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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

FIJI YEAR 13 CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION 2015

CHEMISTRY

PAPER 2

QUESTIONS

AND

DETAILED SOLUTIONS WITH ADDITIONAL NOTES

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


2

QUESTION 1

Briefly explain why each of the following statement is considered as an important


laboratory practice.

(a) Never work alone in the laboratory.

Answer
To avoid any environmental risk/hazard/contamination/pollution (1 mark)
OR
To avoid health hazard/risk or personal exposure from these chemical wastes.
(1 mark)
(1 mark for any other reasonable answer) 1 or 0

Additional Notes

A lab contains hundreds of chemicals and glasswares. If these chemicals are not handled properly,
accidents are bound to occur. In addition, majority of the laboratory procedures carried out by the
students needs teacher supervision. In case of a procedure not followed properly, accidents can
happen as well.

(b) Dispose of all chemical wastes properly.

Answer
To avoid any environmental risk/hazard/contamination/pollution (1 mark)
OR
To avoid health hazard/risk or personal exposure from these chemical wastes.
(1 mark)
(1 mark for any other reasonable answer) 1 or 0

Additional Notes

Some of these wastes may remain in our environment and have long lasting adverse effect on living
things. Chemical wastes can very easily run off into nearest water sources (streams, lakes, rivers and
sea) and have detrimental effect on the life forms. Personal health of each individual will get affected
resulting in a shorter life expectancy.

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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(c) Students should never eat food, drink beverages or chew gum inside the laboratory.

Answer

Due the possibility of personal health risk as a result of contamination. (1 mark)


OR
The likelihood of having their food and drink contaminated with hazardous chemicals.
(1 mark)
OR
Chemicals could be accidentally ingested instead food or drinks. (1 mark)
OR
Food and drinks can lead to contamination of the lab. (1 mark)
(1 mark for any other reasonable answer)
1 or 0
Additional Notes

The laboratory environment is not safe for any consumption. It may not be visible but there may be
many types of contaminants present. If students do not follow the above procedure, there is a
possibility of health risk.

(d) Acids should be added to water with constant stirring.

Answer
To avoid vigorous/violent reaction. (1 mark)
OR
To limit the buildup of heat. (1 mark)
OR
The avoid a highly exothermic reaction. (1 mark) 1 or 0
(1 mark for any other reasonable answer)

Additional Notes

A large amount of heat is released when strong acids are mixed with water. Adding more acid releases
more heat. If water is added to acid, an extremely concentrated solution of acid is formed initially and
so much heat is released that the solution may boil very violently, splashing concentrated acid out of
the container. On the other hand, if acid is added to water, the solution that forms is very dilute. Also
the small amount of heat released is not enough to vaporize and spatter it.

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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(e) A burette should be cleaned before a titration experiment.

Answer
To ensure that there is no contaminants introduced in the titration.
(1 mark)
OR

To ensure that the burette dispenses the titrant smoothly. (1 mark)


(1 mark for any other reasonable answer) 1 or 0

Additional Notes

Titration is an analytical technique of determination of the concentration of an unknown solution.


The results obtained should be as accurate as possible. This will determine how close the calculated
value of unknown concentration is, to the actual \ value. The closer the value of experimental
concentration of unknown and the actual concentration, the more fine you are in titration techniques.

If glasswares used in titration is not cleaned well, the results will get affected. The aim of the
experiment will not be achieved.

QUESTION 2

(a) Explain what you understand by the term hydrogen bonding?

Answer
It is the attractive force between the hydrogen attached
to a more electronegative atom of one molecule and another more
electronegative atom of a different molecule. (1 mark)
OR
It is a form of dipole - dipole attraction between molecules which have
a hydrogen atom bonded to a highly electronegative atom. (1 mark)
OR
A form of association between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom
attached to a second, relatively electronegative atom. (1 mark) 1 or 0

Additional Notes
Hydrogen bond is present in molecules where hydrogen is bonded to either N, O or F atoms. These
are the three most electronegative elements of the periodic table. The diagram below shows
hydrogen bonding in water molecules.

Source: chubby revision.weebly.com

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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(b) Illustrate the formation of hydrogen bonds between two molecules of ethanol.

