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1 Aufrufe21 SeitenAbstract:
The amount of energy generated from a photovoltaic installation depends mainly on two factors—the temperature and solar irradiance. Numerous maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques have been developed for photovoltaic systems. The challenge is what method to employ in order to obtain optimum operating points (voltage and current) automatically at the maximum photovoltaic output power in most conditions. This paper is focused on the structural analysis of mathematical models of PV cells with growing levels of complexity. The main objective is to simulate and compare the characteristic current-voltage (I-V) and power-voltage (P-V) curves of equivalent circuits of the ideal PV cell model and, with one and with two diodes, that is, equivalent circuits with five and seven parameters. The contribution of each parameter is analyzed in the particular context of a given model and then generalized through comparison to a more complex model. In this study the numerical simulation of the models is used intensively and extensively. The approach utilized to model the equivalent circuits permits an adequate simulation of the photovoltaic array systems by considering the compromise between the complexity and accuracy. By utilizing the Newton–Raphson method the studied models are then employed through the use of Matlab/Simulink. Finally, this study concludes with an analysis and comparison of the evolution of maximum power observed in the models.

Oct 28, 2018

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Abstract:
The amount of energy generated from a photovoltaic installation depends mainly on two factors—the temperature and solar irradiance. Numerous maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques have been developed for photovoltaic systems. The challenge is what method to employ in order to obtain optimum operating points (voltage and current) automatically at the maximum photovoltaic output power in most conditions. This paper is focused on the structural analysis of mathematical models of PV cells with growing levels of complexity. The main objective is to simulate and compare the characteristic current-voltage (I-V) and power-voltage (P-V) curves of equivalent circuits of the ideal PV cell model and, with one and with two diodes, that is, equivalent circuits with five and seven parameters. The contribution of each parameter is analyzed in the particular context of a given model and then generalized through comparison to a more complex model. In this study the numerical simulation of the models is used intensively and extensively. The approach utilized to model the equivalent circuits permits an adequate simulation of the photovoltaic array systems by considering the compromise between the complexity and accuracy. By utilizing the Newton–Raphson method the studied models are then employed through the use of Matlab/Simulink. Finally, this study concludes with an analysis and comparison of the evolution of maximum power observed in the models.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

1 Aufrufe

Abstract:
The amount of energy generated from a photovoltaic installation depends mainly on two factors—the temperature and solar irradiance. Numerous maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques have been developed for photovoltaic systems. The challenge is what method to employ in order to obtain optimum operating points (voltage and current) automatically at the maximum photovoltaic output power in most conditions. This paper is focused on the structural analysis of mathematical models of PV cells with growing levels of complexity. The main objective is to simulate and compare the characteristic current-voltage (I-V) and power-voltage (P-V) curves of equivalent circuits of the ideal PV cell model and, with one and with two diodes, that is, equivalent circuits with five and seven parameters. The contribution of each parameter is analyzed in the particular context of a given model and then generalized through comparison to a more complex model. In this study the numerical simulation of the models is used intensively and extensively. The approach utilized to model the equivalent circuits permits an adequate simulation of the photovoltaic array systems by considering the compromise between the complexity and accuracy. By utilizing the Newton–Raphson method the studied models are then employed through the use of Matlab/Simulink. Finally, this study concludes with an analysis and comparison of the evolution of maximum power observed in the models.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Article

Simulation and Comparison of Mathematical Models

of PV Cells with Growing Levels of Complexity

Eduardo Manuel Godinho Rodrigues 1, *, Radu Godina 2 , Mousa Marzband 3 and

Edris Pouresmaeil 4

1 Management and Production Technologies of Northern Aveiro—ESAN, Estrada do Cercal, 449,

Santiago de Riba-Ul, 3720-509 Oliveira de Azeméis, Portugal

2 C-MAST—Centre for Aerospace Science and Technologies—Department of Electromechanical Engineering,

University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal; rd@ubi.pt

3 Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering,

Northumbria University Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE18ST, UK;

mousa.marzband@northumbria.ac.uk

4 Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland;

edris.pouresmaeil@aalto.fi

* Correspondence: emgrodrigues@ua.pt

Received: 24 September 2018; Accepted: 23 October 2018; Published: 25 October 2018

factors—the temperature and solar irradiance. Numerous maximum power point tracking (MPPT)

techniques have been developed for photovoltaic systems. The challenge is what method to employ

in order to obtain optimum operating points (voltage and current) automatically at the maximum

photovoltaic output power in most conditions. This paper is focused on the structural analysis of

mathematical models of PV cells with growing levels of complexity. The main objective is to simulate

and compare the characteristic current-voltage (I-V) and power-voltage (P-V) curves of equivalent

circuits of the ideal PV cell model and, with one and with two diodes, that is, equivalent circuits with

five and seven parameters. The contribution of each parameter is analyzed in the particular context

of a given model and then generalized through comparison to a more complex model. In this study

the numerical simulation of the models is used intensively and extensively. The approach utilized to

model the equivalent circuits permits an adequate simulation of the photovoltaic array systems by

considering the compromise between the complexity and accuracy. By utilizing the Newton–Raphson

method the studied models are then employed through the use of Matlab/Simulink. Finally, this

study concludes with an analysis and comparison of the evolution of maximum power observed in

the models.

Keywords: photovoltaic cells; maximum power point tracking; sustainable energy; mathematical

models; Newton-Raphson

1. Introduction

The Energy Union Framework Strategy is aiming to a serious transition from an economy

dependent on fossil fuels to one more reliant on renewables [1] and among the available sources

of renewable energy, solar energy is on the most abundant [2–4], which could be assertively harnessed,

especially in the southern countries of Europe. According to Club of Rome study embracing the circular

economy concept could signify up to 70% decrease in carbon emissions by 2030, of five European

economies [5]. By targeting a renewable energy based economy and a circular economy at the same

time could be the way achieve the Energy Union Framework Strategy targets [1]. Although free and

available on a planetary scale, the role in the global energy mix is unobtrusive, competing not only

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 2 of 21

with other forms of non-renewable energy, such as gas and coal [6], but also with its more direct

rival—the wind renewable energy source [7]. Except for a very limited number of countries where

proactive and generous income policies were implemented at the beginning of the last decade, there

has been a more recent mobilization of European governments in this sector, legislating on specific

instruments to stimulate production decentralized and small scale power [8]. In the last few years,

the solar energy has been gaining importance in the worldwide energy evolution tendency due to a

constantly increasing efficiency and lifespan, the decrease of the price of PV modules and by being

environmentally friendly [9]. Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are steadily becoming one of the main

three electricity sources in Europe [10]. The entire installed PV capacity in 2016 reached 303 GWp and

in that year Spain and Italy were responsible for 5.4 and 19.3 GWp, respectively [11].

