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Chapter 4

Electrostatics

Contents
4.1 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.2 Charge and Current Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.2.1 Charge Densities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.2.2 Current Densities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.3 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
4.3.1 Field Due to N Point Charges . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.3.2 Field Due to a Charge Distribution . . . . . . . . 4-11
4.4 Gauss’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
4.5 Electric Scalar Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-32
4.6 Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41
4.6.1 Drift Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-42
4.6.2 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-43
4.6.3 Joule’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46
4.7 Dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-47
4.7.1 Polarization Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-48
4.7.2 Dielectric Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49
4.8 Electric Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49

4-1
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

4.8.1 Dielectric-Conductor Boundary . . . . . . . . . 4-53


4.8.2 Conductor-Conductor Boundary . . . . . . . . . 4-55
4.9 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-56
4.10 Electrostatic Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-60
4.11 Image Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-62

4-2
4.1. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS

4.1 Maxwell’s Equations


 The chapter opens as the first pure fields chapter

 The remaining chapters of the text focus on Maxwell’s equa-


tions (4 total)

r  D D v (4.1)
@B
r ED (4.2)
@t
r B D0 (4.3)
@D
r HDJ D ; (4.4)
@t
where

E D electric field internsity


D D E D electric flux density
H D magnetic field intensity
B D H D magntic flux density
J D convection or conduction current density

 In Chapter 4 and 5 we will only consider static conditions,


which means terms of the form @=@t D 0

 What remains of the four Maxwell’s equations is two pairs of


simplified equations:

– Electrostatics (Chapter 4)

r  D D v (4.5)
r ED0 (4.6)

4-3
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

– Magnetostatics (Chapter 5)

r B D0 (4.7)
r HDJ (4.8)

 The above pairs of equations are said to be decoupled, which


holds only for the static case

4.2 Charge and Current Distributions


With regard to electrostatics, working with charge current distribu-
tions is common place.

4.2.1 Charge Densities


 Charge densities are similar to probability densities studied in
prob and stats and mass densities found in mechanics

 There are three basic forms:

– Volume distribution
q dq
v D lim D .C/m3/
V!0 V dV
Note: Z
QD v d V (C)
V

– Surface distribution
q dq
s D lim D .C/m2/
s!0 s ds
4-4
y
4.2. CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS

Note: x Z
(a) Q
Line
D charge distribution
s ds (C)
S
z

Surface charge ρs
3c
m
y
r
ϕ

x
(b) Surface charge distribution
Figure 4.1: Circular surface charge s .
Figure
– Line 4-1 Charge distributions for Examples 4-1
distribution
and 4-2.
q dq
` D lim D .C/m/
l!0 l dl
Note: Z
QD ` d l (C)
l
z

10 cm
Line charge ρl

x
(a) 4.2:
Figure LineLinear
charge line
distribution
charge `.
z 4-5
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Example 4.1: Nonuniform Surface Charge

 Consider the surface charge density


(
4y 2 .C/m2/; 3  x; y  3 m
s D
0; otherwise

 Find the total charge

3 3 3 33 
4y
Z Z Z
QD 4y 2 dy dx D dx
3 3 3 3 3
3

D 72  Œx 3 D 72  3 . 3/ D 432 .C/

4.2.2 Current Densities


 Current is related to charge density, except we have to put the
charge into motion

 Consider charge in a tube having volume density v and mov-


ing from left to right with velocity u

 In t s the charge moves l D ut, creating a charge flow


across the tube’s surface area, s 0 of
also
q 0 D v  .l  s 0/ D v u  s 0  t
„ ƒ‚ …
Vt

4-6
4.2. CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS

Volume charge ρv ∆s'

u ∆q' = ρvu ∆s' ∆t

∆l
(a)

ρv ∆s
∆s = nˆ ∆s
θ
u ∆q = ρvu • ∆s ∆t
= ρvu ∆s ∆t cos θ

(b)

Figure Figure
4.3: (a)4-2
Charges flowing
Charges in a tube
with velocity with cross
u moving section
through a s 0
movingcross
withsection ∆s′uinm/s
velocity and∆s
(a) and (b)indealing
(b). with a surface normal
differnt from the flow velocity.
 For the general case of charge flow across a surface (not par-
O can be
allel to the velocity u) the normal to the surface s, n,
used to write s D nO s, and then describe the general charge
increment q (prime is dropped) as
q D v u  s t

 Since current is charge flow per unit time, we have


q
I D D v u s D J  s
t „ƒ‚…
(C/s)/m2

where J is the current density


J D v u .A/m2/
4-7
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 Integrating over an arbitrary surface S yields the total current


Z
I D J  d s .A/
S

– For the movement of charged matter, J represents a con-


vection current
– For the movement of charged particles (e.g., electrons in
a conductor), J represents a conduction current
– Note: Conduction current obeys Ohm’s law, while con-
vection current does not!

4.3 Coulomb’s Law


 First introduced in Chapter 1

 Now its time to get serious about studying it and working with
it!

 Review: For an isolated charge q the induced electric field is

O q
EDR .V/m/;
4R2
O points from q to the field point P
where R

 Review: A test charge q 0 placed in electric field E at point P


experiences force
F D q 0E .N/
Note: It would appear that the units of E is also (N/C), i.e.,
(N/C) = (V/m)

4-8
4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

 Review: When a material with permittivity  D 0r is present


the electric flux density and electric field intensity are related
by
D D E
12
Note: The 0 D 8:85  10 F/m

– As long as  is independent of the amplitude of E, the


material is linear
– A material is said to be isotropic if  is independent of
the direction of E; some PCB materials are anisotropic,
meaning  takes on one value in the .x; y/ plane and an-
other value in the z direction (sheet thickness)

4.3.1 Field Due to N Point Charges


 For N point charges q1; q2; : : : ; qN with corresponding posi-
tion vectors Ri , i D 1; 2; : : : ; N connecting the charge loca-
tion with the field point P , is the vector sum of the field due to
the individual charges
N
1 X .R Ri /
ED .V/m/
4 iD1 jR Ri j3

Example 4.2: Two Point Charges in Python and TI nspire

 Consider two point charges as described in text Example 4-3

 In Cartesian coordinates we have

R1 D .1; 3; 1/; R2 D . 3; 1; 2/; R D .3; 1; 2/

4-9
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

with
5 5
q1 D 2  10 (C) and q2 D 4  10 (C)

 We calculate E by plugging the 3D vector coefficients into


 
1 R R1 R R2
ED q1 C q2 (V/m)
40 jR R1j3 jR R2j3

 In Python the calculation is straight forward using numpy ndarrays

Figure 4.4: Python calculation of the two charge electric field at


(3,1,-2).

