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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

The contribution of renewable resources in meeting Turkey’s


energy-related challenges
Z. Bengü Erdem *
Yapı Kredi Retirement Incorporated Company, Ankara, Turkey

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Article history: The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of renewable energy as a key way for resolving the
Received 12 May 2010 Turkey’s energy-related challenges. As a consequence of economic and social development, Turkey’s
Accepted 7 July 2010 energy consumption has risen dramatically over the past three decades. At present, fossil fuels account
for more than 90% of the total energy consumption in the country. Turkey has no large oil and natural gas
Keywords: reserves and it import nearly all of these fossil fuels. Turkey’s current energy mix is not likely to support
Turkey development of sustainable energy. The energy mix shows a relatively small contribution from
Renewable energy
renewable energy sources in the country. They have the potential to make a large contribution to
Potential
Energy demand
Turkey’s sustainable and independent energy future. In particular they can help to reach the
Imports environmental goals of Turkey and to increase the security of energy supply by reducing the dependence
Environmental problems on imported-fuel supplies.
ß 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2710
2. Turkey’s renewable energy potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2711
3. Can renewable energy make a dent in Turkey’s energy-related challenges? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2711
3.1. The heavy dependency on energy imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2712
3.2. The finite reserves of fossil fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2712
3.3. The rapid rise in energy prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2713
3.4. The environmental problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2713
4. Present and future use of renewable energy in Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2715
4.1. Wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2716
4.2. Hydro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2716
4.3. Solar energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2717
4.4. Geothermal energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2717
4.5. Biomass energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2717
5. Present policy and legal aspects of renewable energy in Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2717
6. Renewable energy outside of Turkey—are there lessons to be learned? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2718
7. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2720
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2720

1. Introduction continue to rise. The vast majority of the world’s primary energy
demand is presently being met by fossil fuels, such as oil, natural
Worldwide energy demand has been growing steadily during gas and coal. According to BP’s Statistical Review of World Energy
the past five decades, and most experts believe that this trend will 2009 [1], the world’s primary energy consumption in 2007 was
11,104 million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe), of which 88% was
provided by fossil fuels. World primary energy demand has risen
* Tel.: +90 312 294 3238; fax: +90 312 205 1088. nearly 40% since 1990, and it is expected to rise more than by 50%
E-mail address: zbenguerdem@hotmail.com. between now and 2030. In 2030, it is will reach 17,010 Mtoe and

1364-0321/$ – see front matter ß 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.rser.2010.07.003
Z.B. Erdem / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722 2711

fossil fuels will continue to dominate the world energy mix, Table 1
Comparison of fuel mix of total energy consumption between world and Turkey (%).
accounting for 80% of the world energy demand, according to
projections of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) World Oil Natural Coal Nuclear Renewables Reference
Energy Outlook 2008 (WEO-2008) reference scenario [2]. gas (including
hydro)
The widespread and rapidly increasing use of fossil fuels within
the current energy infrastructure is considered as the largest source World (2007) 34.0 20.9 26.5 5.9 12.7 [9]
of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which is largely Turkey (2008) 29.9 31.8 27.3 – 11.0 [10]

blamed for global warming and climate change [3]. The global
atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased from around 280
parts per million (ppm) in the pre-industrial period to 385 ppm in Table 1, current energy mix is not likely to support development of
2007 [4]—a 37% increase. Since the industrial revolution, CO2 sustainable energy in Turkey. The largest share of the country’s
emissions from fossil fuel combustion dramatically increased from total energy consumption comes from natural gas (31.8%),
near zero to 29 gigatons (Gt) in 2006, it is expected to rise nearly 40% followed by oil (29.9%) and coal (27.3%). Renewable energy
during the period 2006–2030, according to the Energy Information sources (with the exception of hydro) are currently small fractions
Administration’s (EIA) International Energy Outlook 2009 (IEO2009) of Turkey’s energy supply.
[5]. Data on world fossil fuel consumption were collected from the In order to ensure a sustainable energy future in Turkey, various
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2009 [1] and the IEA WEO- renewable energy options have been explored in numerous studies
2008 reference scenario [2] and fossil fuel-based CO2 emissions data [11–21]. The aim of this paper is to point out the large potential of
were collected from EIA-IEO 2009 [5] for the period 1990–2030. renewable energy in Turkey and its importance as a key way for
Fig. 1 shows world fossil fuel consumption and fossil fuel-based CO2 resolving the country’s energy-related challenges. This paper also
emissions from 1990 to 2030. discusses the present situation, future projections and develop-
The dramatic increase in the price of oil, the finite nature of ments of renewable energy and policy objectives in Turkey.
fossil energy sources, increasing concerns regarding environmen-
tal impact, especially related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 2. Turkey’s renewable energy potential
and health and safety considerations are forcing the search for new
alternative energy sources [6]. Reducing use of fossil fuels would Evrendilek and Ertekin [22] have conducted a detailed study on
considerably reduce the amount of carbon dioxide produced, as the renewable energy potential in Turkey, said that various kinds of
well as reducing the levels of the pollutants which cause acid rain. resources like hydro, solar, wind, biomass and geothermal energy
This can be achieved by either using less energy altogether, or resources are available in abundance in the country. They
using alternative energy sources [7]. Environmental impact of estimated that Turkey’s economically feasible renewable energy
renewable energy technologies is far less than that of fossil fuel- potential exceed 495 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) in total
fired power plants. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations with the potential 196.7 TWh/year of biomass energy, 125 TWh/
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), agreed to in year of hydropower, 102.3 TWh/year of solar energy, 50 TWh/year
December 1997, marks an important turning point in efforts to of wind energy, and 22.4 TWh/year of geothermal energy.
promote the use of renewable energy worldwide and the
developed countries should decrease the net emission of CO2 [8]. 3. Can renewable energy make a dent in Turkey’s energy-
Turkey has a rapidly growing economy and, coupled with a related challenges?
population of over 70 million, is facing a growth in energy
consumption of 8% per year. Like many other developing countries, Turkey’s main domestic energy resources are coal (particularly
Turkey is heavily dependent on fossil fuels to meet its energy lignite), hydro and biomass and it has no large oil and natural gas
requirements. Table 1 shows a comparison of fuel mix of total reserves. Turkey’s potential energy reserves are given in Table 2
energy consumption between world and Turkey [9,10]. At the [23]. Given that domestic coal makes up 13.5% of Turkey’s primary
present time primary energy sources are dominated by non- energy consumption, renewable energy makes up only 11%,
renewable fossil fuels, with nearly 90% of Turkey’s energy demand especially hydro and biomass. 74% of the country’s energy
[(Fig._1)TD$IG]
supplied from crude oil, natural gas, and coal. As can be seen from consumption derives from imported fossil fuels.
Despite limitations in domestic resource availabilities, primary
and secondary energy demand in Turkey is growing very rapidly,
parallel with its industrialization efforts. Projections to 2020
indicate that its energy demand will increase significantly. The
Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) [10] has planned
for a very large increase in the country’s energy consumption over

