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UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

Fundamentals of
ABB Switzerland AG Excitation Systems
Learning Center
Power Electronics Chapter 2
Turgi, Switzerland
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 1 -

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 1


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2. Fundamentals of Excitation Systems

Content:
„ What is an Excitation System?
„ Synchronous Machine Operation Modes and
Characteristics
„ Basic components of the excitation system
„ Closed loop control and features
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© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 2


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2.1 What is an Excitation System


North

The rotor of a synchronous


Rotor
machine is an
electromagnet.
Current The effect of the rotating
flux on the stator windings
produces an induced
voltage.
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South

The principle of voltage generation


The production of voltage in the synchronous machine is based on the
induction low. This means if the flux changes in the stator winding of
the synchronous machine there will be a voltage induced.
L1

U Rotor
L2

Stator winding
Stator
L3
Rotor winding

The flux is produced by the current supplied from the excitation system
to the rotor winding. The change of flux in the stator winding is caused
by the movement of the rotor. This induces the voltage in the stator
winding as illustrated in the figure below:

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 3


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2.1 What is an Excitation System

Excitation
System Voltage
Regulation Voltage

Current
Control
Power Rotor Current
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Supply Production

In any excitation system, several components can be identified. Depending


on the age and type of the system, the equipment may vary greatly, however
the basic components can still be classified.

Rotor Current Production


The rotor of the machine must be supplied with a current. For example this
could be by:
A large power electronic converter (direct), or a small current supply feeding
an excitation machine, which in turn produces the large rotor current. (indirect
system).

Power Supply
The excitation system needs a power supply in order to produce a current.
There are many different configurations.
Shunt Supply – The supply is taken from the machine terminals.
Line Supply – The supply is taken from an auxiliary supply.
Permanent Magnet Generator – A small permanent magnet generator is
mounted on the same shaft as the main machine.

Current Control
No matter how the current is produced, there must be some method of
controlling how much current is produced. In the case of a state of the art
control system the rotor current is controlled by semi conductive rectifiers.

Voltage Regulation
Voltage regulation is done in the control system by the Automatic Voltage
Regulator (AVR). The voltage regulator various the rotor current automatically
in order to maintain the terminal voltage of the synchronous machine even in
case of load change.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 4


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2.1 What is an Excitation System


CONTROL ROOM

STEP UP
LV SWITCHGEAR
TRANSFORMER

AC & DC
HV SYSTEM HV- BREAKER AUXILIARY
SYSTEMS

CONTROL
AUX. SYSTEMS
TRANSF. PROTECTION

GOVERNOR
1
GENERATOR
1 BREAKER

PT’s
&
CT’s
SYNCHRONIZING
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SYNCHRONOUS EXCITATION
TURBINE GENERATOR SYSTEM

STAR
POINT EXCITATION
CUBICLE TRANSFORMER

The Excitation System in the Power Plant

The picture above shows the connections to the excitation system in a power
plant. The excitation system is usually located close to the synchronous
machine.
The main power supply for the production of the rotor current is taken from the
generator terminals and fed via the excitation transformer to the excitation
system.
The output of the excitation system supplies the direct current via slip rings to
the rotor winding.
The terminal voltage and machine current is measured by means of Potential
transformers PT’s and current transformer CT’s. These signals are used to
control the generator voltage and reactive power.
The excitation system is operated by the operators in the control room via the
control interface as illustrated .

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 5


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine

Chain of energy conversion

Primary Mechanical Electrical Consumer


Energy Energy Energy

Turbine Generator

Field Generator
Current Voltage
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Excitation
System

The excitation system in the chain of energy conversion

The primary energy in the form of water, fossil fuels, wind etc. is transformed
by the turbine into mechanical energy. This energy is then transformed with
the aid of the generator into electrical energy, which is then fed to the
consumers.
The generators used today are mostly so-called synchronous machines
which, in addition to converting mechanical energy into electrical energy, also
allow the network voltage to be generated and regulated.
The influencing of the generator voltage and the resulting reactive power flow
to the network is achieved through the magnetisation, or excitation as it is also
called, of the synchronous machine. For this purpose, a direct current is fed
into the so-called exciter winding in order to generate a magnetic field. For this
reason, this current is also referred to as the field current. The exciter winding
is embedded in the rotating part of the synchronous machine, the rotor.
Thus, in order to increase the generator voltage, the magnetisation or the
excitation current must be increased. In order to regulate the generator
voltage, a voltage regulator is therefore used which forms part of the
excitation system.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 6


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine

Controlled Object Disturbance


I Ug
f Synchronous
Network
Machine

Excitation
System
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The closed loop regulating circuit

The closed loop regulating circuit of the synchronous machine can be


represented for the electrical variables as shown in the figure. The output
voltage UG of the synchronous machine is picked up by the voltage regulator
of the excitation system and compared with the setpoint. The output of the
excitation system in the form of the excitation current If is the input to the
synchronous machine, which closes the regulating circuit.
For a synchronous machine coupled to an electrical network, the network
simply acts as a disturbance value. Disturbances in the network such as the
shutting down of large consumers or short circuits influence the generator
voltage in an undesirable way. It is the function of the excitation system to
balance out these undesirable changes immediately and to operate the
machine stably on the network.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 7


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine

The solid pole synchronous machine


Stator
Rotor
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High speed application for speed range > 1500 rpm

The synchronous machine

The synchronous machine essentially consists of two parts: the rotating part,
the rotor, and the static part, the stator.
In order to cover the wide range of rotational speeds of possible turbines, two
different types of synchronous machine are available.

The solid pole machine (Turbogenerators)


In thermal turbines, rotational speeds >1500 rpm are usually required. In this
case, so-called solid pole machines, as shown in the diagram, are used. The
full pole machine is also referred to as a turbogenerator.

The salient pole machine


In river-driven power stations, Kaplan turbines are usually used which have
low rotational speeds of < 1500 rpm . In these cases, so-called salient pole
machines are used, as shown in the following diagram. In contrast to the full
pole machine, in these machines the diameter of the rotor is very large and
the length short.

The full pole and salient pole machines basically function in the same way.
They only differ, in some cases, in their behaviour under load.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 8


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine

The salient pole synchronous machine

Stator
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Rotor

Slow speed application for speed range < 1500 rpm

The figure shows a typical salient pole machine with an output of 120 MVA

A distinctive feature is the very large diameter of the rotor, which can exceed
20 m in very large machines.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 9


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine


Synchronous machine triphase representation
IR
UR
Stator

IDR

120° 120°
UT
If Uf

IT
IDT Rotor

120°
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IDS

IS

US

3-phase representation of the synchronous machine

The diagram shows the synchronous machine with the three phases. Each
phase is displaced physically by 120° and, viewed in terms of electrical
values, essentially consists of two reactances, the main reactance and the
secondary reactance formed by the damper winding. Both reactances are
associated with ohmic resistances, which are not of importance in considering
the excitation system.
A further reactance is found in the rotor winding with the associated winding
resistance.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 10


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine


d-q axes representation D axis
ra

Id
Ψd Ud

Stator rdD

Ψ dD
IdD
δ
ω

rf Ψf
Ψq Q axis
Uf If Ψ Q1 Ψ Q2

IQ1

IQ2
rQ1 rQ2
ra

Rotor Iq
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Uq

D-Q axis representation of the synchronous machine

The D-Q axis representation is used to explain the behaviour of the


synchronous machine. The 3-phase system can be transformed into a “single-
phase” representation by means of a mathematical operation. The
mathematical operation will not be discussed here.
In order to explain the behaviour of the synchronous machine, the two
resulting axes, the quadrature axis (Q-axis) and the direct axis (D-axis), are
given different impedances and reactances, together with the associated
resistances, which are given the corresponding index q or d. These
impedance values can be found in the detailed data sheets provided by the
manufacturer of the synchronous machine.

