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Annotated Bibliography

Aubrey, Allison. “Student Athletes Who Specialize Early Are Injured More Often, Study Finds.”

NPR, NPR, 25 July 2017,


often-study-finds. Accessed 11 Oct. 2018.

This article includes interesting information regarding child athletes and injuries that can

occur. Most injuries occur in athletes who specialize in a specific sport. Those who don’t

play multiple sports work the same muscles year in and out. This can cause over use

resulting in injury.

This source will be useful in explaining why being a child athlete should be encouraged.

The statistics included in this source will provide background information needed to

support my claim of why child athletes are important.

I can use this source to provide different information to support my research while still

stating why child athletes are a must in our society. I will tie together all of the negatives

and all of the positives to being a child athlete. Ultimately stating why the pros outweigh

the cons.

Auriemma, Geno. “In Coach's Rant, a Lesson for Parents and Athletes.” CNN Health, CNN, 23

Mar. 2017,

sports-parenting/index.html. Accessed 7 Oct. 2018.

During this press conference, the head woman’s basketball coach at the University of

Connecticut (Geno Auriemma) explains how parents and the era we live in today have

impacted youth sports.

This interview/press conference will be a reliable source for my research paper because

the interviewee is a proven winner and coach. He has won 11 NCAA National

Championships and has been coaching at UConn since 1985. Auriemma explains how

children do not show the same excitement in team sports as they once did due to the

social media age and tough parents.

This source will be helpful towards my research paper in relating helicopter parenting to

this sports era and the impact it has on young kids. I will explain how young kids fail in

the long run due to helicopter parenting. Children face enough stress with sports as it is,

helicopter parenting only makes it worse.

Bachynski, Kathleen E., and Daniel S. Goldberg. "Youth sports & public health: framing risks of

mild traumatic brain injury in American football and ice hockey." Journal of Law,

Medicine & Ethics, Fall 2014, p. 323+. Academic OneFile,

xid=4b8f231c. Accessed 18 Sept. 2018.

People question the effects of playing sports as a child. Many studies have been

conducted to prove that sports cause traumatic brain injury in contact sports such as
football and ice hockey. This article further explains the negative effects of putting a

child into a contact sport at a young age. They argue that the injuries in the NFL are not

even as bad compared to what could happen to children.

This article will us on our opposing viewpoint. We think that sports should be

encouraged and this article has shown us the viewpoint from the other side.

I can use some of these ideas to have a better understanding of both sides of controversy.

Edger, Mike. “How Bully Coaching Affects Athletes.” Sports Psychology Today – Sports

Psychology, 4 Sept. 2012,

psychology/how-bully-coaches-affect-athletes-mental-game/. Accessed 8 Oct. 2018.

This article provides the impact bully coaches have on a developing youth mind. The

author draws a quote from a high school quarterback and shows how the players mindset

completely changed when he encountered a bully high school coach. The player explains

how he never lacked confidence when performing until he got to high school. He further

explains how the embarrassment he would get from the coach yelling at him affected his

play on the field. Further along, he states he would rather sit on the bench than to play

and be humiliated in front of everyone.

This source provides examples on the negative affects tough coaching can have on a

young athlete. The author provides details on how tough coaching not only affects an

athletes’ confidence on the field, but off the field as well. Contrary to most of the articles
I have cited, this article discusses the negatives to tough coaching. The main point of this

source is to show the athletes’ potential viewpoint on tough coaching.

This source will be helpful in providing a different viewpoint on tough coaching in my

research paper. I can show the negatives of this style of coaching and the impact it can

have on the mind of a young athlete. I will further explain the negatives of poor coaching

and how it impacts the mental state of athletes as they grow older.

Gerdy, John R. "Organized Sports Do Not Benefit Children." Sports and Athletes, edited by

James D. Torr, Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints. OpposingViewpoints in


Accessed 21 Sept. 2017. Originally published in Sports: The All-American Addiction,

University Press of Mississippi, 2002.

This article is an opposing view to putting children in organized sports. They believe that

kids should play sports in a non-organized manner. The author believes that sports are

more adult dominated since the coaches call every single play in all levels. Their main

argument is that kids know how to make their sports fun by playing pick-up games and

having a good time.

While helping us see through the eyes of an opposing viewpoint, this article gave us more

reasons to counter argue their claims. There could be some downsides to not having any

organized sports for children.

I can use some of their ideas to help strengthen my arguments. For example, I will use the

claim that adults ruin all levels of youth sports. I will use that as my counter argument

and will make it strengthen my claim of why we need youth sports.

