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9.

The current in a certain circuit as measured by an ammeter is a continuous random


variable X with the following density function:

a. Graph the pdf and verify that the total area under the density curve is indeed 1.

0.075𝑥 5
𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = (0.075𝑥 + 0.2)𝑑𝑥 = + 0.2𝑥
2 3

0.075(5 ) 0.075(3 )
+ 0.2(5) − + 0.2(3) = 1
2 2

b. Calculate P(X≤4). How does this probability compare to P(X <4)?

0.075𝑥 4
𝑃(𝑋 ≤ 4) = (0.075𝑥 + 0.2)𝑑𝑥 = + 0.2𝑥
2 3

0.075(4 ) 0.075(3 )
+ 0.2(4) − + 0.2(3) = 0.4625
2 2
𝑃 (𝑋 ≤ 4)𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃(𝑋 < 4 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙
c. Calculate P(3.5≤X≤4.5) and also P(4< X).
.
0.075𝑥 4.5
𝑃(3.5 ≤ X ≤ 4.5) = (0.075𝑥 + 0.2)𝑑𝑥 = + 0.2𝑥
. 2 3.5

0.075(4.5 ) 0.075(3.5 )
𝑃(3.5 ≤ X ≤ 4.5) = + 0.2(4.5) − + 0.2(3.5) = 0.5
2 2

0.075𝑥 5
𝑃(4 < X) = (0.075𝑥 + 0.2)𝑑𝑥 = + 0.2𝑥
2 4

0.075(5 ) 0.075(4 )
𝑃(4 < X) = + 0.2(5) − + 0.2(4) = 0.5375
2 2

11. Let X denote the amount of time a book on two-hour reserve is actually checked out,
and suppose the cdf is
Use the cdf to obtain the following:

a.𝑃(𝑋 ≤ 1)
1
𝑃(𝑋 ≤ 1) = 𝐹(1) = = 0.25
4
b. 𝑃(.5 ≤ 𝑋 ≤ 1)
1 .5
𝑃(. 5 ≤ 𝑋 ≤ 1) = 𝐹(1) − 𝐹(. 5) = − = 0.1875
4 4
c. 𝑃(𝑋 > 1.5)
2 1.5
𝑃(𝑋 > 1.5) = 𝐹(2) − 𝐹(1.5) = − = 0.4375
4 4
d. The median checkout duration 𝜇 [𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒 .5 = 𝐹(𝜇 )]
𝜇
𝐹(𝜇 ) = → 𝜇 = √0.5 ∗ 4 = 1.414
4
e. 𝐹 (𝑥) to obtain the density function 𝑓(𝑥)
1
𝐹 (𝑥) = 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥
2
1
𝑓(𝑥) = 2 𝑥, 0≤𝑥≤2
0, 𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒
f. 𝐸(𝑋)

1 𝑥 2
𝐸(𝑋) 𝑥 ∗ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 =
2 6 0

2 0 2
𝐸(𝑋) = − = 1.33
6 6 0

g. 𝑉(𝑋) and 𝜎
1 𝑥 2
𝐸(𝑋 ) 𝑥 ∗ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 =
2 8 0

2 0 2
𝐸(𝑋 ) = − =2
8 6 0

2 2
𝑉(𝑋) = 𝐸(𝑋 ) − 𝐸(𝑋) = 2 − = = 0.22
6 9

2
𝜎 = 𝑉(𝑋) = = 0.4714
9

h. If the borrower is charged an amount ℎ(𝑋) = 𝑋 when checkout duration is X, compute


the expected charge E[h(X)].

1 𝑥 2
𝐸(𝑋 ) 𝑥 ∗ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 =
2 8 0

2 0 2
𝐸(𝑋 ) = − =2
8 6 0
28. Let Z be a standard normal random variable and calculate the following probabilities,
drawing pictures wherever appropriate.