 The nested list [[1,2,3],[4,5,6]] creates a 2D array having


dimensions 2 by 3

 A 1D array is formed by indexing just one row, e.g., Ri[i,:],;


not the use of the colon operator to span all columns

 The norm function finds the length of an array in Cartesian


coordinates

 Using the TI nspire calculator a symbolic solution can be ob-


tained and then converted to a numerical form, no problem

4-10
norm r_array 2 14

4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

Two Charge Calculation


On the nspire you can enter an array of three element lists using
r_array:={{1,3,-1},{-3,1,-2}}. Once entered it looks like the following:
r_array:= 1 3 −1 ▸ 1 3 −1
−3 1 −2 −3 1 −2
r_point:= 3 1 −2 ▸ 3 1 −2
Now the calculation of the E field less the 10 -5 factor and ε ₀ :
1 r_point-r_array 1 r_point-r_array 2
· 2· +−4·
4· π· ε0 3 3
norm r_point-r_array 1 norm r_point-r_array 2
1 −1 −1

108· ε0· π 27· ε0· π 54· ε0· π
Now include the missing terms to get a pure numerical answer:
10 -5 r_point-r_array 1 r_point-r_array 2
· 2· +−4·
4· π· 8.85· 10 -12 norm r_point-r_array 1
3
norm r_point-r_array 2
3
▸ 3330.3 −13321.2 −6660.6

Figure 4.5: TI nspire calculation of the two charge electric field at


(3,1,-2).
ECE3110_Chapter4a Page 1 of 1

 The units (not shown in the figures) is of course (V/m)

4.3.2 Field Due to a Charge Distribution


 A practical extension to Coulomb’s law is consider charge dis-
tributions: (1) volume, (2) surface, or (3) line distributions

Volume Distributon

 Consider a volume V 0 that contains charge density v

4-11
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 The electric field at a point P due to a differential charge dq D


v d V 0, is
dE D R O 0 dq D R O 0 v d V ;
4R02 4R02
where R0 is the vector pointing from the differential charge
O 0 is the corresponding unit vector
to the field point P and R
R0=jR0j

 Since superposition holds for discrete charges it holds here, so


in integral form

1 d V0
O 0 v
Z Z
ED dE D R .V/m/
V0 4 V0 R02

 This formula is nice and compact, but R0 and R0 are likely


functions of the integration variables used to describe V 0

 Furthermore, there are no examples or homework problems in


the book for a volume charge distribution

Surface Distribution

 For the case of a surface charge density dq D s ds 0, we can


write
0
1 0 s ds
Z
ED O
R .V/m/
4 S 0 R02

 With the charge distribution limited to just two dimensions,


problem set-up and integration become easier

4-12
4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

Line Distribution

 Finally for the case of a line charge density dq D `d l 0, we


can write

1 ` d l 0
Z
ED O0
R .V/m/
4 l 0 R02

 Here the charge distribution one dimensional, but may lie along
a curve

 The math is manageable in many cases

Example 4.3: A Ring of Charge in Air

 Here we consider a circular line charge lying in the x y plane


of radius b uniform positive density `

– Note: This is a classical, yet also important, example

 The field point for determining E is along the z-axis at P D


.0; 0; h/

 The problem symmetry makes cylindrical coordinates the ob-


vious choice

4-13
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

z
dE1
dE1z
dE1r P = (0, 0, h)

h R'1
ρl
+ + + +
+ +
+ b dφ + y
+ φ
+ + + + 1
dl = b dφ

x
(a)
Figure 4.6: Setting up the ring of charge field calculation.
z
 The differential line charge segment length is d l D bd and
dE = dE
the differential charge density + dE
is 1dq D 2`d l D `b d
dE1
 From Figure 4.6 we see thatdE2
dE1r
R0 D
rOdE C zO h
b 2r
R'2 0 0
p
R D jRR'j 1D b 2 C h2
0
2 + R +
O D
0 +R +D prO b C zO h

φjR 0j + 2
+ b C h2 + y
and + φ
+ + 1+ + 1rO b C zO h
dE D ` b 3=2 d
40 b2 C h2
x
 With the field point along (b)
the z-axis further simplification is
possible, namely the radial (Or) field contributions from charge
Figure 4-6 Ring of charge with line density ρℓ . (a) The
4-14 field dE1 due to infinitesimal segment 1 and (b) the fields
dE1 and dE2 due to segments at diametrically opposite
locations (Example 4-4).
+ dφ + y
+ φ
+ + + + 1
dl = b d4.3.
φ COULOMB’S LAW

segments on x opposite sides of the ring cancel, leaving only the


(a)
axial or zO component
z
dE = dE1 + dE2
dE1
dE2
dE1r
dE2r
R'2
R'1
2 + + + +
φ+π +
+ + y
+ φ
+ + + + 1

x
(b)
Figure 4.7: Opposing line charge segments result in radial compo-
nent cancellation
Figure 4-6and Ringconstructive combining
of charge with of the
line density axial
ρℓ . (a) Thecompo-
nents due to dE
field the1 segment 1 and 2 semicircles.
due to infinitesimal segment 1 and (b) the fields
dE1 and dE2 due to segments at diametrically opposite
 The charge(Example
locations ring is broken
4-4). into two semicircles, each defined
over 0    

 We know the radial field components cancel and reason that


the axial components constructively add, thus
Z 
`bh
E D zO 2  3=2 d
2
40 b C h 2 0

`bh also h
D zO 3=2 D O
z 3=2 Q;
2
20 b C h 2 2
40 b C h 2

4-15
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

where Q D 2b` is the total charge on the ring

 A curiosity is how does the diameter of the ring, relative to the


field point distance h alter the field strength, and when does
the ring look like a point charge?

 A simple plot (here using Python), helps explain

 In the code and corresponding plot shown below, the scale fac-
tors of Q and 0 are not included (normalized out)

 For comparison purposes the field due to a point charge of Q


located at the origin is also included in the plot

Figure 4.8: Python code for calculating the charge ring axial field.
4-16
4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

1.0
Plot of Ez · 4π²0 /Q versus h with b a Parameter
Point charge
b = 1/8 (m)
0.8
Normalized Axial Field Intensity

b = 1/4 (m)
b = 1/2 (m)
0.6 b = 1 (m)

0.4

0.2

0.0
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
Axial Field Point h (m)
Figure 4.9: Axial field component of charge ring compared with
equivalent point charge.