Table 2
Turkey’s potential energy reserves (million tons).

Energy type Total Recoverable Proven Annual production

Methane from gas hydrates 14,000 – – –


Lignite 8080 7300 6800 55
Hard coal 1130 460 250 2
Bituminous schist 1650 1100 279 –
Asphaltite 82 45 30 –
Oil 42 – – 2
Natural gas 9 – – –
Thorium 380 – – –
Uranium 9 – – –
Fig. 1. World fossil fuel consumption and fossil fuel-based CO2 emissions during the
period 1990–2030. Source: Ref. [23].
[(Fig._2)TD$IG]
2712 Z.B. Erdem / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722

Currently, 97% of the country’s natural gas demand, 93% of oil


demand and 20% of coal demand is met by imports [25].
Natural gas consumption has been growing fast, causing a
significant change in the Turkish energy market. While the share of
oil in the country’s energy mix has decreased slightly during the past
three decades, the share of natural gas has rapidly increased. From
the growth rate of natural gas consumption, since the year 1990, the
country’s natural gas consumption has an annual growth rate of 15%
and the average annual growth is about 1.8 billion cubic meters
(bcm). Globally, from 1990 to 2007, it showed an annual growth rate
of 2.4%. Russia has traditionally been Turkey’s largest gas supplier
(63%) [26]. Dependency on a single resource harbours both an
economic and a political risk in all energy types [27]. There are
basically four ways to reduce our country’s heavy dependence on
energy imports:

1. the use of more volume of indigenous coal,


Fig. 2. Turkey’s primary energy consumption during the period 2000–2020. Source: 2. more efficient use of energy,
Ref. [10]. 3. mobilization of nuclear energy, and
4. more effective and extend the use of renewable energy sources.
the next decade. Turkey’s primary energy consumption in the long-
term is projected to grow at an average rate of almost 5.9% per year, Turkey has considerably high level of renewable energy
from 106.3 Mtoe in 2008 to 222.4 Mtoe in 2020 (Fig. 2). Some resources that can be a part of the total energy network in the
predict that Turkey will need up to US$128 billion in investments country [28]. Imported fossil fuels currently play an important role
to fuel this growth [24]. in the country’s electricity generation. Fig. 3 shows Turkey’s
Turkey’s population of more than 70 million is growing at an electricity generation mix in 2008 and economically feasible
annual rate of 1.04% and expected to grow to 83.4 million in 2022 renewable energy potential. Data on electricity generation mix
[14]. If Turkey uses only traditional energy sources, it simply will were collected from the Turkish Electricity Generation Company’s
not have enough energy capacity for its population. Turkey needs (EUAS) Electricity Generation Sector Report [25] and renewable
to rapidly switch to a new energy paradigm by radically changing energy potential data were collected from a study of Evrendilek and
its energy supply to renewable and local sources and by adopting Ertekin [22], respectively. As can be seen in Fig. 3(A), approximately
energy efficient technologies and reductions in consumption 60% of electricity generation is supplied by imported fossil fuels.
patterns. Renewable energy sources have the potential to make Economically feasible renewable energy potential in Turkey is more
a large contribution to Turkey’s sustainable and independent than enough for total replacement of fossil fuels currently imported
energy future. In particular they can help to reach the environ- for the electricity generation (see Fig. 3(B)). Turkey has an
mental goals of Turkey and to increase the security of energy economically feasible potential of 495 TWh/year, which is more
supply by reducing the dependence on imported-fuel supplies. than twice the current electricity generation of Turkey.
Renewable energy is the key to solving Turkey’s energy-related Renewables are domestic energy sources and can contribute to
challenges. These challenges can be listed as follows: reduce dependence from energy imports and they permit
diversification of the energy mix. Renewable energy should be
- the heavy dependency on energy imports, taken as a key way to reduce Turkey’s heavy dependence on
- the finite reserves of fossil fuels, imported energy and must be put in the first position. This will not
- the rapid rise in energy prices, and only reduce its dependence on imports of fuel to produce energy,
- the environmental challenges. but will also ensure a continued local source of energy.

3.1. The heavy dependency on energy imports 3.2. The finite reserves of fossil fuels

Turkey is currently heavily dependent on imports to meet its Petroleum-based fuels are obtained from limited reserves.
energy demand because of limited domestic energy resources. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of
[(Fig._3)TD$IG]

Fig. 3. (A) Turkey’s electricity generation mix in 2008 and (B) Turkey’s economically. feasible renewable energy potential.
Z.B. Erdem / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722 2713

Table 3
The distribution of remaining reserves of fossil fuels (at end 2008).

