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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

PETROFAC – RNZ

NUR AFFIQAH BINTI ZULKEFLEY

REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT

FOR THE DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING

TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL DESIGN AND

DEVELOPMENT

MECHANICAL SECTION

UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIAN SPANISH INSTITUTE

KULIM

2014
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

PETROFAC – RNZ

NUR AFFIQAH BINTI ZULKEFLEY

REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT

FOR THE DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING

TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL DESIGN AND

DEVELOPMENT

MECHANICAL SECTION

UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIAN SPANISH INSTITUTE

KULIM

2014
DECLARATION

I declare that all parts of this report are the result of my own work except for the

quotations and references, the source of which has been acknowledged in the

bibliography.

2014 NUR AFFIQAH BINTI ZULKEFLEY

i
This report was read and verified by:

…………………………………….. ………………………

(LINA MAHIRAH BT ABBAS) Date

Company Supervisor

…………………………………… ……………………

(MIOR FIRDAUS B. MIOR ABD MAJID) Date

University Supervisor

ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Without any hesitation I can say that the training session which I had for period of 16

weeks could not be complete successfully without the generous assistance of number

of people. I have an obligation to acknowledge these all people who gave valuable

cooperation, assistance, advices and the possibility to success my training and

completing this report.

A special thanks to the Operation Manager, Mr. Khairul Anuar Baharuddin

for his support in arranging valuable training in the pipeline department.

Further, I express my sincere thanks to my Company Supervisor Ms. Lina

Mahirah Abbas the Senior Engineer, as well as my University Supervisor, En.Mior

for their kind guidance, criticism and advice. I must also convey my earnest

appreciation to the staff of the Pipeline department for their support towards my

industrial training. It is a wonderful experience to be a part of the pipeline

department of Petrofac – RNZ.

iii
ABSTRACT

All diploma students are required to undergo industrial training for 16 weeks as part

of their curriculum to complete their three year course for the Diploma of

Technology of Mechanical Design and Development. During the 16 weeks period of

training, students will be supervised and monitored their training by two nominated

supervisors from the company and the university respectively.

The report is divided into two sections; the economic section and the

technical section. The economic section contains the company profile of Petrofac-

RNZ. Established in 1993 as RNZ Integrated, their journey has evolved over the

years from modest beginnings to where they are today, Petrofac-RNZ, a member of

the Petrofac Group. They are a leading provider of engineering and consulting

services to the flourishing offshore oil and gas sector. The company is located in

Menara Great Eastern at Jalan Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The trainee is

assigned in the pipeline department and there are task given to be completed in these

16 weeks of training.

In the technical section, the trainee is given a training module of pipeline

engineer which contains three modules which are pipeline installation, offshore

pipeline design engineering, and design codes and standards for offshore oil and gas

pipelines. The trainee is expected to understand on how offshore carbon steel

pipeline is designed and installed. The trainee is also prepared a PowerPoint

presentation to demonstrate her understanding on the subject of offshore pipeline

engineering to a panel of pipeline engineers as part of her evaluation.

iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

DECLARATION i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii

ABSTRACT iv

LIST OF TABLES vi

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS vii

LIST OF APPENDICES viii

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1

Introduction of INTRA 1

CHAPTER 2 : COMPANY OVERVIEW 3

Company Profile 3

Department Organization Chart 8

Vision and Values 9

Corporate Logo 11

CHAPTER 3 : TRAINING ACTIVITIES 12

Module One – Pipeline Installation 13

Module Two – Offshore Pipeline Design Engineering 19

Module Three – Design Codes and Standards for Offshore Oil and Gas 26

Pipeline

In-House Training 27

CHAPTER 4 : CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 28

BIBLIOGRAPHY 29

v
LIST OF TABLES

2.0 Values of Petrofac People 10

3.0 Pipelay Barge Assessment 16-18

vi
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

2.0 Petrofac RNZ Location 4

2.1 History of Petrofac 7

2.2 Department Organization Chart 8

2.3 Corporate Logo of RNZ Integrated 11

2.4 Corporate Logo of Petrofac RNZ 11

3.0 Subsea Pipeline 13

3.1 Typical Pipeline System 14

3.2 S-Lay Method 15

3.3 Typical S-Lay Pipelay Vessel (Semi-Sub) 15

3.4 Typical Flowchart for Offshore Pipeline 19

3.5 Pipeline Size 20

3.6 Lateral and Vertical Stability 21

3.7 External Coating 23

3.8 The Concept 24

3.9 Method of Application 24

3.10 Free Span of Pipeline 25

3.11 Typical Component of Pressure Vessel 26

3.12 Codes and Standards 27

vii
APPENDICES

APPENDIX A 30

APPENDIX B 31

APPENDIX C 32

APPENDIX D 33

APPENDIX E 34

APPENDIX F 35

viii
ii
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

This report is a short description of the trainee four month internship carried

out as compulsory component to finish her diploma in Engineering Technology in

Mechanical Design and Development. Industrial Training program provides pre-

professional work experience with specific assignments and responsibilities.

