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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL

History of Computer Numerical Control


Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) can be considering as a direct
outcome of the development in the field of numerical control (N/C) of machine tools. No one
would expect that Massachusetts Institute of Technology,USA who has demonstration the first
N/C milling machine in 1952. The new technology had finally made a revolutioin in the
manufacturing industries.

In 1955 US introduce N/C system based on hardware, but system were built
with separate elements and the reliability of these machine was bad. Later in 1970's N/C machine
were built around LSI chips and MSI chips, during 1965 N/C manufacturing industries step
forward constructed systems with mini-computer, which was named as Computer Numerical
Control(CNC). The present day systems are designed around microprocessors to meet the
requirements of high productivity, flexibility and high reliability to produce components with
high quantity and quality at minimum manufacturing cost.

CNC Systems
1. Hardware: CNC hardware includes the microprocessors that effect control system functions
and peripheral devices for data communication, machine tool, transducers, actuators, etc.
2. Software:CNC Software includes the programs that are executed by the system
microprocessors this make machine to function and coordinate.

International CNC Machine Tool Manufacturers

Japan, Italy, U.K, West Germany, Spain, U.S.A, Korea, Taiwan, India, etc

CNC Machine Tool Manufacturers in India

The first CNC Machine tool was developed in India as early as in 1975. CNC
Machine tools become popular only during 1980 - 1985. Indian Machine Tool manufacturers'
Technical collabration from countries like Japan, West Germany, U.K and U.S.A. There are now
35 manufacturers engaged in the production of CNC Machines.
CNC CONTROL SYSTEM

There are large number of CNC Control systems are available. They are FANUC,
SIEMENS, L - PRO, SINUMERIC-HINUMERIC, BOSCH etc.,
But commonly FANUC control systems are mostly used in CNC machines in the world.

FANUC O.T Series - For CNC Turning centre (CNC Lathes)


FANUC O.M Series - For CNC Machining centre (CNC Milling)

Types of CNC Machine


1. Machining Centre
a) Horizontal Spindle Machine
b) Vertical Spindle Machine
c) Universal
2. Turning Centre
a) Vertical Spindle Machine
b) Horizontal Spindle Machine
3. Drilling and Milling Machine
4.Grinding Machine
a) Surface Grinding
b) Cylindrical Grinding
c) Tool and Cutter Grinders
d) Profile Grinders
5. Electrical Discharge Machine(EDM)
a) Ram type
b) Orbital EDM
c) Wire EDM
6. Punching Nibbling and Forming Machine
7. Gear Hobbing
8. Boring Machine
9. Welding Machine
10. Co-ordinate Measuring Machine etc.,
Advantages over conventional machines
1. Complicated part shape is machined easily in CNC machines. (Like aircraft parts)
2. Design changes are frequent in CNC Machines.
3. Close tolerance to be maintained in CNC machines.
4. Number of operation to be done further in CNC machines.
5. Expense materials where error in processing would be costly are machines in CNC Machines.
6. Parts need substantial inspection is machined in CNC machines.
7. High quality and accuracy.
Automatically positioning the slides of the machine tool through servo motors fitted with
electronic amplifier and measuring the position of the slides by precision optical/Electronic -
feed back devices which can ensure slide positioning to micrometer accuracy.
8. Increasing the metal removal rate.
Which is realized by increased spindle speeds, feeds and built - in power and rigidity of the
machine tool structure.
9. Reducing the time.
By number of tools available on the machines and the use of an Automatic tool changer (ATC)
which waits for the tool required for the next operation.
10. MInimizing the down time of the machine by improving the reliability of the control system.
11. Minimizing the time requiered for changing over parts to the machined through the use of
Multiple work tables (pallets) and automatic pallet changers
12. Semi skilled operators are sufficient.
13. At a time a single operator operates more than one machine.

Disadvantages
* Cost of machine is high
* Not suitable for small batch production
* Maintenance cost is high

Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)


Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) completely computer integrated factories
with very little direct human supervision which begining to dominate the manufacturing scene
today are some of the developments in factory automation related to CNC

CNC LATHE MACHINES

CNC Lathe machines are the major machine tools used for the production of rotating
parts.They are available with multiple tooling,flexible automation equipment and rotary
tooling.The operations such as milling,drilling,tapping and other operations can be performed
with the same set up.