The meaning of the individual reactances will not be examined here. Rather,
we will carry out a substitution of the different reactances in order to explain
the behaviour of the synchronous machine.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 11


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine


The simplified equivalent circuit for the synchronous machine

q-axis Synchronous Reactance

If Xfσ Xaσ Xd,q

ω Xm
d-axis
Rotor Stator
Uf
UG EP EP
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Rotor Stator
Fig. a Fig. b Fig. c

The equivalent circuit diagram for the synchronous machine

In order to explain the behaviour of the synchronous machine in stationary


operation, we simplify the complex structure of the synchronous machine.
Taking into consideration the q-axis and d-axis, one can represent the
synchronous machine as bipolar, see Fig.a. The rotor with the field winding is
fed from the excitation system. The excitation current generates a magnetic
field which induces a voltage in the stator winding through the rotation of the
rotor, according to the induction principle. This voltage can be measured at
the output terminals of the generator when the machine is in no-load
operation.
This physical interpretation of the way the synchronous machine functions can
be represented as the equivalent circuit diagram Fig. b) with the main
reactance Xm and the control reactances Xfσ and Xaσ as shown in the
diagram. The voltage source Ep stands for the voltage induced in the stator
windings which is determined by the excitation current and the rotational
speed of the machine. Ep is also referred to as EMF (electromotive force) or
air gap voltage . The structure of this equivalent circuit diagram is also used
for transformers. In fact, the synchronous machine acts like a transformer with
an air gap.
The reactances shown in Fig. b) can be further condensed and transferred to
the very simple equivalent circuit diagram Fig. c). This equivalent circuit
diagram is sufficient to describe the stationary behaviour of the synchronous
machine. Essentially, it simply consists of the “internal“ voltage source and an
“internal resistance“ which essentially appears in the form of a reactance, the
so-called synchronous reactance Xd or Xq. The synchronous reactance has a
great influence on the electrical behaviour of the machine. The value in the
direct axis Xd and in the quadrature axis Xq are almost equally in solid pole
machines. In salient pole machines, is Xd > Xq.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 12


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine


What values can you find on the name plate of your synchronous machine?

Physical values of your machine Absolute Unit Per unit


Value value
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Link to data sheet of real SM

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 13


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine

Generator no load characteristic

Xd Ug
Saturation

UGn
If ,n
Generator
Ep nominal voltage
UG
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No load field current


I fo If
Speed n = constant

The operating behaviour of the synchronous machine

Generator no load characteristics


Starting out from the simple equivalent circuit diagram, the generator terminal
voltage in no-load operation is essentially determined by the excitation current
If and the rotational speed n. In considering excitation, one can assume that
the machine rotates at nominal speed. This means the induced voltage Ep is
only determined by the excitation current.
The relationship between excitation current and generator voltage can be
seen from the graphic. If one starts to slowly increase the excitation current,
the generator voltage increases in proportion with the excitation current. An
important point here is the excitation current required in order to reach the
generator nominal voltage. This current is called the no-load field current Ifo
and is one of the important characteristic values of the synchronous machine.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 14


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine


Generator short circuit characteristic
Ig
Xd

UGn IG
If ,n
Generator
Ep UG = 0 current at Ifo

Ep = UGn

No load field current


I fo If
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Speed n = constant
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Example:
For If = Ifo ⇒ Xd = IGn/IG IG at (If = Ifo) Measurement at If = Ifo: IGn/IG = 2.43
⇒ Xd = 2.43 pu

Generator short circuit characteristics


For the short circuit test the machine terminals must be short circuited. Be
aware that the machine current can go up the its nominal value. While the
machine is running at rated speed the field current will be slowly increased. At
the same time the machine current must be read in order to gain the short
circuit characteristic of the synchronous machine. The ratio between IG(If
=Ifo)/IGn determines the synchronous reactance Xd of the machine, where Ifo is
the no load field current and IG the measured machine current at no load field
current.

IG
Xd =
I Gn

Where: Xd Sychronous reactance direct axis


IG Machine current at no load field current
IGn Machine rated current

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 15


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2.2 The Synchronous Machine

Generator on load

Xd IG
ΔU = Xd Ig ϕ
ΔU = IG • Xd
UG = const.

E Ug
Load
p ~I
Ep f
Ep ϕ
IG

δ
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Load angle

Fig. a
Fig. b

Generator on load

If a load is applied to the machine which has been excited in no-load


operation, the output voltage Ug drops, because the load current, via the
synchronous reactance, results in a voltage drop ΔU. This voltage drop is
considerable at machine nominal current. In order to ensure that the generator
voltage is also kept stable under load, the voltage drop must be compensated
by increasing the excitation current. This compensation takes place
automatically if voltage regulators are used. The generator voltage is thereby
kept stable through adjustment of the excitation current. This is one of the
fundamental functions of the excitation system
In order to find the excitation current required for a specific load point, a vector
diagram (Fig. b) can be drawn for the simple equivalent circuit diagram. Here,
the generator voltage UG is left constant and the voltage drop ΔU is drawn in.
For a purely ohmic load, this voltage drop ΔU is perpendicular to the load
current IG and is applied to the generator voltage. The resulting voltage of the
two vectors UG and ΔU in turn represent the induced voltage Ep, which is
proportional to the excitation current.
This means that a relationship has been found between the excitation current
and the generator load current. If one imagines the machine current IG to be
reduced to 0, then Ep and UG match. The length of the Ep vector is known to
be a measure for the excitation current, which for IG = 0 corresponds to the no
load field current, which is determine from the no-load characteristic. In this
way, the necessary excitation can be determine for any load point. The broken
lines show the vector diagram for inductive load. According to this, the
excitation must be increased in order to compensate the voltage drop.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 16


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2.3 Operation of the Synchronous Machine


The power chart of the synchronous machine

Active
P
Power 1 pu

1 Turbine Power

P(Ep)~If S

Generator
Operation
ϕ

δ
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-1 +1
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-Q 1 + Q Reactive
xd power
under Motor over
excited excited

The Power Chart of the synchronous machine


The vector diagram for the synchronous machine was shown with voltage and current
vectors. In practice, power vectors tend to be used in order to assess the operating
behaviour of the synchronous machine. For this purpose, we can draw the power diagram
with the two power axes: the active power axis and the reactive power axis. The nominal
apparent power (1 pu) of the synchronous machine thereby appears as a circle. The active
or reactive power can thereby assume both positive and negative values. Negative active
power means, for example, motor operation.
The power vector diagram is obtained from the voltage vector diagram as follows:
- All values are expressed in so-called Per Unit (pu) values. For example, the
generator nominal voltage is 1 pu, the generator nominal power is 1pu etc.
- To obtain the power values from the voltage values, one multiplies the voltage
vectors by the value UG/Xd according to Ohm‘s law. This gives us the power vectors.
For example, the vector ΔU = IG • Xd becomes the power vector S = IG • Ug . The
power vector S thus corresponds to the apparent power of the synchronous machine.
One can proceed analogously with the other voltage vectors.
The power vectors can be entered in the so-called power diagram with the active power axis
and the reactive power axis as shown in the figure above. If the synchronous reactance is
expressed in per units, the 1/Xd point is the starting point for the air gap power P(Ep), which
for UG=1pu is still proportional to the field current If.
The operating point (1) represented in the above diagram only lies in the active power axis,
i.e. only active power is output. If the synchronous machine is coupled to the electrical
network and the excitation current is increased, reactive power is output into the network in
addition to the active power. In this case, the machine operates within the overexcited range.
Another important variable is the so-called load angle. This angle also actually occurs as a
mechanical angle between the magnetic rotary field generated by the stator windings and
the magnetic field generated by the rotor winding. As soon as the machine takes up active
power, this angle increases. If active power is present, this angle is also influenced by the
excitation current. If, for example, the machine is de-excited, the load angle becomes
greater. The question arises here as to how great this angle may become for the machine to
still rotate synchronously with the rotary field of the stator.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 17