In a typical PV system several photovoltaic modules are linked in series in order to create a PV

string. The aim is to reach a certain voltage and power output. With the intention of accomplishing a

greater power, such PV strings can be linked in parallel in order to make a PV array. For the duration

of a constant irradiance condition, the power-voltage (P-V curve) characteristics of a PV string show

a typical P-V curve peak. Such type of a peak embodies the maximum power of the PV string [4].

The P-V characteristics of a PV system are nonlinear and are affected by both the ambient temperature

and solar irradiance, which in turn reveal distinct MPPs. With the purpose of optimizing the use of PV

systems, conventional MPPT algorithms are often used [12].

In the planning of a photovoltaic power plant the electric power produced is strongly linked to

the meteorological conditions (solar radiation and temperature) [13,14]. Due to the intermittent nature

of solar energy, power forecasting is crucial for a correct interpretation of business profitability and

payback time [15]. In the current market there is a great offer of manufacturers that, of course, have

quite different technological production processes. All this leads to two modules with an identical

technical sheet, under nominal test conditions, to differ in performance and produce very different

results [16]. The actual operating conditions in both solar radiation and temperature will very rarely

coincide with the combination of nominal meteorological variables. Thus, the broader characterization

is of utmost importance for studying the differences [17]. In the end the main goal is to realistically

quantify the performance, giving credibility to the estimation process in function of meteorological

specificities of each season of the year. Ultimately it is desired that the process has enough resolution

to reach the count up to the daily cycle.

The characterization requires the compilation of a large amount of data required for the application

of appropriate mathematical model. In the concrete case of the photovoltaic cell the analytical model

opens the doors for the detailed description in function of the external variables, which for all effects

determine the general forms of the characteristic curves. However, to make modeling effective, it will

be the model’s intrinsic parameters which will more or less shape the link to the experimental data [18].

Molding is particularly critical at three points of operation. First, the predicted forecast of the peak

electric power, then the open circuit operating points, that is, the maximum potential difference to

be supported by the power electronics in the DC-AC conversation in the cut-off state, and finally the

short-circuit, that is the maximum current to be supported by the electric cables in the event of a fault.

The models share in common the same electrical base model. The cell being a photoelectric

device is modeled with a DC current source and a junction diode in parallel. From here all models

are effectively variations with the introduction of more electrical elements. The elements may be of

a series element of resistive nature by recreating the internal losses by Joule, or a parallel resistance

simulating the internal leakage current, or a supplementary diode, which is normally associated with

the losses by recombination of the carriers in the zone of the depletion layer [19].

Researchers have been increasingly focusing on MPPT techniques [20–24]. Authors in [25] have

proposed a glowworm swarm optimization-based MPPT for PVs exposed to uneven temperature

distribution and solar irradiation. A technique based on Radial Movement Optimization (RMO) for

detecting the MPPT under partial shading conditions and then compared with the results of the

particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is studied in [19]. Authors in [26] focus on the analysis of

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 3 of 21

dynamic characteristic for solar arrays in series and MPPT based on optimal initial value incremental

conductance strategy under partially shaded conditions. In [27] the authors optimize the MPPT with a

model of a photovoltaic panel with two diodes in which the solution is implemented by Pattern Search

Techniques. A PV source that was made by utilizing un-illuminated solar panels and a DC power

supply that functions in current source mode is proposed in [18]. The authors in [28] address a simple

genetic algorithm (GA)—based MPPT method and then compare the experimental and theoretical

results with conventional

Energies methods.

2018, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW A direct and fully explicit method of extracting the

3 of 22 solar cell

parametersincremental

from theconductance

manufacturer datasheet is tested and presented in [29] and the authors base their

strategy under partially shaded conditions. In [27] the authors optimize the

method onMPPT analytical

with a modelformulation whichpanel

of a photovoltaic includeswith twothediodes

use of in the Lambert

which the solutionW-function

is implemented with the aim

of turningby the series

Pattern resistor

Search equation

Techniques. A PVexplicit.

source that Thewasauthors

made byin propose

utilizing a three-point

un-illuminated solar weight

panels method

shared with andfuzzy

a DC power

logic supply that functions

for increasing the in current

speed ofsource

MPPT mode

[30]isand

proposed

in thisin [18].

study Thetheauthors in

simulation was

[28] address a simple genetic algorithm (GA)-based MPPT method and then compare the

performedexperimental

in Matlab and andtheoretical

was experimentally validated.

results with conventional methods. A direct and fully explicit method

The followed

of extractingmethodology was made

the solar cell parameters from for the comparison

the manufacturer datasheetof isthe models

tested in meteorological

and presented in

conditions[29] asandwidethe authors base their

as possible. method on

Extreme analytical of

scenarios formulation

incidentwhich solarincludes

radiationthe usewere

of thesimulated.

Lambert

The simulated W-function with

temperature was theconsidered

aim of turning the series The

suitable. resistor

mainequation

goalexplicit.

of thisThe authors

study in simulate

is to

propose a three-point weight method shared with fuzzy logic for increasing the speed of MPPT [30]

and compare the characteristic curves of equivalent circuits of the ideal PV cell and, with one and with

and in this study the simulation was performed in Matlab and was experimentally validated.

two diodes, respectively,

The followednamely equivalent

methodology was made circuits

for thewith five andofseven

comparison parameters.

the models The role of every

in meteorological

parameterconditions

is assessed as wide

and as possible. Extreme

compared. The idealscenarios

model of incident

of the PV solar radiation

cell is given werein simulated. The The aim

detail in [31].

simulated temperature was considered suitable. The main goal of this study is to simulate and

was to find areas of model intervention in which the modeling could lead to identical results. In this

compare the characteristic curves of equivalent circuits of the ideal PV cell and, with one and with

study the numerical

two diodes, simulation of the models

respectively, namely equivalent is circuits

used intensively

with five andand extensively.

seven parameters. The The method

role of used to

model the every

equivalent

parameter circuits allows

is assessed andan adequate

compared. Thesimulation

ideal modelof ofthe

the photovoltaic

PV cell is given array systems

in detail in [31]. by taking

The aim was

into consideration thetocompromise

find areas of between

model intervention

accuracyinand which the modeling

complexity. Bycould

using lead

thetoNewton–Raphson

identical

results. In this study the numerical simulation of the models is used intensively and extensively. The

method the studied models are simulated through the use of Matlab/Simulink. All the simulations

method used to model the equivalent circuits allows an adequate simulation of the photovoltaic

were carriedarrayout on the

systems bybasis

takingofinto

a solar cell whose

consideration electrical specifications

the compromise between accuracyare andgiven in [32].

complexity. By

The remainder of this paper is method

using the Newton–Raphson organizedthe as follows.

studied In Section

models 2 the equivalent

are simulated through the circuit

use of with five

parameters Matlab/Simulink.

is presented while All the insimulations

Section were

3 thecarried out on circuit

equivalent the basiswith

of a solar

seven cellparameters

whose electricalis presented.

specifications are given in [32].

