I wanted it to be as small when I say small I mean minimal and poetic, and I didnt want to waste any words(qtd. in Saunders, Love Me 88). Although, in a sense, bodily action takes centre stage at the expense of dialogue, it is also worth noting that, to a certain extent, Kane explores the physical through textual/linguistic strategies. For instance, on a couple of occa- sions, male characters use rhetorical figures to refer to Grace. Graham metaphori- cally calls his beloved sister Sunshine (118), while Robin has recourse to a simile in the line She smells like a flower (129). Grace herself compares Grahams beauty to that of a celestial creature: Youve always been an angel (119; see also De Vos 128). Moreover, the meaningful reiteration (and alliteration) of the letter/sound F and the subsequent repetition of felt / feel in the final scene underline the prominence of physical experience:

GG RACERACE /G/G RAHAMRAHAM

Felt it.

Here. Inside. Here.

And when I dont feel it, its pointless. Think about getting up it s pointless. Think about eating it s pointless. Think about dressing its pointless. Think about speaking its pointless. Think about dying only its totally fucking pointless. (150)

In general terms, Kanes investment in graphic violence starkly contrasts with Crimp s practice in The Country , first performed at the Royal Court two years after Cleansed , in which the corporeal component is more alluded to than openly staged. The male protagonist Richard is a doubtful doctor and recovering drug addict who has recently left London and moved to the country with his wife Corinne and their children to start afresh. One night, he brings home a beautiful American girl, saying he found her unconscious by the roadside. In actual fact, overlooking his professional duty, he has induced Rebecca, who will turn out to be his patient/lover, to overdose. On one level, as director Katie Mitchell points out,

The Country is about what people do with their bodies: sticking syringes full of heroin into them or fucking each other, with all the mental effects of betrayal and confusion that that involves. Although the children never appear onstage, the minute that Corinne feels a real

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142 Maria Elena Capitani threat, she ships them bodily off to a safe place. Bodies: whether

threat, she ships them bodily off to a safe place. Bodies: whether you put pure water into your body or have an alcoholic drink. Its a very visceral play. If you go through it carefully, there are countless moments when touch, or taste, or smell is mentioned. All the senses are engaged. (qtd. in Sierz, Crimp 203)

Rebecca s sensual body, in particular, is a pivotal dramatic and theatrical object from the outset. The Country starts in medias res: the first of the five (short) acts opens with a domestic conversation between Richard and his wife, who is nervously cutting out some pictures to go round the cot(291). The first sinister reference to Rebecca appears after a few lines, when Corinne begins to question her husband about the mysterious stranger: This person. Is she asleep? When will she wake up? (292). Although Richard affirms that he saved the young woman in the name of his (medical) profession, Corinne becomes more and more suspicious. Towards the end of the first act, she ironically compares Rebecca s harmonious physical appearance to a heavenly vision,a sort of ideal which sharply contrasts with the leaking male body subsequently evoked:

[ ] If instead of some frail young slim young abandoned at the / side of a road. [ ] If instead of this vision, this victim of some unspecified, some undiagnosed misfortune, lets say it had been some man you had found, some man perhaps crawling out of a ditch with his clothes covered in muck … –No oneIm sorrybut no one was crawling / out of any ditch. Well all right thennot crawling, but unconscious. You round the bend and instead of that, that person, its a man whos drunk himself into a stupor and hes lying there in his own sick and hes wet himself. Would you really have lifted this man into your car? Would you have driven him all this way to your own house where your children are sleeping? (304; emphasis in the text)

The degraded male figure described by Corinne could be seen as an example of a grotesque body defined by extremes, in the sense of both ingestion and excretion, blurring boundaries: All these convexities and orifices have a com- mon characteristic; it is within them that the confines between bodies and between the body and the world are overcome(Bakhtin 317). This emphasis on the instability of its physical margins is diametrically opposed to the perfection and completeness of the classical image of the body, a self-contained system with a closed, smooth, and impenetrable surface (Bakhtin 317), totally isolated from the outer reality. Equally pertinent from a corporeal point of view is the opening of the second act. Here, in true detective style, Corinne examines Rebecca s gold watch and confesses to Richard her urge to touch the intruder s body: I wanted to touch her. [ ] To see if she was hot(306). The adjective hot, which at first might

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Dealing with Bodies 1 4 3 simply be related to Rebecca ’ s physical temperature

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simply be related to Rebecca s physical temperature and state of health, hints at her magnetic sensuality:

[ ] Why did you uncover her? I was curious about her arms, actually. Have you looked at her arms? No, I havent looked at her arms. Her legs, then. Have you looked at her face? Havent you looked at her? Havent you looked at any part of her? Pause. Arent you curious? (306307)