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2.3 Operation of the Synchronous Machine

The synchronizing torque

ωmech
FDrive ωmech
ωmech
ωel r ωel ωel

Fsyn
δ=0o δ=45 o δ=90 o
Fig. a) Fig. b) Fig. c)
Some equations: ω
P = T• ω
T = F• r "rubber band"
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P Active power
T Torque
F Force
r Rotor radius T95_0154.DRW

ω Speed Fig. d)

The synchronizing torque

The load angle is the mechanical angle between the magnetic rotary field
generated by the stator windings and the magnetic field generated by the rotor
winding.
When the machine is synchronised to the network and not under load, the
load angle δ=0° (see Fig a). As soon as the machine takes up active power,
this angle increases. If active power is present, this angle is also influenced
by the excitation current. If, for example, the machine is de-excited, the load
angle becomes greater. The question arises here as to how great this angle
may become under active load for the machine to still rotate synchronously
with the rotary field of the stator.
If one considers the torques acting within the machine, this is easy to
understand. As shown in Fig. b) in generator operation, a drive torque or force
Fdrive is generated through the drive power of the turbine which drives the
rotor. In order to prevent the rotor from accelerating, a countertorque, the so-
called synchronising torque or counterforce Fsyn is necessary. This force is
generated by the magnetic fluxes, which in turn are influenced by the
excitation.
One can imagine this magnetic force as acting like a rubber band, always
causing the rotor to rotate stable in synchronism with the rotary field. (Fig. d).
If the load angle becomes greater through an increase in the power, the
driving force also becomes greater and the rubber band is stretched further.
The maximum synchronising torque which can be generated by the forces in
the “rubber band“, is at a load angle of 90°. (Fig. c).

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 18


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2.3 Operation of the Synchronous Machine

The torque characteristic of the generator

The torque equation


Stability
Md limit
E p ⋅U G
M d = E p ⋅ I G ⋅ sin δ = ⋅ sin δ
Μ d2 ~ If2 Xd

Md1 ~ If1
Drive torque
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δ2 δ1 δ

The torque characteristic of the synchronous machine

The diagram shows the curve of the synchronising torque as a function of the
load angle.
The maximum torque is achieved at a load angle of 90°, whereby the
excitation current determines the value of the maximum. The greater the
excitation current, the greater the magnetic flux and thus the synchronising
force Fsyn in the machine.
At a particular active power and excitation current, a particular load angle δ2
results. If the excitation current is reduced with the active power of the
machine remaining the same, the load angle increases to the value δ1.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 19


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2.3 Operation of the Synchronous Machine


The safe operating area of the synchronous machine

Stability Limit
Active
P
Power 1 pu
Rated Power
Drive Limit

safe operating ~Ifn


Field Current
Sn
area Limiter
Generator
Operation

δmax= 90° ϕ
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+1
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-1
-Q 1 + Q Reactive
xd power
under Motor over
excited excited

The safe operating area of the synchronous machine

If the machine is operated at the nominal operating point, an excitation current


is present which we call the nominal excitation current Ifn. The rotor windings
and the power units of the excitation system are designed for this current,
because it must be possible to operate permanently at this point. In order to
prevent the rotor or the excitation from being overloaded, an excitation current
limiter is used which is implemented in the excitation system. The result of this
is that the operating range is limited within the overexcited range.
In the active power axis, the operating range is limited by the maximum
turbine ouput, which usually lies between 80% and 90% of the output of the
synchronous machine.
Within the underexcited range, the operating range is limited by the machine
current or by the stability limit of the synchronous machine.
The theoretical stability limit is reached at a load angle of δ=90°. This means
that the safe operating range of the synchronous machine is determined by
the turbine and the two limiters in the overexcited and underexcited range.
Why the stability limit is reached at a load angle of 90° will be explained in
greater detail in the following.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 20


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2.3 Operation of the Synchronous Machine


The power chart of the synchronous machine with limiters

Under excitation,
excitation, P/Q Limiter P [MW]

Stator Current Limiter


Field Current Limiter

Minimum Field Current Limiter


Save operating area
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-Q 1/Xq 1/Xd

The Power Chart of the synchronous machine with


Limiters

The diagram shows the limitations of the operating ranges implemented in the
excitation system using the example of a salient pole machine with Xd > Xq.
It should be mentioned that the circle lying between 1/Xd and 1/Xq also exists
with a solid pole machine, but is very small since in such a machine Xd ≈ Xq.
In salient pole machines, Xd is usually significantly smaller than in solid pole
machines and a wider operating range can therefore be used within the
underexcited range.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 21


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2.3 Operation of the Synchronous Machine

The V-curves of the


synchronous machine
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UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

The V-Curves of the Synchronous Machine

The diagram shows the so-called V-Curves of a 280 MVA turbo generator.
This is an other representation of the synchronous machine under load
conditions.
It shows the required field current versus machine current with the power
factor.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 22


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2.4 The Network

The Network

2
1
External reactance Infinite bus voltage

Tie Xe

3 UNet
Regional grid
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Substation

Power station
T95_01 57.D RW

The electrical network

The electrical network is often of a very complex nature, and the question
arises as to how the network can be evaluated by an observer at the power
station.
In order to evaluate the network characteristics for stationary operation, it is
again appropriate to find an equivalent circuit diagram. Since the network is
usually supplied from different sources or other power stations, the equivalent
circuit diagram consists of a voltage source and a network impedance
connected in series, analogously to the synchronous machine.
The voltage source Unet represents the total of all generators participating in
the network, which possesses an enormously high short-circuit power. This in
turn means that the network voltage can be assumed to be completely fixed.
The voltage source is also assigned the network reactance Xe, also called the
external reactance. This represents the reactances from transmission lines
and consumers present within the network. The ohmic resistances are not
relevant in terms of the excitation system.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 23


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2.4 The Network

Substitution diagram of the network with the generator

Transformer reactance External reactance


XT Network Xe
voltage Infinite bus voltage
G

RL UNet
Consumer
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UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Substitution diagram of the network with the generator

If one represents the generator and the network in the form of a simplified
equivalent circuit diagram, then the generator is followed by the short-circuit
reactance XT of the high-voltage transformer. The consumers which consume
the active power both from the generator and from the network are located on
the high-voltage side. The external reactance Xe represents the reactances
which are present in the transmission lines. In contrast to the transformer
reactance, this can change over time. These reactances increase during the
night and on Sundays, when energy consumption is low.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 24


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2.4 The Network

Calculation of reactive power

UG = 1.05 pu UN = 1.0 pu

XTr= 0.1 pu Xe= 0.2 pu


G
IQ
Reactive Power
RL UNet
Consumers
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IQ = ?.............
Q = ?............

Example of reactive power flow

This example is intended to show the variables on which the reactive power
flow is dependent. For this purpose, we assume that the network voltage is
1.pu, the external reactances, as a typical value, 0.2 pu and the transformer
reactance 0.1 pu, with the generator voltage being 1.05 pu. All pu values
relate to the nominal power of the generator G.
The resulting reactive power which is output to or drawn from the network is
calculated using these values.