 The results are not too surprising:

– The ring of charge looks like a point charge at not too


greate a distance
– For a larger ring radius the field stength on axis is reduced
compared with the a smaller ring
– Note: As h approaches zero the axial field component due
to the ring is zero! why?

4-17
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Example 4.4: Disk of Charge in the x y-Plane

 Another classical example, that extends from the ring of charge,


is a uniform circular disk of charge
(
s C/m2; 0  r  a; z D 0
s .r; ; z/ D
0; otherwise

 Field point is again P D .0; 0; h/


 The elemental field contribution for the ring of charge can be
extended to the case of the disk by adding in an integration over
the charge differential dq D 2s r dr as shown in Figure 4.10
z

E
P = (0, 0, h)
h
ρs dq = 2πρsr dr

r y
a

dr
a
x
Figure 4.10: Set-up for calculating E due to a disk of charge in the
Figure 4-7 Circular disk of charge with surface charge
x y-plane.
density ρs . The electric field at P = (0, 0, h) points along
the z direction (Example 4-5).
4-18
4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

 The charge disk is composed of concentric rings of charge

 The total charge on the disk is


Z 2 Z a
r 2 ˇˇa 2
QD s r dr d D 2s D  s a
0 0 2 0
 Due to symmetry the radial component of E is again zero

 Putting the pieces together we have


s h a r dr
Z
E D zO
20 0 r 2 C h2 3=2


 Recall/look up
rdr 1
Z
3=2 Dp ;
2
r Ch 2
r 2 C h2
so 8  
zO 2s0 1 p jhj
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ; h>0
a2 Ch2
ˆ
ˆ
<  
ED zO 2s0 1 p jhj ; h<0
a2 Ch2
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
:0; hD0
ˆ

 Writing in terms of the total charge Q amounts to replacing


s =.20/ with Q=.0a2/, so
8  
zO 2Q a2 1 p jhj
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
2 Ch2
; h>0
0
ˆ
ˆ a
<  
ED zO 2Q a2 1 p jhj ; h<0
0 a2 Ch2
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
:0; hD0
ˆ

4-19
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 Infinite Sheet of Charge: By letting a ! 1 we have the field


due to an infinite sheet of charge being
(
zO 2s0 ; z>0
ED
zO 2s0 ; z<0

– Notice no dependence on distance from the plane!

 As a final sanity check, we compare the axial electric field ver-


sus h while keeping the total charge, Q, the same in all cases

 Keeping the first two terms binomial in the expansion for .1 C


x/ 1=2 yields 1 x=2, so assuming h  b or h  a we have

.h2 b 2=2/3 1
Ez;ring 'Q and Ez;disk ' Q
40h8 40h2

Figure 4.11: Python code for calculating the charge disk axial field.
4-20
4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

1.0
Plot of Ez · 4π²0 /Q versus h with a and b Parameters
Point charge
Ring b = 1/2 (m)
0.8
Normalized Axial Field Intensity

Disk a = 1/2 (m)


0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
Axial Field Point h (m)
Figure 4.12: Axial field component of a charge disk compared with
a ring and an equivalent point charge (total charge help constant for
all three).
 The asymptotic behavior is as expected and is supported by the
binomial expansion results too

4-21
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

4.4 Gauss’s Law


 From physics you may remember this useful result

 Gauss’s law is arrived at by starting from Maxwell’s equation

r  D D v

(differential form since partial derivatives are involved in the


divergence calculation)

 The integral form of the above, which is obtained by integrat-


ing both sides over an arbitrary volme V, is
Z Z
r  D dV D v d V D Q
V V

 Now invoke the divergence theorem from Chapter 3 which says


Z I
r  D d V D D  d s;
V S

where S is encloses V (S is known as a Gaussian surface)

 Finally, arrive at Gauss’s Law:


I
D  ds D Q
S

In words, the flux passing through S equals the enclosed charge


Q

4-22
4.4. GAUSS’S LAW

Total charge
in v

Q D • ds

Gaussian surface S
enclosing volume v

Figure
Figure 4-8 The4.13: Gauss’s
integral law
form of illustrated.
Gauss’s law states that
the outward flux of D through a surface is proportional to
the enclosed
Example charge Q.Point Charge at the Origin
4.5: Classical

 If you remember anything about Gauss’s law, it is likely how


you can calculate E by setting up a Gaussian surface at the
origin that encloses a point charge q

q R̂
ds
D

Gaussian surface

Figure 4.14: Point4-9


Figure charge at the
Electric origin
field andtothe
D due appropriate
point charge q. Gaussian
surface.
4-23
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 Suppose we do not know the exact form of D (or E), but we


know from symmetry that
O DR ;
DDR
O ds, so
and a sphere centered at the origin has d s D R
I Z I
D  d s D RD O RR O ds D DR ds D .4R2/DR D q
S S S

 Clearly,
q
DR D
4R2
or
ED
D O q
DR
 4R2
A familiar result!

Gaussian Surface Tips


 Picking the Gaussian surface is key to finding D using Gauss’s
law

– Make use of symmetry so the form of D can be deduced


(at least for each component)
– Choose S so the form of D is normal or parallel to the
surface, making integration trivial
– Be clever in selecting S (OK, you need to practice at this)

4-24
4.4. GAUSS’S LAW

Example 4.6: Classical Infinite Line Charge

 Given an infinite length line charge along the z axis (or parallel
to it so you can shift the cylindrical coordinate frame) having
uniform charge density `

 The logical Gaussian surface is a cylinder axially centered over


a portion of the line charge

 Suppose the cylinder has radius r and length/height h

 We deduce that an infinite line charge can only have a radial


component D D rO Dr ; Why?
z
uniform line
charge ρl
r

h ds
D
Gaussian surface

Figure
Figure4.15:
4-10Gaussian
Gaussiansurface
surface for infinite
around line charge.
an infinitely long
line of charge (Example 4-6).
 Apply Gauss’s law using the cylinder as S and notice that no
flux passes through the ends of the cylinder, so the surface in-

4-25
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

tegral is just over the cylinder proper

I Z h Z 2
also
D  ds D rO Dr  rO r d dz D 2 h Dr r D `h
S zD0 D0

 So, we can solve for Dr and hence D and/or E

D Dr `
ED D rO D rO
0 0 20r

– The electric field from an infinite length line charge is in-


versely proportional to the radial (perpendicular) distance
to the line

Example 4.7: Multiple Line Charges

 Find E when more than one line charge is parallel to the z axis

 As a special case consider a line charges at .x; y/ D .1; 0/


and .x; y/ D . 1; 0/ each having density ` as shown below
(looking down frlom the Cz axis)

4-26
4.4. GAUSS’S LAW

Field point: 𝑃𝑃 = (0, 𝑦𝑦𝑝𝑝 , 0)


𝜌𝜌𝑙𝑙
-1
Line charges E−1
parallel to the
𝑧𝑧 axis on the 𝑥𝑥 𝑦𝑦
axis Sum the vectors at
E1 the field point
1
𝜌𝜌𝑙𝑙
Radial field components
from each line charge
𝑥𝑥
Figure 4.16: Configuration of two line charges and the vector addi-
tion of the fields.