Types of CNC Lathe Machines


1.Horizontal CNC Lathe machines.
2.Vertical CNC Lathe machines.
Classification of CNC Horizontal lathe machines
1.Chucking machines
2.Shaft machines
3.Universal machines

1.Chucking machines
Chucking machines have usually have shorter beds and a single saddle with a single drum
type turret which accomodates both I.D and O.D. tools.

2.Shaft machines
Shaft machines are usually for between centre works.they have hydraulic (or) pneumatic
tail stock for the work piece.

3.Universal machines
Universal machines are suitable for both chucking and for bar work,4 (or) 5 axis
machines.Some machines have rotating tools in the turrets to facilitate off-axis machining such
as drilling,milling,reaming,tapping,boring etc.these machines have in addition to the
conventional X and Z axis.CNC control of the spindle rotation i.e. C-axis.Such machines are
known as CNC turning centres.

Vertical CNC Lathe machines


Vertical CNC lathe machines are widely used for machining heavy components.

CONSTRUCTION FEATURES OF CNC LATHE MACHINES

Head stock:Incorporated spindle in the head stock is rotated with a spindle motor.Gripped work
piece with the chuck is also rotated with to be machined.
Tail stock: It is used to support the work piece.the tail stock centre is usually mounted on
precision bearing to obtain good running accuracy and enough stiffness.The tailstock design can
either be hydraulic or electro mechanical.
Turret: Tools are fixed to the turret.Lathes are fitted with 8,12 or 16 stationary turrets.the
indexing can be done through hydraulic or electric operation.The cost of a turret post is
high.Both O.D. and I.D tools are fitted on the turret.Also tools are mounted on the cross slide.
Cross slide: Movement of 'X' axis.
Longitudinal slide: Movement of 'Z' axis.
Chip conveyor: It is used to remove the scraps(chips)

Data input Keys

Date Keys : Include all Address characters A to Z and numbers 0 to 9


Reset : It is used to reset program in edit mode.
Alter : It is used for alter a word.
Insert : It is used for insert a word.
Delete : It is used for delete a word (or) a whole program.
EOB : End of Block - It is used at the end of each block in the program.
CAN : Cancel - It is used for cancel a word.
Input : It is used for input a word.
Output start : It is used to get the output from inputted word.
Menu offset : This menu is used for Wear offset,geometrical offset and Work shift purpose.
PRGR(Program) : It is used for displaying the program in control panel screen.
POS(Position) : It is used for display the tool position,number of work pieces
machined,cycle time and run time.
DGNOS : It is used for Machine parameter settings.
(Diagnostic Parameter)
Operator Alarm: It is used for search the alarm message.
Auxiliary graph: It is used for displaying the graph for the tool movement in automatic
operation.
Index : It is used to rotate the tool manually.

Emergency stop:
When push this key the machine is 'off' suddenly.Then release the Emergency stop push
button for further operations of machine.

Feed override control switch:


It is used for the feed rate.Normally for automatic continuous operation,this switch will
be set to 100%

Spindle override control switch:


It is used for control the spindle speed rate.Normally for automatic continuous
operation,this switch will be set to 100%

Rapid override control switch:


It is used for control the rapid traverse rate of the machine.Normally for automatic
continuous operation this switch will be set to 100%

Operation Mode Select Switches


Edit Mode : To edit programs stored in CNC memory.
Auto Mode : It is used to operate machine with a program already inputted in memory.
MDI Mode : Manual Data Input is used for positioning (or) M.S.T function commands.
Tape Mode : It is used to operate the machine through external devices such as a paper type,a
floppy drive unit (or) D.N.C operation.
Jog Mode : It is used to feed axes manually.
Handle Mode : It is used for handle operations by enabling the hand wheel on the control panel.
Zero Return : It is used for manual reference point return.
Function selected switches
Single block: It is used to execute a program block by block.

Dry run: it is used to activate JOG feed rate instead of a programmed feed rate.

Block skip: It is used to turn on/off the block skip key, used for selective operation

Regarding blocks having a slash code ‘/’.