IQ = (UG – UN) / (XT + Xe) = (1.05 – 1) / (0.1 + 0.2) = 0.05 / 0.3 = 0.17 pu

Q = UG • IQ = 1.05 • 0.16 = 0.17 pu

For a 100 MVA machine, this means a reactive power output of 17 Mvar. If the
generator voltage UG < UN then reactive power is taken up.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 25


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.5 Reactive Power Distribution


Generator operates to the common busbar
Grid
Common Busbar

IQ

Uref1 Uref2
AVR AVR

Generator 1 Generator 2

U
Uref1
Busbar voltage
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 26 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Uref2

IQ IQ

Generator 2 Generator 1 Q, IQ

Reactive power distribution with two generators on the


same bus bar

There are arrangements in which two generators are coupled directly to a bus
bar.
If the voltages of the generators are regulated by two different voltage
regulators, then the voltage regulators must be given a reactive current
influence. This influence is also referred to as the “droop“ characteristic or
static of the voltage regulator.
If this were not the case, then in the event of marginal deviations between the
two voltage regulator setpoints, an uncontrolled reactive power flow would
flow from the generator with the higher voltage to the generator with the lower
voltage.
To prevent this, the reactive current influence on the voltage regulator with the
higher voltage must act in such a way that the machine voltage is reduced or
that of the generator with the lower voltage increased.
The example above shows the effect of the so-called reactive current
influences on the two voltage regulators. The voltage of generator 1 is too
high, which leads to a rise in the reactive current. As a result of the reactive
current influence, the voltage decreases with increasing reactive current. In
contrast to generator 1, the voltage in generator 2 increases with increasing
negative reactive current. The two generator voltages match and a particular
reactive current is maintained. This means the regulating circuit remains
stable and the reactive current can be kept under control.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 26


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.5 Reactive Power Distribution


Generator connected to the step up transformer Grid (HV)

ΔU

UG

AVR Uref

Generator 1

U
UG
ΔU
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 27 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Uref

Q, IQ

Reactive power distribution if the generator is connected


to the grid system

If the generator is connected to the electrical network via a transformer, then


the reactive power flow is inherently stable due to the transformer reactance.
The voltage regulator need not display a “droop“ characteristic or negative
static, since the transformer reactance absorbs any voltage difference
between the network voltage and the generator terminal voltage and limits the
reactive current.
The significant voltage drop ΔU=XT•IQ through the transformer reactance has
a disturbing effect if the generator voltage is supposed to support the network
voltage in the event of network disturbances. In such arrangements, the
reactive power influence on the voltage regulators is therefore used in such a
way that the voltage is partially compensated and thus displays a positive
droop.
With positive droop, also referred to as compensation, the generator voltage is
increased with increasing reactive current into the network. This behaviour
provides the generator with a network-voltage-supporting function in the event
of network disturbances.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 27


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.5 Reactive Power Distribution

Static behavior of AVR (Reactive power influence to AVR)

UG
pos. static
neg. static
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 28 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

-Q +Q

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 28


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.6 Transient behaviour of the synchronous machine

Transient behavior of the synchronous machine


Ug

If = konst. S
ΔU”=Xd”•IQ
ΔU = Ig *Xd

XE
Ug Ugo

Td’’ Td’
t
Tdo’
t=0
Td’’ Sub transient time constant 10…50ms
Td’ Transient time constant 0.5…1.5 s
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 29 -

Tdo’ Time constant


UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Behavior of Generator voltage in case of reactive power surge


with constant field current

Transient behavior of the synchronous machine

So far, we have only examined the stationary behaviour of the synchronous


machine. In the following, we wish to examine the transient behaviour of the
synchronous machine in connection with simple switching procedures and
network disturbances.

The diagram shows the behaviour of the generator terminal voltage when the
generator, in no-load operation, is connected to an inductive load.
At the time t=0, the voltage drops, with the time constant Td“, to a value
determined by the subtransient reactance Xd“ and reactive current IQ. After the
elapse of the time constant Td“, the time constant Td‘ with the transient
reactance Xd‘ becomes effective, then changing into the stationary condition
caused by the synchronous reactance.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 29


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.6 Transient behaviour of the synchronous machine


Faults and surges for the generator

High voltage line


Generator
Xd’ 1, 2)
5) 3) S XT XE1 XE2 infinite bus
G

Load 4) ~ UNet
1) Reactive power surge

2) Active power surge


AVR
3) Load rejection

4) Long distance short circuit


Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 30 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

5) Short circuit at generator terminal

Faults and surges for the generator

In terms of control engineering all changes coming from outside are called
disturbances. There is a wide scale of growing influence up to the severe
disturbances of normal operation due to faults and surges such as:

1) Reactive power surge

2) Active power surge

3) Load rejection

4) Long distance short circuit

5) Short circuit at generator terminals

The following slides show the behaviour of the machine due to the faults
above.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 30


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.6 Transient behaviour of the synchronous machine

Behavior of generator voltage in case of reactive power surge

Ug
static excitation systems
with rotating exciter

ΔU = Ig *Xd

Manual mode

Ugo
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 31 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

t
t=0

Behavior of the generator voltage in case of reactive


power surge

The behaviour of the generator voltage depends greatly on the type of


excitation.

The diagram shows the voltage curve for three cases:


• The voltage for a static excitation system in which the excitation current is
fed directly into the rotor winding via slip rings. In this system, the voltage
recovers again after a few 100ms.
• The voltage for an indirect excitation system with exciter machines. The
field of the exciter machine delays reactions to changes from the voltage
regulator and more time is required in order to bring the voltage back to its
original value.
• The voltage for unregulated operation, i.e. with constant excitation current,
as is the case in Manual mode.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 31


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.6 Transient behaviour of the synchronous machine

PE

Active power surge

Consumer
ω
PA with power oscillations
U

PA = ω· M A I · XD
E · sin δ
PE = U · I = U ·
XD
U
E
Torque Equation
δ
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 32 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

MA - M E = Θ dω
dt
θ Inertia
ω speed

Active power surge

If the load on the synchronous machine is changed through connection of an


additional load, then the electrical active power changes suddenly. However,
the mechanical drive power initially remains unchanged, due to its system
inertia, until the drive system has adjusted itself to the changed power
demand.
Neglecting the power losses of the machine, the difference between the
mechanical and electrical power results in an acceleration of the rotor, as can
be seen from the torque equation. As a result of the acceleration, the load
angle changes until the new stable operating point is attained. During this
procedure, oscillations in the active power occur, as can be seen in the
diagram of a simulation.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 32


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.6 Transient behaviour of the synchronous machine

Generator voltage in case of reactive load rejection


Ug

Overvoltage relay
with constant field current
with AVR (static excitation system)

Uo
IQ x Xd "

t
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 33 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

t=0 1 Sec.