 The field point we consider is P D .0; yp ; 0/

 A vector sum is needed to combine the offset radial compo-


nents from each line charge and of course we need unit vectors
at .0; yp ; 0/

 Denote the commponents E1 and E 1

unit vector
jE1 j
‚ …„ ƒ ‚ …„ ƒ
xO C yO yp `
E1 D q q
1 C yp2 20 1 C yp2
xO C yO yp `
E 1 Dq q
1 C yp2 20 1 C yp2

4-27
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 Add the components


yO 2y ` yO yp `
E D E1 C E 1 Dq q D 
2

1 C yp2 20 1 C yp2 0 1 C yp

 Note the xO component is zero due to symmetry

 Would moving the field point off the y axis make the xO com-
ponent nonzero?

Example 4.8: A Uniform Surface Charge Density Sphere


 Given a thin shell of radius a contains a uniform surface charge
of s , find E everywhere

 Due to symmetry the electric field will be of the form E D


O ER
R
Surface charge
density 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠

𝑎𝑎

� 𝐸𝐸𝑅𝑅
𝐄𝐄 = 𝐑𝐑
Gaussian surface
for R > 𝑎𝑎

Gaussian surface
Side view of spheres
for 𝑅𝑅 < 𝑎𝑎

Figure 4.17: Gaussian surfaces for findng E inside and outside a


sphere with surface charge density.
4-28
4.4. GAUSS’S LAW

 From Figure 4.17 the appropriate Gaussian surface is a sphere


centered at the origin having radius R > a or R < a
 R < a: The Gaussian surface does not enclose any charge, so
ED0
 R > a: Here the Gaussian surface encloses the surface charge
of the thin sphere of radius a, allowing us to write
I Z
D  d s D DR 4R2 D s ds D 4a2 s

s s
2
) ED
D O s a
DR .V/m/
0 0R2
 In summary,
(
0; R<a
ED .V/m/
O s a22 ;
R R>a
0 R

1.0
Plot of ER · ²0 /ρs versus R with parameter a
a=1
a = 0. 5
Normalized Radial Field Intensity

0.8 a = 2. 0

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Radial Field Point R (m)

Figure 4.18: Normalized radial field component.


4-29
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Example 4.9: A Uniform Volume Charge Density Sphere


 Given a spherical volume radius a contains a uniform volume
charge of v , find E everywhere
 Due to symmetry the electric field will be of the form E D
O ER
R
Volume charge
density 𝜌𝜌𝑣𝑣

𝑎𝑎

� 𝐸𝐸𝑅𝑅
𝐄𝐄 = 𝐑𝐑
Gaussian surface
for R > 𝑎𝑎

Gaussian surface
Side view of spheres
for 𝑅𝑅 < 𝑎𝑎

Figure 4.19: Gaussian surfaces for findng E inside and outside a


sphere with volume charge density.
 From Figure 4.19 the appropriate Gaussian surface is a sphere
centered at the origin having radius R > a or R < a
 R < a: The Gaussian surface encloses a portion of the total
volume charge, so
4
I Z
D  d s D DR 4R2 D v dv D R3 v

s v 3
) ED
D O v R .V/m/
DR
0 30
4-30
4.4. GAUSS’S LAW

 R > a: Here the Gaussian surface encloses the surface charge


of the thin sphere of radius a, allowing us to write

4
I Z
2
v dv D a3 v

D  d s D DR 4R D
s v 3
D O v a 3
) ED DR .V/m/
0 0R2

 In summary,

O v R ;
(
R 30
R<a
ED .V/m/
O v a32 ;
R R>a
30 R

0.7
Plot of ER · ²0 /ρv versus R with parameter a
a=1
0.6 a = 0. 5
Normalized Radial Field Intensity

a = 2. 0
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Radial Field Point R (m)

Figure 4.20: Normalized radial field component.

4-31
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

4.5 Electric Scalar Potential


 Associated with the electric field there is also an electric po-
tential V or simply voltage V

 This is the same voltage you measure in a circuit

 Similar to the concept of voltage drop across an electrical com-


ponent, in field theory we are interested in the potential differ-
ence between two points in space, e.g. V21 D V2 V1 is the
potential difference observed as you move from field point P1
to P2

 The definition of the potential difference lies in the work done


(units of joules of (J)) in moving a charge from P1 o P2

 In physics work W is force times distance (N m = J), i.e., to


move a charge q a differential distance d l in the electric field
E requires work
d W D qE  d l;
where the minus sign comes from the fact that energy is ex-
pelled when we move the charge q in the opposite (or against)
direction of the field

 The work per unit charge defines the potential difference, that
is 1 V = 1 J/C, i.e.,
dW
dV D D E  dl
q

4-32
4.5. ELECTRIC SCALAR POTENTIAL

 Finally, the potential difference in moving from field point P1


to P2 is defined to be
Z P2
V21 D V2 V1 D E  dl
P1

 In an electrical circuit the sum of the voltage drops around a


closed loop (Kirchoff’s voltage law) is zero, so too in a static
electric field I
E  dl D 0
C

 This behavior means that the field is conservative or irrota-


tional
 It is Maxwell’s second equation, for @=@t D 0,
r ED0
that makes this conservation property concrete
 Furthermore, via Stokes theorem
Z I
.r  E/  d s D E  dl D 0
S C
where C surrounds the surface S
 What do we use as a voltage reference?
 In circuits it is ground
 In fields it is typical to assume V1 D 0 when P1 is at infinity,
i.e., V at P is
Z P
V D E  d l .V/
1

