0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

17 Aufrufe65 Seitenbbnnmm

Oct 29, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

bbnnmm

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

17 Aufrufe

bbnnmm

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Neuromancer
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- How to Read a Person Like a Book
- Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The 6th Extinction
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Universe in a Nutshell

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 65

Electrostatics

Contents

4.1 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

4.2 Charge and Current Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4

4.2.1 Charge Densities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4

4.2.2 Current Densities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6

4.3 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8

4.3.1 Field Due to N Point Charges . . . . . . . . . . 4-9

4.3.2 Field Due to a Charge Distribution . . . . . . . . 4-11

4.4 Gauss’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22

4.5 Electric Scalar Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-32

4.6 Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41

4.6.1 Drift Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-42

4.6.2 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-43

4.6.3 Joule’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46

4.7 Dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-47

4.7.1 Polarization Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-48

4.7.2 Dielectric Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49

4.8 Electric Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49

4-1

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

4.8.2 Conductor-Conductor Boundary . . . . . . . . . 4-55

4.9 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-56

4.10 Electrostatic Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-60

4.11 Image Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-62

4-2

4.1. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS

The chapter opens as the first pure fields chapter

tions (4 total)

r D D v (4.1)

@B

r ED (4.2)

@t

r B D0 (4.3)

@D

r HDJ D ; (4.4)

@t

where

D D E D electric flux density

H D magnetic field intensity

B D H D magntic flux density

J D convection or conduction current density

which means terms of the form @=@t D 0

simplified equations:

– Electrostatics (Chapter 4)

r D D v (4.5)

r ED0 (4.6)

4-3

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

– Magnetostatics (Chapter 5)

r B D0 (4.7)

r HDJ (4.8)

holds only for the static case

With regard to electrostatics, working with charge current distribu-

tions is common place.

Charge densities are similar to probability densities studied in

prob and stats and mass densities found in mechanics

– Volume distribution

q dq

v D lim D .C/m3/

V!0 V dV

Note: Z

QD v d V (C)

V

– Surface distribution

q dq

s D lim D .C/m2/

s!0 s ds

4-4

y

4.2. CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS

Note: x Z

(a) Q

Line

D charge distribution

s ds (C)

S

z

Surface charge ρs

3c

m

y

r

ϕ

x

(b) Surface charge distribution

Figure 4.1: Circular surface charge s .

Figure

– Line 4-1 Charge distributions for Examples 4-1

distribution

and 4-2.

q dq

` D lim D .C/m/

l!0 l dl

Note: Z

QD ` d l (C)

l

z

10 cm

Line charge ρl

x

(a) 4.2:

Figure LineLinear

charge line

distribution

charge `.

z 4-5

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

(

4y 2 .C/m2/; 3 x; y 3 m

s D

0; otherwise

3 3 3 33

4y

Z Z Z

QD 4y 2 dy dx D dx

3 3 3 3 3

3

D 72 Œx 3 D 72 3 . 3/ D 432 .C/

Current is related to charge density, except we have to put the

charge into motion

ing from left to right with velocity u

across the tube’s surface area, s 0 of

also

q 0 D v .l s 0/ D v u s 0 t

„ ƒ‚ …

Vt

4-6

4.2. CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS

∆l

(a)

ρv ∆s

∆s = nˆ ∆s

θ

u ∆q = ρvu • ∆s ∆t

= ρvu ∆s ∆t cos θ

(b)

Figure Figure

4.3: (a)4-2

Charges flowing

Charges in a tube

with velocity with cross

u moving section

through a s 0

movingcross

withsection ∆s′uinm/s

velocity and∆s

(a) and (b)indealing

(b). with a surface normal

differnt from the flow velocity.

For the general case of charge flow across a surface (not par-

O can be

allel to the velocity u) the normal to the surface s, n,

used to write s D nO s, and then describe the general charge

increment q (prime is dropped) as

q D v u s t

q

I D D v u s D J s

t „ƒ‚…

(C/s)/m2

J D v u .A/m2/

4-7

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Z

I D J d s .A/

S

vection current

– For the movement of charged particles (e.g., electrons in

a conductor), J represents a conduction current

– Note: Conduction current obeys Ohm’s law, while con-

vection current does not!

First introduced in Chapter 1

Now its time to get serious about studying it and working with

it!

O q

EDR .V/m/;

4R2

O points from q to the field point P

where R

experiences force

F D q 0E .N/

Note: It would appear that the units of E is also (N/C), i.e.,

(N/C) = (V/m)

4-8

4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

the electric flux density and electric field intensity are related

by

D D E

12

Note: The 0 D 8:85 10 F/m

material is linear

– A material is said to be isotropic if is independent of

the direction of E; some PCB materials are anisotropic,

meaning takes on one value in the .x; y/ plane and an-

other value in the z direction (sheet thickness)

For N point charges q1; q2; : : : ; qN with corresponding posi-

tion vectors Ri , i D 1; 2; : : : ; N connecting the charge loca-

tion with the field point P , is the vector sum of the field due to

the individual charges

N

1 X .R Ri /

ED .V/m/

4 iD1 jR Ri j3

4-9

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

with

5 5

q1 D 2 10 (C) and q2 D 4 10 (C)

1 R R1 R R2

ED q1 C q2 (V/m)

40 jR R1j3 jR R2j3

(3,1,-2).