Load rejection

By opening of the main circuit breaker of the machine the load will be dropped
off immediately. The early invention of the automatic voltage regulator is
certainly caused by the consequences of this event. It is also an important
quality mark for a voltage regulator how the generator voltage varies with the
time after the breaker has opened. The drop of the reactive load current to
zero inevitably causes an immediate voltage rise ΔU=Ireactive • Xd”. If for
instance the subtransient reactance Xd’’=0.2 p.u. the rejection of 0.5 p.u.
reactive current gives an instantaneous rise of 10%. If the load on the
synchronous machine is changed through connection of an additional load,
then the electrical active power changes suddenly, which can not be reduced
by any control action.
Without AVR the voltage then rises further till the maximum value is reached
defined by the synchronous reactance. The time delay corresponds to the no
–load time constant Tdo’. With an AVR this further rise is more or less
completely eliminated and the voltage is brought back to the initial value. How
quickly this is achieved depends on whether or not the additional time
constant of an exciter machine has to be overcome. Without a voltage
regulator the over voltage relay of the generator protection would be activated
and deexcite the generator.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 33


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.6 Transient behaviour of the synchronous machine

Generator voltage in case of long distance short circuit

UG with voltage regulator


UO

with constant field current


Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 34 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

t
t=0 1 sec

Long distance short circuit

In case of a short circuit in the grid system away from the power plant the
voltage will drop immediately. The voltage regulator tries to keep the machine
voltage on its setpoint. After a certain time the fault in the grid will be cleared
by the line protection and the system voltage will recover. This leads to an
overshoot of the machine voltage. The voltage regulator will reduce the
voltage to normal again.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 34


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.7 Definition of Excitation Systems


Duties of the Excitation System
¾ Maintain the generator terminal voltage

¾ Operate the synchronous machine within its operating limits

¾ Prevent the synchronous machine from being in asynchronous


mode

¾ Fast response in case of network disturbances

¾ Share reactive power with other synchronous machines


connected in parallel
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 35 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

¾ Stabilize power oscillations

¾ High reliability

Duties of the Excitation System

The diagram shows all the important main duties of the excitation system, as
they have been explained in the preceding diagrams.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 35


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.7 Definition of Excitation Systems


Glossary and Definitions (IEEE STD. 421.2)
Ifo No load field or excitation current
Required field current to achieve 100% generator terminal voltage at rated speed
Ifn Nominal field or excitation current
Required field current to operate the synchronous machine at rated power
Icl Ceiling field current
Maximum field current that excitation system is able to supply from its terminals for a
specific time
Ufo No load field voltage
Required field voltage to obtain the no load field current considering the field resistance
Ufn Nominal field voltage
Required field voltage to obtain the rated field current considering the field resistance
Ufcl Ceiling field voltage
Required field voltage to obtain the ceiling field current
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 36 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

KPl Excitation Ceiling factor


Ceiling field voltage divided by no load field voltage Ufcl/Ufo
δ Load angle
Physical angle between rotor field and stator field

Glossary and Definitions

The diagrams show the most important abbreviations and definitions of


physical values in connection with excitation, as defined in the IEEE STD.
421.2 standards.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 36


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

2.7 Definition of Excitation Systems


Glossary and Definitions cont…
ϕ Phase angle
Electrical angle between machine voltage and machine current
cosϕ Power factor
Ratio of machine’s active power to apparent power
Xd Machine synchronous reactance in direct axe
Xq Machine synchronous reactance in quadrature axe
Rs System nominal response
The rate of increase of the excitation system output voltage divided by the nominal field
voltage
Tv Excitation system voltage response time
The time in second for the excitation voltage to attain 95% of the difference between ceiling
field voltage and nominal field voltage
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 37 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 37


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.1 Excitation System: Supply Modes


Excitation Systems „State of the Art“

~
=

SM E
SM =
~
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 38 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

1 to 200 A 100 to 10000 A

Rotating Exciter Static Excitation System


Brushless Excitation System

"State of the art" excitation systems

Generally speaking, two basic configurations of excitation systems are used


nowadays.

Indirect excitation system (brushless excitation system)


This excitation system basically consists of a voltage regulator with power
unit, the alternating current machine and the rotary diodes for converting the
alternating current generated by the exciter machine into the direct current
required by the main machine.
The voltage regulator output therefore first controls the field current of the
exciter machine. In this machine, the field winding is in the stator. The 3-
phase alternating current windings in which an AC voltage is induced through
the rotation of the rotor lie on the rotor. This AC voltage is converted by means
of the diodes which are rotating on the shaft. The direct current is fed, without
slip rings, directly into the exciter winding of the main machine. No brushes
are therefore necessary, for which reason this type of excitation system is
called “brushless excitation”.

Direct excitation system (static excitation system)


The static excitation system essentially consists of the voltage regulator, the
power unit, a switch and the brushes with slip rings. The power supply to the
excitation system is usually taken directly from the generator terminals and
transformed in the power unit by means of thyristors into a direct current which
is fed via a switch and slip rings to the rotor winding of the main machine.
These systems are distinguished by very fast regulating performance.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 38


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.1 Excitation System: Supply Modes

Comparison: Indirect - Static Excitation System

Brushless excitation Static Excitation System

• Just positive ceiling voltage • Positive and negative ceiling voltage


capability capabilities

• Exciter response limited by the • Fast response (<20 ms) in both directions
exciter machine time constant
(>200ms) • Fast field discharge by discharge resistor
or inverter operation
• Field discharge with natural time
constant • Size of excitation of transformer depends
on field requirements only
• Supply from PMG possible
providing supporting of short • Shorter shaft (torsional oscillations)
circuit currents
• Maintenance on power rectifier the
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 39 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

• Relative large size of exciter machine must not be at standstill


machine for low speed generators
• Direct measurements of field quantities
• No sliprings (less maintenance Uf, If possible
and dust)

Comparison

The diagram shows a comparison of the most important advantages and


disadvantages of both systems.
It cannot be said straight away which is the “better” system. The most suitable
system has to be determined from case to case.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 39


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.1 Excitation System: Supply Modes

Main types of rotating exciters

~ ~ ~
= = =

SM = SM ~ SM ~
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 40 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

DC Exciter AC Exciter with AC Exciter with rotating


stationary diodes diodes
“Brushless”

Other types of rotating exciters

The diagram shows other types of excitation systems which were used in the
past but which are no longer in use nowadays. These systems have mostly
been replaced with brushless or static excitation systems.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 40


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.1 Excitation System: Supply Modes


Main supply modes

SM
MS

Supply taken from machine terminals ( shunt supply )

+ -
SM
MS SM
MS
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 41 -

- +
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Vectors Compounding System


Series Compounding System

Main supply modes

We make a distinction between several supply modes:

Shunt supply from the machine terminals


The supply for the excitation system is taken directly from the terminals of the
synchronous machine. This is used above all in static excitation systems and
machines which are not operated in island network operation.

Shunt supply with compounding


In the event of network disturbance, the network voltage can drop so that,
where shunt supply is used, the supply to the excitation system suffers and
thus can no longer cover the excitation requirement. This is especially
undesirable in the case of island network operation. So-called compounding is
therefore used. With compounding, the machine current is transformed into a
voltage, thus supporting the excitation and covering the necessary excitation
requirement.
Two types of compounding are thereby used:
- series compounding
- vector compounding
In series compounding, the transformed voltage is rectified by means of an
additional rectifier and fed to the excitation system in series with the exciter
voltage.
In vector compounding, the transformed AC voltage is fed as AC voltage to
the excitation transformer voltage and vectorially added, thus covering the
excitation requirement.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 41


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.1 Excitation System: Supply Modes


Main supply modes (cont.)

Auxiliary supply

SM SM
MS
MS

Supplied from a permanent magnet generator (PMG) Supplied from a safe auxiliary supply
or from a pilot exciter
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 42 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Main supply modes (cont)

Supply from Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG)


Permanent Magnet Generators or externally-excited small generators on the
same shaft are also used for indirect exciters. This supply is independent of
the electrical grid and is distinguished by its high level of availability.

Supply from auxiliary network


This supply is not often used, as it is difficult to guarantee a reliable supply. In
many cases, these auxiliary networks are also supported by no-break power
supply systems.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 42


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.1 Excitation System: Supply Modes


Design Example of Static Excitation System
High voltage line

Unit step up transformer

Excitation transformer

AVR

Sn = 210 MVA Sensing PT


Un = 15.75 kV
Cos ϕn = 0.85
fn = 50 Hz
=
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 43 -

Ifn = 1600 A
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

SM
Ufn = 230 V ~
Ifo = 400 A
Xd = 2.1 Power Converter
Synchronous machine
Aux. Supply

The static excitation system

This type of excitation system is often used for hydrogenerators and large
turbogenerators larger than about 50 MVA with exceptions to clients
requirements.
The power for the excitation system is taken from the generator terminals. The
automatic voltage regulator works through a semiconductor output stage,
which is mostly a thyristor converter or an integrated gate bipolar transistor
(IGBT) stage.