Productive Industrial Trainings help students make informed decisions and improve

their marketability after graduation. This internship report contains the trainee

activities that have contributed to achieve a number of the stated objectives.

The objectives of training in the industrial environment are to:

 Expose students to a real life working environment.

 Provide student’s the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills learned.

 Inculcate and foster the team spirit in group works.

The trainee underwent the industrial training at Petrofac – RNZ for 16 weeks

during the four months period of February-May, 2014. The company is located in

Ampang, Kuala Lumpur. Pipeline department is the department in which the trainee

is placed for the industrial training. Under the guidance of Lina Mahirah Abbas,

Senior Engineer, the trainee got the opportunity to have exposure to the works

carried out in this department, and hence learn a good deal from her. During the

1
period of four months of industrial training, the task assigned is concerned on how

offshore carbon steel is designed and installed. A brief discussion on the assignments

given and training undergone during this period follows.

2
CHAPTER 2

COMPANY OVERVIEW

2.1 COMPANY PROFILE

RNZ Integrated was established in 1993 to fulfill the needs of the burgeoning

oil and gas (O&G) industry in Malaysia. The company is one of six companies

licensed for major off-shore engineering projects by Petroliam Nasional Malaysia

(PETRONAS). It utilizes its management team’s over 20 years of experience in

providing engineering and project management solutions to the O&G and

petrochemical businesses throughout the world.

Being part of the third largest O&G partnership consultant globally, RNZ

Integrated is steadfast to continue to provide the best engineering and business

solutions to their O&G and petrochemical clients without compromising on safety or

preservation of the environment. The company aims to widen their global presence

while upholding the positive local values and ethics.

They have over 650 experienced staffs which have been trained in various

specializations in the industry. Their project management services utilize the latest

technology to optimize the operational efficiency and project delivery. Other than

that, the material management and design systems offered by RNZ Integrated are

compliant with the ISO: 9001 certification since 2004.

3
RNZ Integrated has received various accolades from the Ministry of

International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Malaysia as well as the SMECorp

Malaysia for Industry Excellence in recognition of their exceptional success in

project delivery.

RNZ Integrated has entered into a partnership with Petrofac in United

Kingdom since early 2012 to expand their operation in the international markets that

were previously championed by European companies. Their enthusiasm for

excellence and the smart partnership with Petrofac have cemented RNZ Integrated’s

reputation for successful implementation of various projects in Malaysia, Sudan,

India, Vietnam, Turkmenistan, Iran and Qatar.

Illustration 2.0: Petrofac RNZ Location

4
Their journey has evolved over the years from modest beginnings to where

they are today, Petrofac-RNZ, a member of the Petrofac Group. They are a leading

provider of engineering and consulting services to the flourishing offshore oil and

gas sector. They have a strong domestic market in the asia pacific region as well as a

growing international business. As part of the Petrofac Group, a culturally diverse

and international business, they are united by a common vision and values.

Petrofac is a leading provider of oil field services to the international oil and

gas industry. In its fourth decade of operations, the business has grown significantly

to become a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. The group has 31 offices and more

than 18,000 staff worldwide, comprising over 80 nationalities. They offer our

customers multi-disciplined, fully-integrated engineering services in design,

procurement, construction and commissioning. Complementing the full capability of

the Petrofac Group, they also add significant value to its offshore engineering,

procurement, installation and commissioning offer. Petrofac-RNZ is a strategic

engineering collaboration formed in Malaysia in 2011. The business has around 700

employees and is one of only a small number of companies licensed to undertake

major offshore engineering projects for PETRONAS, the Malaysian National Oil

Company.

The tie-up has been working well, with Petrofac-RNZ experiencing growth of

29% in 2012, compared to RNZ’s position in 2011. Speaking about the business,

General Manager Rozali Ahmad explains: “The main objective of Petrofac-RNZ is to

work together to build a strong local presence and enhance our ability to serve the oil

and gas industry in the Southeast Asian market.”