Optional stop: It is used to stop the program execution at a block containing M01, when

Optional stop key is ON, on the control panel.

Machine lock: when this key is ON, in automatic operation, the program is run, the spindle is
rotating and the tool is also indexing. But the tools do not move.(No feed movement of tool)

Cycle start: when we press this key in auto mode the machine run automatically as per already
inputted program.

Feed hold: when we press this key in automatic operation, the tool feed is locked.

(Tool not moves).Press cycle start switch for further movement of tool.

Note: The panel above is for milling machine, lathe is also similar too. But some additional keys
can be added and removed.

AXES CONTROL AND DIRECTION IN CNC LATHE MACHINES:


ALPHABET CHARQAACTER USE TO CONTROL THE FUNCTIONS OF A MACHINE TOOL IS
CALLED ADDRESS:

ADDRESS FUNCTION &MEANING


O Program Number
N Sequence Number
G Preparatory Function
Selection of traveling mode(Linear,
Circular,etc.)
X,Z Primary Axis Travel Command
U,W Secondary Axis Travel Command
R Arc Radius
I,K Arc Center Travel Command
R Arc Radius
I,K Arc Center Coordinate
F Specifyng Federate
S Specifying Spindle Rotation Speed
T Specifying Tool Number
M Miscellaneous Function
ON/Off Control for machine function
P(or)X Specifying Dwell Time
P Specifying Sub-Program Number
L Specifying Number of repeats in Sub-Program(or)
in canned cycle
P,Q,R Parameter for Canned Cycle

PROGRAM NUMBER

Program Number is use for Identifying the program. It must be always on the top of the
program. It is denoted by the Address ‘O’

O____ four Digit Numbers Followed by address ‘O’

Example: O0001 to O09999(Any Number Can be used frokm 00001 to 9999) but total number
of program can be stored is limited depends upon FANUC Series.

SEQUENCE NUMBER

Sequence Number is using for Identify the program Sequence, this is added to top block
for easy access. It is denoted by the address ‘N”

N_ _ _ _ Four Digit Numbers Followed by Address ‘N’


Example : N0001 to N9999 (Any Number can be used from 00001 to 9999)

O0012;

N1 ______ ;

N2 ______ ;

N3 ______ ;

N4 ______ ;

N5 ______ ;

N6 ______ ;

N7 M30;
PROGRAMMING TERMS
ADDRESS

The alphabetical characters are called address.

G01 X50.0 Z10.0 F0.1;

DATA

Numerical Characters are called Data( it also include sign and the decimal point)

G00 X50.0 Z-5.0 F0.1;

WORD

Word includes Address and Data(it also include sign and the decimal point)

G00 X60.0 Z5.0;

BLOCK OR LINE

The block is composed of the number of words.

G01 X70.50 Z-2.0 F0.15;

If a block is said to be meaningful, their must be some type of operation to be performed.

G00; is not a meaningful block because G)0 is only selection of traveling mode( linear, circular)

M08; is a meaningful block because M08 is a code used to on the coolant.


; - EOB means End of the Block which must be always used at the end of the each block.

PROGRAMMING

What is a program?

A Program is required to operate NC machine tools. Programming is the creation of


a series of command statements. All Operations of the machine including “spindle rotation”,
“Tool movement” can be controlled by a program.

What is the ISO Language?


The ISO Language is a standardized (ISO – International Standardization
Organization) programming language used to control computerized machine tools. The
technology is called CNC. The ISO language is a way of describing the movements required by
the tool to create the desired work piece. The ISO language is to translate a drawing into
movements.

Outline of Programming

A Conventional machine tool is operated by the operator. With CNC machine tools,
the operating commands are given in the form of NC data. Programming is the process of coding
machining conditions such as cutting dimensions, processing orders, cutter movements or axes
feed rate all under fixed regulation which refers to the work piece drawing to instruct NC
machine tool. The following shows a typical job flow for NC machine tools

Manual Programming

Manual programming is direct programming method of manual planning and manual


calculations by programmers.