The voltage regulator with the power converter and excitation transformer as
well as the field circuit breaker complete the number of the main components
of a static excitation system.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 43


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.2 Excitation System: Basic Configurations


Basic Configurations

Power supply Power supply I

AVR Uc
UG AVR FCR
IG =c
U
AVR Uc
If FCR
FCR

AVR = Autom. Voltage Reg. Power supply II


FCR = Field Current Reg.
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 44 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Single channel (AUTO and MAN mode) Dual AUTO channel


(Each channel with AUTO and MAN mode)
T96_0005.DRW

Channel configurations in excitation systems

If there is only one chain of actions, e.g. the single channel: voltage and field
current control - gate control set - pulse amplifier - fully controlled thyristor
converter, any failure in any one of the chain members will lead to a
disturbance of the total function. We call this a single channel system, which
has no redundancy.

This cheapest solution may be quite sufficient for small machines and if there
are for instance 10 generators in one power station. The number of generating
sets itself forms the redundancy in this case. An additional field current
regulator permits manual control, if the control amplifier of the AVR or the
potential transformer has failed.

But a complete second control chain is necessary, if a stand-by for any kind of
failure in the working channel is needed. Such dual channel equipment is
used rather frequently. There are various design variants and options which
are dealt with in detail in the next pages.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 44


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.2 Excitation System: Basic Configurations


UNITROL AVR Single Channel System with integrated manual facility
for indirect Excitation Systems
Voltage
set point Supply

~ Autom.
mode
= A

= Manual
M

= mode

follow up

Field current
setpoint
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 45 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

SM =

Main functions of a single-channel system

Nowadays, single-channel or dual-channel systems are used. The diagram


shows the most important functions assigned to a channel.
A single channel features

- Automatic mode (AUTO)


- Manual mode (MAN)

In Automatic mode, the voltage regulator with actual value reading and
setpoint formation is active. The output signal controls the power unit, which
can take the form of a converter with thyristors or power transistors (IGBTs).
In this mode, the limiter functions which protect the machine against
excessive loads are also active. In addition to the actual voltage regulator
function, reactive power- or power factor-regulators are also available which
can be switched on and off.
If the actual value of the voltage regulator falls, this is detected and switchover
to manual mode takes place automatically.

In manual mode, the actual value is formed from the measurement of the
excitation current and passed with the setpoint to the excitation current
regulator. The output from this regulator is passed to a switch by means of
which the corresponding mode can be selected. This mode is only used for
test purposes and as an emergency regulator in the event of failure of the
voltage regulator. The limiter functions are not active in this mode.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 45


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.2 Excitation System: Basic Configurations


True-Dual Channel UNITROL AVR with 2 x Automatic & Manual modes
for Indirect Excitation Systems
Voltage
setpoint Channel I
~ Autom.
Mode
= A

Manual M
=
= Mode
Follow-up

Field current
setpoint
Supply
Field current
setpoint

follow-up
=
= Manual
Mode M

=
A
~ Autom.
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 46 -

Mode
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

VOltage Channel II
setpoint

SM =

True dual-channel system

The so-called dual-channel system increases the availability of the excitation


system significantly.
The dual-channel system is equipped with two identical channels. Each
channel includes the regulator functions present in a single-channel system,
as described above.
If a channel fails, the system switches over automatically to the other channel.
Only one channel is in operation at one time (active channel), the other
channel is in standby position (passive channel) and is continually matched to
the active channel so that a smooth switchover is possible at any time.
The operating personnel can select which channel is the active channel.
There is no preference as to whether channel I or channel ll is the active
channel.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 46


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.2 Excitation System: Basic Configurations


Single Channel Excitation System for Static Excitation System

Voltage
Setpoint Supply

~ Autom.
Mode
= A

= Manual
M

= Mode

Follow-up

Field current
setpoint
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 47 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

SM

System variants for static excitation systems with higher


field currents

For higher power outputs it is neither economic nor technically sound to


double the thyristor power stage. A solution with variable ac transformer stays
out of consideration. Instead the converter is built redundant. Details will be
explained later.

For this kind of equipment the electronic control channels can be designed as
a single channel or double channel.

Single channel for static excitation systems


The control signal within the automatic operating mode is supplied by the
voltage control amplifier. Within the manual mode the signal comes from a
closed loop field current control. Both out put signals are forwarded to the
change-over switch to select from Auto to Manual operating mode. The
control signal is fed to the pulse generation which generates the firing pulses
for the thyristor stage.
An automatic follow up functions is balancing the output of the non active
regulator to the active one.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 47


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.2 Excitation System: Basic Configurations


Voltage
True- Dual Channel configuration setpoint
Channel I
for Static Excitation
~ Autom.
Mode
= A Pulse bus
to converter

Manual M
=
Mode
=
follow-up

Field current
setpoint

Field current
setpoint

Follow-up
=
= Manual
Mode M
Pulse bus
= to converter
A
~ Autom.
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 48 -

Mode
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Voltage
Channel II
Setpoint

SM

Double channel configuration for static excitation


systems
For this kind of equipment the electronic control channels are doubled.
Mainly the Dual-Channel Standard system according to figure above is
employed.

Within this configuration each channel provides a automatic voltage regulator


and a field current regulator where by the two channels are identical.
The control signal within the channel I is supplied by the voltage control
amplifier. Within the manual channel the signal comes from a closed loop field
current control. Pulse generation and intermediate pulse amplification are
identical for both channels. The change-over takes place purely electronically
by releasing the pulses of the working channel and blocking those of the
stand-by channel.

Naturally each channel is equipped with its own power pack to generate the
required auxiliary voltages. A final pulse stage corresponds to each thyristor
power stage.

Channel balancing and automatic follow-up ensure smooth change over either
from Auto to Manual mode or from one channel to the other.

For dual channel systems with automatic change-over to the stand-by channel
it is very important to have an almost complete detection of internal failures in
the static excitation.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 48


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.2 Excitation System: Basic Configurations


Power Converter Configurations
Economy Configuration
Supply
Twin Configuration Supply
(Single Channel) (Double Channel)

Gate control Pulse


unit Channel1 amplifiers
Gate control Pulse
unit amplifiers

M
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 49 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

1 converter Gate control Pulse


unit Channel2 amplifiers M

To the field circuit of To the field circuit of


the machine the machine

Power converter configurations


The converter lay-out is defined by the excitation needed for the synchronous
machine and the corresponding redundancy requirements.
The following standardized designs are available:

Simple converter configuration


For systems with a low excitation current demand (i.e. a single thyristor
converter is sufficient) or if there are no redundancy requirements, the
combination of a single channel AVR and integrated pulse amplification with a
single thyristor output stage is fully sufficient as shown in the figure above.

Redundant converter configuration


For excitation systems with large output currents or higher availability
requirements the following two designs are available:

Redundancy concept (1+1): There are two identical converters connected in


parallel of which only one is in operation at a time. By alternatively blocking
and releasing the firing pulses to the corresponding converter switch-over is
effected in case of failure.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 49


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.2 Excitation System: Basic Configurations


TWIN Configuration Supply
(Dual channel system without converter redundancy)

Channel1
Gate control Pulse
unit amplifiers

Channel2
M
Gate control Pulse
unit amplifiers
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 50 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

To the field circuit of


the machine

Converter without redundancy

The size of the converter is at least the rated field current of the synchronous machine.