The comparison between the one-diode model and the two-diode model is presented in Section 4.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 the equivalent circuit with five

Finally, theparameters

conclusions are addressed

is presented in Section

while in Section 5.

3 the equivalent circuit with seven parameters is presented.

The comparison between the one-diode model and the two-diode model is presented in Section 4.

2. Equivalent Circuit

Finally, with Five

the conclusions are Parameters

addressed in Section 5.

2. Equivalent Circuit with Five Parameters

The five-parameter circuit completes the frame of internal resistive losses. The fifth parameter

2.1. Representative Equations

corresponds to one more parasite

The five-parameter circuitresistance,

completes thereferred to in this

frame of internal paper

resistive as The

losses. the fifth

parallel resistance Rp .

parameter

Unlike thecorresponds

series resistance

to one more(Rsparasite

) it does not interfere

resistance, referred directly with as

to in this paper thethepower

paralleldelivered

resistance Rtop. the load.

Unlike the series resistance (R s) it does not interfere directly with the power delivered to the load.

However, it penalizes the operation of the cell by providing an alternative path for a portion of

However, it penalizes the operation of the cell by providing an alternative path for a portion of the

the photoelectric current. It is called a leakage current because it reduces the amount of current

photoelectric current. It is called a leakage current because it reduces the amount of current flowing

flowing atatthethe PN junction

PN junction [33],[33], thereby

thereby affecting

affecting thetovoltage

the voltage to the

the terminals terminals

of the of cell.

photovoltaic the Thephotovoltaic

cell. The five-parameter electrical

five-parameter electrical circuit

circuit is most

is the the most

widelywidely used model

used model in the analytical

in the analytical study of the study of the

photovoltaicphotovoltaic

cell. Thiscell. This model

model offersoffers

a good a good compromiseininterms

compromise terms of

of complexity

complexity andandperformance

performance [34],

[34], thus being the choice of several authors in this area of research [25,26,28,35–38]. The model of

thus beingthethe choice of several authors in this area of research [25,26,28,35–38]. The model of the

equivalent circuit with five parameters of the photovoltaic (PV) module can be observed in

equivalentFigure

circuit

1. with five parameters of the photovoltaic (PV) module can be observed in Figure 1.

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 4 of 21

According to the junction or nodal rule the sum of currents is governed by the following condition:

Is − ID − I p − I = 0 (1)

Vd = V + Rs I (2)

Solving in order of I and replacing ID with the diode expression and Ip with Vd /Rp the following

equation is obtained:

q (V + R s I ) V + Rs I

I − Is − Iis e mKT −1 − (3)

Rp

where Is is the current created by photoelectric effect, Iis is the reverse saturation current, q is the charge

of the electron, K is the Boltzmann constant (1.38 × 10−23 J/◦ K), T is the temperature of the junction,

m is the reality parameter, Rs is the parasite resistance in series and Rp is the parallel parasite resistance.

The value of Rp is usually quite high in the manufactured photovoltaic cells. However, several authors

with regard to this finding, consider useless the inclusion of this resistance [39–44]. On the other hand

there are authors who consider Rs negligible when the value is very low [45–47].

After obtaining the characteristic equation I-V the electrical power is calculated by:

q (V + R s I ) V + Rs I

P = V × I = V Is − Iis e mKT −1 − (4)

Rp

Deriving at the peak of power, one can find the voltage coordinate, as follows:

!

dP q (V + R s I ) qV e q(VmKT

+ Rs I )

2V R I

= 0 ↔ Is + Iis 1 − e mKT − e − − S =0 (5)

dV mKT Rp Rp

Five equations are required. By consulting the manufacturer’s information under nominal

reference conditions the following equations are obtained:

h Vca i V

ca

(Vca , 0) → 0 = Is − Iis e mkT − 1 − (6)

Rp

h Is R s i IR

s s

(0, Is ) → Is = Is − Iis e mkT − 1 − (7)

Rp

VPmax + IPmax Rs V + IPmax Rs

(VPmax , IPmax ) → IPmax = Is − Iis e mkT − 1 − Pmax (8)

Rp

dP

(VPmax , IPmax ) → =0 (9)

dV

dI 1

(0, Is ) → =− (10)

dV Rp

In practice the system is reduced to four algebraic equations. By observing Equation (3) it can be

stated that:

q (V + R s I )

Iis × e mkT Iis (11)

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 5 of 21

This means that it is possible to eliminate the term −1 without degrading the approximation

given by the model to the I-V curve. This measure simplifies the analytical resolution of the four

variables [48]. Thus, the system is limited to:

qVca Vca

(Vca , 0) → 0 = Is − Iis × e mkT − (12)

Rp

qIs Rs Is Rs

(0, Is ) → Is = Is − Iis × e mkT − (13)

Rp

VPmax + IPmax Rs VPmax + IPmax Rs

(VPmax , IPmax ) → IPmax = Is − Iis × eq mkT − (14)

Rp

The fourth equation is the expression of the power derivative in order of the voltage.

The derivative can be decomposed as a function of V and I:

dP d (V I ) dI

(VPmax , IPmax ) → = = +I=0 (15)

dV dV dV

which leads to:

dI I

VPmax = − Pmax (16)

dV VPmax

Since the Equation (3) is the type of I = f (I,V), the implied derivative as a function of I and V is:

∂ f ( I, V ) ∂ f ( I, V )

dI = dI + dV (17)

∂I ∂V

and dividing by dV it results in:

∂ f ( I,V )

dI ∂V

= ∂ f ( I,V )

(18)

dV 1 − ∂I

By replacing Equation (18) in Equation (15) it is obtained:

∂ f ( I,V )

dP VPmax × ∂V

= IPmax + ∂ f ( I,V )

(19)

dV 1 − ∂I

Solving the partial derivatives it is reached the explicit expression of the Equation (15):

VPmax + IPmax Rs −Vca

−( Is Rs −Vca + Is Rs )e mKTq−1

1

dP mKTq−1 R p

− Rp

= IPmax + VPmax × VPmax + IPmax Rs −Vca

(20)

dV mKTq −1

( Is Rs −Vca + Is Rs )e Rs

1+ −

mKTq R p 1 + Rp

VPmax + IPmax Rs −Vca

−( Is Rs −Vca + Is Rs )e mKTq−1

1

mKTq−1 R p

− Rp

0 = IPmax + VPmax × VPmax + IPmax Rs −Vca

(21)

mKTq −1

( Is Rs −Vca + Is Rs )e Rs

1+ mKTq−1 R p

+ Rp

The system equations do not allow the separation of individual parameters Iis , Rs , Rp , and m

through the analytical solution. For this reason, appropriate numerical methods must be used.

