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Objective: To observe and understand the characteristics of the hydraulic jump and
the sluice gate used in the flume to create conditions allowing the jump to occur.

Apparatus: Flume and sluice gate.

Introduction: A hydraulic jump in an open channel of small slope is shown in the

Figure. In engineering practice the hydraulic jump frequently appears downstream
from overflow structures (spillways) or underflow structures (sluice gates) where
velocities are high. It may be used to effectively dissipate kinetic energy and thus
prevent scour of the channel bottom, or to mix chemicals in a water or sewage
treatment plant. In design calculations the engineer is concerned mainly with
prediction of existence, size, and location of the jump.
A hydraulic jump is formed when liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of
lower velocity, creating a rather abrupt rise in the liquid surface (a standing wave)
accompanied by violent turbulence, eddying, air entrainment, and surface undulations.

A flow is supercritical when:

Where Fr is the Froude number, V is the fluid velocity, g is the gravitational constant,
and y is fluid depth.

For a channel of rectangular cross-section and constant width, :

Where q=Q/b , the flow rate per unit width of the channel. In supercritical flow,
disturbances travel downstream, and upstream water levels are unaffected by
downstream control. Supercritical flows are characterized by high velocity and small
flow depth and are also known as shooting flows.
A flow is subcritical when:

In subcritical flow, disturbances travel upstream and downstream, and upstream water
levels are affected by downstream control. Subcritical flows are characterized by low
velocity and large flow depth and are also known as tranquil flows. In a hydraulic
jump, supercritical flow changes to subcritical flow over a short horizontal distance.

Specific energy (E) in a channel section is the sum of the elevation head and
velocity head, measured with respect to the channel bottom:

For a rectangular channel of constant width b and constant discharge Q ,

Consider a plot of depth, y, vs. specific energy ,Es , for a given flow rate. This
plot is known as a specific energy diagram. As the depth increases from a
small value, the specific energy decreases to a minimum value, Ec . The
depth associated with this minimum value of specific energy is called critical
depth, yc , and the associated Froude number is unity. As the depth
continues to increase, the specific energy increases, eventually approaching
the y = E line. For each value of specific energy greater than the minimum
specific energy, there are two associated depths of flow. One, y1 , is less than
the critical depth (supercritical), and one, y2, is greater than the critical depth

the energy loss through the jump may be determined:

Theory: The hydraulic jump occurs when flow transitions from supercritical to
subcritical flow in an open channel. It is a case of rapidly varied, steady flow. In a
horizontal, rectangular channel, the sequent (downstream) depth is related to the
initial (upstream) depth by the equation:

where y1 is the initial depth, y2 is the sequent depth, b is the width of flume and Q is
the flow rate. In the laboratory flume, the initial depth is produced using a sluice gate
which controls the flow under the gate (the initial depth in the hydraulic jump) based
on the depth of flow upstream of the gate, y1, as shown below. The sluice gate is
analyzed using the energy equation.

Procedure: For each of three flow rates, and associated sluice gate opening, observe
y1 and y2.
Analysis and Report:
a. For the measured depths, y1, y2 and y3, determine if the flow is subcritical or
b. For each of the measured values of y2, calculate the theoretical value of y3 and
compare to the observed value.
c. For each flow rate, plot the specific energy curve and identify the depths of interest.
(y1, y2, y3, yc)
d. Compute and plot the energy losses in the jump for each sluice gate opening and
plot as a function of flow rate.