This means that if there is any failure in the converter, then the excitation system must
generate a trip.

Example Failures may be for example:


Fan failure.
Thyristor Failure.
Electronic PCB Failure (e.g. CIN board).
Converter Over Temperature.
Converter Current Measurement Failure.
Snubber Fuse.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 50


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.2 Excitation System: Basic Configurations


Parallel bridges with Supply
n-1 redundant configuration
Final pulse 1
stages
Channel1 Gate control
unit of
channel I

2
M

Channel2 Gate control


unit of
channel II
3
M

n
Pulse
bus M
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 51 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

M
To the field circuit

Redundant converter configuration

With even higher output currents where the parallel connection of several
thyristors is necessary the reliability of the converter is secured by the
redundancy concept (n-1). This means that one more parallel converter than
necessary is provided.

The two channels work through gate control set and intermediate pulse stage
on a common pulse busbar. The different redundancy concept (1+1) and (n-1)
is chosen because of selectivity reasons of the thyristor fuses. If two
converters would operate in parallel, and if a thyristor looses its blocking
capability, then a short circuit current starts to flow when the next thyristors
are fired. In this case the two new fired thyristors drive a short circuit current
into the defective one. And as a consequence we have a series connection of
two thyristor fuses in parallel with one thyristor fuse (of the defective thyristor).
This arrangement does not assure that the single fuse will blow first.
Therefore the converters must be changed over from one to the other. With
more than 2 converters in parallel this selectivity is assured.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 51


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.2 Excitation System: Basic Configurations


Principle of Operation of the Thyristor Bridge

Snubber circuit
Pulse coupler

Thyristor symbol
in circuit theory. Complete functional
thyristor circuit.

Construction of
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 52 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

thyristor module.

Redundant converter configuration

With even higher output currents where the parallel connection of several
thyristors is necessary the reliability of the converter is secured by the
redundancy concept (n-1). This means that one more parallel converter than
necessary is provided.

The two channels work through gate control set and intermediate pulse stage
on a common pulse busbar. The different redundancy concept (1+1) and (n-1)
is chosen because of selectivity reasons of the thyristor fuses. If two
converters would operate in parallel, and if a thyristor looses its blocking
capability, then a short circuit current starts to flow when the next thyristors
are fired. In this case the two new fired thyristors drive a short circuit current
into the defective one. And as a consequence we have a series connection of
two thyristor fuses in parallel with one thyristor fuse (of the defective thyristor).
This arrangement does not assure that the single fuse will blow first.
Therefore the converters must be changed over from one to the other. With
more than 2 converters in parallel this selectivity is assured.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 52


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

5.1 Basics of Rectifiers


Id

3 phase
1 3 5
rectifier
IV
L1

L2 Ud

L3

4 6 2
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 53 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

1 3 5 1
6 2 4 6

time

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 53


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

5.1 Basics of Rectifiers


Basics of Rectifiers

Alpha=0°

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540

Output
TH1
TH2
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 54 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

TH3
TH4
TH5
TH6
Theta [°]

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 54


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

5.1 Basics of Rectifiers

Alpha=30°

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540

Output
TH1
TH2
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 55 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

TH3
TH4
TH5
TH6
Theta [°]

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 55


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

5.1 Basics of Rectifiers

Alpha=60°

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540

Output
TH1
TH2
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 56 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

TH3
TH4
TH5
TH6
Theta [°]

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 56


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

5.1 Basics of Rectifiers

Alpha=90°

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540

Output
TH1
TH2
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 57 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

TH3
TH4
TH5
TH6
Theta [°]

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 57


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

5.1 Basics of Rectifiers

Alpha=120°

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540

Output
TH1
TH2
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 58 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

TH3
TH4
TH5
TH6
Theta [°]

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 58


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

5.1 Basics of Rectifiers

Alpha=150°

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540

Output
TH1
TH2
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 59 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

TH3
TH4
TH5
TH6
Theta [°]

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 59


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

5.1 Basics of Rectifiers

Alpha=180°

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540

Output
TH1
TH2
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 60 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

TH3
TH4
TH5
TH6
Theta [°]

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 60


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

5.1 Basics of Rectifiers


Udalpha OUTPUT VOLTAGE
...for an inductive load
1.5

rectifier
1
operation
0.5
Ud alpha = Udi0 x cos(alpha)
ALPHA [ ° ] = 1,35 x Uv x cos(alpha)
0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180

-0.5
IAC = 0.817 x IDC
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 61 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

-1
inverter
operation
-1.5

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 61


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.3 Excitation System: Field Flashing


Field flashing feature
Ug
100%
Softstart
Field flashing off U>40%
Field flashing characteristic
Thyristor bridge U>10%
Usyn starts to conduct
t
AVR 5s 10s
Field flashing OFF Field flashing failed
Ug Sequence:
FCB Trip
U>40% Thyristor
bridge
• Order Fieldbreaker CLOSE
Generator • Order Excitation ON
• Pulses to the thyristors are released
Field flashing breaker • Field Flashing breaker closes if
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 62 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

residual machine voltage is too low


Diode
Bridge • Stator voltage raises
• Field flashing breaker opens
~ + • The softstart function raises
Auxiliary the generator voltage smoothly up to
voltage its nominal value.

Field flashing feature

If the excitation system is supplied by shunt supply, i.e. directly from the
generator terminals, then the residual voltage of the generator is sometimes
not sufficient to build up the voltage. In such cases, when the excitation is
switched on the excitation current is built up with the aid of field flashing. The
field flashing consists of a diode bridge and a switch which connects an
external auxiliary voltage to the field. It is dimensioned in such a way that the
generator voltage is built up to approx. 20%. Once the generator voltage
reaches approx. 30-40% of the nominal value, this switch is switched off
again.
The generator voltage is then built up to nominal value by the main converter.
The slow build-up is thereby controlled by means of a softstart ramp
implemented in the voltage regulator.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 62


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.4 Excitation System: Field Suppression


Field Suppression Circuit (Crowbar)

inverter (WR)
WR
-Lf.dIf/dt
rc

rc
If (operation) Ua

Ua
5 6 3 4 + -
+ - If (field
suppression)

Lf
Rf
Udischarge

RE
- +
rc
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 63 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Ua

7 8 - +

Q02

Components of field suppression equipment


The main elements of a field discharge circuit are the field breaker with
discharge contact or DC breaker with electronic discharge circuit, the
discharge resistor and the overvoltage protection. In addition there is a certain
amount of control means.

Field breaker (field discharge contactor), DC breaker


Generally the field breaker has to interrupt a direct current in a circuit with high
inductance. Due to the inductive load the change of current depends on the
discharge voltage which is defined by the arc voltage of the breaker.
Field breakers are designed specially for this duty. They are equipped with arc
chambers and electromagnetic quenching.
Modern field breakers are equipped with limiting means such as auxiliary arc
gaps, limiting resistors and the important distribution of the grown arc into a
row of partial chambers. The result is a much quieter and more constant arc
voltage.
The most important criterion of a breaker is its interrupting capability. It is
determined by several factors.
• maximum arc voltage
• maximum interrupted current
• maximum arc energy.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 63


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.4 Excitation System: Field Suppression


Static Field Suppression Circuit (Crowbar) with Firing units
+
DC Breaker CROWBAR
Firing PCB
3
V1 positive
Crowbar design 4 -V3
-V2
overvoltage
1011
1
2
thyristor
T T
Field K1
V2 discharge
discharge I and negative

Field winding
Field +
K2 BOD
overvoltage
discharge II thyristor
K3
Free V3 redundant
wheeling
discharge or
-V1
5
6
free wheeling
DC 7 thyristor
breaker
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 64 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

-R02
Discharge
resistor
1 3

Current Measurement I>

2 4
_

Overvoltage protection (Crowbar)

The voltages occur during the deexcitation process should with a safety
margin always remain below the insulation level of the winding, i.e. below the
test voltage, whereby a reduction caused by aging has to be taken in account.
The same voltages also appear at the converter output and stress the
blocking capability of the thyristors. In addition with salient pole machines
inverse induced voltages (back emf) occur during asynchronous operation,
that is after falling out of step. Since an inverse current can not pass the
thyristors, such voltages rise fast to high amplitudes.