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 6 of 21

2.3. Simulation

The inverse saturation current is obtained by Equation (3) and it is referred to the open circuit

operating point:

Is − VRcap

Is = qVca (22)

e mKT − 1

In previous models only the equation of V in order to I required the Newton-Raphson method.

If we try to derive the expression of Vca with Equation (3) set under open circuit conditions:

h Vca i V

ca

0 = Is − Iis e mkT − 1 − (23)

Rp

Vca h Vca i

= Is − Iis e mkT − 1 (24)

Rp

The assignment of one more parameter to the circuit structure renders impracticable the analytical

resolution of the Equation (3). This means that it is not possible to separate and isolate the variables I

and V in each member through elementary functions. Being the expression of the type I = f (I,V)

the equation is commonly referred to as transcendental equation. In general, a transcendent

equation does not have an exact solution [49]. The only way to find an approximate solution lies

in the use of numerical calculation. In this context the Newton-Raphson algorithm was chosen.

The Newton-Raphson method is a fairly fast (quadratic) convergence computational technique for

calculating the roots of a function [50–52]. Due to its simplicity it lends itself perfectly to such problems.

Then the Newton-Raphson method is used through its generic expression as shown in Equation (25):

f (x)

x n +1 = x n − (25)

f 0( x )

Being xn+1 the estimated value in the present iteration, xn the value obtained in the previous

iteration, f (x) the function initialized with xn and the f’(x) the derivative initialized with xn .

Accordingly, Equation (24) takes the form of a transcendental equation. Thus, by using the

Newton-Raphson method through its generic expression (25) the voltage Vca can be assessed by:

! !

q(Vca0 + Rs × Ica )

Vca0 + Rs × Ica

Is − Ica − Iis × e mK ( T +273.16)

−1 − Rp

Vca1 = Vca0 − q(Vca0 + Rs × Ica )

(26)

mK ( T +273.16)

− Iis ×e ×q

− 1

mK ( T +273.16) Rp

And the corresponding procedure for current I is:

q (V + R s × I )

0

V + Rs × I0

Is − I0 − Iis × e mK(T+273.16) − 1 − Rp

I1 = I0 − q (V + R × I ) s

(27)

0

−1 − Iis ×q× Rs ×e mK (T +273.16) ×q Rs

mK ( T +273.16)

− Rp

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 7 of 21

Knowing that the value of V is an input variable in the algorithm, then for each V there will be

the corresponding I, computed iteratively by Equation (27). The convergence process ends when the

following error criterion ε is satisfied:

| In+1 − I1 | < ε (28)

The nominal characteristic curves are obtained with Equations (4), (22), and (27). The remaining

scenarios are supported by Equations (4), (26), (27), (29), and (30), where Equation (29) is a cubic

relation between the inverse current and the temperature as proposed in [53,54]:

3

T + 273.16 Eg q q

Iis ( T ) = Iisn × e m ( KTn − KT ) (29)

Tn + 273.16

where Iisn is the inverse saturation current and Tn is the temperature, both under Standard Test

Conditions (STC) reference conditions. Additionally, in this study, the following simplification was

taken into account, where G is the incident radiation in W/m2 :

G

Is (G) = Isn (30)

Gn

Two comparative scenarios were designed for the characteristic curves at nominal reference

conditions. In the first one the load is interconnected to a photovoltaic circuit dominated by resistive

losses Rp (Rs = 0). The Rp resistance was adjusted with 10 Ω, 200 Ω, and 1000 Ω, respectively. In the

second scenario a fixed value of 10 mΩ was established for the Rs resistor. The simulations can be

observed in11,

Energies 2018, Figure

x FOR 2.

PEER REVIEW 8 of 22

Figure I-VI-V

2. 2.

Figure curves as as

curves a function of the

a function parallel

of the resistance

parallel Rp and

resistance Rp and Rs : (a)

withwith Ω and

Rs:0(a) 0 Ω (b)

and10(b)

mΩ;10 (STC).

mΩ;

(STC).

By observing the two graphs it is apparent that the resistance Rp does not interfere in the region

of influence of the junction

By observing diode. In

the two graphs theapparent

it is region where theresistance

that the influence R

ofp the

doesphotoelectric

not interferecurrent

in the source

region

predominates, the lowest value tested does not show a significant disturbance: the plot is

of influence of the junction diode. In the region where the influence of the photoelectric current very similar

to the set

source of points estimated

predominates, Rp = ∞.

with value

the lowest tested does not show a significant disturbance: the plot is

very similar to the set of points estimated with Rp = ∞.

As the figures do not have sufficient detail, the curves were enlarged by a range of values close

to the peak power. Figure 3 shows that the leakage current is virtually zero from 200 Ω. While for 10

Ω, the effect being visible is not at all significant. By observing the P-V curves in circuits with internal

losses it can be verified that the lines are very similar, as can be in Figure 4. In other words, the

leakage of current modelled by the resistance Rp in this range of values does not compromise the

(STC).

By observing the two graphs it is apparent that the resistance Rp does not interfere in the region

of influence of the junction diode. In the region where the influence of the photoelectric current

source2018,

Energies predominates,

11, 2902 the lowest value tested does not show a significant disturbance: the plot is

8 of 21

very similar to the set of points estimated with Rp = ∞.

As the figures do not have sufficient detail, the curves were enlarged by a range of values close

As

to the peak the figures

power. do not have

Figure sufficient

3 shows detail,

that the the curves

leakage currentwere enlarged

is virtually by from

zero a range

200ofΩ.

values

Whileclose

for 10to

the peak power. Figure 3 shows that the leakage current is virtually zero from 200 Ω. While

Ω, the effect being visible is not at all significant. By observing the P-V curves in circuits with internal for 10 Ω,

the effect

losses being

it can be visible

verifiedis that

not at

thealllines

significant.

are veryBysimilar,

observing P-Vincurves

the be

as can Figurein4.circuits

In otherwith internal

words, the

losses it can be verified that the lines are very similar, as can be in Figure 4. In

leakage of current modelled by the resistance Rp in this range of values does not compromise theother words, the leakage

of current modelled

estimated maximumbypower. In this R

the resistance p in thisofrange

context of valuesand

temperature doessolar

not compromise

radiation thistheconclusion

estimated

maximum

becomes valid. power. In this context of temperature and solar radiation this conclusion becomes valid.

Figure

Figure 3. Extended I-V

3. Extended characteristic curves.

I-V characteristic curves.

Figure 4.

