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## Quadrilateral is a geometric construct formed by four line segments connecting

four points with three of them not inline.

1. Parallelogram
A. Definition of Parallelogram
Parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel.

B. Properties of Parallelogram
There are five important properties of parallelograms to know:
 Opposite sides are congruent (AB = DC and CB = DA).
 Opposite angles are congruent (∠D = ∠B , ∠C = ∠A
 Consecutive angles are supplementary (∠A + ∠D = ∠B + ∠C = ∠C + ∠D
= ∠D + ∠A = 180°).
 The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.
 Each diagonal of a parallelogram separates it into two congruent triangles.
We will prove the five properties above.
1. Opposite sides are congruent (AB = DC, AD = CB).
Proof:
Look at the picture!

## Let ABCD be a parallelogram and AC be a diagonal.

Diagonal AC divides parallelogram ABCD into two triangles, namely,
Here BC || AD and AC is the transversal
So, ∠CAD = ∠ACB (Alternate angles) ................(i)
AC = AC (Common side) ..............................(ii)
Also, AB || DC and AC is the transversal.
Hence ∠ACD = ∠BAC (Alternate angles) .........(iii)
∴from (i), (ii), (iii), we can conclude that ΔABC ≅ ΔADC (By ASA
Congruence rule)
As a result: AB = CD, AD = CB

## 2. Opposite angles are congruent (∠D = ∠B and ∠A= ∠C).

Proof:
Look at the picture!

## Look at ΔABC and ΔADC

Here BC || AD and AC is the transversal
So, ∠CAD = ∠ACB (Alternate angles) ................(i)
AC = AC (Common side) ................................(ii)
Also, AB || DC and AC is the transversal.
Hence ∠ACD = ∠BAC (Alternate angles) .........(iii)
from (i), (ii), (iii), we can conclude that ΔABC ≅ ΔADC (By ASA
Congruence rule)
As a result: ∠B = ∠D ......(iv)

## Look at ΔABD and ΔCDB

Here BC || AD and BD is the transversal
So, ∠ADB = ∠CBD (Alternate angles) ................(i)
BD = BD (Common side) ................................(ii)
Also, AB || DC and BD is the transversal.
Hence ∠ABD = ∠CDB (Alternate angles) .........(iii)
from (i), (ii), (iii), we can conclude that ΔABD ≅ ΔCDB (By ASA
Congruence rule)
As a result: ∠A = ∠C ......(v)
∴from statements (iv) and (v) it is Proofn that ∠D = ∠B and ∠A= ∠C.

## 3. Consecutive angles are supplementary (∠A + ∠D = 180°, ∠B + ∠C =

180°, ∠A + ∠B = 180°, ∠D +∠C = 180°).
Proof:
Look at the picture!

## Because AB || DC, then

∠A and ∠D , ∠B and ∠C are codirection angles so that:
∠A + ∠D = 180° (interior codirection angles)
∠B + ∠C = 180° (interior codirection angles)
∠A and∠B , ∠D and∠C is a unilateral angle so that:
∠A + ∠B = 180° (interior codirection angles)
∠D + ∠C = 180° (interior codirection angles)
It is Proofn that in paralellogram, the consecutive angles are
supplementary .

## 4. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

Proof:
Look at the picture!

## Look at ΔAOD and ΔCOB

∠ADO = ∠CBO (interior alternate angle)..............(i)
AD = BC (Has Been Proofn) .......................(ii)
∠DAO = ∠BCO (interior alternate angle) ...........(iii)
From the statements (i), (ii), and (iii) we can conclude that ΔAOD ≅
ΔCOB (By ASA Congruence rule).
As the result: AO = OC and DO = BO

## 5. Each diagonal of a parallelogram separates it into two congruent triangles.

Proof:
Look at the picture!