5
2011 marked 30 years in business for Petrofac and they have certainly come a

long way. Petrofac started life in 1981 with just 25 people on board. Today they are a

thriving global business with more than 18,000 employees. There are many

departments in one building such as pipeline, electrical, instrument, civil,

mechanical, piping, document control and others.

Over the years, they have always remained focused on their customers,

developing their services to meet new challenges and support the market’s changing

needs. Here we look back on some of the milestones in their history; the key

moments that have created the Petrofac we see today.

6
• Petrofac is established as a producer of modular plant in Tyler, Texas,
1981 USA with 25 members of staff.

• Ayman Asfari and Maroun Semaan join the team and establish Petrofac
International as an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC)
1991 business, with an operational centre in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

• Awarded the North Oman Crude Stabilisation project, valued at US$60


1992 million.

• Our engineering and construction services are expanded to include field


facilities and development planning, early stage engineering, design and
2001 consultancy. A new office is established in Woking, England.

• RGIT Montrose and Rubicon Response are acquired, leading to the


creation of Petrofac Training Services and expanding their service
2004/05 offering to include competence and technical training and emergency
response capability.

• Petrofac acquires TNEI Limited, expanding their current capabilities


2010 into the renewable energy sector.

• Petrofac acquires KW Limited, a high-end subsea pipeline consulting


and engineering services business with an established reputation in the
2012 subsea pipeline market. Petrofac Training Services acquires Oilennium
Ltd, a specialist e-learning provider to the energy industry.

Illustration 2.1: History of Petrofac

7
2.2 DEPARTMENT ORGANIZATION CHART

MANAGING
DIRECTOR

SECRETARY

OPERATIONS TECHNICAL
QA
MANAGER ADVISOR

LEAD ENGINEER

SENIOR ENGINEER LEAD DESIGNER

DRAUGHTMAN
ENGINEER DESIGNER
/WOMEN

Illustration 2.2: Department Organization Chart

8
2.3 VISION AND VALUES

The vision of this company is ‘to be the world’s most admired oil field

service company’. They help customers develop their energy resources; bringing

world class capability and delivering it locally. They promote commercial

arrangements that are aligned to their customers’ needs, allowing them to deliver

more value to the customer while increasing the returns from their most precious

asset which is their people. They are growing their capabilities and expanding their

geographic reach in order to deliver their financial target – a doubling of their 2010

recurring income by 2015.

Petrofac is a culturally diverse, international company, united by shared

values. “When our customers employ Petrofac to provide a service, they should feel

confident that the people providing the service from Petrofac are living by their core

values.” Ayman Asfari, Group Chief Executive. Corporate Values Defined:

Corporate Values are a company’s ethical and moral compass and decision making

foundation. They are the ideals and ethics that management holds dear. They drive

decision making in that they are constantly referred to in the decision making

process. That is, when in a tough spot, the answer needs, first and foremost, to be

consistent with the company values. They are generally for both internal and external

consumption. They tell those in the company how things are done and those outside

the company why they want to be associated with this company. Their values are

clear and they highlight what Petrofac stands for. They are the single most important

and universal aspect of their culture. Petrofac people are:

9
Nothing is more important to Petrofac than safety; from our

Safe people, customers and the communities we work in, to the

integrity of the assets and facilities we build, maintain and run.

We aspire to the highest standards of ethical behavior. This

Ethical means doing the right thing for our customers, employees,

communities and the environment in which we operate.

It’s in our nature to think differently, use our initiative, and

Innovative positively challenge convention. From the commercial to the

technical, we seek out new ways to add value.

We take time to understand what our customers want and

tailor our services to meet those needs. We are quick to


Responsive
respond when challenges arise and do everything in our power

to overcome them.

Quality and cost We work to optimize value for our customers, without

conscious compromising quality and integrity.

We have a relentless focus on delivery and exceeding our


Driven to deliver
customers’ expectations.