Automatic Programming

For complicated work pieces, such as three dimensional shapes, programming by


manual procedure may be too difficult and an automatic programming system aided by computer
is required. In this case, the NC data is automatically generated, without any manual calculation,
by inputting work piece drawings in to computer.
PART PROGRAM

A set of commands given to the NC for machine motion is called a program. A


program is composed of number of Blocks. Part program is use to specify the machining process
for the cutting tools.

Example

O1203;

N1;

G28 U0.0 W0.0;

G50 S1200 T0300;

_______________;

_______________;

_______________;

M01;

N2;

G28 U0.0 W0.0;

G50 S1200 T0200;

_______________;

_______________;

_______________;

_______________;

M01;

M30;
DECIMAL POINT INPUT

Decimal point is used to input the units like Distance, Time, and Angle.

X25.0 is use for input the distance value. X25.0 equal to 25mm or 25 inch.

G04 X1.0 is used for input the dwell time value. X0.1 is equal to one second.

A45 is used for input the angle value.A90 is equal to 45˙.

The following are the same meaning, in the case of decimal point.

X20.

X20.0

X20.00

X20.000

If the Decimal point is eliminated. The system read in microns.

X 50 =0.05mm

X500 =0.5mm

X5000=5.0mm

Decimal point can be inputted for the following addresses.

X,Z,U,A,B,C,I,J,K,R,Q,F.

NOTE:
1 Micron = 0.001mm.

G-CODES (Preparatory Function) As per FANUC-O.T Series


G-Code includes an address 'G' and numerical letter
G-code is the common name for the most commonly used numerical control (NC)
programming language, which has many implementations.
This general sense of the term, referring to the language overall (using the mass sense of "code"),
is imprecise, because it comes metonymically from the literal sense of the term, referring to one
letter address among many in the language (G address, for preparatory commands)
and to the specific codes (count sense) that can be formed with it (for example, G00, G01, G28).
In fact, every letter of the English alphabet is used somewhere in the language,
although some letters' use is less common.
Nevertheless, the general sense of the term is indelibly established as the common name
of the language.
The first implementation of numerical control was developed at the MIT
Servomechanisms Laboratory in the early 1950s.
In the decades since, many implementations have been developed by many (commercial and
noncommercial) organizations. G-code has often been used in these implementations.
The main standardized version used in the United States was settled by the Electronic Industries
Alliance in the early 1960s.[citation needed] A final revision was approved in February 1980 as
RS274D. In Europe, the standard DIN 66025 / ISO 6983 is often used instead.
Extensions and variations have been added independently by control manufacturers and machine
tool manufacturers, and operators of a specific controller must be aware of differences of each
manufacturer's product.
One standardized version of G-code, known as BCL, is used only on very few machines.
Some CNC machine manufacturers attempted to overcome compatibility difficulties by
standardizing on machine tool controllers built by Fanuc. This semistandardization can be
compared to other instances of market dominance, such as with IBM, Intel, or Microsoft.
Pros and cons exist, and a wide variety of alternatives are available.Some CNC machines use
"conversational" programming,which is a wizard-like programming mode that either hides G-
code or completely bypasses the use of G-code. Some popular examples are Southwestern
Industries' ProtoTRAK, Mazak's Mazatrol, Hurco's Ultimax and Mori Seiki's CAPS
conversational software.
G-code began as a limited type of language that lacked constructs such as loops,
conditional operators, and programmer-declared variables with natural-word-including names (or
the expressions in which to use them).
It was thus unable to encode logic; it was essentially just a way to "connect the dots"
where many of the dots' locations were figured out longhand by the programmer.
The latest implementations of G-code include such constructs, creating a language somewhat
closer to a high-level programming language. The more a programmer can tell the machine what
end result is desired, and leave the intermediate calculations to the machine,the more s/he uses
the machine's computational power to full advantage.
NURBS also uses codes consisting of the letter G plus a number (e.g., G0, G1, G2, G3)
in systems that are used to design flowing surfaces (3D contours).
The NURBS has its origins from the ship building industry and is described by using a
knot and a weight as for bending steamed wooden planks and beams.