Figure P-V curves

4. P-V curves as

as aa function

function of

of the parallel resistance Rpp and

resistance R and with Rss:: (a)

with R Ω and

(a)00 Ω and (b)

(b) 10

10 mΩ;

mΩ;

(STC).

(STC).

2.3.3. Characteristic Curves in Function of Temperature and Radiation

Using the same set of R resistors, three data set scenarios are established, as can be observed

Using the same set of Rp presistors, three data set scenarios are established, as can be observed in

2 , 500 W/m2 , and

in Figures 5–7. Each scenario is simulated with a specific solar power, 100 W/m

Figures 5–7. Each scenario is simulated with a specific solar power, 100 W/m , 500 W/m2, and 1000

2

1000 2W/m2 , respectively, and having in common the same interval of test temperatures (10 ◦ C, 25 ◦ C,

W/m , respectively, and having in common the same interval of test temperatures (10 °C, 25 °C, 50

50 ◦ C, and 75 ◦ C).

°C, and 75 °C).

2.3.3. Characteristic Curves in Function of Temperature and Radiation

Using the same set of Rp resistors, three data set scenarios are established, as can be observed in

Figures 5–7. Each scenario is simulated with a specific solar power, 100 W/m2, 500 W/m2, and 1000

2

W/m2018,

Energies , respectively,

11, 2902 and having in common the same interval of test temperatures (10 °C, 25 °C, 950 of 21

°C, and 75 °C).

Figure

Figure 5. 5. Characteristiccurves

Characteristic curvesininfunction

function of

of temperature

temperature and

and parallel

parallelresistance

resistanceRR

p, pwith a constant

, with a constant

Energies 2018, 11,

resistance

resistance RsxR(G

FOR= =PEER

s (G W/m2).).

REVIEW

1000W/m

1000 10 of 22

Figure

Figure 6. 6. Characteristiccurves

Characteristic curvesininfunction

functionof

of temperature

temperature and

and parallel

parallelresistance

resistanceRR

p, pwith a constant

, with a constant

resistance

resistance s (G

RsR(G = =500 W/m22).

500W/m

Figure

Energies 6. Characteristic

2018, 11, 2902 curves in function of temperature and parallel resistance Rp, with a constant

10 of 21

resistance Rs (G = 500 W/m2).

parallel resistance

Figure 7. Characteristic curves in function of temperature and parallel resistance R

Rpp, with a constant

resistance Rss (G == 100 W/m2).

100 W/m 2 ).

At the higher power range (1000 W/m2 ) the I-V curves are literally identical. Consequently,

the P-V curves do not experience significant changes between 10 ◦ C and 75 ◦ C. The peak power is then

identical, regardless of whether the cell is manufactured with a high parallel resistance (1000 Ω) or

with considerably low resistance (10 Ω).

At a medium power range (500 W/m2 ) the performance is matched to that observed in the power

ceiling of 1000 W/m2 . With the solar radiation reduced to a tenth (100 W/m2 ) of the highest power

range, finally, there is some deviation in the I-V curve, characterized by Rp = 10 Ω. In thermal terms,

there is no correlation with Rp : the difference with the versions with higher Rp losses is apparently

constant for the analyzed temperature scale.

Summarizing the Figures 4–6, it can be concluded that the impact of the parallel resistance

on the performance of the cell, is barely expressive in the generality of the tested meteorological

conditions, except for a slight disruption of the peak of power with 10 Ω in Rp and under weak incident

solar radiation.

The seven-parameter electrical circuit is the next step in the electrical modeling of the photovoltaic

cell. Equivalently to the mono-diode model (five parameters), the full version of two diodes brings

together the complete set of losses. The seventh parameter is the leakage current modeled by the

parallel resistance Rp . The seven-parameter equivalent electrical circuit with two diodes can be

observed in Figure 8.

The seven-parameter electrical circuit is the next step in the electrical modeling of the

photovoltaic cell. Equivalently to the mono-diode model (five parameters), the full version of two

diodes brings together the complete set of losses. The seventh parameter is the leakage current

modeled by the parallel resistance Rp. The seven-parameter equivalent electrical circuit with two

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 11 of 21

diodes can be observed in Figure 8.

Is Rs I

+

I D1 I D2 Ip

G

D1 D2 Rp V

The

The sum

sum of

of currents

currents at

at the

the top

top node

node is:

is:

I s I−d1I d−

Is − − I d 2−− IIRRp −−I I==

1 Id2

00 (31)

(31)

p

diodes is

The voltage across the two diodes is equivalent

equivalent to:

to:

V = V = V + R ×I

1 V d 2= V + Rs × I (32)

Vd1 d= d2 s (32)

Making the appropriate substitutions the final expression of I as a function of V is:

Making the appropriate substitutions the final expression of I as a function of V is:

q(V +Rm1IKT q(mV2+KTRs I )

q ( V + Rs I ) q( V + R I )

V + Rs I

I=I − e s )

−1 I − e s − 1 I − V+ Rs I (33)

I = Is − s e m1 KT − 1 Iis1is 1− e m2 KT −1 isI2is2 − Rp (33)

Rp

where IIss is

where is the

the photoelectric

photoelectric equivalent

equivalent current,

current, IIis1

is1 and is2 are

and IIis2 are the

the saturation

saturation currents

currents ofof diode

diode 11 and

and

diode 2 respectively, m and m the ideality parameters of diode 1 and diode 2, respectively.

diode 2 respectively, m1 and m2 the ideality parameters of diode 1 and diode 2, respectively. As in the

1 2 As in the

previousmodel,

previous model,q qrepresents

representsthethe charge

charge of electron,

of the the electron,

K is the is the Boltzmann

K Boltzmann constantconstant

(1.38 × 10(1.38

−23 ×J/10

◦ K),

−23

J/°K),

T is theT temperature

is the temperature

of the of the junction,

junction, m reality

m is the is the reality parameter,

parameter, is the parasite

Rs parasite

Rs is the resistance

resistance in

in series

series and R is the parallel parasite

and Rp is the parallel parasite resistance.

p resistance.

Despite being

Despite being computationally

computationally moremore demanding,

demanding, several

several authors

authors argue

argue that

that the

the approximation

approximation

is more accurate than that achieved one with less complex models [45,55–58].

is more accurate than that achieved one with less complex models [45,55–58]. For instance, For instance, for afor

low a

low radiation level, the two-diode model estimates with better approximation than the one-diode

model [55,59].

Several authors simplify the identification of the parameters, reducing the number of effectively

calculated variables. The most common is the reduction of seven to five variables by specifying

fixed values. Usually this practice is related to the parameters m1 and m2 [55,60–62]. Other authors

opt for complete identification through elaborated methodologies such as particle examination

optimization [63], the estimation based on neural networks [64], on genetic algorithms [65] or through

algebraic relations as a function of temperature [62].