Country Oil (billion tons) Share (%) Natural gas (billion cubic meters) Share (%) Coal (billion tons) Share (%)

Middle East 102.0 59.9 75,900 41.0 – –


Russia 10.8 6.3 43,300 23.4 157.0 19.0
Venezuela 14.3 7.9 4800 2.6 – –
USA 3.7 2.4 6700 3.6 238.3 28.9
China 2.1 1.2 2500 1.3 114.5 13.9
Australia – – 2500 1.4 76.2 9.2
India – – 1100 0.6 58.6 7.1
Turkey 0.042a – 6.8b – 9.2a 1.1

World total 170.8 – 185,000 – 826.0 –

Source: Refs. [1,23,26].


a
Turkey’s oil and coal reserve data adapted from Ref. [23].
b
Natural gas reserve data adapted from Ref. [26]; the remainder of Table 5 adapted from Ref. [1].

the world [29]. They are on the verge of reaching their peak Table 4
Development of fuel prices.
production. The fossil fuel resources are shortening day by day.
With current consumption trends, the reserves-to-production US$ per million btu LNG Natural gas Crude oil
ratio for coal stands at 122 years compared to 42 for oil and 60 for Japan European OECD
(CIF) Union (CIF) countries
natural gas [1]. A current version of the estimates for fossil fuels is
(CIF)
given in Table 3. Total coal reserves are very large, but oil and gas
reserves are relatively much smaller. 1985 5.23 3.83 4.75
1990 3.64 2.82 3.82
Current energy supply in Turkey is primarily fossil-based fuels
1995 3.46 2.37 2.96
and these resources are shortening day by day, large power plants 2000 4.72 3.25 4.83
will need to be replaced over the next 30–40 years. The scarcity of 2001 4.64 4.15 4.08
known fossil reserves will make renewable energy sources more 2002 4.27 3.46 4.17
2003 4.77 4.40 4.89
attractive [30].
2004 5.18 4.56 6.27
2005 6.05 5.95 8.74
3.3. The rapid rise in energy prices 2006 7.14 8.69 10.66
2007 7.73 8.93 11.95
Rapidly rising energy prices have become a major problem all Source: Ref. [1].
over the world. The most important reason for rising prices is the
growing imbalance between supply and demand in oil and other If the present trends continue, the country’s dependency on
fossil fuels. Since 2003 energy prices have been rising rapidly, imports to meet the energy demand will increase from 74% in 2007
reaching a peak in 2007. Crude oil prices have more than tripled to about 80% in 2030 [10]. It can be said that Turkey which is
since mid-2003 and nearly doubled since 2004. Table 4 shows the dependent in large measures on the outside for energy, will, because
development of fuel prices between 1985 and 2007. of increasing prices and procurement problems, come face to face
Turkey’s energy imports increased an average of 7% per year with a very serious energy crisis in the future. This case clearly shows
between 2003 and 2007, but its energy import bill increased an the great importance of adequately active and widespread use of
average of 31% per year, disproportionately large. The country’s domestic and renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources
energy import bill increased sharply because of high fuel prices require an energy investment before they generate a usable fuel.
from US$11.6 billion in 2003 to US$33.9 billion in 2007. In 2007, its These up-front costs may be quite high, but on a life-cycle basis they
energy import bill accounted for almost one-fifth of the total are more and more affordable, for there are no fuel costs [34]. The
import bill. It is known that Turkey, which has shown progress in number one reason for the slow investments in renewable energy
such macro economic variables as GDP, export and import; is face technologies is the very high up-front capital costs.
to face with the problem of the current account deficit. In 2007,
Turkey spent US$33.9 billion for the purchase of energy or almost 3.4. The environmental problems
90% of current accounts deficit and more than 48% of foreign trade
deficit. Key facts about the Turkish economy are presented in From GHG emissions point of view, Turkey is not that critical,
Table 5 [10,31–33]. since, as stated earlier, CO2 emissions per capita are only three-

Table 5
Key facts about the Turkish economy.

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Ref.

GDP (billion US$) 304.14 392.99 483.92 530.57 655.74 [31]


GDP growth rate (%) 30.5 29.2 23.1 9.6 23.6 [31]
Per capita income ($) 4532 5781 7028 7609 9305 [31]
Exports (billion US$) 47.25 63.17 73.48 85.5 107.27 [32]
Imports (billion US$) 69.34 95.54 116.77 139.58 170.06 [32]
Exports/imports (%) 82.7 78.0 73.0 71.4 73.2 [31]
Energy imports (billion US$) 11.6 14.4 21.3 28.6 33.9 [33]
Energy imports (mtoe) 60.0 63.5 66.5 71.2 78.5 [10]
Energy imports—net (% energy use) 72 72 73 73 74 [10]
Current account balance (billion US$) 7.52 14.43 22.14 31.89 37.69 [31]
Foreign trade balance (billion US$) 22.09 34.37 43.30 54.04 62.79 [32]
FDI—net (US$ billion) 1.75 2.78 10.03 20.18 22.21 [31]
[(Fig._4)TD$IG]
2714 Z.B. Erdem / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722

Table 6
Year based increase of CO2 emissions in Turkey.

Year CO2 emission (g*/KWh)

1990 527
1995 509
2000 580
2005 646
2010 656

Source: Ref. [38].


*
g: gram = 10 3 kg.