𝑎. 𝑃(0 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 2.17) = Φ(2.17) − Φ(0) = 0.9849 − 0.5 = 0.4849


𝑏. 𝑃(0 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 1) = Φ(1) − Φ(0) = 0.8413 − 0.5 = 0.3413
𝑐. 𝑃(−2.50 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 0) = Φ(0) − Φ(−2.50) = 0.5 − 0.0062
𝑑. 𝑃(−2.50 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 2.50) = Φ(2.50) − Φ(−2.50) = 0.9938 − 0.0062 = 0.9876
𝑒. 𝑃(𝑍 ≤ 1.37) = Φ(1.37) = 0.9147
𝑓. 𝑃(−1.75 ≤ 𝑍) = 1 − Φ(1.75) = 1 − 0.0401 = 0.9599
𝑔. 𝑃(−1.50 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 2.00) = Φ(2) − Φ(−1.50) = 0.9772 − 0.0668 = 0.9104
ℎ. 𝑃(1.37 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 2.50) = Φ(2.50) − Φ(1.37) = 0.9938 − 0.9147 = 0.0791
𝑖. 𝑃(1.50 ≤ 𝑍) = 1 − Φ(1.50) = 1 − 0.9332 = 0.0668
𝑗. 𝑃(|𝑍| ≤ 2.50) = Φ(2.50) − Φ(−2.50) = 0.9938 − 0.0062 = 0.9876

32. Suppose the force acting on a column that helps to support a building is a normally
distributed random variable X with mean value 15.0 kips and standard deviation 1.25 kips.
Compute the following probabilities by standardizing and then using Table A.3.

𝑋−𝜇
𝑍=
𝜎
𝑎. 𝑃(𝑋 ≤ 15) = 𝑃(𝑍 ≤ 0) = Φ(0) = 0.5
𝑏. 𝑃(𝑋 ≤ 17.5) = 𝑃(𝑍 ≥ 2) = 1 − Φ(2) = 1 − 0.9772 = 0.0228
𝑐. 𝑃(𝑋 ≥ 10) = 𝑃(𝑍 ≥ −4) = 1 − Φ(−4) = 0.9999
𝑑. 𝑃(14 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 18) = 𝑃(−0.8 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 2.4) = 0.9918 − 0.2119 = 0.7799
𝑒. 𝑃(|𝑋 − 15| ≤ 3) = 𝑃(3 ≤ |𝑋 − 15| ≤ 3) = 𝑃(12 ≤ 𝑋 ≤ 18) = 𝑃(−2.4 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 2.4)

𝑃(−2.4 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 2.4) = Φ(2.4) − Φ(−2.4) = 0.9836


38. There are two machines available for cutting corks intended for use in wine bottles. The
first produces corks with diameters that are normally distributed with mean 3 cm and
standard deviation .1 cm. The second machine produces corks with diameters that have a
normal distribution with mean 3.04 cm and standard deviation .02 cm. Acceptable corks
have diameters between 2.9 cm and 3.1 cm. Which machine is more likely to produce an
acceptable cork?
Machine 1
𝜇=3
𝜎 = .1
𝑋−𝜇
𝑍=
𝜎
𝑃(2.9 ≤ 𝑋 ≤ 3.1) = 𝑃(−1 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 1) = Φ(1) − Φ(−1) = 0.6826
Machine 2
𝜇 = 3.04
𝜎 = .02
𝑋−𝜇
𝑍=
𝜎
𝑃(2.9 ≤ 𝑋 ≤ 3.1) = 𝑃(−7 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 3) = Φ(3) − Φ(−7) = 0.9987
R: Second machine is more likely to produce an acceptable cork

41. The automatic opening device of a military cargo parachute has been designed to open
when the parachute is 200 m above the ground. Suppose opening altitude actually has a
normal distribution with mean value 200 m and standard deviation 30 m. Equipment damage
will occur if the parachute opens at an altitude of less than 100 m.
What is the probability that there is equipment damage to the payload of at least one of five
independently dropped parachutes?
𝜇 = 200𝑚
𝜎 = 30𝑚
𝑋−𝜇
𝑍=
𝜎
𝑃(𝑋 ≥ 100) = 𝑃(𝑍 ≥ 3.33) = Φ(3.3333) = 0.9996