Gordon, Serena. “More Kids Are Suffering Sports Injuries.” ABC News, ABC News Network,

23 Mar. 2018, Accessed

12 Oct. 2018.

This article provides the dangers of children participating in sports, particularly while

specializing in a certain sport. The author discusses how playing only one sport can cause

overuse to the same muscles. This is particularly concerning for children because of the

fact that they are still growing. The author also brings up statistical evidence to support

her claim.

This source does an excellent job of explaining the possible scenarios that could occur

when children specialize in a certain sport. This could be damaging to their development

both physically and mentally.

I will use this source to explain why not only children should play sports, but why

children should play as many sports as possible. I will include examples as to why

becoming a multi-sport athlete will help with a child’s growth and development both

physically and mentally.

Kaminsky, Amy. “Pros & Cons of Children in Sports.” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 13

June 2017,

Accessed 11 Oct. 2018.

This source does an excellent job of listing a lot of positive aspects that can happen when

children play sports. The items on that list include sportsmanship, stress relief, and

finding quick solutions to problems. The article also discusses some negatives to child

athletes. The listed negatives are, injuries and sports can put too much pressure on young


The author explained the pros and cons to being a child athlete very well. The author also

included facts to back up her claims. Kaminsky explained all the possible scenarios that

parents/kids can run into when participating in youth sports.

I will use this source to show not only the positives to child athletes, but the negatives as

well. I will explain how the pros that can be gained (sportsmanship, stress relief, etc.)

heavily outweigh the negatives (injuries, etc.). In my research paper, I will tie everything

together, stating both sides of the argument. At the end, I will state why my side (the

positives) are worth it when it comes to youth sports.

Lee, Jeesang. “The Many Benefits of Helicopter Parenting – Jeesang Lee – Medium.” Medium,

Medium, 20 Feb. 2018,

parenting-a47ec853778d. Accessed 7 Oct. 2018.

The main point of this article is to show the positives of helicopter parenting and its

benefits on children. The article goes into great depth about how much harder it is to be

successful for kids this present day than it was even a decade ago. The author discusses

how children need to be guided in the right direction by their parents from an early age to

teach them what is right and wrong. The author also discusses the stereotypes that

helicopter parenting creates and goes into detail about our false judgement on these


This source is useful in looking at the effects helicopter parents have on children and how

it benefits the growth of that child. The previous articles conveyed a negative look on

helicopter parenting, but this article shows the positives. The author explains that the

parents hover over their children due to the love and care they have for them. Also, the

author explains that most kids need their parents watching them closely in order to learn

to make the right choices when it comes to everyday life.

This article will be helpful when discussing the counter argument of my paper. It will

also provide the reader with a different view point of children and sports. This source

allows us to see although there are many disadvantages to having helicopter parents, there

are more advantages than people think.

Maroon, Joseph, and Julian Bailes. "The Health Benefits of Youth Contact Sports Outweigh the

Risks." Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, Gale, 2017. Opposing Viewpoints in


86. Accessed 21 Sept. 2017. Originally published as "Weighing the childhood risks of

contact sports," Washington Times, 29 Jan. 2015.

The public opinion of youth sports is that kids can be injured more easily. However, the

benefits outweigh the risks. Throughout the article, the authors talk about each contact

sport and their benefits. While sports can be rough, they can also teach us about the

importance of living a healthy life.

The information displayed throughout this article helps us view the many benefits of

being a child athlete. I believe with their views and believe that being a child athlete is


I can use this article to explain the benefits of child athletes. I will explain how sports can

help children make new friends, find their passion, learn critical life skills, and so much

more. Society needs child athletes and I will explain all the major details further in my


Merkel, Donna L. “Youth Sport: Positive and Negative Impact on Young Athletes.” Current

Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 31 May 2013, Accessed 9 Oct. 2018.

This article does an excellent job of providing statistics to support both the negatives and

positives of being a child athlete. The article includes statistics from what ages fit best for

starting a sport, as well as how a certain sport can affect a child cognitively (mentally).

The author continues to explain how sports can benefit a child not only physically but

mentally as well.

This article contains no biased. This source contains solid facts and statistics to explain

both the negatives and positives to being a child athlete. Due to this citation being non-

biased, this will be a good source to use when bringing up statistics in my research paper.

I will use this source to support my claim of why youth sports are beneficial to young

children. I will also use this source to include another perspective of child athletes

(negative viewpoint). I will tie the two points together but ultimately explain why the

positives heavily outweigh the negatives when it comes to youth sports.

Oliver, Jon L, et al. “Training Elite Child Athletes: Promoting Welfare and... : Strength &

Conditioning Journal.” LWW, Oxford University Press, Aug. 2011, Elite Child Athletes Promoting

Welfare.14.aspx. Accessed 1 Oct. 2018.

Although every athlete receives criticism/pressures, everyone handles them differently.