dimensions 2 by 3

not the use of the colon operator to span all columns

coordinates

tained and then converted to a numerical form, no problem

4-10

norm r_array 2 14

On the nspire you can enter an array of three element lists using

r_array:={{1,3,-1},{-3,1,-2}}. Once entered it looks like the following:

r_array:= 1 3 −1 ▸ 1 3 −1

−3 1 −2 −3 1 −2

r_point:= 3 1 −2 ▸ 3 1 −2

Now the calculation of the E field less the 10 -5 factor and ε ₀ :

1 r_point-r_array 1 r_point-r_array 2

· 2· +−4·

4· π· ε0 3 3

norm r_point-r_array 1 norm r_point-r_array 2

1 −1 −1

▸

108· ε0· π 27· ε0· π 54· ε0· π

Now include the missing terms to get a pure numerical answer:

10 -5 r_point-r_array 1 r_point-r_array 2

· 2· +−4·

4· π· 8.85· 10 -12 norm r_point-r_array 1

3

norm r_point-r_array 2

3

▸ 3330.3 −13321.2 −6660.6

(3,1,-2).

ECE3110_Chapter4a Page 1 of 1

A practical extension to Coulomb’s law is consider charge dis-

tributions: (1) volume, (2) surface, or (3) line distributions

Volume Distributon

4-11

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

v d V 0, is

dE D R O 0 dq D R O 0 v d V ;

4R02 4R02

where R0 is the vector pointing from the differential charge

O 0 is the corresponding unit vector

to the field point P and R

R0=jR0j

in integral form

1 d V0

O 0 v

Z Z

ED dE D R .V/m/

V0 4 V0 R02

functions of the integration variables used to describe V 0

the book for a volume charge distribution

Surface Distribution

write

0

1 0 s ds

Z

ED O

R .V/m/

4 S 0 R02

problem set-up and integration become easier

4-12

4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

Line Distribution

can write

1 ` d l 0

Z

ED O0

R .V/m/

4 l 0 R02

Here the charge distribution one dimensional, but may lie along

a curve

of radius b uniform positive density `

.0; 0; h/

vious choice

4-13

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

z

dE1

dE1z

dE1r P = (0, 0, h)

h R'1

ρl

+ + + +

+ +

+ b dφ + y

+ φ

+ + + + 1

dl = b dφ

x

(a)

Figure 4.6: Setting up the ring of charge field calculation.

z

The differential line charge segment length is d l D bd and

dE = dE

the differential charge density + dE

is 1dq D 2`d l D `b d

dE1

From Figure 4.6 we see thatdE2

dE1r

R0 D

rOdE C zO h

b 2r

R'2 0 0

p

R D jRR'j 1D b 2 C h2

0

2 + R +

O D

0 +R +D prO b C zO h

+π

φjR 0j + 2

+ b C h2 + y

and + φ

+ + 1+ + 1rO b C zO h

dE D ` b 3=2 d

40 b2 C h2

x

With the field point along (b)

the z-axis further simplification is

possible, namely the radial (Or) field contributions from charge

Figure 4-6 Ring of charge with line density ρℓ . (a) The

4-14 field dE1 due to infinitesimal segment 1 and (b) the fields

dE1 and dE2 due to segments at diametrically opposite

locations (Example 4-4).

+ dφ + y

+ φ

+ + + + 1

dl = b d4.3.

φ COULOMB’S LAW

(a)

axial or zO component

z

dE = dE1 + dE2

dE1

dE2

dE1r

dE2r

R'2

R'1

2 + + + +

φ+π +

+ + y

+ φ

+ + + + 1

x

(b)

Figure 4.7: Opposing line charge segments result in radial compo-

nent cancellation

Figure 4-6and Ringconstructive combining

of charge with of the

line density axial

ρℓ . (a) Thecompo-

nents due to dE

field the1 segment 1 and 2 semicircles.

due to infinitesimal segment 1 and (b) the fields

dE1 and dE2 due to segments at diametrically opposite

The charge(Example

locations ring is broken

4-4). into two semicircles, each defined

over 0

the axial components constructively add, thus

Z

`bh

E D zO 2 3=2 d

2

40 b C h 2 0

`bh also h

D zO 3=2 D O

z 3=2 Q;

2

20 b C h 2 2

40 b C h 2

4-15

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

field point distance h alter the field strength, and when does

the ring look like a point charge?

In the code and corresponding plot shown below, the scale fac-

tors of Q and 0 are not included (normalized out)

located at the origin is also included in the plot

Figure 4.8: Python code for calculating the charge ring axial field.

4-16

4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

1.0

Plot of Ez · 4π²0 /Q versus h with b a Parameter

Point charge

b = 1/8 (m)

0.8

Normalized Axial Field Intensity

b = 1/4 (m)

b = 1/2 (m)

0.6 b = 1 (m)

0.4

0.2

0.0

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

Axial Field Point h (m)

Figure 4.9: Axial field component of charge ring compared with

equivalent point charge.

greate a distance

– For a larger ring radius the field stength on axis is reduced

compared with the a smaller ring

– Note: As h approaches zero the axial field component due

to the ring is zero! why?