5𝑃(𝑍 ≥ 3.33) = 1 − 0.9996 = 0.0019


55. The weight distribution of parcels sent is normal with mean value 12 lbs. and standard
deviation 3.5lbs. The parcel service wishes to establish a weight value c beyond which there
will be a surcharge. What value of c is such that 99% of all parcels are at least 1lb under the
surcharge weight?
𝜇 = 12
𝜎 = 3.5
𝑍 = 2.33 (Obtained in table A.3)
𝑋−𝜇
𝑍=
𝜎
𝑋 = 𝑍𝜎 + 𝜇
𝑋 = 20.155
𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑐 = 21.155
46. The inside diameter of a randomly selected piston ring is a random variable with mean
value 12 cm and standard deviation .04 cm.
𝜇 = 12
𝜎 = 0.04
a. If 𝑋 is the sample mean diameter for a random sample of n =16 rings, where is the
sampling distribution of centered, and what is the standard deviation of the distribution?
The random variable 𝑋 is centered at 𝐸(𝑋 ) = 𝜇 = 12, and its standard deviation is
𝜎 = 0.01𝑐𝑚

b. Answer the questions posed in part (a) for a sample size of n = 64 rings.
If n=64, then the center of the distribution of 𝑋 stay the same, but the standard
deviation of the distribution of the X is different.
𝜎
𝜎 = 0.005𝑐𝑚
√𝑛
c. For which of the two random samples, the one of part (a) or the one of part (b), is 𝑋 more
likely to be within .01 cm of 12 cm? Explain your reasoning.
Because the variability of 𝑋 is decreasing when sample size is getting larger, it is more likely
that within 0.01cm form the mean (12cm) 𝑋 will be in the second sample.
53. Rockwell hardness of pins of a certain type is known to have a mean value of 50 and a
standard deviation of 1.2.
𝜇 = 50
𝜎 = 1.2
a. If the distribution is normal, what is the probability that the sample mean hardness for a
random sample of 9 pins is at least 51?
𝑋−𝜇
𝑍=
𝜎
1.2
𝜎 = = 0.4𝑐𝑚
√9
𝑃(𝑋 ≥ 51) = 𝑃(𝑍 ≤ 2.5) = 1 − Φ(2.5) = 0.0062
b. Without assuming population normality, what is the (approximate) probability that the
sample mean hardness for a random sample of 40 pins is at least 51?
1.2
𝜎 = = 0.1897𝑐𝑚
√40
𝑃(𝑋 ≥ 51) ≅ 𝑃(𝑍 ≥ 5.27) = 1 − Φ(5.27) = 0
54. Suppose the sediment density (g/cm) of a randomly selected specimen from a certain
region is normally distributed with mean 2.65 and standard deviation .85 (suggested in
“Modeling Sediment and Water Column Interactions for Hydrophobic Pollutants,” Water
Research, 1984: 1169–1174).

𝜇 = 2.65 𝑍=

𝜎 = .85
a. If a random sample of 25 specimens is selected, what is the probability that the sample
average sediment density is at most 3.00? Between 2.65 and 3.00?
. 85
𝜎 = = 0.17𝑔/𝑐𝑚
√25
𝑃(𝑋 ≤ 3.00) = 𝑃(𝑍 ≤ 2.0588) = Φ(2.0588) = 0.9802
𝑃(2.65 ≤ 𝑋 ≤ 3.00) = 𝑃(0 ≤ 𝑍 ≤ 2.0588) = Φ(2.0588) − 0.5 = 0.9802 − 0.5 = 0.4802

b. How large a sample size would be required to ensure that the first probability in part (a)
is at least .99?
𝑍 = 2.33 (Obtained in table A.3)
𝑋 − 𝜇 3 − 2.65 𝜎
𝜎 = = = 0.1502 𝑛= = 32 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑠
𝑍 2.33 (𝜎 )