This article explains what coaches can do to encourage those elite child athletes and to

also humble them when necessary. As a coach is it not only important to coach the sport,
but to also show the athlete how important it is to be a great teammate and to be

accountable for their actions.

The information provided in this article will help myself understand the many lessons

elite child athletes can learn through their respected sport. The life lessons they can learn

from their coaches can help build a foundation that will create life success.

I can use this article to explain what it is like for elite level child athletes as well as

average child athletes. I will tie together why it is not only hard for average athletes but

for highly skilled athletes. With the pressures of being the best performer in your

respected sport, you have higher standards than most. This can cause high

pressure/criticism towards that athlete. This can either make or break their performance. I

will discuss the pros and cons to both in my research paper.

O'Sullivan, John. “Youth Sports Coaching: Not a Job, but a Calling!” Changing the Game

Project, 14 Mar. 2015,

but-a-calling/. Accessed 8 Oct. 2018.

The main point of this source is to explain to youth coaches that they are in a much more

important role than they may think. Yes, they teach kids the X’s and O’s of their

respected sport, but they also have the ability to change their players lives off the playing

field. The author goes into detail about the lessons learned through sports and how those
lessons relate to everyday life. The author further discusses how youth coaches have the

ability to give kids self-confidence and teach them the ways of good sportsmanship.

This source provides details regarding the positive impacts youth coaches can have on

young kids lives. This source also provides the impact one word can have on the child

athletes lasting impression of their coach. This can either spark a love for sports or a

complete hate for them. Most of the article focuses on just the positives youth coaches

can have on young children.

The above article will be helpful in providing my research paper with the proper points to

support the argument that society needs youth sports. Youth sports are essential in

helping kids learn the life skills needed to be successful in everyday life. I will go into

further detail in my research paper.

Schwebel, Frank J., et al. "Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and

Relations with Athletes' Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal

Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences." Child Development Research,

2016. Academic OneFile,

xid=fbe691f4. Accessed 18 Sept. 2018.

Many people believe that coaches can positively influence young children's lives. This

article supplies factual evidence and statistics about children succeeding in life after
sports. Also, the authors explain the importance of having high self-esteem, being goal

oriented, and having positive influences in life.

The information in this article helps us see how playing sports as a child is beneficial in

developing life skills such as, commitment, communication, leadership, and resiliency.

This article is useful because it supports the argument that playing sports as a child is

beneficial to developing life skills. I will explain why everyone needs to have certain life

skills and how sports are the best way to learn a lot of those. The high-pressure moments

and comradery in sports helps learn these skills at a younger place in a learning


Swalboski, Craig. “Helicopter Parents Do Their Children a Disservice.”, Post-

Bulletin Company, 22 Feb. 2018,

disservice/article_23f8a136-17e2-11e8-b580-7f1fe90752a4.html. Accessed 7 Oct. 2018.

This article does a good job of stating what a “helicopter parent” is and explains how they

negatively affect children. The author (Swalboski) further discusses how most helicopter

parents are not that way in other aspects of their child’s life. The reason why this is the

case is because some parents were either ex-athletes/coaches or they were not as good at

sports as they dreamed. So, they either want to relive the glory days through their kid or

want their child to have a better sporting experience than they themselves had. Although

with good intent, this can add extreme amounts of pressure to the athlete. This extreme
pressure can cause burn out and a decreased interest in sports competition, leading to the

athlete quitting.

This source will be helpful while I try to explain what a helicopter parent is and how they

impact athletes. This article provides a different perspective of helicopter parents.

Although still negative, the different perspective will help further support my argument.

The goal of using this source is to provide a different view of parents controlling their

children’s athletic career, but still show how it can negatively impact their lives on and

off the field. I will explain why parents need to just enjoy watching their kids perform

instead of willing them to be the best.

Thomas. “Why Kids Should NOT Play Youth Sports.”, 3 Sept. 2016, Accessed 12 Oct.


This source explains the worst possible scenarios that could happen in youth sports. The

article includes aspects of “bully coaching”, not understanding how to accept failure,

uncommitted to the sport (unwilling to put in time/effort), and caring more about rewards

rather than experiences. The article strictly focuses on the negatives and includes no

positives that occur during youth sports.

This citation includes many negatives to being a child athlete however, the source fails to

include the positives that occur during youth sports. I actually see most of the negative

items listed in the article as positives. Failure is going to occur in life and I believe sports
helps us with realizing that. Sports also helps us with handling rough situations and

making quick decisions which also occur in everyday life.

I will use this source to support my claim of why youth sports are a positive in our

society and how these claims help us grow rather than suffer. The life skills we can learn

through sports help us grow and become smarter, more trustworthy adults. These are just

a few of the reasons why youth sports are a must in society.