## Let ABCD be a parallelogram and AC be a diagonal.

Diagonal AC divides parallelogram ABCD into two triangles, namely,
Here BC || AD and AC is the transversal
So, ∠CAD = ∠ACB (Alternate angles) ................(i)
AC = AC (Common side) ................................(ii)
Also, AB || DC and AC is the transversal.
Hence ∠ACD = ∠BAC (Alternate angles) .........(iii)
∴from (i), (ii), (iii), we can conclude that ΔABC ≅ ΔADC (By ASA
Congruence rule)

C. Perimeter of Parallelogram

## The perimeter of parallelogram ABCD = the sum of all sides of a parallelogram

ABCD.
= AB + BD + DC + CA

D. Area of Parallelogram
The area of a parallelogram can be found by multiplying a base by the
corresponding altitude.
Look at the picture.

If in the parallelogram ABCD above. CD is the base, then the distance of either A
or B to CD is called the altitude.
A = CD x t

## If AD is the base, then the distance of either C or B to AD is called the altitude.

And similarly if the base is either AB or BC

2. Rectangle
A. Definition of Rectangle
Rectangle is a parallelogram which each of its interior angle is a right angle (90°).
In the rectangle ABCD below, ∠ADC = ∠DCB = ∠CBA = ∠BAD = (90°).
1. AB = DC and AB//DC
3.
In a rectangle we replace the terminology base and height to length and width. If
in the parallelogram ABCD above AB > BC, then AB is the length and BC is the
width
In the rectangle ABCD besides, the diagonals AC and BD are equal in length,
since Pythagorean theorem :
↔ AC2 = BD2 ↔ AC = BD
T

## If the point T is the point of intersection of the

diagonals AC and BD, then
a. TA = TB = TC = TD = ½ AC = ½ BD
b. ∠TAD = ∠TDA = ∠TBC = ∠TCB
c. TDC = TCD = ∠TAB = ∠TBA
If L is area of the rectangle ABCD beside and K is its circumference, then
a. L = pl
b. K = 2(p+l)
Where p = length and l = width

B. Properties of Ractangle
There are three important properties of parallelograms to know:
 The opposite sides are the same length and parallel
 Ractangle has four equal right angles
 The length of the diagonals is the same and bisect the same length

3. SQUARE
A. Definition of Square
Square is rectangle which all sides are equal in lenghts. That has four equal sides
and four equal angles (90° or right angles).
B. Properties of Square
There are seven important properties of parallelograms to know:
 Each of the interior angles of a square is .
 The diagonals of a square bisect each other.
 The opposite sides of a square are parallel.
 A square whose side length is has area .
 A square whose side length is has perimeter .
 A square whose side length is has a diagonal of length .
 The diagonals of a square are equal.

## C. Parimeter and Area of Square

To determine parimeter of square, we can use same method as used for other
plane, namely by summing up all sides of the plane. In this section, we will
determine area of square.
Square ABCD consists of ∆ABD and on ∆BCD. Eg. the length is s.
= L∆ABD + L∆BCD
= ½ (AB x AD) + ½ (CD x BC)
= ½ (s x s) + ½ (s x s)
= ½ (s2) + ½ (s2)
= s2

## Based of these explanation we can conclude that

P=AB+BC+CD+DE
A= s2

Example:

6m
a) A square has a side length of 6 m, what is its Area?
A =6m×6m
= 36 m2

12cm
b) A square has a side length of 12 cm, what is its Perimeter?
Perimeter = 4 × 12 cm

= 48 cm

D. Diagonals of Square
A square has two diagonals, they are equal in length, perpendicular, they are
bisect each other and intersect in the middle.
D = a × √2
Example:
a) A square has a side length of 5 m, what is the length of a diagonal?

Diagonal Length = a × √2
= 5 × 1.41421...
= 7.071 m (to 3 decimals)

4. Rhombus
A. Definition of Rhombus
Rhombus is parallelogram which has a pair of adjacent sides are congruent.

PQ = QR = RS = SP
B. Properties of Rhombus
There are eight important properties of parallelograms to know:
 The opposite sides are parallel and equal in length
 The diagonals are perpendicular
 The diagonals bisect each other
 The diagonals are the axes of symmetry
 The sum of adjacent angles is 180o.
 The opposite angles are equal in measurement
 The opposite angles are equal in measure and bisected by the diagonals.
 The sum of all angles is 360o.