Table 2.3: Values of Petrofac people

10
2.4 CORPORATE LOGO

Illustration 2.3: Corporate Logo of RNZ Integrated

Illustration 2.4: Corporate logo of Petrofac RNZ

11
CHAPTER 3

TRAINING IN PETROFAC RNZ - PIPELINE DEPARTMENT

3.1 TRAINING MODULE – PIPELINE ENGINEER

3.1.1 INTRODUCTION

The trainee judge her four month spent at Petrofac RNZ – Pipeline

Department as being one of the most interesting, productive and instructive

experience in her life. The trainee who has been selected to undergo training in

Petrofac RNZ office with the Pipeline discipline is given a training module to be

researched and completed within the training period. The training module consists of

three modules which are focusing on the engineering and installation aspects of

typical Carbon Steel (CS) pipeline using the conventional S-lay installation method

(refer Appendix A). The full research on the training module is attached on the back

of this report (refer to Appendix E), while in this report the trainee will brief

summary for each modules. The trainee is required to do a PowerPoint presentation

to show her understanding on the subject of offshore pipeline engineering to a panel

of pipeline engineers as part of her evaluation (refer Appendix F).

12
3.1.2 MODULE ONE - PIPELINE INSTALLATION

Module one is about the pipeline installation. There are six topics in this

module which will be discussed shortly throughout this report. In this module, the

trainee is expected to understand on how offshore pipelines are installed, the type of

lay barge, and also the installation activities.

Firstly, A pipeline system is a transportation network of pipes, valves, and

other parts connected together to deliver gaseous or liquid products from a source

(supplier) to a final destination, usually a customer. Examples of products

transported through pipelines are water, sewage, natural gas, gasoline, and crude oil.

A submarine pipeline (also known as marine, subsea or offshore pipeline) is a

pipeline that is laid on the seabed or below it inside a trench.

Illustration 3.0: Subsea Pipeline

13
Illustration 3.1: Typical Pipeline System

Lay Barge Method is the most common method for subsea pipeline

installation. The S-lay method where the term S-lay refers to the shape that the pipe

forms between the vessel and the seabed as it is laid. The method is characterized by

its fast installation process and its workability over a large range of water depths. On

board the pipelay vessel, pipe joints are assembled in a horizontal working plane (the

firing line). Pipe joints are welded together, inspected and then coated as they move

through the various firing line work stations. As welding progresses, the pipeline is

gradually lowered towards the seabed behind the vessel.

During pipelay, the curvature of the upper section of the pipeline (the

overbend) is controlled by the stinger, a steel structure with rollers protruding from

the end of the firing line to prevent pipe buckling (failure). The curvature in the

lower section (the sagbend) of the pipeline is controlled by pipe tensioners,

14
caterpillar tracks that clamp the pipe. The amount of tension is one of the most

important limiting factors in the capabilities of an S-lay vessel.

After a pipeline has been laid, and the system has been tested and

commissioned, the client can transport oil or gas through it.

Illustration 3.2: S-lay Method

Illustration 3.3: Typical S-lay Pipelay Vessel (Semi-sub)

15
Referring to Appendix B, the trainee has been assigned by the supervisor to

differentiate the barges according to their characteristics. Table below shows the

pipelay barge assessment.

Parameters / Sea LTS Enterprise


DB30 DLB-264 QP 2000
Barge Horizon 3000 3

Maximum 124.74 150 kips /


70 MT 100 MT 68 MT
effective 100 kips MT 300 kips
tension (686.5 (980.7 (666.85
(444 kN) (1223.8 (667kN /
capacity kN) kN) kN)
kN) 1335 kN)

No. of
2 2 2 2 2 2
Tensioner

1st
Articulat Section:
45m 33.53 – ed 4 160ft
Stinger length NA NA
(approx.) 48.77m Sections 2nd
Floating Section:
60ft

Mooring 10 nos x 8 nos x 12 nos x 10 nos x


Anchor 11.4MT Min. 8 11.4MT 12MT 12.5MT
8 nos.
Delta nos. Delta Delta Delta
Flipper Flipper Flipper Flipper

Wire Rope 8@914m


(length,diamet and 975.4m, 1227.73m, 8@1500m,
NA NA
er) 2@1830 2.25” 2.5” 2”
m, 2”

36”
Pipe Diameter 4” – 60” 6” – 60” 6” – 60” 6” – 60” NA
(max.)

Available
Station

5+1
Welding 5 4 5 6 4
repair
NDT 1 1 1 1 1 1
Field Joint 1 1 2 2 2 1

16
Parameters / Sea LTS Enterprise
DB30 DLB-264 QP 2000
Barge Horizon 3000 3

Free Board NA NA 1254.3m2 2000m2 2000m2 NA

1 Main,
1 main, 1 1 Main, 2 1 Main, 1 1 main, 1 1 main, 1
Crane 2
crawler Gantry Auxiliary crawler crawler
Pedestal

Abandon and 200 kips


317.5 MT 136 MT 150 MT 200 MT 150 MT
Recovery (91 MT)

3 nos x
7 nos x 54.4MT 6 nos x 6 nos x 6 nos x 6 nos x
Davits
25 MT 3 nos x 45MT 50MT 50MT 50MT
45.4MT

161.53
Length x 110m x 128m x 121.92m x 120m x 120m x
mx
Breath x 30m x 48.2m x 30.48m x 40.1m x 31.7m x
37.8m x
Depth 7.8m 8.5m 9.14m 9m 9m
15m

6.10m 6.5m
Operating (max.), (max.),
4m 4.6m 6.5m 6.5m
Draft 4.27m 4.0m
(min.) (min.)