Code Application
G00 positioning (rapid traverse) (M,T)
G01 linear interpolation (feed) (M,T)
G02 circular Interpolation CW (M,T)
G03 circular Interpolation CCW (M,T)
G04 dwell, a programmed time delay (M,T)
G05 unassigned
G06 parabolic interpretation (M,T)
G07 cylindrical diameter values (T)
G08 programmed acceleration (M,T)
G09 exact stop check (M,T)
G13 computing line and circle intersect (M,T)
G17 XY plane selection (M,T)
G18 ZX plane selection (M,T)
G19 YZ plane selection (M,T)
G20 input in inch
G21 input in mm
G22-G23 machine axis off limit area (M,T)
G24 single-pass rough facing cycle (T)
G28 return to reference point (M,T)
G29 return from reference point (M,T)
G30 return to alternate home position (M,T)
G33 thread cutting, constant lead (T)
G34 thread cutting, increasing lead (T)
G35 thread cutting, decreasing lead (T)
G36 automatic accel. and deccel. (M,T)
G37 used for tool gaging (M,T)
G38 measure dia. and center of hole (M)
G40 cutter compensation cancel (M)
G41 cutter compensation left (M)
G42 cutter compensation right (M)
G43 cutter offset, inside corner (M,T)
G44 cutter offset, outside corner (M,T)
G45 tool offset decrease
G46 tool offset double increase
G47 tool offset double decrease
G48 scaling off
G49 tool length compensation cancel
G50 tool offset increase
G52 offset axis w/ respect to 0 point (M,T)
G53 motion in machine coordinates (M,T)
G54 work coordinate system 1 select
G55 work coordinate system 2 select
G56 work coordinate system 3 select
G57 work coordinate system 4 select
G58 work coordinate system 5 select
G59 work coordinate system 6 select
G60 single direction positioning
G61 exact stop check mode (M,T)
G62 reduce feed rate on inside corner (M,T)
G64 cutting mode (M,T)
G65 custom parametric macro (M,T)
G66 custom macro for motion blocks (M,T)
G67 stops custom macro (M,T)
G68 coordinate syslaim rotation ON (M)
G69 coordinate syslaim rotation OFF (M)
G70 inch programming (M,T)
G71 metric programming (M,T)
G72 circular interpolation CW (M)
G72 finished cut along z-axis (T)
G73 peck drilling cycle (T)
G74 counter tapping cycle (M)
G74 rough facing cycle (T)
G74 cancel circular interpolation (M,T)
G75 circular interpolation (M,T)
G76 fine boring
G80 canned cycle cancel
G81 drilling cycle, no dwell (M,T)
G82 drilling cycle, dwell (M,T)
G83 deep hole, peck drilling cycle (M,T)
G84 right hand tapping cycle (M,T)
G85 boring, no dwell, feed out (M,T)
G86 boring, spindle stop, rapid out (M,T)
G87 boring, manual retraction (M,T)
G88 boring, spindle stop, manual ret. (M,T)
G89 boring, dwell and feed out (M,T)
G90 absolute dimension input (M,T)
G91 incremental dimension input (M,T)
G92 set absolute zero point (M,T)
G93 inverse time feed rate (M,T)
G94 per minute feed (M,T)
G95 per revolution feed (M,T)
G96 constant surface speed control (T)
G97 stop constant surface speed control (T)
G98 return to initial point in canned cycle
G99 return to R point in canned cycle
M- CODES (Miscellaneous Function)
M-code includes anaddress 'M' and Numerical letter. M-Code is also known as Machine
code. It is related to auxillary
or switching information such as Spindle on/off, coolant on/off and other machine functions. It is
not related to movement
of the machine.

M00
M01 Program Stop
Optional Stop
M02 End of Program - Stop
M03
M04
M05 Spindle On CW
Spindle On CCW
Spindle Stop
M06 Tool Change
M07
M08
M09 Coolant On - Mist
Coolant On - Flood
Coolant Off
M13
M14
M15 Spindle On CW - With Coolant
Spindle On CCW - With Coolant
Spindle Stop - With Coolant
M19
M20 Spindle Orientation On
Spindle Orientation Off
M21
M22
M23
M24 Table Rotate CW / Tool Magazine Right
Table Rotate CCW / Tool Magazine Left
C-Axis Enable / Tool Magazine Up
C-Axis Disable / Tool Magazine Down
M25
M26 Tailstock Engaged / Tool Clamp
Tailstock Retracted / Tool Unclamp
M27
M28 Clutch Neutral On
Clutch Neutral Off
M30 End of Program - Stop and Rewind
M98
M99 Call Subprogram
End Subprogram

