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Practice Improvement Cooperation Innovation

Transmission Line Protection


PCS-902

NR Electric Co., Ltd.


Application
• Overhead lines or cables of various
voltage levels

• Flexible configuration of main and


backup protection

• Single-phase or three-phase tripping


mode
PCS‐902 Line Distance Relay
• Configurable auto-reclosing mode

• Fully support IEC 61850

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Typical Application
• Double busbar arrangement

Protection channel

Panel 1 Panel 2 Panel 2 Panel 1

Protection channel
PCS-902 PCS-902 PCS-902 PCS-902

Transmission Line

CB CB

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Typical Application
• One and a half circuit breaker scheme
Panel 1 Panel 1
Panel 1 Panel 1
PCS-921 Protection Chanel PCS-921
PCS-902 PCS-902

PCS-902 PCS-902

CB CB

Panel 1 Panel 1

PCS-921 PCS-921

CB CB

Panel 1 Panel 1

Panel 1 Panel 1
PCS-902 PCS-902

PCS-921 PCS-902 PCS-902 PCS-921


CB CB

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Hardware
• Front View

 LED indicator
PCS-902
HEALTHY LINE DISTANCE RELAY
ALARM

TRIPPING

C GRP
ENT

ES
 Testing port

 LCD displayer  Keyboard

2010-06-08 18:00:02

P
Ia 0.00A

GR
Ib 0.00A
Ic 0.00A
3Io 0.02A

C
Ua 0.00V

ES
Ub 0.00V
Uc 0.00V
3Uo 0.00V
UB1 0.00V
UL2 0.00V
UB2 0.00V
F_line 50.00Hz
Addr 12345 Group 01

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Hardware
• Rear View

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 P1

NR1102 NR1401 NR1161 NR1213 NR1504 NR1504 NR1521 NR1521 NR1521 NR1521 NR1301

1 5V OK ALM
TX

BO_ALM BO_FAIL
RX
2

1 BO_COM1

DANGER 2 BO_FAIL

3 BO_ALM

4 BO_COM2

5 BO_FAIL

6 BO_ALM

7 OPTO+

8 OPTO-

10 PWR+

11 PWR-

12 GND

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Hardware
• PWR module
- DC input voltage: 88-300Vdc No. Description
01 BO_COM1
02 BO_FAIL
03 BO_ALM
04 BO_COM2
05 BO_FAIL
06 BO_ALM
07 OPT+
08 OPT‐
09
10 PWR+
11 PWR‐
12 GND
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Hardware
• MON module

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Hardware
• AI module

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Hardware
• CH module
Transmission 
NR1213 NR1213 NR1214 NR1214 Type Wavelength
distance
TX TX TX TX
Single-mode
NR1213A 1310nm
RX RX RX RX <40km
Single-mode
TX TX NR1213A-100 1550nm
<100km
RX RX
Single-mode
NR1213B 1310nm
<40km
Single-mode
NR1213B-100 1550nm
<100km
Multi-mode
NR1214A 830nm
<2km
Multi-mode
NR1214B 830nm
<2km

NR1213A NR1213B NR1214A NR1214B


NR1213A-100 NR1213B-100 www.nrelect.com 10
Hardware
NR1504 NR1503
• BI Module NR1504 Opto+ 01 BI_01 01
BI_01 02 Opto01- 02
- BI_01~BI_04 of BI module in BI_02 03 BI_02 03

slot 8 are fixed BI_03 04 Opto02- 04


BI_04 05 BI-03 05
BI_05 06 Opto03- 06
- BI_01: TimeSyn BI_06 07 BI_04 07
08 Opto04- 08
- BI_02: Print BI_07 09 BI_05 09
BI_08 10 Opto05- 10
- BI_03: Maintenance BI_09 11 BI_06 11
BI_10 12 Opto06- 12
- BI_04: RstTarg BI_11 13 BI_07 13
BI_12 14 Opto07- 14
15 BI_08 15
BI_13 16 Opto08- 16
BI_14 17 BI_09 17
BI_15 18 Opto09- 18
BI_16 19 BI_10 19
BI_17 20 Opto10- 20
BI_18 21 BI_11 21
COM- 22 Opto11- 22
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Hardware
• BO Module

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Hardware
PCS-900 hardware platform

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Hardware
• 24 samples per cycle, all tasks are done within one
sampling period
• 1024 statues change records, 1024 self-supervision
records, 1024 operating records
• 32 disturbance waveforms (COMTRADE file)

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Principles of protection
• Protection program flow chart

Main Program

Sampling Program

FD
Pickup?