4-33
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Electric Potential Due to Point Charges

 A point charge at the origin produces potential at radial dis-


tance R given by
R
q  O q
Z 
V D RO  R d R D .V/
1 4R2 4R

 Generalizing to a point charge at location R1, we have


q
V D .V/
4jR R1j

 For an arbitrary configuration of point charges

N
1 X qi
V D .V/
4 iD1 jR Ri j

Electric Potential Due to Continuous Distributions

 The electric potential can be solved with the three forms of


charge distributions we have been using

 In particular
1 v
Z
V D 0
d V0
4 ZV 0 R
1 s 0
V D ds
4 ZS 0 R0
1 ` 0
V D dl
4 l 0 R0
4-34
4.5. ELECTRIC SCALAR POTENTIAL

Electric Field from the Electric Potential

 The subject of this subsection is finding the electric field after


first finding the electric potential

 The needed relationship comes about by first recalling from


Chapter 3 that a scalar function V obeys

d V D rV  d l;

and for the just established scalar potential,

dV D E  d l;

so putting the above equations together gives the key result

ED rV;

which says the gradient of the potential function is the electric


field!

 Finding E via V is a two-step process, but the integrals for the


scalar potential are likely easier to evaluate

Example 4.10: Charge Ring Potential

 Consider a ring of charge in the x y plane having radius b


and line charge density `

 Calculate the potential along the z axis at the point P .0; 0; h)


and then E

4-35
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

𝑧𝑧
(0, 0, ℎ)

𝑅𝑅𝑅

𝜌𝜌𝑙𝑙
𝑦𝑦
𝑏𝑏

𝑥𝑥 𝜙𝜙 𝑟𝑟

Figure 4.21: Charge ring configuration for potential along the z axis.

 The scalar potential follows easily from Figure 4.21


Z 2
1 ` 0 ` 1
Z
V D 0
d l D p b d
40 l R 4 0 0 2
b Cz 2 „ƒ‚…
ˇ d l0
`b ˇ `b
D p ˇ D p .V/
20 b 2 C z 2 ˇzDh 20 b 2 C h2

 The electric field follows easily as well

@ ` b
ED rV D zO p
@z 20 b 2 C z 2
ˇ
`b 2z. 1=2/ ˇˇ `bh
D zO D O
z .V/m/
20 b 2 C z 2 3=2 ˇzDh
 3=2
20 b 2 C h2

 This is consistent with the earlier Coulomb’s law calculation

4-36
4.5. ELECTRIC SCALAR POTENTIAL

Example 4.11: Electric Dipole

 An electric dipole along the z axis is formed by placing pair of


charges ˙q at z D ˙d=2 respectively

– In the study of antennas, structures for propagating elec-


tromagnetic energy, another type of dipole is studied

 Calculate V and E at the field point P .R; ; /

P = (R, θ, φ)
z

R1
R
+q R2
θ
d y

–q d cos θ
x
(a) Electric dipole
Figure 4.22: Electric dipole configuraton and far field approxima-
tion.

 The potential is
  E  
q 1 1 q R2 R1
V D D .V/
40 R1 R2 40 R1 R2

 The intent of this example to obtain a far field approximation,


which means for R (b) d , so
Electric-field pattern
4-37
Figure 4-13 Electric dipole with dipole moment p = qd
(Example 4-7).
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

– R2 R1  d cos 
– R1 R2  R 2

 Using these approximations V becomes P = (R, θ, φ)


z
qd cos  pRO
V  D
R1 4 0 40R2

where p D qd is the R dipole moment with d and also p pointing


+q
in the direction from q toRCq,2 O is the unit vector from
and R
θ center to the field point
the dipole
d y
 The electric field follows from rV using the spherical coor-
dinates form to calculate the gradient
–q d cos θ
x qd O O

ED rV  3
R2 cos  C  sin  .V/m/
4 R
(a) Electric dipole
0

Figure 4.23: Exact


(b)electric field pattern
Electric-field for the electric dipole.
pattern

Figure 4-13 Electric dipole with dipole moment p = qd


4-38
(Example 4-7).
4.5. ELECTRIC SCALAR POTENTIAL

Poisson and Laplace’s Equation in Electrostatics


 Gauss’s law was originally presented in differential form as
v
r  D D v or r ED


 If we set E D rV we arrive at
a vector
‚…„ƒ v
r  rV D r 2V D .Poisson’s equation/
„ ƒ‚ … 
a scalar

 Recall from Chapter 3 that in Cartesian coordinates

2 @2V @2 V @2V
r V D C 2 C 2
@x 2 @y @z

 If there is no charge present in the medium, Poisson’s equation


reduces to Laplace’s equation

r 2V D 0 .Laplace’s equation/

 Laplace’s equation in particular pops up when we want to solve


for the electrostatic potential when boundaries (boundary con-
ditions), such as the plates of a capacitor, have a known poten-
tial

 A course in partial differential equations considers problems


of this sort

4-39
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Example 4.12: Potential Inside A Spherical Shell


 Consider a spherical shell of radius a with uniform surface
charge density s

 Find the potential and electric field at P .0; 0; 0/


Surface charge
density 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠

𝑎𝑎

� 𝐸𝐸𝑅𝑅
𝐄𝐄 = 𝐑𝐑
𝑅𝑅𝑅
Field point
𝑃𝑃(0,0,0)
Side view of sphere

Figure 4.24: Set up for finding the potential inside a spherical shell
of radius a.

 From Figure 4.24 we see that


Z 2 Z 
1 s 0 s 1 2
Z
V D ds D a sin  d d
4 s 0 a 4 0 0 a
s s a
D 4a D .V/
4 
 To find E we form

ED rV D 0;

as there is no variation with R,  , or 

4-40
4.6. CONDUCTORS

4.6 Conductors
 In the section the focus is conductors and the conduction cur-
rent J , introduced earlier

 Again the material constitutive parameters of permittivity, ,


permeability, , and conductivity,  are of interest

 From a materials consideration, we have conductors (metals)


or dielectrics (insulators)

 What an electric field is applied to a conductor conduction cur-


rent flows in the same direction as the electric field:

J D E .A/m2/;

where  is the material conductivity in (S/m)

 This relationship is known in this context as Ohm’s law

 We expect:

– A perfect dielectric to have  D 0 (for good insulators


10 17    10 10 S/m)
– A perfect conductor to have  D 1 (for good conductors
106    107 S/m)