4-17

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

is a uniform circular disk of charge

(

s C/m2; 0 r a; z D 0

s .r; ; z/ D

0; otherwise

The elemental field contribution for the ring of charge can be

extended to the case of the disk by adding in an integration over

the charge differential dq D 2s r dr as shown in Figure 4.10

z

E

P = (0, 0, h)

h

ρs dq = 2πρsr dr

r y

a

dr

a

x

Figure 4.10: Set-up for calculating E due to a disk of charge in the

Figure 4-7 Circular disk of charge with surface charge

x y-plane.

density ρs . The electric field at P = (0, 0, h) points along

the z direction (Example 4-5).

4-18

4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

Z 2 Z a

r 2 ˇˇa 2

QD s r dr d D 2s D s a

0 0 2 0

Due to symmetry the radial component of E is again zero

s h a r dr

Z

E D zO

20 0 r 2 C h2 3=2

Recall/look up

rdr 1

Z

3=2 Dp ;

2

r Ch 2

r 2 C h2

so 8

zO 2s0 1 p jhj

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ ; h>0

a2 Ch2

ˆ

ˆ

<

ED zO 2s0 1 p jhj ; h<0

a2 Ch2

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

:0; hD0

ˆ

s =.20/ with Q=.0a2/, so

8

zO 2Q a2 1 p jhj

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

2 Ch2

; h>0

0

ˆ

ˆ a

<

ED zO 2Q a2 1 p jhj ; h<0

0 a2 Ch2

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

:0; hD0

ˆ

4-19

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

due to an infinite sheet of charge being

(

zO 2s0 ; z>0

ED

zO 2s0 ; z<0

sus h while keeping the total charge, Q, the same in all cases

x/ 1=2 yields 1 x=2, so assuming h b or h a we have

.h2 b 2=2/3 1

Ez;ring 'Q and Ez;disk ' Q

40h8 40h2

Figure 4.11: Python code for calculating the charge disk axial field.

4-20

4.3. COULOMB’S LAW

1.0

Plot of Ez · 4π²0 /Q versus h with a and b Parameters

Point charge

Ring b = 1/2 (m)

0.8

Normalized Axial Field Intensity

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

Axial Field Point h (m)

Figure 4.12: Axial field component of a charge disk compared with

a ring and an equivalent point charge (total charge help constant for

all three).

The asymptotic behavior is as expected and is supported by the

binomial expansion results too

4-21

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

From physics you may remember this useful result

r D D v

divergence calculation)

ing both sides over an arbitrary volme V, is

Z Z

r D dV D v d V D Q

V V

Z I

r D d V D D d s;

V S

I

D ds D Q

S

Q

4-22

4.4. GAUSS’S LAW

Total charge

in v

Q D • ds

Gaussian surface S

enclosing volume v

Figure

Figure 4-8 The4.13: Gauss’s

integral law

form of illustrated.

Gauss’s law states that

the outward flux of D through a surface is proportional to

the enclosed

Example charge Q.Point Charge at the Origin

4.5: Classical

you can calculate E by setting up a Gaussian surface at the

origin that encloses a point charge q

q R̂

ds

D

Gaussian surface

Figure charge at the

Electric origin

field andtothe

D due appropriate

point charge q. Gaussian

surface.

4-23

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

know from symmetry that

O DR ;

DDR

O ds, so

and a sphere centered at the origin has d s D R

I Z I

D d s D RD O RR O ds D DR ds D .4R2/DR D q

S S S

Clearly,

q

DR D

4R2

or

ED

D O q

DR

4R2

A familiar result!

Picking the Gaussian surface is key to finding D using Gauss’s

law

(at least for each component)

– Choose S so the form of D is normal or parallel to the

surface, making integration trivial

– Be clever in selecting S (OK, you need to practice at this)

4-24

4.4. GAUSS’S LAW

Given an infinite length line charge along the z axis (or parallel

to it so you can shift the cylindrical coordinate frame) having

uniform charge density `

a portion of the line charge

component D D rO Dr ; Why?

z

uniform line

charge ρl

r

h ds

D

Gaussian surface

Figure

Figure4.15:

4-10Gaussian

Gaussiansurface

surface for infinite

around line charge.

an infinitely long

line of charge (Example 4-6).

Apply Gauss’s law using the cylinder as S and notice that no

flux passes through the ends of the cylinder, so the surface in-

4-25

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

I Z h Z 2

also

D ds D rO Dr rO r d dz D 2 h Dr r D `h

S zD0 D0

D Dr `

ED D rO D rO

0 0 20r

versely proportional to the radial (perpendicular) distance

to the line

Find E when more than one line charge is parallel to the z axis

and .x; y/ D . 1; 0/ each having density ` as shown below

(looking down frlom the Cz axis)

4-26

4.4. GAUSS’S LAW

𝜌𝜌𝑙𝑙

-1

Line charges E−1

parallel to the

𝑧𝑧 axis on the 𝑥𝑥 𝑦𝑦

axis Sum the vectors at

E1 the field point

1

𝜌𝜌𝑙𝑙

Radial field components

from each line charge

𝑥𝑥

Figure 4.16: Configuration of two line charges and the vector addi-

tion of the fields.

nents from each line charge and of course we need unit vectors

at .0; yp ; 0/

unit vector

jE1 j

‚ …„ ƒ ‚ …„ ƒ

xO C yO yp `

E1 D q q

1 C yp2 20 1 C yp2

xO C yO yp `

E 1 Dq q

1 C yp2 20 1 C yp2

4-27

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

yO 2y ` yO yp `

E D E1 C E 1 Dq q D

2

1 C yp2 20 1 C yp2 0 1 C yp

Would moving the field point off the y axis make the xO com-

ponent nonzero?