Therefore practically without exception a fast acting overvoltage protection is


provided, which discharges the field winding over a resistor, if a well defined
voltage level is exceeded. Mostly the normal field discharge resistor is also
used for this purpose. As sensing devices special pre-selected avalanche
diodes (BOD) are used.

Current sensors are used to detect current in the field discharge circuit. This
criteria is used to supervise the discharge circuit.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 64


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.4 Excitation System: Field Suppression

If, Uf
[p.u.]

With non-linear resistor

t=0
t
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 65 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Methods for field suppression


There are several kinds of deexcitation circuits which are partly only of
historical interest. Some of them will be described in short below for the better
understanding of the whole matter.
Basically a field suppression circuit must accelerate the current decrease in
the field winding. If we just reduce the voltage of the feeding source to zero,
the current will decrease in accordance with the well-known exponential
function and with the natural time constant T = L/Rf of the field circuit.
By insertion of a discharge resistor in series with the field, e.g. by opening the
switch Q02, the effective time constant of the circuit is reduced.
We want a fast decrease of the flux. It is important to realize that we can force
the flux decrease in the direct axis only. The time constants in the quadrature
axis cannot be influenced at all.
If we connect a suppression resistor RE equal to the field resistance Rf in
series, the effective time constants at no-load Tdo’ and with load Td’ are
reduced to half the natural value. The time constant of the core TA and the
one of the quadrature axis Tqo remain unchanged. The quicker the field
decrease in the direct axis is achieved, for instance with the help of a non-
linear suppression resistor, the more significant delayed field decrease in the
quadrature axis becomes.
This is a passive field suppression method where part of the magnetic energy
stored in the field w = ½L• If2 is converted into heat in the discharge resistor.
The supply voltage UG must be reduced quickly to zero. Otherwise the field
current does not come down to zero and the resistor RE is overloaded. The
arrangement is simple and uses a normal dc-breaker.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 65


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.4 Excitation System: Field Suppression


Field Suppression from no Load Condition

Field breaker
Inverter
opens
mode
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 66 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

Field suppression resistors


A part of the field energy is converted to heat within the field suppression
resistor. The size is determined by the heat storing capacity. Another
important feature is rigidity of conductor, terminals and resistor itself to
withstand the dynamic forces of peak currents. We distinguish linear and
nonlinear (voltage dependent) resistors for field suppression.
For the field of rotating exciters and for generators up to appr. 20 MVA linear
resistors are employed. The field current decreases according to the well-
known exponential function. For generator-fields the maximum initial value of
the field current is given by the 3-phase stator terminal short circuit. The field
voltage decreases proportional to the current. Its maximum value Ufc = Ifc• RE
must be smaller than the insulation test voltage. On the other hand the field
breaker can commutate the current onto the suppression resistor only, if its
arcing voltage is higher than the sum of maximum field voltage Ufc and ceiling
voltage Up of the excitation source. The energy to be stored is given by the
following integral
WE = RE ∫i2(t) dt

For more than a rough approximation the calculation is rather time consuming,
so that the use of a small computer program is worthwhile.
To speed up to the field suppression for larger machines, voltage dependent
resistors made of silicium-carbide are used. With falling voltage this material
shows a marked rise of its specific resistance. The initial resistance value is
made equal to the one of a linear suppression resistor, being limited by the
admissible voltage. But this voltage is now lowering slowly owing to the
increasing resistance, while the current is quickly reduced. The effective time
constant becomes itself a function of the momentary voltage.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 66


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.5 Excitation System: Design


Application Ranges of UNITROL Excitation Systems
SYSTEM COMPLEXITY

SYSTEMS WITH ROTATING STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEMS


EXCITERS

UNITROL 6000
UNITROL 5000
UNITROL P
UNITROL D (first Digital)
UNITROL F (Digital)
UNITROL M (Analog)
UN1000
Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 67 -
UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

UNS3214
UNS2110
GENERATOR / EXCITATION SYSTEM RATINGS

Application ranges
The figure above shows the type of ABB’s Unitrol excitation and AVR systems
used for the wide range of synchronous machines.

UNS2110/UNS3214
This AVR system is used for smaller machines up to approx. 50 MW in
conjunction with indirect excitation systems. The equipment is made of analog
electronic using integrated circuits.

UNITROL 1000
This is an automatic voltage regulator of the latest design for synchronous
generators and synchronous motors. The use of the most advanced
microprocessor technology together with IGBT semiconductor technology
allows it to be used in a wide area of application

UNITROL F / UNITROL M
UNITROL F provides a comprehensive range of Automatic Voltage
Regulators and Static Excitation Systems for high performance control of all
kind of synchronous machines. UNITROL F uses microprocessor technology
and replaced UNITROL M which is made of analog technology.

UNITROL 5000 / UNITROL P / UNITROL D


UNITROL 5000 is used for high scale static excitation system. Its excellent
performance is able to cope with all requirements in the field of excitation
systems. UNITROL 5000 replaced UNITROL P which was based on the PSR
Technology. In turn the UNITROL P replaced UNITROL D the first digital
voltage regulator.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 67


UNITROL® 6000 Service and Commissioning Training

3.5 Excitation System: Design


Milestones of Excitation System
1908 First mechanical rolling sector regulator 1983 UNITROL® M with high integrated analog circuits applied in
indirect excitation systems and direct excitation system of
1940 Oil-pressure regulator KC is added to the mechanical low complexity
regulator
1989 UNITROL® D introduces the microprocessor technology
1950 Magnetic amplifier combined with diode bridge has been and replaces the UNITROL® C analog technology.
introduced
1993 Second generation of numeric voltage regulator of type
1956 The KC regulator is supplemented by load angle limiter UNITROL® P as a free programmable regulator replaces
UNITROL® D
1957 First static excitation system with electronic AVR
(Baureihe) 1995 A new microprocessor based voltage regulator of type
accomplished by mercury-arc rectifier UNITROL® F replaces the old analog regulator
UNITROL®M. This voltage regulator is applied for indirect
1965 Mercury-arc rectifier replaced by thyristor converter excitation system and direct excitation system up to
medium sized synchronous machines
1967 Brushless excitation system with rotating diodes
1999 UNITROL® 5000 excitation system has been introduced. It
1969 Improvement of stability by electronic power system combines the capacities of UNITROL® F and UNITROL® P
stabilizer (PSS) in one high integrated system.

UNITROL® C analog AVR-electronic replaces Baureihe-


Training6© 2007-A ABB Ltd - 68 -

1975 2001 UNITROL® 1000 microprocessor based AVR System


UNITROL 6000 S&C J680 Chap2

electronic replaces UNITROL® S2210/S3214.

1976 UNITROL® S2210/3214 AVR with low complexity has been 2007 UNITROL® 6000 high integrated excitation system. It
developed for small synchronous machines. utilizes the reactive power control for all type and size of
1977 Static excitation system for positive and negative excitation synchronous machines. It replaces the former
current applied to rotating synchronous compensator UNITROL® 5000 and UNITROL® F excitation system.

© 2007 ABB Ltd/Chapter 2 21/12/2007 68