Perfect dielectric: J D 0 since J D  E and  D 0


Perfect conductor: E D 0 since E D J = and  D 1
4-41
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

4.6.1 Drift Velocity


 In a conductor electrons have a drift velocity of ue such that

ue D e E;

where e is the electron mobility in (m2/V s)

 In semiconductors there is also hole velocity and hole mobility


(positive charge carriers)

u h D h E

 The total conduction current is

J D Je C Jh D veue C vhuh .A/m2/;

where ve and vh are volume charge densities

 In particular, ve D Ne e and vh D Nhe, where Ne and Nh


are the number of free electrons and holes respectively, per unit
volume, and e D 1:6  10 19 C

 Because ue= h is related to E via e= h,

J D . vee C vhh/ E
„ ƒ‚ …


 For a good conductor

D ve e D Ne e e .S/m/;

4-42
4.6. CONDUCTORS

4.6.2 Resistance
 Consider the resistance, R, of a conductor of length l and cross
section A

 We assume the conductor has uniform cross section and lies


along xO , making E D xO Ex

 The voltage applied across the terminals is V , so relative to


reference points x1 and x2
Z x1
V D E  d l D Ex l .V/
x2

x
x1 l x2

I 1 2 I
J E

A
+ –
V
Figure 4.25: A resistor from a materials view point.
Figure 4-14 Linear resistor of cross section A and
length l connected to a dc voltage source V .
 The current flowing is
Z Z
I D J  d s D  E  d s D Ex A .A/
A A

4-43
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 From Ohm’s law it follows that


V l
RD D
I A

 For any conductor shape R can be found as


R R
V E  dl E  dl
RD D R l D R l
I s J  ds s E  ds

4-44
4.6. CONDUCTORS

Example 4.13: Coax Cable with Finite 

 The coax cable was studied in Chapter 2 and equations for tline
parameters were given

 Here we establish the conductance per unit length using field


theory and the equation for R D 1=G

l
E
r

Vab
+
a
b
σ

Figure 4.26: Finding


Figure 4-15 the shuntcable
Coaxial conductance of a4-9.
of Example coax cable.

 The dielectric filling is assumed to have conductivity 

 Given Vab is connected from the center conductor to the outer


shield, we need to find the corresponding current flow I

 For a length l section of line, the surface area at some a < r <
b through which current flows is A D 2 rl

 The current density J D E is outward radially i.e., rO , as the


potential is higher on the center conductor
I I I
J D rO D rO or E D rO
A 2 rl 2 rl
4-45
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 The voltage between the conductors, Vab , must be


Z a Z a
I rO  rO dr
Vab D E  dl D
b ˇa 2 l b  r
I ˇ I b
D ln r ˇˇ D ln
2 l b 2 l a

 Finally,
 
Vab 1 b
RD D ln ./
I 2 l a
1 2
G0 D D .S/m/
Rl ln.b=a/

4.6.3 Joule’s Law


 The power dissipated in a conducting medium is
Z Z
P D E  J dV D  jEj2 d V .W/
V V

 For the case of a simple resistor as cylindrical conductor, Joule’s


law reduces to
P D I 2R .W/

 Power Dissipated in Coax Dielectric: For a length l line sec-


tion
P D I 2R D I 2 ln.b=a/=.2 l/

4-46
4.7. DIELECTRICS

4.7 Dielectrics
 When a dielectric material is subject to an electric field, the
atoms or molecules of the material become polarized

– Electron
– –
– –
– –
– – Nucleus
Atom

(a) External Eext = 0

Nucleus
E E
– – q
– – – –
d
– –q
– –

Center of electron cloud


(b) External Eext ≠ 0 (c) Electric dipole
Figure 4.27: Impact of E on material atoms and the creation of a
Figure 4-16 In the absence of an external electric
dipole moment.
field E, the center of the electron cloud is co-located with
the center of the nucleus, but when a field is applied, the
two centers
 When are separated
no field is presentbythe
a distance
electrond. cloud is symmetrical
about the nucleus (a) in Figure 4.27

 In a dielectric when the field is applied (b) in Figure 4.27, a


shift occurs and E is said to polarize the atoms and create a
dipole

4-47
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

– The dipole creates its own electric field known as the po-
larization field, P

 Molecules such as water have a permanent dipole moment, but


the dipoles are randomly aligned until an applied field is ap-
plied

Positive surface charge Polarized molecule


E E E E E

+ + –+ + + + + + +
+ –
– – + – – + +
– – – – – – –
+ –+ + + + +
+ + – – –+ –+ –+ – – – +
– – + + + – + +
– – + + + + + + + – –
+ + – – – – – – – –
– – + + + + + + + +
– – – – – – – + + –+ –
+ + + – –
– – – + + + + + + + + + –+
– – – – – –
– – –

Negative surface charge


Figure 4.28: Applying an electric field polarizes the molecules cre-
Figure 4-17 A dielectric medium polarized by an
ating anexternal
effective surface
electric fieldcharge.
E.

4.7.1 Polarization Field


 In a dielectric material the total flux density under the influence
of an external E is
D D 0E C P

4-48
4.8. ELECTRIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

where P is the electric polarization field

 In a linear, isotropic, and homogeneous medium, P is propor-


tional to the applied E via

P D 0e E

where e is the electric susceptibility of the material

 In the end it is e that defines the material permittivity, as

D D 0E C 0e E D 0.1 C e /E D E

so it must be that r D =0 D 1 C e

4.7.2 Dielectric Breakdown


 Real materials are subject to dielectric breakdown

 The electric field magnitude Eds, known as the dielectric strength,


is the largest field strength a material can handle without break-
down

 For air Eds is about 3 (MV/m)

 For mica Eds is about 200 (MV/m), hence mica is a strong


dielectric

4.8 Electric Boundary Conditions


 A vector field does not experience abrupt changes in it magni-
tude or direction unless is passes from one medium to another,
e.g., a dielectric interface or a metal conductor

4-49
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 Boundary conditions among E, D, and J dielectric and con-


ductor interfaces are now established with the aid of Figure 4.29

D1n
Medium 1
ε1 nˆ 2
E1 l̂l1 a Δs
E1n b

E1t
} Δ2h Δh
2 { ρs
l̂l2 } Δ2h
E2n
E2t
c
Δl
d
Δh
2 {
E2
Medium 2
ε2
D2n nˆ 1

Figure 4.29: Establishing electric


Figure 4-18 Interface field/flux
between boundary
two dielectric media. conditions be-
tween two mediums.