If the expression of I-V is identified the output electrical power P obeys to:

q (V + R s I )

q (V + R s I )

V + Rs I

P = V × I = V Is − e m1 KT

− 1 Iis1 − e m2 KT

− 1 Iis2 − (34)

Rp

From where by the derivative of the power peak it is possible to reach the value of V:

q (V + R s I )

!

q (V + R s I )

dP qV e m1 KT

dV = 0 ↔ Is + Iis1 1 − e m1 KT

− m1 KT e

q (V + R s I )

! (35)

q (V + R s I )

qV e m2 KT 2V RS I

+ Iis2 1 − e m2 KT

− m2 KT e − Rp − Rp =0

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 12 of 21

Since the expression is transcendental the solution can only be found with a numerical algorithm

that is able to extract the root.

Only six equations are required (the variable Is is excluded from the system since the linear

dependence with temperature is known) the system is:

qVca

qVca

Vca

(Vca , 0) → 0 = Is − Iis1 e m1 KT

− 1 − Iis2 e m2 KT

−1 − (36)

Rp

qIs Rs

qIs Rs

Is Rs

(0, Is ) → Is = Is − Iis1 e m1 KT

− 1 − Iis2 e m2 KT

−1 − (37)

Rp

VPmax + IPmax Rs VPmax + IPmax Rs

V + IPmax Rs

(VPmax , IPmax ) → IPmax = Is − Iis1 e m1 KT

− 1 − Iis2 e m2 KT

− 1 − Pmax (38)

Rp

dP

(VPmax , IPmax ) → =0 (39)

dV

As the role of parasite resistance Rs is more pronounced in the vicinity of Vca , an orderly

relation to this variable is determined through the derivative of the characteristic expression of

the seven-parameter model:

q(dV +R dI ) q (V + R I ) q(dV +R dI ) q (V + R I )

s s s s dV + + Rs dI

dI = − e m1 KT − 1 e m1 KT Iis1 − e m2 KT − 1 e m2 KT Iis2 − (40)

Rp

dV 1

Rs = − = q(dV + Rs I ) q(dV + Rs I )

(41)

dI q q 1

Iis1 × m1 KT ×e m1 KT

+ Iis2 × m2 KT ×e m2 KT

+ Rp

dV 1

Rs = − − qVca qVca

(42)

dI Vca q q 1

Iis1 × m1 KT ×e m1 KT

+ Iis2 × m2 KT × e m2 KT + Rp

where dV

dI Vca = − Rs is an initial estimation of the series resistance for the purposes of iterative

numerical calculation.

By using Equation (40) de derived equation of Rp is as follows:

q(Vca + Rs I ) q(Vca + Rs I )

1 dV q q dV

+ Rs = Iis1 × × e m1 KT + Iis2 × × e m2 KT − − Rs (43)

Rp dI m1 KT m2 KT dI

1

Rp = q(Vca + Rs I ) q(Vca + Rs I )

(44)

q q

− dV 1 − Iis1 × m1 KT ×e m1 KT

− Iis2 × m2 KT ×e m2 KT

( dI + Rs )

1

Rp = q( Rs Is ) q ( R s Is )

(45)

1 q q

− dV − Iis1 × m1 KT ×e m1 KT

− Iis2 × m2 KT ×e m2 KT

dI s

I

+ Rs

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 13 of 21

where dV dI Is = − R P is an approximate value of the parallel resistance for the purposes of iterative

numerical calculation. It is usually estimated with the slope around the short-circuit operating point.

The still missing equation is the derivative of the power P as a function of V at the maximum

electric power point. The developed equation takes the form of:

∂ f ( I,V )

− VIPmax

Pmax

= ∂V

∂ f ( I,V ) ↔

1− ∂I

q(VPmax + Rs × IPmax ) q(VPmax + Rs × IPmax )

m1 KT m2 KT (46)

IPmax qIis1 × e m1 KT + qIis2 × e

m2 KT + R1p

VPmax = q(VPmax + Rs × IPmax ) q(VPmax + Rs × IPmax )

m1 KT m2 KT

1+qRs Iis1 × e m1 KT +qRs Iis2 × e m2 KT + RRps

The inverse saturation current is determined by Equation (33) at the open circuit operating point

with the following analytical expression:

Vca

Is − Rp

Iis1 = Iis2 = qVca qVca

(47)

e m1 KT − 1 + e m2 KT − 1

Vca1 = Vca0

q (V + R × I ) q (V + R × I )

ca0 s ca ca0 s ca

m1 K ( T +273.16) m2 K ( T +273.16) Vca + Rs × Ica

Is − Ica − Iis1 ×e −1− Iis2 ×e −1 − 0 Rp

(48)

− q(Vca0 + Rs × Ica ) q(Vca0 + Rs × Ica )

I ×e m1 K ( T +273.16) m2 K ( T +273.16)

×q Iis2 ×e ×q

− R1p

− is1 −

m1 K ( T +273.16) m2 K ( T +273.16)

where Ica is the open circuit current. The current I is given by the following equation:

! ! !

q(V + Rs × I0 ) q(V + Rs × I0 )

m1 K ( T +273.16) m2 K ( T +273.16) V + Rs × I0

Is − I0 − Iis1 × e − 1 − Iis2 × e −1 − Rp

I1 = I0 − q(V + Rs × I0 ) q(V + Rs × I0 )

(49)

−1 − Iis1 ×q× Rs ×e m1 K (T +273.16) ×q Iis2 ×q× Rs ×e m2 K (T +273.16) ×q Rs

m1 K ( T +273.16)

− m2 K ( T +273.16)

− Rp

The current and power strokes in nominal regime are estimated with Equations (34), (47), and (49).

In a more comprehensive meteorological frame the calculation is carried out with the Equations (29),

(30), (34), (48), and (49).

4.1. Characteristic Curves in Function of the Solar Radiation and the Parallel Resistance Rp

The incorporation of the parallel resistance Rp completes the number of variables that characterize

the equivalent circuit of two diodes. Similarly to what was done with the equivalent representation

of a diode, the importance of this resistive loss in the formation of the typical curves was examined,

giving natural attention to the maximum power point. The structure was simulated with five different

Rp values, exposed to progressively higher levels of solar radiation, between the 100 W/m2 and

1000 W/m2 . Figures 9 and 10 show the generated curves.

The incorporation of the parallel resistance Rp completes the number of variables that

characterize the equivalent circuit of two diodes. Similarly to what was done with the equivalent

representation of a diode, the importance of this resistive loss in the formation of the typical curves

was examined, giving natural attention to the maximum power point. The structure was simulated

with five different Rp values, exposed to progressively higher levels of solar radiation, between

Energies 2018, 11, 2902

the

14 of 21

2 2

100 W/m and 1000 W/m . Figures 9 and 10 show the generated curves.

curves of

of equivalent

equivalent 11 and

and 2 diode circuits in function of the solar radiation and of the

Energies 2018, 11,

parallel x FOR PEER

resistance REVIEW

R p, with constant (T

(T == 25 ◦ C).