Answer
Note: For an interesting demonstration
on hydrogen bonding in water, see:
https://www.youtube.com/watc
h?v=aH2IbYs_XjY

1 or 0
Additional Notes

The molecule may change but hydrogen bond will exist between hydrogen and oxygen of the OH
group. Due to a high electronegative difference between H and O, H becomes partially positively
charged and O becomes partially negatively charged. This sets up attractive forces between one
molecule and another and is called hydrogen bond.

(c) The graph given below illustrates the boiling points of the hydrides of Group VII
elements.

Boiling point of hydrides of Group VII


40 elements
HF
20
Boiling Point (°C)

0
-20
Hl
-40
HBr
-60
HCl
-80
-100
Hydrides of Group VII elements

Explain why HF has a higher boiling point compared to the hydrides shown in
the graph?

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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Answer

HF forms the strongest intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonds) between its


molecules as compared to the other hydrides. (1 mark) 1 or 0

Additional Notes

Out of all the hydrides shown, only fluorine is able to form hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bond in
fluorine is strongest of all hydrogen bonds since fluorine is the most electronegative element.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org

(d) A Year 13 student pipetted out 20 mL of water into a measuring cylinder. He


then pipetted out 20 mL of methylated spirit and added it to the same measuring
cylinder. The student noted that the volume of the final solution was 38 mL.
Account for this change in the volume observed by the student.

Answer
This reduction in the volume of the solution is due to the water molecules forming
hydrogen bonds with alcohol molecules (1 mark) and becoming more closely
coordinated/packed together (1 mark).
OR
This reduction in the volume of the solution is due to the water molecules forming
hydrogen bonds with alcohol molecules (1 mark) and packing of methylated spirit
molecules within the spaces of (1 mark)
2, 1 or 0

QUESTION 3

(a) A group of Year 13 students vaporised a sample of unknown liquid in a flask


having a volume of 235 mL, at 100 ◦C. The 0.628 g sample exerted a vapor
pressure of 98.4 kPa. Calculate the relative molar mass of this liquid.

Answer

or (½ mark)
(1 mark)

(½ mark)

2, 1½, 1, ½ or 0

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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(b) Briefly explain how the following procedural errors would affect the relative
molar mass in the above experiment.

(i) All the liquid was not vaporised before the flask was removed from the
water bath.

Answer

The measured mass would be greater (½ mark) hence the molar mass
would be higher as well (½ mark). 1, ½ or 0

Additional Note

The vapourisation process needs to continue until all liquid has vapourised. This is because the mass
of gaseous sample is required, not the mass of liquid sample.

(ii) The flask with the condensed vapour was not dried properly before the
final weighing.

Answer

The measured mass would be greater (½ mark) hence the molar mass
would be higher as well. (½ mark).
1, ½ or 0

Note: For a similar experiment on molar mass determination by the modified Dumas method,
see:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0UJXa9Hd88I

(c) An experiment was set up to determine the value of the gas constant. Write an
equation for the decomposition of potassium permanganate in this experiment.

Answer

2KMnO4(s) → K2MnO4(s) + MnO2(s) + O2(g)


(-½ mark if it is not balanced) 1, ½ or 0

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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QUESTION 4

(a) Write an ion electron equation for the conversion of VO3- to VO2+.
Answer

VO3-(aq) + 4H+(aq) + e- → VO2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) (1 mark)


(-½ mark if it is not balanced) 1, ½ or 0

(b) Transition metals are often used as catalysts. Give an explanation for this.

Answer

Their ability to adsorb the reactants using the d-orbitals. (1 mark)


OR
Transition metals can both lend electrons to and take electrons from other
molecules easily. (1 mark)
OR
Ability to adsorb other substances on to their surface and activate them
in the process. (1 mark)

(c) For the vanadium species V(OH)3, state the oxidation state of vanadium.

Answer

V + 3O + 3H = 0
V + 3(-2) + 3(+1) = 0
V = +3 or V(III) or V3+ (1 mark) (½ mark for correct working)
1, ½ or 0

(d) In an experimental setup on the preparation of tetrammine copper (II) sulphate, ammonia
solution was added to copper sulphate solution.

(i) What final colour is expected in the above reaction?