C. Perimeter of Rhombus
1. Draw a rhombus RODA in a paper.

2. The perimeter of rhombus RODA = the sum of all sides of a rhombus RODA
= RO + OD + DA + AR
Hint : RO = OD = DA = AR

## If s = the length of rhombus

So, The perimeter of rhombus = s+s+s+s
= 4 × s cm

D. Area of Rhombus
1. Draw a rhombus PQRS
2. Draw a diagonal of rhombus. Point O is the intersection point of two diagonals.
PR as diagonal 1 and QS as diagonal 2.
1
Rhombus with diagonal 1 d1 cm and diagonal 2 d2 cm , has an area as: L = (2 × d1

× d2) cm2
5. Trapezoid
A. Definition Trapezoid
Trapezoid is any quadrilateral that has precisely a pair of parallrel opposite sides.
If you see trapezoid ABCD on figure 9.56, you will find that ̅̅̅̅
𝐴𝐵 // ̅̅̅̅
𝐷𝐶 and ̅̅̅̅
𝐴𝐷
̅̅̅̅ . From the trapezoid, 𝐴𝐵
are not parallel to 𝐵𝐶 ̅̅̅̅ as base and 𝐶𝐸
̅̅̅̅ as altitude, and 𝐴𝐷
̅̅̅̅
̅̅̅̅ as arms of trapezoid ABCD. Since ̅̅̅̅
and 𝐵𝐶 𝐴𝐵 // ̅̅̅̅
𝐷𝐶 then we obtain <A + <B =
180° and <B + <C =180°.

B. Types of Trapezoid
Trapezoid can be distinguished into three, namely as follows.
a) Scalene Trapezoid
b) Isosceles Trapezoid

c) Right Trapezoid

## C. Properties of Isosceles Trapezoid

Isosceles trapezoid has two equal arms. In this section, we will discus other
properties of isosceles trapezoid.See beside the figure. Suppose ABCD is a
isosceles trapezoid with ̅̅̅̅
𝐴𝐵 // ̅̅̅̅
𝐷𝐶 and AD = BC. From C and D, draw a line
̅̅̅̅ that is intersects 𝐴𝐵
perpendicular to 𝐴𝐵 ̅̅̅̅ on points E and F. Since 𝐴𝐵
̅̅̅̅ // 𝐷𝐶
̅̅̅̅ then
DE = CF and EA = FB. It means that <AED is congruent to <EFC. Therefore,
corresponding angles are equal. Thus, <A = <B. Therefore, we obtain following
property, “Base angles of isosceles trapezoid are equal”.Next, see isosceles
trapezoid KLMN on figure 9.59. If KLM is reversed accordingto line l (axis of
̅̅̅̅̅ ↔ 𝑁𝐿
symmetry), then M ↔ N, K ↔ L, and 𝑀𝐾 ̅̅̅̅ that MK = NL. Therefor, we
obtain following property.Diagonals of isosceles trapezoid are equal.

## D. Parimeter and Area of Trapezoid

To determine parimeter of trapezoid, we can use same method as used for other
plane, namely by summing up all sides of the plane. In this section, we will
determine area of trapezoid as shown in figure 9.60.

Trapezoid ABCD consists of ∆ABD and on ∆BCD, and then draws altitude for
each triangle. On ∆ABD, draw altitude ̅̅̅̅
𝐷𝐸 and on ∆BCD, draw altitude ̅̅̅̅
𝐵𝐹 .
Area of trapezoid ABCD
= L∆ABD + L∆BCD
= ½ (AB x DE) + ½ (CD x BF)
= ½ (AB x DE) + ½ (CD x DE)………….. (DE = BF)
= ½ (AB + CD) x DE
= ½ (a + b) x t
Based on above description, it is concluded as follow. For any trapezoid with its
parallel sides a and b, two other sides c and d, and altitude t, its perimeter (K) and
area (L) will be as follows.
K=a+b+c+d
L = ½ (a + b) x t