into the atmosphere for each kWh of electricity use between 1990
and 2010 [38]. Fossil fuel-fired power plants are responsible for
33% of the country’s total CO2 emissions. Installed capacity of fossil
fuel-fired power plants will rise from 27,272 megawatts (MW) in
2007 (approximately 67% of total capacity) [39] to 38,087 MW in
2010 and 69,190 MW in 2020 [40].
Sustainable development depends on a widespread use of clean
and renewable energy. The environmental impact of renewable
Fig. 4. Turkey’s fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions during the period 1990– energy technologies is far less than that of fossil fuel-fired power
2020. plants. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), agreed to in December
quarters of world average. Although the demand of the country 1997, marks an important turning point in efforts to promote the
increases rapidly, Turkey’s contribution to global GHG emissions is use of renewable energy worldwide and the developed countries
considerably below the average of Annex I countries [35]. Since should decrease the net emission of CO2 [41]. Among the types of
1990, CO2 emissions in Turkey have grown two times as a result of renewable energy, wind has been the most popular and most
its rapid economic growth, industrialization and urbanization. approachable power source in recent years. The use of wind power
Total CO2 emissions reach approximately 274 million tons in 2006 as a renewable energy source is one of the means of achieving the
[32], with a 95% increase since 1990. GHG emission targets set in Kyoto agreement [42]. Life-cycle
According to the 2006 data, CO2 emissions occurred with the assessments of GHG emissions from wind turbines are very site-
utilization of the fossil fuels to a great extent, while the rate of the specific and sensitive to wind velocity conditions, because of the
fossil fuels within all CO2 emissions was found to be 92.4% [36]. cubic relationship of wind velocity to power output. Since wind
During the period 1990–2007, the share of fossil fuels in Turkey’s regimes vary significantly with geography different capacity
primary energy consumption has increased from approximately 82% factors used in the studies add to the variation that can be
(42.9 Mtoe) [10] in 1990 to 91% (96.5 Mtoe) in 2007 [25]. On the observed in the results, which lie between 8 and 30 grams of CO2
other hand, fossil fuel consumption has increased by more than equivalent per kilowatt hour (gCO2eq/kWh) for onshore, and 9–
double during the same period. Fossil fuel consumption is projected 19 gCO2eq/kWh for off-shore turbines (Fig. 5) [43]. The 48,000 MW
to more than double again by 2020 [10], and CO2 emissions will of wind power capacity installed in the European Union (EU) by the
increase accordingly. Data on Turkey’s fossil fuel consumption were end of 2006 is already avoiding 108 million tons of CO2 annually, or
collected from the MENR’s energy statistics [10], CO2 emissions data 20% of the EU’s Kyoto obligation. Wind power in Europe will be
were collected from Turkey’s Statistical Yearbook 2006 [36], meeting more than 30% of EU’s Kyoto commitment to reduce CO2
Turkey’s Statistical Yearbook 2008 [32] and a conference paper by 133 million tons by 2010 [44].
[37] for the period 1990–2020. Fig. 4 shows Turkey’s fossil fuel Transportation-related CO2 emissions account for about 16% of
consumption and CO2 emissions from the 1990 to 2020. Turkey’s CO2 emissions. According to European Environment
During the period 2000–2006, CO2 from the electric power Agency [45], by 2010, this sector will account for one-thirds of the
sector have increased faster than the other sectors due to the rapid country’s CO2 emissions. The use of biofuels can contribute to the
development of fossil fuel-fired power plants. Table 6 depicts the mitigation of GHG emissions and provide a clean and therefore
[(Fig._5)TD$IG]
comparison of the weight size in grams of CO2 emissions released sustainable energy source [46]. Using biofuels in motor vehicles

Fig. 5. Summary of life-cycle GHG emissions for selected power plants. Source: Ref. [43].
Z.B. Erdem / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722 2715

Table 7
Renewable energy resources in Turkey during the period 2000–2007 (thousand tons of oil equivalents).

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total energy demand 77,624 71,609 75,465 79,402 81,999 85,340 94,663 101,510
Total energy production 26,808 25,161 24,648 23,873 24,212 23,626 26,540 27,279
Supply by REa 10,149 9424 10,077 10,036 10,783 10,131 10,541 9604

Biomass and wastes 6546 6303 6039 5783 5550 5332 5162 5023
Wood/wood waste 6541 6297 6032 5775 5542 5325 5133 4994
Biogas 5 6 7 8 7 7 8 15
MSWb – – – – – – – –
Biofuels 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 14

Wind energy 3 5 4 5 5 5 11 31
Solar energy 262 287 318 350 375 385 402 420
Hydro energy 2655 2064 2896 3038 3963 3402 3804 3083
Geothermal energy 684 764 820 860 891 1007 1162 1048
Share (%) 13.07 13.16 13.35 12.64 13.15 11.87 11.14 9.46

Biomass and wastes (%) 8.43 8.80 8.00 7.28 6.77 6.25 5.45 4.95
Wood/wood waste (%) 8.42 8.79 7.99 7.27 6.76 6.24 5.42 4.93
Biogas (%) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
MSW (%) – – – – – – – –
Biofuels (%) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.01

Wind energy (%) 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03
Solar energy (%) 0.34 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.45 0.42 0.41
Hydro energy (%) 3.42 2.88 3.84 3.83 4.83 3.99 4.02 3.04
Geothermal energy (%) 0.88 1.07 1.09 1.08 1.09 1.18 1.23 1.03

Source: Ref. [55].


a
Renewable energy.
b
Municipal solid waste.