Answer

Deep/Royal/Intense/Dark blue colour. (1 mark)


1 or 0

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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(ii) Write the formula of the species responsible for this colour change.

Answer
[Cu(NH3)4]2+ or Cu(NH3)42+ (1 mark) 1 or 0

QUESTION 5

(a) In an experiment, a group of students measured the heat of solution for both
anhydrous and hydrated magnesium sulphate. This was used to calculate the
heat of reaction for the following process. The Hess’s law was applied since
it is difficult to measure the heat of reaction directly.

MgSO4(s) + 7H2O(l) MgSO4.7H2O(s) ∆H1

The following combination of enthalpy changes ∆H2 and ∆H3 of the two
processes are given:

MgSO4(s) MgSO4(aq) ∆H2 = - 84 kJ mol-1


MgSO4.7H2O(s) MgSO4(aq) + 7H2O(l) ∆H3 = +16 kJ mol-1

(i) Explain why the enthalpy change, ∆H1, is difficult to measure directly.

Answer
Due to the difficulty in measuring exactly seven moles of water. (1 mark)
OR
Difficulty in measuring temperature in the solid state. (1 mark)
1 or 0

(ii) Why was the experiment carried out in a Styrofoam calorimeter?

Answer

To control any heat loss to the surrounding environment. (1 mark)


OR
To control any heat gain from the surrounding environment. (1 mark)
OR
It is a good insulator of heat. (1 mark) 1 or 0

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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(iii) List a significant source of error in this experiment.

Answer

Heat losses during the reaction/ Heat loss due to slow experiment. (1 mark)
OR
Impurities in the starting material. (1mark)
OR
Inaccurate measurement of temperature. (1 mark) 1 or 0

Additional Notes

Errors in experiments should always be seriously analysed. Once the same experiment is repeated,
extra precaution should be taken in those areas where the error has resulted. This will ensure that the
results obtained would be more accurate than the previously obtained results.

(iv) Calculate the heat change, ∆H1, involved in this reaction.

Answer

MgSO4 (s) → MgSO4 (aq) ∆H2 = - 84 kJ mol-1


MgSO4 (aq) + 7H2O(l) → MgSO4.7H2O (s) ∆H3 = - 16 kJ mol-1(1 mark)
Overall: MgSO4 (s) + 7H2O (l) → MgSO4 .7H2O (s)

∆H1 = ∆H2 + ∆H3


= -84 + -16
= -100 kJ mol-1 (1 mark) 2, 1 or 0
(-½ mark for correct working)

Note: For related experiments on Coffee Cup Calorimeter, see:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-B0bCmdxlb
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCa87swOs50

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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QUESTION 6

(a) An experiment was setup to prepare the sample of 2-chloro-2-methylpropane by


reacting 2-methylpropan-2-ol and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Anhydrous
sodium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate were used during the preparation of
2-chloro-2-methylpropane.

(i) What is the purpose of adding anhydrous sodium sulphate and sodium
bicarbonate?

Answer
Anhydrous sodium sulphate – To remove water from the sample. (1 mark)
OR
To act as a drying agent. (1 mark) 1 or 0
Sodium bicarbonate - to neutralise any traces of acid left in the reaction.
1 or 0
Note: For an interesting experiment on preparation of 2-chloro-2-methylpropane,
see:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0XvMrPfPZE
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0oSqPDD2rMA

(ii) Write an equation for the preparation of 2-chloro-2-methylpropane.

Answer

(CH3)3COH(l) + HCl(l) → (CH3)3CCl(l) + H2O(l)


(Accept correct structural formula; -½ mark if equation not balanced) 1, ½ or 0

(b) Draw the structure of cis and trans isomer of 1,2-dichloroethene.

Answer
Cis isomer Trans isomer

Additional Notes

Cis- similar atoms/groups on one side of the double bond.


Trans- similar atoms/groups on different side of the double bond.

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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QUESTION 7

(a) In an experiment, a student found that the pH of a 0.15 mol L-1 acetic acid
solution is 4.55.

Calculate the dissociation constant, Ka, of acetic acid.