25 °C). 15 of 22

p series resistance Rs constant

s

curves of equivalent 1 and 2 diode circuits in function of the solar radiation and of the

◦ C).

parallel resistance R

parallel resistance Rpp, with series resistance Rs constant (T == 25

25 °C).

In

In both

bothaadiode

diodestructure

structureand a two-diode

and a two-diode structure, the leakage

structure, current

the leakage through

current Rp is very

through Rp issmall

very

if the resistance

small is simulated

if the resistance is simulated withΩ—from

with 5000 this value

5000 Ω—from thisthe parallel

value branch approaches

the parallel an infinite

branch approaches an

resistance. Then, since the resistances of 10 Ω and 200 Ω lead to characteristic curves

infinite resistance. Then, since the resistances of 10 Ω and 200 Ω lead to characteristic curves identical to those

found

identicalwith thoseΩ,

to 5000 it canwith

found be stated

5000 Ω,that Rp isbenegligible

it can stated thatif its

Rp value is equalifto

is negligible itsorvalue

greater than 10

is equal to Ω.

or

The same is no longer true with R reduced to 1 Ω. The current I starts to decrease

greater than 10 Ω. The same is no longer true with Rp reduced to 1 Ω. The current I starts to decrease

p to values close to

the short-circuit voltage instead of remaining constant until the measurements of the

to values close to the short-circuit voltage instead of remaining constant until the measurements of maximum power

electrical

the maximum coordinates.

power electrical coordinates.

4.2.

4.2. Characteristic

Characteristic Curves

Curves as

as aa Function

Function of

of Temperature

Temperature andand Parallel

Parallel Resistance

ResistanceRRpp

In this section,

In this section, the

theevolution

evolutionofofthethecurves

curvesasas a function

a function Rp R

of of p (10

(10 Ω and

Ω and 200 200Ω) isΩ) is analyzed.

analyzed. The

The

seriesseries resistance

resistance is equal

is equal andand constant

constant in in bothmodels.

both models.The

Theparameters

parametersm, m,mm11, ,and m22 are

and m are initialized

initialized

with

with 1.5,

1.5, 1,

1, and

and 2,2, respectively.

respectively. The

The simulation

simulation was was carried

carried out

out with

with three

three scenarios

scenarios of of solar

solar radiation

radiation

with 100 W/m 2 2 2

2 , 500 W/m 2 and 1000 W/m 2 , respectively, and each with four levels of temperature,

with 100 W/m , 500 W/m and 1000 W/m , respectively, and each with four levels of temperature, (10

(10 ◦ C, 25 ◦ C, 50 ◦ C, and 75 ◦ C). The results can be witnessed in Figures 11–13.

°C, 25 °C, 50 °C, and 75 °C). The results can be witnessed in Figures 11–13.

With solar power at 1000 W/m2 the open circuit voltage does not show any deviation between

the two models. The same does not happen with 100 W/m2 and 500 W/m2 aggravating with the

decrease of incident solar exposure. As for maximum power, the two-diode model is always at an

advantage whatever the scenario. The difference is visible between 100 W/m2 and 500 W/m2, with a

tendency to increase in the downward direction of the sun exposure. Over the same range of solar

radiation, the temperature tends to maintain the constant difference.

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 15 of 21

Energies

Energies 2018,

2018, 11,

11, xx FOR

FOR PEER

PEER REVIEW

REVIEW 16

16 of

of 22

22

Figure

Figure 11.11. Characteristic

Characteristic curves

curves of equivalent

of equivalent circuits

circuits of oneof

andone

twoand twoindiodes

diodes function in of

function of

temperature

22).

temperature and parallel resistance R

and parallel resistance Rp , with a constant

pp, with a constant resistance R

resistance Rs (G = 1000 W/m

ss (G = 21000

). W/m

Figure

Figure 12.12. Characteristic

Characteristic curves

curves of equivalent

of equivalent circuits

circuits of oneof

andone

twoand twoindiodes

diodes functionin of

function of

temperature

2 22).

temperature and parallel resistance R

and parallel resistance Rp , with a constant

pp, with a constant resistance R

resistance Rs (G = 500 W/mss (G = 500

). W/m

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 16 of 21

Energies 2018, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 17 of 22

Figure

Figure 13. Characteristic

13. Characteristic curves curves of equivalent

of equivalent circuits

circuits of oneofand

onetwoand two diodes

diodes in function

in function of

of temperature

2).

temperature and parallel resistance R , with a constant resistance

and parallel resistance Rp , with a constant resistance Rs (G = 100 W/m ).

p Rs (G =2 100 W/m

4.3. Comparative

With solar power Table

atof1000

Peak W/m

Power 2inthe

the open

Set of Models

circuit voltage does not show any deviation between

the two models. The samethedoes not happen with 100 2 and 500 W/m2 aggravating with the

In order to support conclusions concerning theW/m

role played by the parallel resistance in the

decrease of incident

one diode and twosolar

diode exposure.

models, theAsdata

for referring

maximum power,

to the the two-diode

maximum power weremodel is always

agglutinated. The at an

advantage whatever the scenario. The difference is visible between 100 W/m and 500 W/m2can

results are organized according to three solar power levels and by test 2

temperature families and , with a

be observed

tendency in Figures

to increase in the14–16.

downward direction of the sun exposure. Over the same range of solar

Figure 13. Characteristic curves of equivalent circuits of one and two diodes in function of

radiation, the temperature tends to maintain the constant difference.

temperature and parallel resistance Rp, with a constant resistance Rs (G = 100 W/m2).

4.3. Comparative Table of Peak Power in the Set of Models

In In

order to to

order support thethe

support conclusions

conclusionsconcerning

concerning the role

the played

role playedbyby

the parallel

the parallelresistance

resistanceininthe

theone

diode and two diode models, the data referring to the maximum power were agglutinated.

one diode and two diode models, the data referring to the maximum power were agglutinated. The The results

areresults

organized according

are organized to threetosolar

according threepower levelslevels

solar power and and

by test temperature

by test temperature families

familiesand

andcancan be

observed in Figures 14–16.

be observed in Figures 14–16.

Maximum 2). 2 ).

Figure 14.14.

Figure Maximumpower

poweras

asaafunction

function of

of temperature (G==1000

temperature (G 1000W/m

W/m

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 17 of 21

Energies 2018, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 18 of 22

Energies 2018, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 18 of 22

2

Figure

Figure 15. Maximum

15. Maximum

Figure15. power

Maximum power as

as aaafunction

power as function of

functionof temperature

oftemperature (G

(G=== 500

temperature(G 500 W/m

W/m22).