Letter addresses
Some letter addresses are used only in milling or only in turning; most are used in both.
Bold below are the letters seen most frequently throughout a program.
Variable Description
A Absolute or incremental position of A axis (rotational axis around X axis)
B Absolute or incremental position of B axis (rotational axis around Y axis)
C Absolute or incremental position of C axis (rotational axis around Z axis)
D Defines diameter or radial offset used for cutter compensation
E Precision feedrate for threading on lathes
F Defines feed rate
G Address for preparatory commands
H Defines tool length offset
I Defines arc size in X axis for G02 or G03 arc commands.
J Defines arc size in Y axis for G02 or G03 arc commands.
K Defines arc size in Z axis for G02 or G03 arc commands.
L Fixed cycle loop count;
Specification of what register to edit using G10
M Miscellaneous function Action code, auxiliary command; descriptions vary.
N Line (block) number in program;
System parameter number to be changed using G10
O Program name
P Serves as parameter address for various G and M codes
Q Peck increment in canned cycles
R Defines size of arc radius or defines retract height in canned cycles
S Defines speed, either spindle speed or surface speed depending on mode
T Tool selection
U Incremental axis parallel to X axis (typically only lathe group A controls)
V Incremental axis parallel to Y axis
W Incremental axis parallel to Z axis (typically only lathe group A controls)
X Absolute or incremental position of X axis. Also defines dwell time on some
machines (instead of "P" or "U").
Y Absolute or incremental position of Y axis
Z Absolute or incremental position of Z axis

Supported G&M code examples

1.Example
G0 X-1.780 Y-1.025 Z0.1

Description
Moves the tool to location (-1.78,-1.025,0.1) at the move speed specified in Setup|CNC defaults.
The Z axis will be moved first.
2.Example
G1 X0.939
X0.948 Y0.333

Description
Moves the tool along the X axis to location (0.939) at the feed speed specified in Setup|CNC
defaults. Then moves the tool to location (0.948, 0.333).

3.Example
G1 X0.948 Y0.333 F2.5

Description
Moves the tool to location (0.948,0.333) at speed 2.5. Any subsequent G1 commands or
coordinates will continue to use speed of 2.5 until you set it to some other value or you cancel
the F command. To cancel the F command, use F0. This will reset the feed speed to the value in
the Setup|CNC Defaults form. If you specify a speed higher than the MaxSpeed value specified
in the Setup|Motor Parameters form, the MaxSpeed value will be used instead.

4.Example
G2 X-1.535 Y0.469 I0.500 J0.000

Description
Move in a clockwise arc from the current position to location (-1.535, 0.469) using a center point
located 0.5 units in the X direction from the current position.

5.Example
G3 X-1.535 Y0.469 I-0.500 J0.000

Description
Move in a counter-clockwise arc from the current position to location (-1.535, 0.469) using a
center point located 0.5 units in the negative X direction from the current position.

6.Example
G4 P2000

Description
Pause the tool for 2 seconds (2000 milliseconds) before continuing.

7.Example
G27

Description
Rapid return home. Move directly to location (0, 0, 0) at the move speed specified in Setup|GNC
Defaults.
8.Example
G28 X0.5 Y-.2 Z.1

Description
Rapid return home via point. Move directly to location (0.5, -0.2, 0.1) at the default move speed,
then move directly home to location (0, 0, 0).

9.Example
G50 X0.5 Y-.2 Z.1

Description
Redefine the tools current location to be (0.5, -0.2, 0.1).