Given a thin shell of radius a contains a uniform surface charge

of s , find E everywhere

O ER

R

Surface charge

density 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠

𝑎𝑎

� 𝐸𝐸𝑅𝑅

𝐄𝐄 = 𝐑𝐑

Gaussian surface

for R > 𝑎𝑎

Gaussian surface

Side view of spheres

for 𝑅𝑅 < 𝑎𝑎

sphere with surface charge density.

4-28

4.4. GAUSS’S LAW

centered at the origin having radius R > a or R < a

R < a: The Gaussian surface does not enclose any charge, so

ED0

R > a: Here the Gaussian surface encloses the surface charge

of the thin sphere of radius a, allowing us to write

I Z

D d s D DR 4R2 D s ds D 4a2 s

s s

2

) ED

D O s a

DR .V/m/

0 0R2

In summary,

(

0; R<a

ED .V/m/

O s a22 ;

R R>a

0 R

1.0

Plot of ER · ²0 /ρs versus R with parameter a

a=1

a = 0. 5

Normalized Radial Field Intensity

0.8 a = 2. 0

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Radial Field Point R (m)

4-29

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Given a spherical volume radius a contains a uniform volume

charge of v , find E everywhere

Due to symmetry the electric field will be of the form E D

O ER

R

Volume charge

density 𝜌𝜌𝑣𝑣

𝑎𝑎

� 𝐸𝐸𝑅𝑅

𝐄𝐄 = 𝐑𝐑

Gaussian surface

for R > 𝑎𝑎

Gaussian surface

Side view of spheres

for 𝑅𝑅 < 𝑎𝑎

sphere with volume charge density.

From Figure 4.19 the appropriate Gaussian surface is a sphere

centered at the origin having radius R > a or R < a

R < a: The Gaussian surface encloses a portion of the total

volume charge, so

4

I Z

D d s D DR 4R2 D v dv D R3 v

s v 3

) ED

D O v R .V/m/

DR

0 30

4-30

4.4. GAUSS’S LAW

of the thin sphere of radius a, allowing us to write

4

I Z

2

v dv D a3 v

D d s D DR 4R D

s v 3

D O v a 3

) ED DR .V/m/

0 0R2

In summary,

O v R ;

(

R 30

R<a

ED .V/m/

O v a32 ;

R R>a

30 R

0.7

Plot of ER · ²0 /ρv versus R with parameter a

a=1

0.6 a = 0. 5

Normalized Radial Field Intensity

a = 2. 0

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Radial Field Point R (m)

4-31

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Associated with the electric field there is also an electric po-

tential V or simply voltage V

ponent, in field theory we are interested in the potential differ-

ence between two points in space, e.g. V21 D V2 V1 is the

potential difference observed as you move from field point P1

to P2

(units of joules of (J)) in moving a charge from P1 o P2

move a charge q a differential distance d l in the electric field

E requires work

d W D qE d l;

where the minus sign comes from the fact that energy is ex-

pelled when we move the charge q in the opposite (or against)

direction of the field

The work per unit charge defines the potential difference, that

is 1 V = 1 J/C, i.e.,

dW

dV D D E dl

q

4-32

4.5. ELECTRIC SCALAR POTENTIAL

to P2 is defined to be

Z P2

V21 D V2 V1 D E dl

P1

closed loop (Kirchoff’s voltage law) is zero, so too in a static

electric field I

E dl D 0

C

tional

It is Maxwell’s second equation, for @=@t D 0,

r ED0

that makes this conservation property concrete

Furthermore, via Stokes theorem

Z I

.r E/ d s D E dl D 0

S C

where C surrounds the surface S

What do we use as a voltage reference?

In circuits it is ground

In fields it is typical to assume V1 D 0 when P1 is at infinity,

i.e., V at P is

Z P

V D E d l .V/

1

4-33

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

tance R given by

R

q O q

Z

V D RO R d R D .V/

1 4R2 4R

q

V D .V/

4jR R1j

N

1 X qi

V D .V/

4 iD1 jR Ri j

charge distributions we have been using

In particular

1 v

Z

V D 0

d V0

4 ZV 0 R

1 s 0

V D ds

4 ZS 0 R0

1 ` 0

V D dl

4 l 0 R0

4-34

4.5. ELECTRIC SCALAR POTENTIAL

first finding the electric potential

Chapter 3 that a scalar function V obeys

d V D rV d l;

dV D E d l;

ED rV;

field!

scalar potential are likely easier to evaluate

and line charge density `

and then E

4-35

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

𝑧𝑧

(0, 0, ℎ)

𝑅𝑅𝑅

𝜌𝜌𝑙𝑙

𝑦𝑦

𝑏𝑏

𝑥𝑥 𝜙𝜙 𝑟𝑟

Figure 4.21: Charge ring configuration for potential along the z axis.

Z 2

1 ` 0 ` 1

Z

V D 0

d l D p b d

40 l R 4 0 0 2

b Cz 2 „ƒ‚…

ˇ d l0

`b ˇ `b

D p ˇ D p .V/

20 b 2 C z 2 ˇzDh 20 b 2 C h2

@ ` b

ED rV D zO p

@z 20 b 2 C z 2

ˇ

`b 2z. 1=2/ ˇˇ `bh

D zO D O

z .V/m/

20 b 2 C z 2 3=2 ˇzDh

3=2

20 b 2 C h2

4-36

4.5. ELECTRIC SCALAR POTENTIAL

charges ˙q at z D ˙d=2 respectively

tromagnetic energy, another type of dipole is studied

P = (R, θ, φ)

z

R1

R

+q R2

θ

d y

–q d cos θ

x

(a) Electric dipole

Figure 4.22: Electric dipole configuraton and far field approxima-

tion.