Fault Calculation
Regular Program
Program

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Principles of protection
• PCS-902 protection functional diagram

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Principles of protection
• Disadvantage of time-stepped protection
- Zone 1 protection can not be set cover the whole length of T.L.

- Time delay of zone 2 protection may cause system become unstable

Z2

Z1
M N

Z1

Z2

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Principles of protection
• Pilot protection scheme

Signal Receive
≥1 Trip
Protection Element

DTT Scheme

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Principles of protection
• Pilot Distance Protection(POTT)

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Principles of protection
• Pilot Distance Protection(PUTT)

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Principles of protection
• Pilot Distance Protection(Blocking)
f
f f
M N P
ES ER
F
Z_pilot: √ Z_pilot x Z_pilot: √ Z_pilot: √

Pilot Distance Scheme


operate
× does not operate

ZPilot
N P

ZPilot

FD
& Send
1 Channel
Receive

≥1
2 0
& Td Trip
& 5
& 4
Z_pilot
3 www.nrelect.com 21
Principles of protection
• Directional earth fault protection (DEF)
f1
f f2
M N P
ES ER
F
DEF_pilot: √ DEF_pilot: x DEF_pilot: √ DEF_pilot:√

Directional Earth Fault Scheme


operate
× does not operate

FWD_DEF_pilot REV_DEF_pilot
N P

REV_DEF_pilot FWD_DEF_pilot

FD
& Send
FDW_DEF_Pilot Channel
2 Receive
&
REV_DEF_Pilot 1 t

& t_DEF 0 Trip


3
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Principles of protection
• Zero-sequence direction element for DEF

FWD_ROC
& FWD_DEF_Pilot
3I0>[85.DEF.3I0_Set]

REV_ROC
& REV_DEF_Pilot
FD.ROC.Pkp

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Principles of protection
• Zero-sequence power direction element
- Zero sequence power value
P0  3U 0  3I 0  cos(  RCA)
- Forward direction

P0<-0.1In VA

- Reverse direction

P0>0

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Principles of protection
• CB echo
Relay will initiate sending a pulse of 200ms permissive signal when
signal receive condition is met during CB is in open position

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Principles of protection
• Operation signal from other protection
- Operation signal from other protection initiates sending permissive
signal for 150ms

87B
ExTrip
EM M N EN
F

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Principles of protection
• Current reversal

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Principles of protection
• Current reversal

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Principles of protection
• The solution of current reversal
- Receiving permissive signal and forward element does not pickup for
[85.t_DPU_CR1]

- The protection can operate after [85.t_DDO_CR1]

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Principles of protection
• Weak infeed
FD does not pick up
1. phase or phase to phase voltage less than [85.U_UV_WI]

2. receive permissive signal from opposite end

send permissive signal to remote protection for 200ms

FD picks up
1. forward and reverse elements do not pick up

2. phase or phase to phase voltage is less than [85.U_UV_WI]

3. receive permissive signal from opposite end

send permissive signal to remote protection for 200ms

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Principles of protection
 Time-stepped Distance Element
• 3 forward zone and 1 reverse zone

• Mho or quadrilateral distance elements

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Principles of protection
• Positive sequence polarized voltage distance protection
Phase to phase fault

U op  U  I Z set


U p  U1 jx jx
1
U op ZR
90  arg

 90 2
U p

Z set
R
O
Z set
R
1
 Zs O
2
Forward fault Reverse fault
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Principles of protection
• Positive sequence polarized voltage distance protection
Phase to ground fault

U op  U  I Z set
U p  U1 jx jx
U op
90  arg

 90 KZ R

U p

Z set

R
O
Z set
R
 KZs O

Forward fault Reverse fault


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Principles of protection
• Reverse distance element
Reverse distance element is taken as backup protection for reversal
busbar fault

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Principles of protection
• Quadrilateral distance element

jX jX
Rset
Zset
θ

β O R

R
O β O
θ
Rset
Zset

Forward Distance Element Reverse Distance Element

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Principles of protection
• Load encroachment