 To establish these relationships, we rely on:


I
E  d l D 0 , r  E D 0 .conservation prop./
IC
D  d s D Q , r  D D v .divergence prop./
S

 Working through the details sketched out in Figure 4.29, we


establish from the conservation of E that at an interface the
tangential electric field component is continuous, i.e.,

E1t D E2t .V/m/

 Similarly working from the divergence property the flux den-


sity normal to the interface is continuous, subject any added
charge density that may be present, i.e.,

nO 2  .D1 D2/ D s .C/m2/


4-50
4.8. ELECTRIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

or
D1n D2n D s .C/m2/

 Any abrupt change in the flux density, D, normal to the in-


terface, is due to a surface charge density being present at the
interface

 The above results in Table 4.1, including a specialization for a


dielectric conductor interface, yet to be explained

Table 4.1:
Table 4-3Electric
Boundaryfield/flux
conditionsboundary conditions.
for the electric fields.

Medium 1 Medium 2
Field Component Any Two Media
Dielectric ε1 Conductor

Tangential E E1t = E2t E1t = E2t = 0


Tangential D D1t /ε1 = D2t /ε2 D1 t = D2 t = 0
Normal E ε1 E1n − ε2 E2n = ρs E1n = ρs /ε1 E2n = 0
Normal D D1 n − D2 n = ρ s D1 n = ρ s D2 n = 0

Notes: (1) ρs is the surface charge density at the boundary; (2) normal
components of E1 , D1 , E2 , and D2 are along n̂2 , the outward normal unit vector
of medium 2.

Example 4.14: A Dielectric–Dielctric Interface

 An important special case to consider is when E travels from a


material having permittivity 1 to 2

 From physics you may recall that when light rays pass from
one medium to the next, there is a direction change that takes
place due to the change in the index of refraction

4-51
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 The same concept applies here and is in fact related


 Consider now the scenario of Figure 4.30
z

E1
E1z
θ1 ε1
x-y plane
E1t
E2 θ2
E2z ε2

E2t

Figure 4.30: 4-19


Figure Electric field angle
Application of change an 1 to 2atinterface.
at conditions
boundary the
interface between two dielectric media (Example 4-10).
 Assume that E1 D xO E1x C yO E1y C zO E1z and find E2 D xO E2x C
yO E2y C zO E2z in terms of E1, also find the relationship between
the angles 1 and 2 (assume s D 0 at the interface)
 The continuity of E t means that
E1t D E2t ) E1x D E2x and E1y D E2y

 Similarly for the normal components, which by construction


of the problem lie along the z axis,
1E1z D 2E2z

 So we can write that


E2 D xO E2x C yO E2y C zO E2z
1
D xO E1x C yO E1y C zO E1z
2
4-52
4.8. ELECTRIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

 The angle reationships are


q
2 2
E1t E1t E1x C E1y
tan 1 D D D
E1n E1z q E1z q
2 2 2 2
E2t E2t E2x C E2y also E2x C E2y
tan 2 D D D D
E2n E2z E2z .1=2/E1z

 In particular
tan 2 2
D
tan 1 1

4.8.1 Dielectric-Conductor Boundary


 Consider the special case of medium 1 a dielectric and medium
2 a conductor

 In a perfect conductor there are no fields or fluxes, i.e., E D


D D 0, so for the tangential and normal boundary conditions
we have

E1t D D1t D 0
D1n D 1E1n D s

 The key result from the above is that a charge density at the
conductor surface is induced by the normal component of the
electric field
D1 D 1E1 D nO s

4-53
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

E1 E1 E1
ε1 ρs = ε1E1
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Conducting slab E1 Ei E1 Ei E1 Ei

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
ε1 −ρs

Figure 4.31: The interaction of an electric field in a sandwidge of


Figure 4-20 When a conducting slab is placed in an external electric field E1 , charges that accumulate on the conductor
surfaces induce an internal electric field Ei = −E1 . Consequently, the total field inside the conductor is zero.
dielectric-conductor-dielectric.
 Also, the flux lines at the conductor interface are always nor-
O with a positive charge density when E1 is away from
mal (n)
the interface and a negative charge density when E1 is toward
the interface (see Figure 4.31)

Example 4.15: Metallic Sphere in a Uniform E Field


 Consider a metallic sphere placed in a uniform electric field
E0

+ + + +
+ +
+ +
+ metal +
– sphere –
– –

–– – – –

Figure 4.32: The4-21


Figure flux Metal
lines sphere
bend at the in
placed surface of aelectric
an external metallic sphere
field remain
to insure they E0 . normal everywhere.

4-54
4.8. ELECTRIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

4.8.2 Conductor-Conductor Boundary


 Taking the special case one step further, suppose we have two
conductors of different conductivity interfaced

– Note, neither conductor is perfect in this scenario

J1n J1
Medium 1

ε1, σ1
J1t

J2t
Medium 2
J2n
ε2, σ2 J2

Figure 4.33: A finite conductivity conductor–conductor interface


Figure 4-22 Boundary between two conducting media.
scenario.

 The boundary conditions require that

E1t D E2t and 1E1n 2E2n D s

 Since for conductors Ji D i Ei we can also write that


J1t J2t E1n E2n
D and 1 2 D s
1 2 1 2

 The tangential components can coexist as parallel current flow

 The normal components cannot be different, since this requires


a s that is not constant with time and hence not a static condi-
tion

4-55
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 To resolve this dilemma, we force J1n D J2n, so


 
1 2
J1n D s
1 2

4.9 Capacitance
 Any two conductors in space, separated by a dielectric (air is
valid), form a capacitor
 A voltage placed across the two conductors allows CQ and
Q charges to accumulate
 The ratio of charge to voltage defines the capacitance in farads
Q
C D .C/V or F/
V

Surface S
+ + + +
+Q +
+
Conductor 1 +
ρs
+ + + +
+
V E

– – –
– –
−Q
Conductor 2 –
– – –
– –

Figure Figure
4.34: Establishing
4-23 A dcthevoltage
capacitance
sourcebetween twotoconductors
connected a
capacitor
by applying composed
voltage V . of two conducting bodies.
4-56
4.9. CAPACITANCE

