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American University of Sharjah Instructor: Arshi Faridi

College of Engineering E-mail: afaridi@aus.edu


Civil Engineering Program Course: CVE 202
Experiment #: 1

Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars


for Concrete Reinforcement

Purpose:

To determine the tensile properties of deformed and plain steel bars for concrete reinforcement
according to ASTM A-615.

Background:

Structural engineers need to know the strength and deformation characteristics of the material used in
construction when making calculations to assess the load carrying capacity of the structural elements. For
steel, this information can be measured in the tensile test.
The results obtained in tensile testing are of considerable importance to engineers and designers. In
many instances, a metal component does not have to fracture to be deemed to have failed in service;
plastic deformation and buckling is failure and, in consequence, it is vital to know the level of stress at
which plastic yielding begins. Some metals, principally steels, possess a pronounced yield point, but most
show a smooth transition from elastic to plastic deformation behavior.
In the tensile test, the specimen is pulled in a testing machine until it fractures. During the test, the
force and elongation of the sample are recorded. These tests provide information on the stress and strain
characteristics of the steel. In addition, the tests also provide useful information on the material stiffness
and ductility.
Ductility is defined as the ability of a material to deform plastically before fracturing. The available
carbon content greatly influence the ductile property of steel.
Modulus of elasticity is the ratio of stress to corresponding strain below the proportional limit.
Proportional limit is the greatest stress, which a material is capable of sustaining without any
deviation from proportionality of stress to strain (Hooke’s law).
Stress-strain diagram is a diagram in which corresponding values of stress and strain are plotted
against each other.
Tensile strength is the maximum tensile stress, which a material is capable of sustaining. Tensile
strength is calculated from the maximum load during a tension test carried to rupture and the original
cross-sectional area of the specimen.
Yield strength, YS is the engineering stress at which by convention, it is considered that plastic
elongation of the material has commenced. This stress may be specified in terms of (a) a specified
deviation from a linear stress-strain relationship, (b) a specified total extension attained, or (c) maximum
or minimum engineering stresses measured during discontinuous yielding. See Fig. 1.
The ASTM A615 covers the determination of the following properties of steel:
• Deformation measurements (height and spacing).
• Tensile properties (strength and elongation)
• Bending properties (180 degrees)
• Weight variations
• Finish
According to the ASTM A615, deformed steel bars used for concrete reinforcement are manufactured
basically in three grades; Grade 40 (300), Grade 60 (420), and Grade 75 (520).

Fig. 1: Stress-Strain diagram for determination of yield strength

Equipment:

1. Tensile testing machine.


2. Vernier.
3. Center punch or a marker

Test Sample

All mechanical tests shall be conducted in accordance with Test Methods and Definitions A 370
including Annex A9.
Tension test specimens shall be the full section of the bar as rolled. The unit stress determination shall
be based on the nominal bar area.

Testing Procedure:

1. Measure the bar length in mm (the bar should have minimum length of 300mm).
2. Weigh the steel sample in gm.
3. Fit the bar in the tension machine at 200 mm gage distance.
4. Apply the tensile load to the bar and plot the load extension curve.
5. Obtain the yield and ultimate loads (Py and Pu).
6. Measure the final bar length after failure by fitting the ends of the fractured specimen together
carefully and measuring the final distance of the 200 mm gage.
7. Determine yield point by recognizing the first stress in a material, less than the maximum
obtainable stress, at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress.

The tensile requirements (strength and elongation) of deformed steel bars, as stated by the ASTM A615,
shall conform to the requirements for tensile properties prescribed in Table 1.

Table 1: Tensile properties

Reporting:

Calculate the specimens yield strength, tensile strength and percentage elongation. Complete the
attached data sheet and calculations.
Determine the compliance of the steel bar with the ASTM A615 requirements.

References:

1. ASTM A615-96
2. ASTM A370-97
3. “Testing of Materials” by Vernon John, 1992
DATA/CALCULATIONS SHEET

Sample Identification:___________________________________

Sample Source: _______________________________________

Tested By: ____________________________ Date: ______________________

Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Specimen 3

-Bar Size

-Weight (gm):

-Total Length (mm):

- Cross Sectional Area (mm2):

- Calculated Diameter (mm):

-Gage/Testing Length (mm):

- Yield Load Py (kN):

- Yield Stress (MPa):

- Ultimate Load Pu (kN):

- Tensile Strength (MPa):

- Final gage length (mm):

- Percentage elongation

Where:
Weight πD 2
Cross sectional area (A) = =
Lengthx0.00785 4
Py
Yield strength (Fy) =
A
Pu
Ultimate strength (Fu) =
A