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Design Conditions

CHE 141
Course Objectives

 Identify the design pressure, design

temperature and design capacity of an
equipment or vessels.
Design Pressure and Temperature

In setting the design pressure and temperature of

equipment and vessels, always consider the transient
conditions that may happen in the process unit (e.g.
loss of reflux, abnormal heat input in the reboiler,
exothermic reactions, pressure surges, etc.).

As a guideline, the following can be considered in

setting the internal design pressure and temperature.
Design Pressure

Operating Pressure Design Pressure

0 – 25 psig 50 psig
25 – 250 psig Operating + 25 psig
250 – 1000 psig Operating + 10%
Over 1000 psig Operating + 5%

If the vessel can be under vacuum, the minimum

pressure must also be specified.
Design Pressure

How do you know if vacuum is possible?

• Specify vacuum or partial vacuum if fluid in vessel will

have less than 14.7 psia (1.0 kg/cm2) vapor pressure
if cooled to ambient temperature.
• Assume flow and heat input stops
• As vessel cools, overhead pressure control valve
closes, and vacuum can be created.
Who is responsible for this?
Design Temperature

Guidelines for design temperatures up to 650 °F

(345 ºC)

• Allowable stresses for ASME vessels are constant.

The usual practice is to add a 50 °F (28 ºC) margin to
the design temperature set by planned operations.
However, this margin can be reduced if the
temperature can be predicted with confidence, or
increased if significant uncertainty exists.
Design Temperature

Guidelines for design temperatures 650 °F to 800 °F

(345 ºC to 425 ºC)

• Allowable stresses for carbon steel (CS) decrease

with temperature. Add a minimum margin to cover
uncertainty in temperature prediction for the design
temperature set by planned operations.
Design Temperature

Guidelines for design temperatures above 800 °F

(425 ºC)

These temperatures usually require alloy construction

or internal insulation (refractory lining) for CS vessels.
Keep in mind:
– For alloy vessels, add a minimum margin to correct
for uncertainties in planned operating temperature.
– For internally insulated vessels, design metal
temperature is usually set at 650 °F (345 ºC) for fluid
temperatures above 650 °F (345 ºC).
Refractory Lined Vessel
Design Pressure and Temperature

Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)

 Consider the minimum ambient temperature,
operating upsets, etc.

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP)

 Highest pressure that an equipment can be
subjected to.
 Dependent on actual thickness of metal installed.
 Equal or greater than the design pressure.

Minimum Design Pressure

 Consider vacuum condition during startup (e.g.
steaming out) and operating upsets.
Design Flow Rate (Capacity)

Rated Capacity or Design Capacity

 Typically equal to 110% of Normal Flow Rate or per
general design basis of a project.
 Normal Capacity x Safety Factor

Normal Capacity
Usually equal to the Material Balance (e.g. Process
Simulation Data) flow rate.
 Different operating modes should be considered (e.g.
SOR – Start of Run, EOR – End of Run, etc.)

Turndown Capacity
 Minimum capacity or flow rate at which a vessel or
equipment will be designed to.
 Typically equal to 50% of the Normal Capacity.
Design Flow Rate (Capacity)

What are the advantages of designing an

equipment above 110% of Normal Capacity?
Below 50% of Normal Capacity?

What are the disadvantages of designing an

equipment above 110% of Normal Capacity?
Below 50% of Normal Capacity?
Process Simulation

Aspen Hysys  generation of physical and chemical properties,

equilibrium condition, simulate chemical reactions, unit operations, etc.
Process Simulation