83.8m 71.6m 70.10m 75m


(main), (main), (main), (main), 75m
Boom Length NA
45.7 33.5m 48.77 48-50m (main)
(crawler) (gantry) (auxiliary) (crawler)

Required 380 kN < 380 kN < 380 kN < 380 kN 380 kN <
lay 1223.8kN 667kN 686.5kN < 666.85kN
tension 980.7kN
Tension Tension Tension Tension
for this
required required is required Tension required is
pipeline
is less less than is less required less than
is 85
Remarks than barge than is less barge
kips (380
barge tension barge than tension
kN)
tension capacity tension barge capacity
capacity capacity tension
Stinger
capacity
length is
longer than Stinger
Sea is longer

17
Parameters / Sea LTS Enterprise
DB30 DLB-264 QP 2000
Barge Horizon 3000 3

Horizon than Sea


barge’s Horizon
stinger barge’s
length stinger
length

Table 3.0: Pipelay Barge Assessment

Note:

1. NA: data not available

2. Ramp Angle: Not Available for all barges and not essential for pipe laying

criteria.

3. This remarks represents pipeline with required lay tension of 3820kN.

18
3.1.3 MODULE TWO - OFFSHORE PIPELINE DESIGN ENGINEERING

In this module, the trainee has to make some research on offshore pipeline

design engineering. There are 12 topics to be concerned such as the pipeline wall

thickness calculations, on-bottom stability, cathodic protection design and pipeline

maximum free span.

Wall
Basis Route Thickness &
Review Data
of Optimization Material
Design Grade
Selection

Seabed
Rectification/
Route External
Modification Corrosion
Coating
Selection
Yes

No
End Expansion Is Span
Analysis Correction On-Bottom
Required? Stability
Analysis

Lateral Buckling
Analysis
Cathodic
(if required) Spanning
Protection
Analysis
Design

Riser & Spool Installation


Stress Analysis Analysis

Illustration 3.4: Typical Flowchart for Offshore Pipeline.

19
3.1.3.1 PIPELINE WALL THICKNESS CALCULATION

The trainee has been assigned to calculate the wall thickness of pipe using

Microsoft Excel where the data needed is given (refer Appendix C). Upon

confirmation of pipe diameter (D) from hydraulic studies, the required pipeline

minimum wall thickness (t) shall be determined. The selected pipe thickness shall

provide sufficient strength for pipeline system to operate under operating conditions

and environmental loads. Calculations for the wall thickness should consider the

following factors:

 Hoop stress / pressure containment

 Hydrostatic collapse

D  Local Buckling

 Buckle Propagation

t  Buckle Initiation

Illustration 3.5: Pipeline Size

This calculation is assigned by the supervisor. By using Microsoft Excel

2007, the trainee is able to learn how to calculate using a spreadsheet in Microsoft

Excel. Refer to Appendix D for Pipeline wall thickness calculations.

20
3.1.3.2 ON-BOTTOM STABILITY

Submarine pipelines should have a submerged weight of sufficient magnitude

to provide adequate stability on bottom of the seabed. The required minimum weight

can be achieved by providing a concrete coating. The pipeline should have such a

weight that it will not move from its as installed position A pipeline resting on the

seabed is exposed to the environmental forces. The resulting environmental forces

are Inertia force, FI, Drag force, FD, Lift force, FL. If unchecked, these force can

cause lateral and vertical instability of pipeline.