helps reduce GHG emissions. Full-cycle analysis indicates that, on the period 2000–2007. According to MENR’s 2020 projections [10],
average, biofuels emit less CO2 than conventional fuels [47,48]. CO2 renewable energy sources will account for less than 9% of primary
savings from biofuels are agreed at 50–70% better than gasoline and energy in 2020.
diesel and some 30% better than road fuel gases (which have a 40ppl The share of illumination within the electricity consumption is
rebate). Hence a blend of only 5% can deliver a 3% CO2 saving [49]. increasing every year. Electricity demand in Turkey is growing
Currently, under 2% of the EU’s ever growing transport fuel needs are rapidly, with the rate of increase at 8% on average for many years
met by biofuels [50]. The EU has set a goal of 5.75% of transportation [56]. Turkey’s electricity demand in 2008 was about 198 TWh [25]
fuels use from biofuels by 2010 and 10% by 2020. However, Turkey and is expected to increase to 242 TWh in 2010 and 499.5 TWh in
has not set itself an ambitious target yet for biofuels use. In Turkey, 2020 [33]. This requires installed capacity to increase from about
biofuels are not supported by the public sector, but strongly pushed 42,000 MW in 2008 [39] to 65,000 MW by 2010 and 96,000 MW by
by private companies. Currently, there are regulations and strict 2020 [33]. This means that for the next 12 years, additional power
rules in the field of biofuels [51]. Turkey’s biodiesel production is generation plants must be established for an increased capacity of
expected to take off in coming years as the country aligns its 54,000 MW. This requires a total investment of around US$84 billion
regulations with those of the EU, including the EU directives relating until the year 2020. Investment requirement would be US$13 billion
to the encouragement of biofuels. Displacing 2% of Turkey’s annual during the period 2007–2010, US$20 billion during the period 2011–
consumption of diesel fuel or around 35 million tons would require 2015 and US$51 billion during the period 2016–2020 [33].
at least 700,000 tons a year of vegetable or animal oil [52]. Currently, electricity is mainly produced using thermal power
The widespread use of renewable sources will not only plants (which consume coal, lignite, natural gas and fuel oil), wind
development of a sustainable energy supply, but also will ensure energy, geothermal energy and hydropower plants in Turkey.
the creation of new jobs. In addition, the use of renewable energy Turkey’s electricity production was about 198.2 TWh in 2008 [25],
sources can have positive environmental impacts through the compared to 30.6 TWh in 1984 [39]. Until the 1980s, electricity
mitigation of climate change. production in Turkey was based on hydroelectricity, coal-fired and
fuel oil power plants. Data on Turkish thermal and renewable-
4. Present and future use of renewable energy in Turkey based electricity generation were collected from the Turkish
Electricity Transmission Company’s (TEIAS, Turkish acronym)
In Turkey, the energy mix shows a relatively small contribution 1984 electricity statistics [39] and the EUAS’s 2008 Electricity
from renewable energy sources. However, Turkey is developing Generation Sector Report [25]. Fig. 6 shows the observed data in
policies aimed at a more diversified mix increasing hydro, wind 1984 and 2008. Coal-fired and fuel oil power plants together with
and geothermal electricity, solar and geothermal energy for heat hydroelectricity constitute almost all electricity production with
and biofuels. Turkey has the biggest potential in Europe in terms of the shares 33%, 23% and 44%, respectively; in 1984 (Fig. 6(A)). In
hydro [53], wind [54] and geothermal energy [12] and a very good 2008, their shares decreased to 29%, 5.2% and 16.7% [25] due to
potential in terms of biomass and solar energy. Despite an increase increasing use of natural gas for electric power generation. Today,
in the interest for renewable energy in the recent years, its share in gas-fired power stations produce nearly half of the electricity in
the energy mix does not increase as energy demand has been Turkey (48.4% in 2008). The consumption of natural gas for power
growing steadily. The share of renewable energy in the energy mix generation represents 55% of total gas consumption in 2008. In
has decreased from 13% in 2000 to 9.5% in 2007 [55]. Table 7 shows 2008, 82.6% of the Turkish electricity power generation was made
the renewable energy contribution in total energy demand during by thermal power stations and 16.7% was made by hydroelectric
[(Fig._6)TD$IG]
2716 Z.B. Erdem / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722

Fig. 6. (A) Thermal and renewable electricity generation in Turkey in 1984 and (B) thermal, and renewable electricity generation in Turkey in 2008.

power stations. The contribution of the stations based on wind and Until today, EMRA has given license to 58 wind energy power
other renewable energy resources was 0.7% (Fig. 6(B)). Renewable plants, which have a total capacity of 2,126 MW. In July 2008, it has
energy sources were used to generate 34.5 TWh of electricity, been decided to give license to 13 wind power plant projects,
which equates to 17.4% of all electricity produced. which will annually generate approximately 2 TWh of electrical
The development and use of renewable energy sources are energy [67].
gaining ground in Turkey. In recent years, electricity generation Up to now, Turkey has not been a significant wind turbine
from renewable energy sources has been promoted and encour- manufacturer. Enercon has a production line in Izmir and has been
aged and regulations concerning renewable energy sources have producing 0.8 MW turbines since 2005. Manufacturers that sold
been established. The directive of the European Parliament with most wind turbines in Turkey (2009-contracted) [68]:
date of 27 September 2001 and number of 2001/77/EC endorses
member countries to cover 12% of the first energy consumption - Enercon (Germany) with 36% market share,
from the renewable energy sources after the year 2010. The - Vestas (Denmark) with 24% market share,
scarcity of renewable energy sources of EC will make the - GE Wind (USA) with 20% market share,
renewable electricity import from other countries as Turkey. - Nordex (Germany) with 16% market share, and
Turkey may export renewable electricity to European countries by - Suzlon (India) with 4% market share.
improving the renewable energy sources and by developing the
electricity interconnection [57]. Enercon and Vestas seem to be dominating most of the
contracts in the Turkish market, but new Turkish players are
4.1. Wind energy making their way into the market. Soyut Enerji produces small-
scale turbines, whereas Model Enerji is going to be the first MW-
According to a study [58], Turkey has one of the richest wind level turbine manufacturer in Turkey [68]. The private sector plans
energy potentials among European countries, can even meet all to invest 2000–3000 MW wind power projects over the next 3–5
of the electricity needs from wind energy. Turkey’s total years in Turkey [69].
theoretically available potential for wind power is estimated
to be around 88,000 MW. Turkey’s total economically feasible 4.2. Hydro
potential for wind power is estimated at some 10,000 MW [59–
62]. As for Turkey’s situation related to wind energy utilization, it Hydropower is by far the most important form of renewable
can be seen that Turkey is rather unsuccessful in using its electricity produced in Turkey [70]. The political desire to exploit
potentials and has only 12 wind power plants with installed more of the estimated 433 TWh of theoretical hydropower
capacity [63]. potential has been strengthened by volatile gas prices and
Turkey’s installed wind capacity tripled during 2007 from intermittent service from its two main suppliers, Russia and Iran
50 MW to almost 150 MW and again in 2008 to 433 MW [64]. A [71]. Almost half of the gross potential is technically exploitable,
further 402 MW are under construction and 668 MW have secured and 28% is economically exploitable [72,73].
supply contracts for wind turbines [65]. The installed capacity of Turkey has 172 hydroelectric power plants [74] in operation
wind energy is expected to reach from 433 MW in 2008 [64] to with total installed capacity of 13,830 MW [39] generating an
11,200 MW by 2025 [40], where the share of wind energy for average of 33.1 TWh/year [25], which is 39% of the economically
generating electricity would increase from 0.4% [25] to 3.6% [13]. feasible hydro potential. In 2008, the share of hydroelectric was
The Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) has stated that about 16.7% of total electricity production of the country
751 license applications (totaling 77,871 MW) for wind electricity (Fig. 6(B)). It represented approximately 96% of electricity
generation projects. The distribution of the applications is production from renewable energy sources in 2008. During the
mentioned below [66]: period 2000–2008, the hydroelectric installed capacity increased
from 11,175 MW to 13,830 MW [39]. According to the govern-
- 24% Aegean Region (Izmir 114, Manisa 23, Aydin 18, Mugla 15, mental plan, the hydroelectric installed capacity will reach
Denizli 5), 35,000 MW in 2020, accounting for 36.5% of the total installed
- 49% Marmara Region (Istanbul 47, Edirne 15, Kirklareli 44, capacity.
Tekirdag 18, Çanakkale 93, Kocaeli 11, Yalova 7, Sakarya 10, Turkey is developing a great deal more hydroelectric power
Bilecik 3, Bursa 26, Balikesir 87), plants, especially as part of the US$32 billion Southeastern
- 16% Mediterranean Region (Hatay 63, Mersin 32, Karaman 14, Anatolia Project (GAP, Turkish acronym) along the basin of the
Osmaniye 5), Tigris and Euphrates rivers [75]. These projects envisage the
- 8% Black Sea Region (Ordu 7, Kastamonu 7, Sinop 6, Amasya 5, construction of 22 dams and 19 power plants, generation of
Tokat 4), and 27 TWh of energy a year over an installed capacity of 7.5 GW
- 3% other regions. [13].
Z.B. Erdem / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722 2717