500 W/m ).).

Figure

Figure 16.

16. Maximum

Maximum power

power as

as aa function

function of

of temperature

temperature (G

(G == 100

100 W/m

W/m2).

).

From

From the analysis of Figures 14–16 several conclusions can be assessed. At maximum or or half

From thethe analysis

analysis ofof Figures

Figures 14–16 14–16 several

several conclusions

conclusions can can bebe assessed.

assessed. At At maximum

maximum or half half

solar

solar exposure, bothboth models lead lead to maximum values very closeclose to the estimated power at infinite

solar exposure,

exposure, both models

models lead to to maximum

maximum valuesvalues veryvery close ◦toto the

the estimated

estimated

◦

power

power at at infinite

infinite

R

R p . This trend

trend remains with with the temperature

temperature varying between between 10 °C C and 75 C. Decreasing the light

Rpp.. This

This trend remains

remains with the the temperature varying varying between 10 10 °C andand 75

75 °C.

°C. Decreasing

Decreasing the the light

light

exposure

exposure to

to one

one tenth

tenth shows

shows aa significant

significant deviation

deviation in

in any

any of

of the

the models

models with

with the

the R

R reduced to

pp reduced to 10 Ω.

10 Ω.

exposure to one tenth shows a significant deviation in any of the models with the Rp reduced to 10 Ω.

The

The two-diode equivalent circuit is in any case more generous at peak power. The power deficit between

The two-diode

two-diode equivalent

equivalent circuit

circuit is is in

in any

any case

case more

more generous

generous at at peak

peak power.

power. TheThe power

power deficit

deficit

the one-diode

between model versus the versus

two-diode model is constant over the entire temperature range for the

between the one-diode model versus the two-diode model is constant over the entire temperature

the one-diode model the two-diode model is constant over the entire temperature

same

range leveltheof radiation. However, it tends to worsen with the weakening of the incidence variable.

range for for the same

same level

level of of radiation.

radiation. However,

However, it it tends

tends toto worsen

worsen withwith the the weakening

weakening of of the

the

The two-diode

incidence model tends to approximate the ideal one-diode model with the progressive reduction

incidence variable. The two-diode model tends to approximate2 the ideal one-diode model with the

variable. The two-diode model tends to approximate the ideal one-diode model with the

of incident radiation.

progressive reduction With

of the limited

incident incidence

radiation. With at

the 100 W/mincidence

limited the equivalent

at 100 circuit

W/m performance

2 the equivalent

progressive reduction of incident radiation. With the limited incidence at 100 W/m the equivalent 2

(R s = 10 mΩ and Rp =

circuit 200 Ω)mΩ is comparable, as it is

can be observed in Figure 16.

circuit performance

performance (R (Rss == 10

10 mΩ and and R Rpp =

= 200

200 Ω)

Ω) is comparable,

comparable, as as it

it can

can be

be observed

observed in in Figure

Figure 16.

16.

5. Conclusions

5.

5. Conclusions

Conclusions

In this paper the equivalent electrical circuits used in the modeling of non-organic photovoltaic

In this paper

paper the equivalent electrical circuits used in

in the

the modeling of

of non-organic photovoltaic

cells In

was this

presented, thepaying

equivalent electrical

particular circuits

attention used

to the modeling modeling non-organic

of silicon-made cells. Twophotovoltaic

equivalent

cells was presented, paying particular attention to the modeling of silicon-made cells. Two

circuits of models were analyzed and then compared with the ideal model of the PV cell. The Two

cells was presented, paying particular attention to the modeling of silicon-made cells. first

equivalent circuits

equivalent circuits of models

of models were analyzed and then compared with the ideal model of the PV cell.

equivalent circuit consists of were analyzed

the model anddiode,

of one then compared

the second with the idealcircuit

equivalent modelof of two

the PV cell.

diodes.

The first equivalent circuit consists of the model of one diode, the second equivalent circuit of two

The results show that the two-diode equivalent circuit is more advanced than the diode circuittwo

The first equivalent circuit consists of the model of one diode, the second equivalent circuit of in

diodes.

diodes. The

The results

results show

show that

that the

the two-diode

two-diode equivalent

equivalent circuit

circuit is

is more

more advanced

advanced than

than the

the diode

diode

modeling an internal leakage current. The second diode fulfills this role by describing the additional

circuit in

in modeling

circuit associated

modeling an internal

anthe

internal leakage

leakage current.

current. The

The second diode fulfills this role

role by describing the

losses, with recombination of carriers in second diode layer.

the depletion fulfillsThe

thisresultsby describing

firmly the

reveal that

additional

additional losses,

losses, associated

associated with

with the

the recombination

recombination of

of carriers

carriers in

in the

the depletion

depletion layer.

layer. The

The results

results

the five-parameter model is more penalized with the decrease in radiation than the seven-parameter

firmly

firmly reveal

reveal that

that the five-parameter model

model isis more penalized with the

the decrease in

in radiation than

than the

counterpart. Thethe

samefive-parameter

trend was observed more penalized

with the rise inwith decrease

temperature. With radiation

a meteorological the

seven-parameter

seven-parameter counterpart. The same trend was observed with the rise in temperature. With

counterpart. The same trend was observed with the rise in temperature. With a a

meteorological frame characterized by 1000 W/m 2 of radiation and 10 °C of temperature, the

meteorological frame characterized by 1000 W/m of radiation and 10 °C of temperature, the

2

Energies 2018, 11, 2902 18 of 21

frame characterized by 1000 W/m2 of radiation and 10 ◦ C of temperature, the deviation approaches

6.1%. By reducing the exposure to one-tenth the deviation reaches 12%. At the other end of the

temperature range, the deviation reaches 10.4% at full sun exposure, and worsens up to 20.3% with

exposure limited to the maximum. The most important contribution deduced form this study is that

the two-diode model tends to approximate to the ideal PV cell model (one-diode model) with the

progressive reduction of incident radiation. With the incidence limited to 100 W/m2 the equivalent

circuit performance (Rs = 10 mΩ and Rp = 200 Ω) is almost identical to the ideal one-diode model.

This means that, for regions were the solar incident radiation is lower, the ideal one-diode model

behaves similarly to the more complex seven parameter equivalent circuit, thus allowing the user to

opt for this circuit in detriment to the other more complex one which allows using a less complex

software tool.

Author Contributions: E.M.G.R. performed the writing and original draft preparation and performed parts of

the literature review. R.G. handled the writing and editing of the manuscript and contributed with parts of the

literature review. M.M. and E.P. supervised, revised, and corrected the manuscript.

Funding: The current study was funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), under project

UID/EMS/00151/2013 C-MAST, with reference POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007718.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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