Corinne examines every single part of her rivals appealing body in order to grasp its deepest secrets. At the same time, she obviously provokes Richard in order to catch him at fault. As for the mise en scène of the first two acts, two different paths can be followed: some directors keep Rebecca s body offstage until the third act, while others prefer showing her sleeping figure from the very beginning of the playthat was the case in the Zurich and Manchester productions in 2001 and 2005 respectively (Buse 154). Remarkably, storytelling features as a powerful strategy to conjure up, and therefore mediate, the physical. Sierz has observed that The plot progresses very elegantly through the stories that the characters tell each other ( Scribbling 213). In the fourth act, the corporeal is translated into words by Richard s young lover, and the narrative starts flowing from this verbal transposition. Here, Rebecca opts for the structure for example, typical opening formula and reitera- tion of the vocative children to attract the (absent) intradiegetic listeners attention and dreamlike imagery of a fairy tale to describe her medical/sexual encounters with the doctor:

Well once upon a time, children, there was a girl, there was a bright young girl, and she was sick, and she needed some medicine. So she went to a doctor[ ] and she said, doctor, doctor, it hurts, I need some medicine. But the doctor wouldnt give her any. He said, go awaydont waste my timeI have no medicine. So she went back again and she said, doctor, doctor, it really hurts, I need some medicine. And this time the doctor went to the door. He locked the door. He said: I need to take a historyroll up your sleeve. So she rolled up her sleeve and the doctor took a history. Then, children, he got one instrument to look into her eyes. And another instrument to listen to her heart. And when hed looked into her eyes and listened to her heart, he asked her to undress. [] And when shed undressed, he said: I see now how very sick you areyou need some medicine. She said: Doctor, am I going to die? He said: No, its simply that your eyes are very dark and your skin is very pale. Your skin is so thin that when I touch it like this with my lips I can feel the blood moving underneath. Youre sick, thats all. You need some medicine. So the treatment began.

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144 Maria Elena Capitani The treatment was wild, children. It could take place at any time

The treatment was wild, children. It could take place at any time of day or night. In any part of the city. In any part of her body. Her body became the city. The doctor learned how to unfold herlike a map. (341342)

This passage is marked by a noticeable shift in register. While in the first part the medical examination is described in more pragmatic terms (the doctor takes a history, investigates Rebecca s body for signs of disease, arrives at a diagnosis, and recommends treatment to reduce pain), the last segment progressively veers towards symbolism (intriguingly, the girl s body represents the urban, as a metaphor of moral corruption; Capitani, Treatment ). In addition to its allusive and symbolic import, The Country is a play which subtly and disturbingly interweaves different senses. Corinne explores Rebecca s body through touch and sight and, as Sam Marlowe says, sniffs at him [Richard] for tell-tale bodily odours (616). An even more explicit instance is provided by a debate between husband and wife about the flavour of the local water. Here, the insistent reiteration of the word taste stresses the extent to which the senses pervade the play:

Taste this. What? Taste it. He sips the water. I cant taste anything. But theres a taste of something. What? Something I dont know purity. Dyou think its safe? [ ] Its waterit s pureand so perhaps it has a taste. You can taste it then? I cant taste anything. It has no taste. It tastes of nothing. But perhaps that taste of nothing is what you can taste. (294295; my emphasis)

In the last act, the term taste is repeated another nine times (347), reinforcing the importance of the sensory dimension. Language plays a crucial role in The Country. As has been frequently noted, Crimp s dialogue shares many features with Harold Pinters, especially the ability to conceal the characters real emotions. This has led William McEvoy to argue that In the duologues between Richard and Corinne, language screens off emo- tion: its surface meaning is unsteady and opaque, opening up a gap for secondary (and often sexual) meanings to proliferate (618). Crimp is a master of subtext. Strong sensual undercurrents trouble the charactersseemingly banal and de- tached verbal exchanges. It should also be noted that, paradoxically, the more you talk, the less you say (328), as Rebecca observes in the third act. Thus, the

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Dealing with Bodies 1 4 5 frequent pauses (Crimp ’ s quintessential stage directions) are

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frequent pauses (Crimp s quintessential stage directions) are more meaningful than spoken words. If Cleansed is deeply rooted in physical action and visual theatricality, The Country Crimps most traditional pieceis basically a static conversation play (Buse 166), in which the physical is mainly evoked through words. Subsequently, onstage bodily contact is reduced to a minimum. Richard, for instance, repeatedly refuses to kiss his wife 3 this is particularly significant near the conclusion of the play, which, as Martin Middeke observes, ends in a Beckettian fashion as a cul- de-sac situation of paralysis (93):

[ ] Kiss me. The phone continues to ring. I have kissed you. Pause. I have kissed you. Then kiss me again. Neither moves. The phone continues to ring. (366)