Furthermore, small hydropower has a huge, as yet largely have grown to 8300 MWt for space heating and 1000 MWe for
untapped potential in Turkey and can make a significant electricity [90].
contribution to future energy needs. The gross theoretical small The share of geothermal energy in Turkey’s energy mix was
hydropower potential of Turkey is 50 TWh/year. The technically only 1% in 2007 (Table 7). Its use is expected to reach 6.3 Mtoe by
and economically feasible potential is 30 and 20 TWh/year, 2020 [57,91,92], accounting for approximately 3% of the national
respectively. Only 3.3% of economically feasible potential is energy mix.
developed so far [76].
4.5. Biomass energy
4.3. Solar energy
Biomass is the major source of energy in rural Turkey. The
Turkey has also considerable solar energy potential. Three- amount of annual biomass potential of Turkey is approximately
fourths of the economically usable potential is considered suitable 32 Mtoe. The total recoverable bioenergy potential is estimated to
for thermal use, with the reminder for electricity generation [77]. be about 17 Mtoe [13]. Among OECD countries, Turkey takes the
Currently, Turkey does not have an organized commercial and fourth place from the top in the estimated total energy potential
domestic photovoltaic (PV) program [73,78]. On the other hand, from crop residues with 9.5 Mtoe [18]. Biogas production potential
there is good potential for PV applications in the local market since in Turkey has been estimated at 1.5–2 Mtoe but only two small
the country is enormously suitable due to high rates of solar units (in total 5 MW) are in operation and one new facility (1 MW)
radiation and available land for PV applications [79]. The PV has been licensed [20,93]. Around 85% of the total biogas potential
generation application is insignificant and currently, the total PV is from dung gas, and the remainder is from landfill gas. The dung
generation capacity in Turkey is 3 MWp [80]. PV energy is used for gas potential is obtained from 50% sheep, 43% cattle and 7% poultry
signalling purposes and in rural areas such as the watch towers of [20,94,95].
the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, light houses and lighting
of highways [80]. Monthly solar energy potential of Turkey is given 5. Present policy and legal aspects of renewable energy in
in Table 8 [81]. Turkey
With an installed solar thermal capacity of 7.1 GWt, Turkey is
currently the third largest producer of solar thermal power Turkish government has not yet set a target for electricity
worldwide, after China (84 GWt) and the EU (15.5 GWt) [82]. The generation from renewable energy sources but utilization of
annual average total insolation duration is 2640 h (7.2 h/day), renewable energy sources as an alternative to fossil fuels in the
while the average annual solar radiation is 1311 kW h/m2/year country has been promoted and encouraged particularly over the
(3.6 kW h/m2/day) in Turkey [83]. Solar collectors mounted in past decade. Positive achievements have been obtained in
2007 were 18 million square meters [84], and total energy renewable energy development and manufacturing. The renew-
production related to this amount was 420 thousand toe [10]. able energy-related legislation has noticeably been intensified. A
series of rules and regulations, such as the ‘‘Law on Electricity
4.4. Geothermal energy Market’’, ‘‘Law on Renewable Energy’’ and ‘‘Law on Geothermal
Resources and Natural Mineral Waters’’ have been stipulated in
Turkey has significant potential for geothermal power produc- succession.
tion, possessing one-eighth of the world’s total geothermal The Electricity Market Law (EML, No. 4628), which was enacted
potential [85–87]. The overall geothermal potential in Turkey is in February 2001, authorizes the EMRA to take the necessary
about 38,000 MW (electric and thermal) [13]. Much of this measures to promote the utilization of renewable energy sources. In
potential is of relatively low enthalpy that is not suitable for the scope of the EML, the generation of electricity from renewable
electricity production but is still useful for direct heating energy sources is encouraged. The EML contains two regulations
applications [88]. concerning the promotion of the use of renewable energy sources.
Turkey is ranked as fifth biggest geothermal energy user for The legal entities applying for licenses for the construction of
heating and hot spring purposes after China, Japan, USA and Island facilities based on renewable energy sources shall pay only 1% of the
[61,79]. Turkey has increased their installed capacity over the past total licensing fee. Also renewables based generation facilities shall
10 years from 140 MWt to 1177 MWt, which now supplies heat not pay annual license fees for the first 8 years following the facility
equivalent to the needs of 70,000 homes [89]. By 2020 capacity will completion date inserted in their respective licenses.
In the following years activity related with the issuing of
licenses by the Authority was accompanied by the termination of
Table 8
some of them under reasons stipulated in the EML and secondary
Monthly average solar potential of Turkey.
legislation. The latest statistical data, as of April 2007, about valid
Months Monthly total solar energy Sunshine duration licenses held by private companies for generation, by auto-
(Kcal/cm2-month) (kWh/m2-month) producers and auto-producer groups, as well by EUAS and its
affiliates is given in Table 9 [96].
January 4.45 51.75 103.0
February 5.44 63.27 115.0 The EML was amended by Law no. 5784 on 9 July 2008 (New
March 8.31 96.65 165.0 EML). According to the new EML, production of electricity from
April 10.51 122.23 197.0 renewable energy up to a capacity of 500 kW is exempt from the
May 13.23 153.86 273.0
need to obtain a production license.
June 14.51 168.75 325.0
July 15.08 175.38 365.0 In May 2005, the government passed the Renewable Energy
August 13.62 158.40 343.0 Law No. 5346, which aims to expand the use of renewable energy
September 10.60 123.28 280.0 sources for producing electricity in a dependable and economic
October 7.73 89.90 214.0 manner, to increase the diversification of energy sources, to reduce
November 5.23 60.82 157.0
GHG emissions, to assess waste products, to protect the environ-
December 4.03 46.87 103.0
ment and develop the related manufacturing sector to realize these
Total 112.74 1311 2640 objectives. ‘‘The electricity generation resources suitable for wind,
Source: Ref. [81]. solar, geothermal, biomass, biogas, wave, current and tidal energy
2718 Z.B. Erdem / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722