Answer

Note: For interesting animations on


dissociation of acetic acid and HCl, see:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HlGITf-rhCE
https://www.youtube.com/watch

Additional Notes
In this calculation it is assumed that dissociation is so small that the initial concentration of acetic
acid (0.15molL-1) remains unchanged. For students to perform correct calculation, the expression
for dissociation constant(Ka) should be correctly written .

(b) During the standardisation of potassium permanganate solution, what would be


the effect of the following on the concentration of the potassium permanganate
solution.

(i) The burette was wet prior to the introduction of the potassium
permanganate solution.

Answer

The calculated concentration of KMnO4 will be less than


the actual value. (1 mark) 1 or 0

Additional Notes
A film of water inside the burette will dilute the solution since moles remains the same while
volume of sample will increase. For this reason a burette is first rinsed with water and then with the
solution it contains(KMnO4).

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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(ii) Distilled water was added into the conical flask during the titration.

Answer

It will not have any effect on the concentration of KMnO4. (1 mark) 1 or 0

Additional Notes
The concentration remains unchanged because water does not have an effect on the moles of
KMnO4 present inside the conical flask.

(iii) The 20 mL pipette was delivering 20.3 mL of the aliquot.

Answer

It will not have any effect on the concentration of KMnO4. (1 mark) 1 or 0


Additional Notes
The concentration remains the same since there is no change in the moles of KMnO4.

QUESTION 8

(a) Consider the standard electrode potentials given below.

Cu2+/Cu E° = +0.34 V
Zn2+/Zn E° = ‒0.76 V

(i) Draw a labeled galvanic cell using the information above. Clearly show
the anode, cathode, the solutions and the direction of the electron flow.

Note: For a similar experiment on galvanic cell, see:


https://www.youtube.com/watch

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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Answer

Answer

Labeled anode and cathode (1 mark)


Labeled Solutions (Cu2+ and Zn2+ accepted as well) (1 mark)
Electron flow (1 mark) 3, 2½, 2, 1½, 1, ½ or 0

Additional Notes

 To label anode and cathode – anode is negatively charged and cathode is positively
charged.

 To label electrodes and solutions – anode is where oxidation occurs and the species
with lower SRP value (Zn2+/Zn), will get oxidized. So Zn will form the anode and it will
be dipped in a solution with Zn2+ ion (ZnSO4). Cathode is where reduction occurs and the
species with higher SRP value (Cu/Cu2+), will get reduced. So Cu will form the cathode
and it will be dipped in a solution with Cu2+ ion (CuSO4).

 Flow of electrons – the direction of flow of electrons is from a anode to cathode. The
oxidation half-cell is richer in electrons due the release of electrons during oxidation.
These electrons travel to the reduction half-cell where it is going to be used in reduction.

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


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(ii) Write down the cell notation for the above galvanic cell.

Answer
Zn(s) |ZnSO4(aq)||CuSO4(aq)|Cu(s)
(½ mark) (½ mark)
OR
Zn(s) |Zn2+(aq)||Cu2+(aq)|Cu(s)
(½ mark) (½ mark) 1, ½ or 0
Additional Notes
 A cell notation is a simple representation of an electrochemical cell.
 The pair on LHS of the notation represents the oxidation half and the pair on the RHS of
the notation represents the reduction half.
 Double slash (//) represents the salt bridge and single slash (/) indicates change in state.

(ii) Deduce the oxidising agent and the reducing agent for this galvanic cell.

Answer
Oxidising agent – Cu2+ (½ mark)
Reducing agent – Zn (½ mark) 1, ½ or 0

Additional Notes

 Oxidising agent – a substance that causes oxidation to take place but itself gets reduced.
 Reducing agent – a substance that causes reduction to take place but itself gets oxidised.
 Oxidation – gain of oxygen / loss of electrons / increase in oxidation number.
 Reduction – loss of oxygen / gain of electrons / decrease in oxidation number.

Zn(s) |Zn2+(aq)||Cu2+(aq)|Cu(s)

Zn(s) → Zn2+(aq) + 2e- [ Oxidation number increase from 0 to 2+ : Oxidation]

Reducing agent

Cu2+(aq) + 2e- → Cu(s) [ Oxidation number decreases from 2+ to 0 : Reduction]

Oxidising agent

THE END

© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY13CE 2015: CHEMISTRY.