10.Example
G81
D .125
M1
X-0.470 Y0.597 Z-0.030 L0.01
G80

Description
Start Drill cycle with G81. D parameter specifies drill bit radius (not diameter) of 0.125.
Pause program with M1 command giving you time to load a drill bit. Manually adjust the tool
depth so that the tip of the new drill bit is at the same depth as the one removed. When you are
ready, click the Continue button. The tool moves up to Zsafe defined in Setup|GNC Defaults
form. Then it moves to location (-0.47, 0.597) at the default move speed. Then it moves down
to 0.01 at the default move speed. Then it moves down to the Z depth of –0.030 at the default
feed speed. If you leave out the L coordinate, it will travel at the feed speed from Zsafe to the Z
depth. Subseqent X,Y coordinates will drill new holes at the new coordinates. The tool will lift
up before moving to the next hole. Finally, drill cycle is cancelled with G80.

11.Example
G83
D .125
M1
X-0.470 Y0.597 Z-1 L0.01 Q.3
G80

Description
Start Peck Drill cycle with G83. D parameter specifies drill bit radius (not diameter) of
0.125. Pause program with M1 command giving you time to load a drill bit. Manually adjust
the tool depth so that the tip of the new drill bit is at the same depth as the one removed. When
you are ready, click the Continue button.
1) The tool moves up to Zsafe defined in Setup|GNC Defaults form.
2) Moves to location (-0.47, 0.597) at the default move speed.
3) Moves down to 0.01 at the move speed. If L parameter not defined, it will use Zsafe.
4) Moves down another 0.3 units at the default feed speed If Q parameter not defined, it will use
2 times the drill bit diameter.
5) Moves back up to 0.01 at move speed.
6) Moves down to within one radius of previous depth at move speed
7) Moves down another 0.3 units at feed speed
8) Repeats steps 5-7 until Z depth of –1.0 has been reached
9) Moves up to 0.01 at move speed
10) Subseqent X,Y coordinates will peck drill new holes at the new coordinates. The tool will
lift up to Zsafe before moving to the next hole.
11) Finally, drill cycle is cancelled with G80.

12.Example
G98

Description
Move Z axis to depth set in L code at the default move speed defined in Setup|GNC defaults
form.

13.Example
G99

Description
Move Z axis to depth set in R code at the default move speed defined in Setup|GNC defaults
form.

14.Example
M0

Description
Stop program

15.Example
M30

Description
Reset program back to the top and start running again from there

TOOL FUNCTION :-

Address T:

A four digit number address T specifies the tool number and tool offset number.

Format:
T (Tool Number) (Offset Number)

Example: T 01 01

Tool Number
The leftmost two digits specify the number of tool.

Offset Number
The rightmost two digits specify the number of tool offset.

Types of offsets:
There are two types of offsets:
1. Wear offset.
2. Geometrical offset.
1. Wear offset:
The tool is moved adding the wear offset amount to part program.
Input the offset amount to the same number as the number on offset screen (Wear).

2. Tool Geometry Offset:


The distance from top of the tool fixed on turret at machine zero point to the work
piece zero point is input as tool geometry offset with this the CNC recognises the position
of work piece zero point. Input the offset amount to the same number as the number on offset
screen (Geometry).

Procedure for setting Work co-ordinate system.

Step 1. Make sure that the component is securely clamped.


Step 2. Now bring one of the tool near the face of the job.
Step 3. i. Select MDI mode.
ii. Press PROGRAM button.
Step 4. Enter S500.
Step 5. Select handle/job mode and Select the appropriate feed.
Step 6. Route the spindle in CW or CCW depending on the type of the tool.
Step 7. Light facing out be taken up to the center.
step 8. After the finishing cut, move the tool back in x only. Do not disturb Z-axis.
step 9. Now switch off the spindle.
step 10. Press MENU offset PB. The wear geometrical and work shift are displayed on CRT.
step 11. Now, press GEOM soft key and position the cursor using cursor movement buttons to be
required offset number corresponding to the tool used.
step 12. Press M key and press Z. Enter zero(M20).
step 13. Now rotate the spindle in appropriate direction and machine on OD.
step 14. Do not move X.
step 15. Take Z away from the job.
step 16. Stop the spindle.
step 17. Press MENU OFFSET PB.
step 18. Press GEOM soft key.
step 19. Position the cursor to the required tool offset number.
step 20. Press M...X...
step 21. Input the OD dimension measure. The X offset for the said tool is set.
step 22. Repeat the procedure for all the tools.
step 23. After taking offsets, select MDI and issue S0.