 Note: The charge on each conductor is distributed to insure


that E D 0 within the conductor and the potential is the same
at all points

 We know from an earlier discussion that only the normal com-


ponent of E exists, so
s
En D nO  E D


 The total charge over the positively charged conductor is


Z Z
Q D s ds D E  d s
S S

 The voltage V is formally


Z Cond. 1
V D V12 D E  dl
Cond. 2

Putting the pieces together we have,


R
SRE  d s
C D .F/
l E  dl

Note: C is positive and a function of only the geometry and


the permittivity

 If the material has loss, i.e., a small conductivity, then there is


also a resistance between the two conductors given by
R
E  dl
RDR l
S E  d s

as we have seen earlier

4-57
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 Interesting Observation: For materials having uniform  and


, it follows that

RC D ;

so given C then R is known and likewise given R, C is known

Example 4.16: Classical Parallel Plate Capacitor


 From physics you likely recall the parallel plate capacitor and
A=d , where A is the plate area and d is the plate separation
z Conducting plate

Area A +
+ Fringing
+ field lines
ρs +Q +
+ –
z=d + –
+ + + + + + + + + + + + –
E
V E – – Dielectric ε
ds E E E –
– –
– – – – – – – – – –
z=0 –Q
–ρs Conducting plate

Figure4.35:
Figure 4-24 AParallel
dc voltage source
plateconnected to a parallel-plate
capacitor analysis capacitor
model (Example 4-11).
using applied
voltage V .
 With respect to the top plate E D zO E and from the boundary
conditions E D s =

 Also the neglecting fringing fields, the charge density s is uni-


form, so Q D s A ! E D Q=.A/

 The voltage across the plates is


Z d Z d
V D E  dl D . zO E/  zO dz D Ed;
0 0

4-58
4.9. CAPACITANCE

so
Q EA A
C D D D .F/
V Ed d

Example 4.17: Coax Capacitance


 Another classical structure to analyze is the coax capacitor
l ρl
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + –ρl
+ E E E
V – b – – – – – – – – – – – – – Inner conductor

a – – – – – – – – – – – – – Dielectric material ε
E E E
+ + + + + + + + + + + + +
Outer conductor

Figure
Figure 4.36: Coaxcapacitor
4-25 Coaxial capacitor analysis
filled with model
insulating materialusing applied
of permittivity voltage
ε (Example V.
4-12).

 Using Gauss’s law and knowing the form of the E field for an
infinite line charge (pure radial and inverse proportional to r),
we have
Q
E D rO
2rl
 The potential can be calculated as
Z b Z b 
Q
V D E  dl D rO  rO dr
a a 2rl
ˇb  
Q ˇ Q b
D ln.r/ˇˇ D ln
2l a 2l a

 Finally,
Q 2l
C D D .F/
V ln.b=a/
4-59
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 In terms of capacitance per unit length we have

C 2
C0 D D .F/m/
l ln.b=a/

4.10 Electrostatic Potential Energy


 When a voltage is applied to a lossless capacitor energy goes
into the structure and is stored in the electric field

 What work is done in charging up this capacitor?

 When the voltage is applied we are moving charge from one


plate to another

 A voltage increment  corresponds to charge q=C , so the dif-


ferential electrostatic work, We , is
q
d We D  dq D dq
C

 Building up a total charge Q accumulates total work


Q
q 1 Q2
Z
We D dq D .J/;
0 C 2 C

but since C D Q=V , Q2 D C 2V 2 and substituting yields

1
We D C V 2 .J/
2
4-60
4.10. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL ENERGY

 When an electric field is present in a region it can be viewed as


an electrostatic energy density via

We 1
we D D E 2 .J/m3/
V 2

 From the energy density it follows that the potential energy


stored in volume V is,
1
Z
We D E 2 d V .J/
2 V

Example 4.18: Energy Stored in Coax

 In the coax capacitance example we found that

2l
C D
ln.b=a/

and
Q l`
V D ln.b=a/ D ln.b=a/;
2l 2l
where Q D l`

 Using We D .1=2/C V 2 we have


 
1 2l ` 2
We D ln.b=a/
2 ln.b=a/ 2
 
1 l` b
D ln .J/
2 2 a
4-61
ls =1.9
1. 10.

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

 Starting from energy density and integrating over the volume


we should get the same answer

1 2 l b  ` 2
Z Z Z
We D  rdr dz d
2 0 0 a 2r
2
` 1 `2
   
2l b b
D ln D ln .J/
2 .2/2 2 a 2 2 a

The same result!


4
 Suppose that a D 2 cm, b D 5 cm, r D 4, ` D 10 C/m,
and l D 20 cm
0.5
 Plugging the numbers into either of the above equations yields
−0.037
We D 4:12 .J/

Coax Stored Energy


2
1 0.2· 10 −4 5
W> = · · ln ▸ 4.11955 (J)
2 2· π· 4· 8.85· 10 −12 2

Figure 4.37: TI Nspire calculation of W .


On the nspire you can enter an array of threee element lists using

4.11 Image Method


 When a charge distribution is placed over an infinite ground
plane Coulomb’s law and Gauss’s law cannot be readily ap-
plied

4-62
4.11. IMAGE METHOD

 Solving Poisson’s or Laplace’s equation is an option, but this is


also mathematically challenging, likely to require a numerical
solution

 It turns out that an electrically equivalent problem can be cre-


ated using the image distribution with the ground plane re-
moved

 A simple example of a single point charge Q distance d above


a ground plane is shown if Figure 4.38
z
Electric field
Q lines Q
+ + ε
ε n̂ V=0
V=0 d d

d
σ=∞ ε

−Q
(a) Charge Q above grounded plane (b) Equivalent configuration

Figure 4-26 Figure 4.38:a charge


By image theory, The Qimage theory perfectly
above a grounded concept in solving
conducting electrostatics
plane is equivalent to Q and its image −Q
with the ground plane removed.
problems with charge over a uniform ground plane.

4-63
CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Example 4.19: Ulaby 4.71 – A Corner Reflector Charge


 Construct image distribution for a corner reflector charge
z

P = (0, y, z)

d Q = (0, d, d)

y
d

Figure 4.39: Ulaby 4.61.


Figure P4.61 Charge Q next to two perpendicular,
grounded, conducting half-planes.

4-64
4.11. IMAGE METHOD

Example 4.20: Ulaby 4.63 – Conducting Cylinder Over a Ground


Plane

 An infinite length charged cylinder over a ground plane is an


assigned homework problem

V=0
Figure 4.40: Capacitance of an Infinite Cylinder Over a Ground
Figure P4.63 Conducting cylinder above a conducting
Plane.
plane (Problem 4.63).

4-65