The potential is

E

q 1 1 q R2 R1

V D D .V/

40 R1 R2 40 R1 R2

which means for R (b) d , so

Electric-field pattern

4-37

Figure 4-13 Electric dipole with dipole moment p = qd

(Example 4-7).

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

– R2 R1 d cos

– R1 R2 R 2

z

qd cos pRO

V D

R1 4 0 40R2

+q

in the direction from q toRCq,2 O is the unit vector from

and R

θ center to the field point

the dipole

d y

The electric field follows from rV using the spherical coor-

dinates form to calculate the gradient

–q d cos θ

x qd O O

ED rV 3

R2 cos C sin .V/m/

4 R

(a) Electric dipole

0

(b)electric field pattern

Electric-field for the electric dipole.

pattern

4-38

(Example 4-7).

4.5. ELECTRIC SCALAR POTENTIAL

Gauss’s law was originally presented in differential form as

v

r D D v or r ED

If we set E D rV we arrive at

a vector

‚…„ƒ v

r rV D r 2V D .Poisson’s equation/

„ ƒ‚ …

a scalar

2 @2V @2 V @2V

r V D C 2 C 2

@x 2 @y @z

reduces to Laplace’s equation

r 2V D 0 .Laplace’s equation/

for the electrostatic potential when boundaries (boundary con-

ditions), such as the plates of a capacitor, have a known poten-

tial

of this sort

4-39

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Consider a spherical shell of radius a with uniform surface

charge density s

Surface charge

density 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠

𝑎𝑎

� 𝐸𝐸𝑅𝑅

𝐄𝐄 = 𝐑𝐑

𝑅𝑅𝑅

Field point

𝑃𝑃(0,0,0)

Side view of sphere

Figure 4.24: Set up for finding the potential inside a spherical shell

of radius a.

Z 2 Z

1 s 0 s 1 2

Z

V D ds D a sin d d

4 s 0 a 4 0 0 a

s s a

D 4a D .V/

4

To find E we form

ED rV D 0;

4-40

4.6. CONDUCTORS

4.6 Conductors

In the section the focus is conductors and the conduction cur-

rent J , introduced earlier

permeability, , and conductivity, are of interest

or dielectrics (insulators)

rent flows in the same direction as the electric field:

J D E .A/m2/;

We expect:

10 17 10 10 S/m)

– A perfect conductor to have D 1 (for good conductors

106 107 S/m)

Perfect conductor: E D 0 since E D J = and D 1

4-41

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

In a conductor electrons have a drift velocity of ue such that

ue D e E;

(positive charge carriers)

u h D h E

are the number of free electrons and holes respectively, per unit

volume, and e D 1:6 10 19 C

J D . vee C vhh/ E

„ ƒ‚ …

D ve e D Ne e e .S/m/;

4-42

4.6. CONDUCTORS

4.6.2 Resistance

Consider the resistance, R, of a conductor of length l and cross

section A

along xO , making E D xO Ex

reference points x1 and x2

Z x1

V D E d l D Ex l .V/

x2

x

x1 l x2

I 1 2 I

J E

A

+ –

V

Figure 4.25: A resistor from a materials view point.

Figure 4-14 Linear resistor of cross section A and

length l connected to a dc voltage source V .

The current flowing is

Z Z

I D J d s D E d s D Ex A .A/

A A

4-43

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

V l

RD D

I A

R R

V E dl E dl

RD D R l D R l

I s J ds s E ds

4-44

4.6. CONDUCTORS

The coax cable was studied in Chapter 2 and equations for tline

parameters were given

theory and the equation for R D 1=G

l

E

r

–

Vab

+

a

b

σ

Figure 4-15 the shuntcable

Coaxial conductance of a4-9.

of Example coax cable.

shield, we need to find the corresponding current flow I

For a length l section of line, the surface area at some a < r <

b through which current flows is A D 2 rl

potential is higher on the center conductor

I I I

J D rO D rO or E D rO

A 2 rl 2 rl

4-45

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Z a Z a

I rO rO dr

Vab D E dl D

b ˇa 2 l b r

I ˇ I b

D ln r ˇˇ D ln

2 l b 2 l a

Finally,

Vab 1 b

RD D ln ./

I 2 l a

1 2

G0 D D .S/m/

Rl ln.b=a/

The power dissipated in a conducting medium is

Z Z

P D E J dV D jEj2 d V .W/

V V

law reduces to

P D I 2R .W/

tion

P D I 2R D I 2 ln.b=a/=.2 l/

4-46

4.7. DIELECTRICS

4.7 Dielectrics

When a dielectric material is subject to an electric field, the

atoms or molecules of the material become polarized

– Electron

– –

– –

– –

– – Nucleus

Atom

Nucleus

E E

– – q

– – – –

d

– –q

– –

(b) External Eext ≠ 0 (c) Electric dipole

Figure 4.27: Impact of E on material atoms and the creation of a

Figure 4-16 In the absence of an external electric

dipole moment.