Interestingly, the only remarkable exception appears in the fourth act, in which Rebecca, who personifies destructive sexual and deadly drives(Buse 166; my translation), grips the doctor s hand to cut it with a pair of tiny scissors, 4 sensually sucks his wound, and lets his fingers rest there a moment, then breaks away, and wipes her mouth on her sleeve (340). Here, Rebecca s visceral instincts seem to overcome verbal mediation: the concrete bodily act replaces its discursive transformation. Broadly speaking, however, Crimp demonstrates how the seeming absence of the body speaks as loud as its presence. Indeed, textual/linguistic games intriguingly conjure up the physical, stressing that (not only bodies but also) words matter in the double sense of the term, bearing importance from a lexical and semantic perspective, but having an intrinsically physical substance as well. In general terms, Cleansed has an irresistible impact on the spectators bodies, while The Country refrains from invading their physical space, even if deep sexual tensions lurk under its surface. To conclude, the comparative close reading of these two texts can only benefit from some wider deliberations on the corporeal dimension in Kanes and

3 Richard kisses Corinne (on the back of her neck) only once, while she is talking to the woman who sometimes looks after their children on the phone (355).

4 The scissors are an inherently dangerous object throughout the play: at the end of the first act,

Corinne inadvertently cuts herself, then sucks her bleeding finger, in a sense anticipating this sequence.

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146 Maria Elena Capitani Crimp ’ s dramatic output. As several scholars have pointed out, Kane

Crimp s dramatic output. As several scholars have pointed out, Kane s work can be divided into two parts: her first three plays ( Blasted , 1995, Phaedra s Love, 1996, and Cleansed ) and the last two pieces ( Crave , 1998, and 4.48 Psychosis , 2000). If, in the first cluster, the body is ostensibly exposed and brutally tortured ( the reified, martyred, humiliated body becomes the locus of pain ; Angel-Perez 154; my translation), the plays belonging to her linguistic turn(Voigts-Virchow 204) deal with the progressive and irreversible dissolution of the self through voices, replac[ing] the visual impact of her cruelty with language (De Vos 148). 5 In doing so, They not only depict the body on the verge of disintegration under the pressure of jouissance, but the body of the text is under attack as well(De Vos 148). Indeed, in 4.48 Psychosis , the syntax progressively collapses and, near the end, language tends to fade out, mirroring the breakdown of an alienated subject whose body can never be married(Kane, 4.48 212) to the soul: here, in a sense, words seem to swing between a corporeal status and an immaterial one. Crimp s Attempts on Her Life (1997) can be read as a template for Crave and 4.48 Psychosis (Saunders, Love Me 111). His most famous and innovative piece, as Crimp himself affirms, is clearly about stories(qtd. in Sierz, Crimp 103), that is to say, words forming narratives about its elusive and protean offstage title character. Interestingly, during his career, he has

consciously developed two methods of dramatic writing: one is the making of scenes in which characters enact a story in the conventional way for example my play The Countrythe other is a form of narrated drama in which the act of story-telling is itself dramatisedas in Attempts on Her Life, or Fewer Emergencies [ ]. In this second kind of writing, the dramatic space is a mental space, not a physical one. (qtd. in Ayache)

Thus, even more explicitly than in The Country , in these notably (experi)mental works the physical can be staged through language. In Attempts on Her Life, the polymorphous protagonist Anne (also named Annie, Anya, Anny, Annushka) is bodily absent, while anonymous speakers tell the multifaceted (and incongruous) story/ies of her life from different points of view. Similarly, in the short plays forming the trilogy Fewer Emergencies (2005), the story events are narrated, haltingly, without being enacted; the principal characters are absent (Sierz, Form 377). However, these ambiguous texts based on a corporeal void create some horrific images whose protagonists are children (and their bodies): Face to the Wall (2002), for instance, is about a school massacre, while in the conclusion

5 According to De Vos, Kane already experiments with the embodiment of language (139) in Cleansed when the female protagonist is beaten by an unseen group of men whose VV OICESOICES we hear(Kane, Cleansed 130) and sexually abused by one of them. In this scene, Language thus becomes carnalized; it is turned into a body itself(De Vos 139).

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Dealing with Bodies 1 4 7 of the piece which gives the trilogy its name

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of the piece which gives the trilogy its name little Bobby is hit by a bullet coming from outside the kitchen window (Angel-Perez 206). Even in his earlier plays, Crimp experiments with physical ellipses: in Dealing with Clair (1988), the epon- ymous estate agent mysteriously vanishes, while Getting Attention (1991) is an extremely disturbing play where the abused child never appears onstage, so that the audience is forced to imagine the brutal details of the violence she undergoes (Capitani, Blurring 67). Moreover, many Crimpian characters are significantly invisible (e.g., Corinne and Richard s children, his senior partner Morris, and the babysitter in The Country). The only Crimp play which confronts the audience with explicit images (fellatio, brutal sex, eye-gouging) is probably The Treatment, a precursor of in-yer-face drama and theatre. In sum, Crimp and Kane seem to meet in their dramatic extremes: logocentrism and explicit provocation. Exempli- fying two different possible treatments of bodies on stage, these playwrights make the physical hyperbolically visible yet also remove it from sight, as they offer different but subtly complementary ways of problematising corporeality and its performance.