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Principles of protection
• Phase overcurrent protection
- 4 stages phase overcurrent protection

- Each stage can be controlled by directional element and 2nd harmonic


blocking element

- All stages can be selected as definite-time or inverse time


characteristic

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Principles of protection
• Inverse-time curve parameters
Setting Standard Time Characteristic k α C
1 IEC Standard inverse 0.14 0.02 0
2 IEC Very inverse 13.5 1 0
3 IEC Extremely inverse 80 2 0
4 IEC Short time inverse 0.05 0.04 0
5 IEC Long time inverse 120 1 0
6 IEEE(ANSI) Extremely inverse 28.2 2 0.1217
7 IEEE(ANSI) Very inverse 19.61 2 0.491
8 IEEE(ANSI) Inverse 0.0086 0.02 0.0185
9 IEEE(ANSI) Moderately inverse 0.0515 0.02 0.114
10 IEEE(ANSI) Long time extremely inverse 64.07 2 0.25
11 IEEE(ANSI) Long time very inverse 28.55 2 0.712
12 IEEE(ANSI) Long time inverse 0.086 0.02 0.185
13 User programmable www.nrelect.com 38
Principles of protection
• Earth fault protection
- 4 stages earth fault protection

- Each stage can be controlled by directional element and 2nd harmonic


blocking element

- All stages can be selected as definite-time or inverse time


characteristic

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Principles of protection
• Residual current SOTF protection
- Enabled for 400ms when the circuit is energized either manually or
via an auto-reclosing system

- Operate with 60ms time delay when 1-pole auto-reclosing

- Operate with 100ms time delay when 3-pole auto-reclosing or closing


manually

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Principles of protection
• Breaker failure protection
 Stage 1 trip local circuit break and stage 2 trip adjacent circuit
breakers

 Zero sequence current criterion and negative sequence current


criterion enhance sensitivity for generator or transformer fault

 Re-trip logic to prevent an undesired breaker failure output

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Principles of protection
• Auto reclosing
 Transient fault, semi-transient fault, permanent fault

 90% faults on overhead transmission line network are transient

 Substantial improvement in continuity of power supply

 Maintain the system stability and synchronism

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Principles of protection
• Auto-reclosing initiation
 AR initiated by protection

receiving tripping signal and AR will be initiated after tripping signal


drops off

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Principles of protection
 AR initiated by CB state

circuit breaker is open and corresponding phase is no-current

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Principles of protection
 AR initiated by CB state

circuit breaker is open and corresponding phase is no-current

SIG Reset Command


&
3-pole AR initiation
&
SIG Phase A open

SIG Phase B open &

SIG Phase C open

SIG En_CBInitAR

SIG AR Ready

SIG En_3PAR
≥1
SIG En_1/3P_AR

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Principles of protection
• Auto-reclosing time sequence for transient fault
Fault
Protection
CB Pos.
AR ready
AR active
AR Initiation
AR inprogress
Dead time
Reclaim time
79.Ok_Chk

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Principles of protection
• Auto reclosing time sequence for permanent fault
Fault
Protection
CB Pos.
AR ready
AR active
AR Initiation
AR inprogress
Dead time
Reclaim time
79.Ok_Chk

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Principles of protection
VT failure supervision
• one-phase or two-phase VT circuit failure

① Ua+Ub+Uc>0.08Un

② FD element does not picks up

VT failure alarm will be issued after 1.25s

• three-phase busbar VT circuit failure

① Ua+Ub+Uc<0.08Un

② 3U1<Un

③ FD element does not picks up

VT failure alarm will be issued after 1.25s

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Principles of protection
VT failure supervision
• three-phase line VT circuit failure

① Ua+Ub+Uc<0.08Un

② 3U1<Un

③ FD element does not picks up

④ Any single phase current higher than 0.08In or circuit breaker is


closed

VT failure alarm will be issued after 1.25s

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Principles of protection
CT circuit failure supervision
• With calculated zero-sequence current but without zero-sequence
voltage, TA alarm will be issued after 10s

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Communication
• Dedicated fiber optical channel mode

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Communication
• Multiplex 2Mbit/s channel mode

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Communication
• Ethernet communication

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Thanks for Your Attention!
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Version 2012
Copyright 2012 NR Electric Co., Ltd. All rights reserved