field E, the center of the electron cloud is co-located with

the center of the nucleus, but when a field is applied, the

two centers

When are separated

no field is presentbythe

a distance

electrond. cloud is symmetrical

about the nucleus (a) in Figure 4.27

shift occurs and E is said to polarize the atoms and create a

dipole

4-47

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

– The dipole creates its own electric field known as the po-

larization field, P

the dipoles are randomly aligned until an applied field is ap-

plied

E E E E E

+ + –+ + + + + + +

+ –

– – + – – + +

– – – – – – –

+ –+ + + + +

+ + – – –+ –+ –+ – – – +

– – + + + – + +

– – + + + + + + + – –

+ + – – – – – – – –

– – + + + + + + + +

– – – – – – – + + –+ –

+ + + – –

– – – + + + + + + + + + –+

– – – – – –

– – –

Figure 4.28: Applying an electric field polarizes the molecules cre-

Figure 4-17 A dielectric medium polarized by an

ating anexternal

effective surface

electric fieldcharge.

E.

In a dielectric material the total flux density under the influence

of an external E is

D D 0E C P

4-48

4.8. ELECTRIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

tional to the applied E via

P D 0e E

Real materials are subject to dielectric breakdown

is the largest field strength a material can handle without break-

down

dielectric

A vector field does not experience abrupt changes in it magni-

tude or direction unless is passes from one medium to another,

e.g., a dielectric interface or a metal conductor

4-49

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

ductor interfaces are now established with the aid of Figure 4.29

D1n

Medium 1

ε1 nˆ 2

E1 l̂l1 a Δs

E1n b

E1t

} Δ2h Δh

2 { ρs

l̂l2 } Δ2h

E2n

E2t

c

Δl

d

Δh

2 {

E2

Medium 2

ε2

D2n nˆ 1

Figure 4-18 Interface field/flux

between boundary

two dielectric media. conditions be-

tween two mediums.

I

E d l D 0 , r E D 0 .conservation prop./

IC

D d s D Q , r D D v .divergence prop./

S

establish from the conservation of E that at an interface the

tangential electric field component is continuous, i.e.,

sity normal to the interface is continuous, subject any added

charge density that may be present, i.e.,

4-50

4.8. ELECTRIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

or

D1n D2n D s .C/m2/

terface, is due to a surface charge density being present at the

interface

dielectric conductor interface, yet to be explained

Table 4.1:

Table 4-3Electric

Boundaryfield/flux

conditionsboundary conditions.

for the electric fields.

Medium 1 Medium 2

Field Component Any Two Media

Dielectric ε1 Conductor

Tangential D D1t /ε1 = D2t /ε2 D1 t = D2 t = 0

Normal E ε1 E1n − ε2 E2n = ρs E1n = ρs /ε1 E2n = 0

Normal D D1 n − D2 n = ρ s D1 n = ρ s D2 n = 0

Notes: (1) ρs is the surface charge density at the boundary; (2) normal

components of E1 , D1 , E2 , and D2 are along n̂2 , the outward normal unit vector

of medium 2.

material having permittivity 1 to 2

From physics you may recall that when light rays pass from

one medium to the next, there is a direction change that takes

place due to the change in the index of refraction

4-51

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Consider now the scenario of Figure 4.30

z

E1

E1z

θ1 ε1

x-y plane

E1t

E2 θ2

E2z ε2

E2t

Figure Electric field angle

Application of change an 1 to 2atinterface.

at conditions

boundary the

interface between two dielectric media (Example 4-10).

Assume that E1 D xO E1x C yO E1y C zO E1z and find E2 D xO E2x C

yO E2y C zO E2z in terms of E1, also find the relationship between

the angles 1 and 2 (assume s D 0 at the interface)

The continuity of E t means that

E1t D E2t ) E1x D E2x and E1y D E2y

of the problem lie along the z axis,

1E1z D 2E2z

E2 D xO E2x C yO E2y C zO E2z

1

D xO E1x C yO E1y C zO E1z

2

4-52

4.8. ELECTRIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

q

2 2

E1t E1t E1x C E1y

tan 1 D D D

E1n E1z q E1z q

2 2 2 2

E2t E2t E2x C E2y also E2x C E2y

tan 2 D D D D

E2n E2z E2z .1=2/E1z

In particular

tan 2 2

D

tan 1 1

Consider the special case of medium 1 a dielectric and medium

2 a conductor

D D 0, so for the tangential and normal boundary conditions

we have

E1t D D1t D 0

D1n D 1E1n D s

The key result from the above is that a charge density at the

conductor surface is induced by the normal component of the

electric field

D1 D 1E1 D nO s

4-53

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

E1 E1 E1

ε1 ρs = ε1E1

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Conducting slab E1 Ei E1 Ei E1 Ei

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

ε1 −ρs

Figure 4-20 When a conducting slab is placed in an external electric field E1 , charges that accumulate on the conductor

surfaces induce an internal electric field Ei = −E1 . Consequently, the total field inside the conductor is zero.

dielectric-conductor-dielectric.

Also, the flux lines at the conductor interface are always nor-

O with a positive charge density when E1 is away from

mal (n)

the interface and a negative charge density when E1 is toward

the interface (see Figure 4.31)

Consider a metallic sphere placed in a uniform electric field

E0

+ + + +

+ +

+ +

+ metal +

– sphere –

– –

–

–– – – –

Figure flux Metal

lines sphere

bend at the in

placed surface of aelectric

an external metallic sphere

field remain

to insure they E0 . normal everywhere.