Illustration 3.6: Lateral and Vertical Stability

21
3.1.3.3 EXTERNAL CORROSION COATING

A combination of a coating and a cathodic protection system is used to provide

protection. The coating is a primary protection of pipeline external surface against

corrosion due to environmental effects and the selection criteria are:

 Ease of application

 Low permeability to water and salts

 Good adhesion to pipeline steel surface

 Adequate temperature stability

The common external anti-corrosion coating systems for offshore pipeline are listed

below:

 Asphalt Enamel (AE)

 Three-layer Polypropylene (3LPP)

 Three-layer Polyethylene (3LPE)

 Fusion bonded epoxy (FBE)

The above to be combined with the following external anti-corrosion coatings for

pipe field joint area:

 Cold applied wrap tape

 Heat Shrink Sleeve (HSS)

22
Riser pipe within splash zone shall be applied either with

 Neoprene

 Monel Sheathing

Riser pipe above splash zone on platform

 Glass Flake Epoxy (GFE)

Illustration 3.7: External Coating

23
3.1.3.4 CATHODIC PROTECTION DESIGN

Cathodic Protection (CP), also referred to as a sacrificial cathode, is a

technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of

an electrochemical cell. It reduce corrosion rate of a pipeline by reduce its corrosion

potential. An anode is attached to a metal object to protect the object from corrosion.

The selection of the anodic metal is dependent upon resistivity and electrolyte:

 Magnesium - soil and freshwater applications

 Zinc - low resistivity soils and saltwater

 Aluminum - saltwater and limited freshwater applications

Illustration 3.8: The Concept

Illustration 3.9: Method of Application


24
3.1.3.5 PIPELINE MAXIMUM FREE SPAN

A pipeline span is that part of a pipeline which is not in contact with the

seabed surface. Free spans can be caused by seabed unevenness, change of seabed

topology (e.g. scouring, sand waves), and will also occur at pipeline crossings.

Analysis is conducted to determine the maximum allowable free span for the

pipelines based on static and dynamic analysis. Excessive span length can cause pipe

bending and fatigue.

Unsupported length

Illustration 3.10: Free Span of Pipeline

25
3.2 IN-HOUSE TRAINING

In House Training is defined as any training that is held in company premises

in order to educate, develop or improve employees’ skills. This involves all technical

and soft skills courses that serve for this purpose. On the 28th March 2014, all

department trainees were invited to join for an in-house training entitled ‘Pressure

vessels’. The presenters were from the mechanical department.

Pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at

a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. Pressure vessels are

designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and temperature technically referred

to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature". A vessel that is inadequately

designed to handle a high pressure constitutes a very significant safety hazard.

Because of that, the design and certification of pressure vessels is governed by

design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

Illustration 3.11: Typical Components of Pressure vessel

26
3.1.4 MODULE THREE – DESIGN CODES AND STANDARDS FOR

OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES

Design codes and standards are used as a reference for engineers. There are various

types of design codes and standards such as:

 Petroleum Legislation in Malaysia

 Petronas Technical Standard (PTS)

 Det Norske Veritas (DNV)

- DNV Rules for Submarine Pipelines 1981

 American Petroleum Institute (API)

- API Specification 5L

 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

- ASME B31.4

- ASME B31.8

- ASME B16.5

 International Standard (ISO)

Illustration 3.12: Codes and Standards

27
CHAPTER 4

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In conclusion, there were many things that the trainee have experience and

learned during the four month of her Industrial Training at Petrofac-RNZ. The

whole training period was very interesting, instructive and challenging. Through

this training she was able to gain new insights and more comprehensive

understanding about the real industry working condition and practice. The four

month training also has provided her the opportunities to develop and improve her

soft and functional skills. The trainee get to know more about oil and gas field as

she undergo training with the Pipeline discipline throughout her training period. All

of this valuable experience and knowledge that she have gained were not only

acquired through the direct involvement in task given but also through other aspect

of the training such as work observation, interaction with colleagues, superior, and

others third party related to the company. From what the trainee have undergone,

she is hundred percent agree that the industrial training program have achieve its

entire primary objective. It’s also the best ways to prepare student in facing the real

working life. As a result of the program now she is more confident to enter the

employment world and build her future career.

28
BIBLIOGRAPHY

 Mousselli, Offshore Pipeline Design, Analysis, and Method, Oklahoma,

PennWell Books.

 Baker, Ron, 1985, A Primer of Offshore Operations, Texas, The University

of Texas.

 Baker, Ron, 1983, Oil & Gas The Production Story, Texas, The University of

Texas.

 Wikipedia, March 2014, “Submarine Pipeline”,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/subsea- pipeline

 Aziz, Amir, April 2011, “Pipeline Installation Method”,

http://offshoreengineeringstudy.blogspot.com/2011/04/pipeline-installation-

method.html

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APPENDIX A

30
APPENDIX B

31
APPENDIX C

32
APPENDIX D

33
APPENDIX E

34
APPENDIX F

35
36