Works Cited

Primary Literature

Crimp, Martin. The Country. Plays Two . London: Faber and Faber, 2005. 285366. Kane, Sarah. Cleansed. Complete Plays. London: Methuen, 2001. 105151. 4.48 Psychosis. Complete Plays. London: Methuen, 2001. 203245.

Secondary Literature

Angel-Perez, Élisabeth. Voyages au bout du possible: Les Théâtres du traumatisme de Samuel Beckett à Sarah Kane. Paris: Klincksieck, 2006. Ayache, Solange. Theatre and Psychoanalysis: Or Jung on Martin Crimps Stage. 100 Words.’” Sillages critiques 10 (2009). 30August 2012 <http://sillagescritiques.revues.org/

1838.html>.

Bakhtin, Mikhail M. Rabelais and His World. Trans. Hélène Iswolsky. Bloomington: Indiana UP,

1984.

Brusberg-Kiermeier, Stefani. Cruelty, Violence and Rituals in Sarah Kanes Plays.Sarah Kane

in Context. Eds. Laurens De Vos and Graham Saunders. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2010. 8087. Buse, Peter. Sollicitations téléphoniques: La Campagne de Martin Crimp.Le Théâtre anglais contemporain: 19852005. Eds. Élisabeth Angel-Perez and Nicole Boireau. Paris: Klinck- sieck, 2007. 153168.

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148 Maria Elena Capitani Campbell, Alyson. “ Experiencing Kane: An Affective Analysis of Sarah Kane ’

Campbell, Alyson. Experiencing Kane: An Affective Analysis of Sarah Kanes ExperientialTheatre in Performance.Australasian Drama Studies 46 (2005): 8097. Capitani, Maria Elena. Blurring Ethical Boundaries: (Im)moral Ambiguity in Martin Crimps Characters.Performing Ethos: An International Journal of Ethics in Theatre and Perfor- mance 2.1 (2011): 6568.

– “‘ The Treatment Was Wild: Medicina, desiderio e coscienza in The Country di Martin Crimp.La Torre di Babele: Rivista di letteratura e linguistica 8 (2012): 213235. De Vos, Laurens. Cruelty and Desire in the Modern Theater: Antonin Artaud, Sarah Kane, and Samuel Beckett. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2011. Fordyce, Ehren. The Voice of Kane.Sarah Kane in Context. Eds. Laurens De Vos and Graham Saunders. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2010. 103114. Marlowe, Sam. Rev. of The Country, by Martin Crimp. Whats On 24 May 2000. Rpt. in Theatre

Record 20 (2000): 616. McEvoy, Wiliam. Rev. of The Country, by Martin Crimp. Sunday Telegraph 21May 2000. Rpt. in Theatre Record 20 (2000): 617618. Middeke, Martin. Martin Crimp.The Methuen Drama Guide to Contemporary British Play- wrights. Eds. Martin Middeke, Peter Paul Schnierer, and Aleks Sierz. London: Methuen Drama, 2011. 82102. Peter, John. Rev. of Cleansed, by Sarah Kane. Sunday Times 10May 1998. Rpt. in Theatre Record

18 (1998): 564.

Rees, Catherine. Sarah Kane.Modern British Playwriting: The 1990s. Voices, Documents, New Interpretations. Ed. Aleks Sierz. London: Methuen Drama, 2012. 112137.

Saunders, Graham. About Kane: The Playwright and the Work . London: Faber and Faber, 2009.

Love Me or Kill Me: Sarah Kane and the Theatre of Extremes. Manchester: Manchester UP,

2002.

Sierz, Aleks. “‘D You Really Give My Scribbling That Much Thought?Narrative Games in the Plays of Martin Crimp.Narrative in Drama: Papers Given on the Occasion of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the German Society for Contemporary Theatre and Drama in English. Eds. Merle Tönnies and Christina Flotmann. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2011.

207225.

– “‘ Form Follows Function: Meaning and Politics in Martin Crimps Fewer Emergencies. Modern Drama 50.3 (2007): 375393.

In-Yer-Face Theatre: British Drama Today. London: Faber and Faber, 2001.

The Theatre of Martin Crimp. London: Methuen Drama, 2006.

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the Dreary and Repugnant Tale of Sense.’” Sarah Kane in Context. Eds. Laurens De Vos and Graham Saunders. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2010. 195 208. Waddington, Julie. Posthumanist Identities in Sarah Kane.Sarah Kane in Context. Eds. Laurens De Vos and Graham Saunders. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2010. 139148.

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