Table 9
Electricity generation licenses, as of April 2007.

HPPa TPPb RPPc Total

Number Capacity (MW) Number Capacity (MW) Number Capacity (MW) Number Capacity (MW)

PSd 184 5065.4 61 5979.8 43 1284.5 288 12329.6


EUASe 108 11446.1 1 15.0 17 8992.4 126 20453.5
AAGf 4 548.2 191 3107.3 5 9.6 200 3665.3

Total 296 17050.7 253 9102.1 65 10286.5 614 33149.4

Source: Ref. [96].


a
HPP—hydro power plants.
b
TPP—thermal power plants.
c
RPP—power plants on renewable resources.
d
PS—private sector.
e
EUAS—Turkish Electricity Generation Company.
f
AAG—auto-producers and auto-producer groups.

resources together with hydraulic generation plants either canal or feed-in tariff for photovoltaics of 0.25 s/kWh only for the first 10
run of river type or with a reservoir area of less than fifteen square years of operation, dropping to 0.20 s/kWh for the next 10 years.
kilometers’’ are defined renewable energy resources to be The Geothermal Resources and Natural Mineral Water Law No.
supported in the scope of this law. Specific incentives provided 5686 dated 13 June 2007 was put into effect which aims to explore,
by the law are as follows: analyze, develop, produce, preserve and put to economical and
environmentally friendly use the geothermal and natural mineral
- Each legal entity holding a retail sale license shall be entitled to waters. A special license is required to carry out exploration
purchase renewable energy source-certified (RES-certified) activities. The license may be issued according to the procedure
electrical energy in an amount declared by EPDK. According to regulated by these provisions and shall be valid for a maximum
this law retail electricity licensees have to purchase at least 8% of period of 3 years. An operational license is also necessary to exploit
their annual electricity sales volume from renewable energy geothermal resources. Operational licenses are valid for 30 years
sources. and may be extended for up to 10 years.
- Until the end of 2011, the applicable price shall be the average Since 2005, the rate of geothermal fields exploration and
wholesale electricity price of the previous year determined by research activities of the General Directorate of Mineral Research
the EMRA, though the Council of Ministers is entitled to raise this and Exploration (MTA, Turkish acronym) have increased by
price up to 20% at the beginning of each year. The price to be multiple times. The number of geothermal fields discovered by
applied cannot be less than the Turkish Lira equivalent of 0.05 s/ MTA increased from 170 in 2005 to 187 in 2008. Five of the newly
kWh and more than the Turkish Lira equivalent of 0.055 s/kWh. discovered geothermal sites are suitable for electricity production
- After 2011, this pricing methodology shall not be applicable for [97]. These five fields are: Aydın-Umurlu (423 K), Aydın-Sultanhi-
the RES-certified power plants that are in operation for more than sar (419 K), Aydın-Bozköy (416 K), Aydın-Atça (397 K) and Aydın-
7 years. No plant shall benefit from the compulsory purchase Pamukören (461 K).
provisions for more than 7 years.
- The law provides certain incentives concerning the investment
6. Renewable energy outside of Turkey—are there lessons to be
periods of energy projects. For example, investments for energy
learned?
generation facilities, procurement of electro-mechanic systems
within Turkey, research, development and production invest-
Renewable energy sources (including hydro) supply approxi-
ments regarding solar energy units, and research and develop-
mately 13% of global primary energy demand (Table 1) and 18.2%
ment investments for biomass energy may benefit from the
of global electricity generation [98]. Data on electric power
incentives determined by the Council of Ministers.
production were collected from Observ’ER [98]. Fig. 7 shows the
- The need for heat energy in the municipalities and governorates
observed data for 2007. Hydroelectric power is a very significant
with sufficient geothermal energy resources shall be met
source and its contribution to global production of electricity in
primarily by geothermal and solar thermal energy resources.
2007 was 15.9% (Fig. 7 (A)). Hydroelectric power accounts for
about 87.3% of renewable electricity production (Fig. 7 (B)).
Currently there are amendments being made to the Renewable Renewable energies could provide approximately half of the global
[(Fig._7)TD$IG]Energy Law. The Draft Law for renewable energy sources includes a energy demand by 2040, according to European Renewable Energy

Fig. 7. (A) The global electricity generation mix in 2007 and (B) the global renewable-based electricity generation mix in 2007.
[(Fig._8)TD$IG]
Z.B. Erdem / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722 2719