4-54

4.8. ELECTRIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Taking the special case one step further, suppose we have two

conductors of different conductivity interfaced

J1n J1

Medium 1

n̂

ε1, σ1

J1t

J2t

Medium 2

J2n

ε2, σ2 J2

Figure 4-22 Boundary between two conducting media.

scenario.

J1t J2t E1n E2n

D and 1 2 D s

1 2 1 2

a s that is not constant with time and hence not a static condi-

tion

4-55

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

1 2

J1n D s

1 2

4.9 Capacitance

Any two conductors in space, separated by a dielectric (air is

valid), form a capacitor

A voltage placed across the two conductors allows CQ and

Q charges to accumulate

The ratio of charge to voltage defines the capacitance in farads

Q

C D .C/V or F/

V

Surface S

+ + + +

+Q +

+

Conductor 1 +

ρs

+ + + +

+

V E

–

– – –

– –

−Q

Conductor 2 –

– – –

– –

Figure Figure

4.34: Establishing

4-23 A dcthevoltage

capacitance

sourcebetween twotoconductors

connected a

capacitor

by applying composed

voltage V . of two conducting bodies.

4-56

4.9. CAPACITANCE

that E D 0 within the conductor and the potential is the same

at all points

ponent of E exists, so

s

En D nO E D

Z Z

Q D s ds D E d s

S S

Z Cond. 1

V D V12 D E dl

Cond. 2

R

SRE d s

C D .F/

l E dl

the permittivity

also a resistance between the two conductors given by

R

E dl

RDR l

S E d s

4-57

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

, it follows that

RC D ;

so given C then R is known and likewise given R, C is known

From physics you likely recall the parallel plate capacitor and

A=d , where A is the plate area and d is the plate separation

z Conducting plate

Area A +

+ Fringing

+ field lines

ρs +Q +

+ –

z=d + –

+ + + + + + + + + + + + –

E

V E – – Dielectric ε

ds E E E –

– –

– – – – – – – – – –

z=0 –Q

–ρs Conducting plate

Figure4.35:

Figure 4-24 AParallel

dc voltage source

plateconnected to a parallel-plate

capacitor analysis capacitor

model (Example 4-11).

using applied

voltage V .

With respect to the top plate E D zO E and from the boundary

conditions E D s =

form, so Q D s A ! E D Q=.A/

Z d Z d

V D E dl D . zO E/ zO dz D Ed;

0 0

4-58

4.9. CAPACITANCE

so

Q EA A

C D D D .F/

V Ed d

Another classical structure to analyze is the coax capacitor

l ρl

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + –ρl

+ E E E

V – b – – – – – – – – – – – – – Inner conductor

a – – – – – – – – – – – – – Dielectric material ε

E E E

+ + + + + + + + + + + + +

Outer conductor

Figure

Figure 4.36: Coaxcapacitor

4-25 Coaxial capacitor analysis

filled with model

insulating materialusing applied

of permittivity voltage

ε (Example V.

4-12).

Using Gauss’s law and knowing the form of the E field for an

infinite line charge (pure radial and inverse proportional to r),

we have

Q

E D rO

2rl

The potential can be calculated as

Z b Z b

Q

V D E dl D rO rO dr

a a 2rl

ˇb

Q ˇ Q b

D ln.r/ˇˇ D ln

2l a 2l a

Finally,

Q 2l

C D D .F/

V ln.b=a/

4-59

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

C 2

C0 D D .F/m/

l ln.b=a/

When a voltage is applied to a lossless capacitor energy goes

into the structure and is stored in the electric field

plate to another

ferential electrostatic work, We , is

q

d We D dq D dq

C

Q

q 1 Q2

Z

We D dq D .J/;

0 C 2 C

1

We D C V 2 .J/

2

4-60

4.10. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL ENERGY

an electrostatic energy density via

We 1

we D D E 2 .J/m3/

V 2

stored in volume V is,

1

Z

We D E 2 d V .J/

2 V

2l

C D

ln.b=a/

and

Q l`

V D ln.b=a/ D ln.b=a/;

2l 2l

where Q D l`

1 2l ` 2

We D ln.b=a/

2 ln.b=a/ 2

1 l` b

D ln .J/

2 2 a

4-61

ls =1.9

1. 10.

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

we should get the same answer

1 2 l b ` 2

Z Z Z

We D rdr dz d

2 0 0 a 2r

2

` 1 `2

2l b b

D ln D ln .J/

2 .2/2 2 a 2 2 a

4

Suppose that a D 2 cm, b D 5 cm, r D 4, ` D 10 C/m,

and l D 20 cm

0.5

Plugging the numbers into either of the above equations yields

−0.037

We D 4:12 .J/

2

1 0.2· 10 −4 5

W> = · · ln ▸ 4.11955 (J)

2 2· π· 4· 8.85· 10 −12 2

On the nspire you can enter an array of threee element lists using

When a charge distribution is placed over an infinite ground

plane Coulomb’s law and Gauss’s law cannot be readily ap-

plied

4-62

4.11. IMAGE METHOD

also mathematically challenging, likely to require a numerical

solution

ated using the image distribution with the ground plane re-

moved

a ground plane is shown if Figure 4.38

z

Electric field

Q lines Q

+ + ε

ε n̂ V=0

V=0 d d

d

σ=∞ ε

–

−Q

(a) Charge Q above grounded plane (b) Equivalent configuration

By image theory, The Qimage theory perfectly

above a grounded concept in solving

conducting electrostatics

plane is equivalent to Q and its image −Q

with the ground plane removed.

problems with charge over a uniform ground plane.

4-63

CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATICS

Construct image distribution for a corner reflector charge

z

P = (0, y, z)

d Q = (0, d, d)

y

d

Figure P4.61 Charge Q next to two perpendicular,

grounded, conducting half-planes.

4-64

4.11. IMAGE METHOD

Plane

assigned homework problem

V=0

Figure 4.40: Capacitance of an Infinite Cylinder Over a Ground

Figure P4.63 Conducting cylinder above a conducting

Plane.

plane (Problem 4.63).

4-65

- Electric ChargeHochgeladen vonSteven Frey
- KVTR-GEC Alsthom.pdfHochgeladen vonkgggani
- Auto-Reclose Relays KVTRHochgeladen vonPrakash Arputham
- Physics II Problems (18)Hochgeladen vonBOSS BOSS
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee4302.001.08f taught by Matthew Goeckner (goeckner)Hochgeladen vonUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Physics 72 Sample ExamHochgeladen vonAda Suarez
- eem-03-03Hochgeladen vonFasihNawaz
- FWLec4Hochgeladen vonbstrong1218
- Pooja @@@Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Mat
- ElectronicsHochgeladen vonrfatimajaferi
- ECE 1101Hochgeladen vonandi andika
- Paper - HovercraftHochgeladen vonAkshay_Tripath_1820
- monthlyTest-1Hochgeladen vonNavi Parmar
- Pastpaper QuestionHochgeladen vonmostafa67
- Ea07 Manual EnHochgeladen vonTaz Uddin
- Asosiasi-Mineral-dalam-Batuan(1)Hochgeladen vonMuhammad Satria Danuningrat
- 10616dsfvdf8730 Lfvvdvaser Cfvdvvommunication 69Hochgeladen vonanonymouspanda
- PTP 102 [1]Hochgeladen vonmemo110
- okHochgeladen vonRheana Domingo
- Extra HSC Phys HY 2014 QuestionsHochgeladen vonpixelhobo
- 21 Lecture OutlineHochgeladen vonAnonymous AyCl4L
- MB Falla de Enlace de DatosHochgeladen vonIvan Cocom
- Electromagnetic Field TheoryHochgeladen vonvaseem_ahmed
- Lect02.pptHochgeladen vonNandana Jammula
- Sp13v-HW Assignment 5Hochgeladen vonNguyễn Văn Thiện
- Testing Renesas M16C62P IO Logic LevelsHochgeladen vonibrahim-bn-yah-ya-9183
- 110732Hochgeladen vonDeep4
- Effect of High and Low VoltageHochgeladen vonBhupinder Singh
- PHYS 82 Exer 5Hochgeladen vonMariqueen Tenedero
- MIT6_012S09_rec04Hochgeladen vonMaria Jose Velazquez

- Clicker Chapter 22 physicsHochgeladen vonAnie Delgado
- 09.14063009Hochgeladen vonZaratustra Nietzche
- EM RelativHochgeladen vondionyscar
- ElectrostaticsHochgeladen vonKalpana Vijaykumar
- ElectrostaticsHochgeladen vonVenkataramanan Suresh
- Electromagnetic Wave ExerciseHochgeladen vonAnkit Vatsa
- 10ElectrostaticsandElectricFieldsHochgeladen vonsteve223255313251
- Ch27 Examples KlHochgeladen vonAli Hussien
- P2B Electric Forces and Electric FieldsHochgeladen voncyruselil
- bcasyllabusHochgeladen vonRohit Kumar
- boundary conditions.pdfHochgeladen vonSairRam
- Akira Hirose - Lecture Notes ElectromagnetismHochgeladen vonDamiano Baccarella
- Pepper UpperDiv Handout GlobalPhysDeptHochgeladen vonAndy Rundquist
- ElectrostaticsHochgeladen vonAmitKumar
- Maxwell's EquationsHochgeladen vonZetta Datta
- 0 Table of ContentsHochgeladen vonMonika Karanjkar
- Reference Books - EE Made EasyHochgeladen vonRavi Raj
- MIT2_71S09_lec13Hochgeladen vonucing_33
- EMF QBHochgeladen vonGomathi Rajendran
- Electromagnetic Theory Question Bank Semester-III StudyhauntersHochgeladen vonSriram J
- emft-ipHochgeladen vonTanmay
- Intro MhdHochgeladen vonFilip Kesteli
- Session Planner EMTL Session Planner for 2-2 ECE JNTUHHochgeladen vonganesh4u_p
- B. Sc Part IHochgeladen vonNaveen Purohit
- Plus Two Physics Previous Question Paper Hsslive SajuHochgeladen vonMathew Yoyakky
- Transmission Line ParametersHochgeladen vonMohammed Faizan
- EMF 2018 19 HandBookHochgeladen vonsrinureddy2014
- Abin Varghese Assignment 1Hochgeladen vonVargheseAbin
- PHYS121_S2_2018_Electricity9_post.pdfHochgeladen vonrobbie_delavega7000
- IITJEE 2011 Paper 2 SolutionsHochgeladen vonNimish Bansal

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.