Council [99]. PV systems and wind energy will be able to play an


important role in the energy scenarios of the future [100].
Global investment in renewable energy set a new record of
$120 billion in 2008, according to the Renewable Energy Policy
Network [82]. In the period 2004–2008, there was a 76% increase in
renewable electricity generation capacity worldwide (excluding
large hydro)—from 160 GW [101] to 282 GW [82]. At the end of
2008, the top six countries in terms of installed capacity were
China (76 GW), the United States (40 GW), Germany (34 GW),
Spain (22 GW), India (13 GW), and Japan (8 GW) [82]. In 2007, the
electricity production from renewable sources was 3,604 TWh [98]
with a large contribution of electricity produced from hydro plants
to the total (87.3% in 2007). The top 10 countries in terms of
electricity production from renewable sources (including hydro)
were China (471 TWh), Brazil (392 TWh), the United States
(387 TWh), Canada (382 TWh), Russia (190 TWh), Norway
(137 TWh), India (137 TWh), Japan (110 TWh), Germany
(97 TWh), and Venezuela (81 TWh) [98]. These ten countries
accounted for 66.1% of world renewable-based electricity produc-
tion. China is world’s largest producer of renewable electricity
(including large hydro), with 13% of total production, followed by
Fig. 8. The worldwide cumulative wind installed capacity during the period 1997–
Brazil (10.9%), the United States (10.7%), and Canada (10.6%). 2008.
However, renewables constitute less than 15% of total electricity
production in China, while they provide 88% of the total production
in Brazil. Table 10 provides a comparison of Turkey with selected investment. That raised to nearly $45 billion the total wind power
countries in terms of their renewable electricity generation. investment in the United States since the 1980s [107]. Wind
Compared with renewable electricity generation of selected energy in the United States can grow from installed capacity of
countries, Turkey takes place for beyond the list at the last level. 25.2 GW [82] supplying 2% of its electricity in early 2009 [107], to a
Wind energy is now the world’s fastest growing renewable total of 305 GW of capacity by 2030 [108]. These wind farms could
energy source. Today, wind energy is mainly used to produce provide 20% of the nation’s electricity needs by 2030, according to
electricity. According to the Observ’ER [98], it has increased Hand et al. [108]. Wind power is also a job creation dynamo,
worldwide at an annual rate exceeding 29.6% since 1997. The creating 35,000 jobs in 2008 alone despite the economic downturn
worldwide cumulative wind installed capacity reached 122 GW in and providing a broad range of business and employment
2008 [102], up from 59 GW in 2005 [103] and 7.6 GW in 1997 opportunities in different regions of the United States [109].
[104]. Fig. 8 shows the worldwide cumulative wind installed Today, 85,000 jobs have been created in the country’s wind energy
capacity during the period 1997–2008. By the end of 2008, the industry [109].
United States led the world with installed capacity of 25,170 MW The solar PV industry has rapidly become one of the world’s
[82], or one-fifth of the global total. Germany is second with fastest growing industries.
23,900 MW, Spain is third with 16,740 MW, and China is fourth Solarbuzz [110] reported that world PV cell production reached
with more than 12,200 MW [82]. In 2013, cumulative wind a consolidated figure of 6.85 GW in 2008, up from 3.44 GW a year
installed capacity in the world will have reached 343 GW, of which earlier. Grid-connected solar PV capacity grew by 70% in 2008 to
145 GW will be in the EU according to BTM Consult ApS [105]. reach 13 GW, as reported by Renewable Energy Policy Network for
Wiser and Bolinger [106] reported that the United States wind the 21st Century [82]. Cumulative PV power installed worldwide
power additions increased by 60% in 2008 with $16 billion in new jumped from 10.5 GW in 2007 [111] to almost 16 GW in 2008 [82].

Table 10
A comparison of Turkey with selected countries in terms of their renewable electricity generationa.

Country TEGb (TWh) REGc (TWh) (Incl. hydro) SREd (%) (Incl. hydro) REGc (TWh) (Excl. hydro) SREd (%) (Excl. hydro)
e
Turkey (a) 198.2 34.4 17.4 1.3 0.66

Selected countriesf (b)


China 3246.7 471.2 14.5 9.3 0.29
Brazil 446.1 392.2 87.9 17.8 3.99
USA 4376.5 386.7 8.8 108.9 2.49
Canada 637.2 381.4 59.9 12.3 1.93
Russia 1011.0 189.6 18.8 0.4 0.04
India 801.5 136.7 17.1 14.7 1.83
Norway 138.3 136.6 98.8 1.3 0.94
Japan 1139.2 110.3 9.7 24.7 2.17
Germany 641.1 96.6 15.1 69.1 10.78
Venezuela 110.6 80.6 72.9 0 0
a
The lower-case letters in parentheses represent the different authors from which renewable electricity generation were sourced from literatures for this work: (a) Ref.
[25] and (b) Ref. [98].
b
TEG-Total electricity generation.
c
REG- Renewable electricity generation.
d
SRE- Share of renewables in total electricity.
e
2008 data.
f
2007 data.
2720 Z.B. Erdem / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2710–2722

Since 2004, Europe has been leading the global market for PV renewable energy to meet its growing energy needs. This will not
applications. In 2008, Europe represented over 80% of the global PV only reduce its dependence on imports of fuel to produce energy,
market [112]. The top three PV-producing countries are China but will also ensure a continued local source of energy,
(1.8 GW), Germany (1.3 GW), and Japan (1.2 GW) [113]. In terms of development of a sustainable energy supply, and the creation of
installations Spain has been the leading market for PV installations new jobs. In addition, widespread adoption of renewable energy
since it overtook Germany in 2006. In 2008, Spain, adding sources will benefit from economic markets that place a true cost
2,460 MW [110], became the first country to install more than of using fossil fuels (such as environmental damage or cleanup
2 GW in a single year. This growth is explained by the reduction in required) on the user and not on society as a whole.
solar PV energy feed-in tariff from the end of September 2008,
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