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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Soft music “Great teachers establish clear Text fades in at 2 seconds


expectations at the start of the year and fades out at 5 seconds.
and follow them consistently as the Slide automatically moves
year progresses.” forward.

~ Todd Whitaker

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Establishing Effective
Establishing Effective Expectations
Expectations and
and Procedures
Procedures

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Soft music Classroom Management 5 second slide

Establishing Effective Expectations Slide advances automatically


and Procedures

Module 2

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Douglass McArthur stated that “Rules are Full screen photo of a


mostly made to be broken and are too “Rules are mostly made to be broken and classroom teacher in front of
often for the lazy to hide behind” and Pablo are too often for the lazy to hide behind.” her students panning back
Picasso had a similar sentiment when he throughout the narration.
said, “Learn the rules like a pro, so you can “Learn the rules like a pro, so you can
break them like an artist.” Slide advances automatically
break them like an artist.” Experience has
shown us that rules are written to control
the rebellious, yet they are only adhered to
by the obedient.

We can all relate to these statements, yet if


you were to walk into classrooms today,
you would no doubt find teachers with lists
of rules and consequences displayed on
their walls.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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In this module, we will look at some  How to establish high behavioral Full screen photo of a
alternatives to the old traditions of expectations chalkboard. Objectives fade
developing rules and enforcing in in chalk-like text
consequences. Although this tried and true
 Develop classroom procedures Slide advances automatically
stereotype of education is what many
envision when they imagine the typical
classroom, research shows us that there may  Increase:
be a better way.  Productivity
 Learning
At the end of this module, you will have a  Student Accountability
deeper understanding of how to establish
high behavioral expectations for your
students and develop classroom procedures
that will increase classroom productivity,
learning, and student accountability.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Jim Fay’s Love and Logic, Harry Wong’s The First Expectations tell students what we’d Full screen photo of a smiling
Days of School, and Todd Whitaker’s What Great like them to do. teacher with obscured
Teachers Do Differently, share similar methods for classroom behind her
increasing student cooperation through a Rules tell students what they aren’t panning back throughout the
principled approach that raises expectations for allowed to do. narration.
student behavior, rather than creating rules and
Text fades in
consequences for forced compliance.

When we raise expectations, we are telling our Slide advances automatically


students what we’d like them to do. When we
make lists of rules, we are telling our students
what they are not allowed to do.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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At the school level, some rules are absolutely Some specific rules are necessary Full screen photo of a
necessary to ensure the safety of our composition book open to
students. Violation of these rules require  Weapons page that says rules panning
serious consequences. Jim Fay explains  Drugs back throughout the
however, that as teachers, we rarely have to  Physical Violence narration.
send a student to the office for a weapon,  Cyberbullying
Text fades in
drugs, or other serious offenses, but we do
regularly deal with disruptive students, Slide advances automatically
Rules for every identifiable offense
laziness, missing assignments, and tardiness. allows room for loopholes to get around
them.
The problem with creating a rule for every
offense is that the more specific the rule, the
more loopholes there are for getting around
them.

Alternatively, when we develop high


expectations for our students, we are
promoting a general code of conduct for
behavior, which ultimately includes all of the
specific rules, while eliminating the loopholes.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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So how many expectations should you have? How many expectations? Full screen photo of a
notepad with expectations
The different authorities on the matter have  Love and Logic has one panning back throughout the
varying views on the subject, but Fay, Whitaker,  Todd Whitaker shares three narration.
and Wong all agree that when it comes to  Harry Wong says no more than
expectations, less is more. five. Text fades in

The Love and Logic method provides one all- Slide advances automatically
encompassing guideline, “Feel free to do
whatever you like in this class providing it
doesn’t cause a problem for you or anyone else.”

Todd Whitaker offers three guidelines, “Be


respectful, be prepared, and be on time.”

Harry Wong gives a little more flexibility when it


comes to specific rules verses general guidelines.
He states however, that if you choose to have
specific rules, you should never have more than
five. Wong also lists the advantages of general
guidelines in that they address a broad range of
circumstances.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Knowledge Check Slide Knowledge check question.


What may be some disadvantages of Participants will be given up to three
specific rules? (Select all that apply) opportunities to answer correctly.

Specific rules must always be adjusted to Slide will advance once correct answer
accommodate for new infractions. has been identified.

Specific rules provide gray areas that may


possibly lead to arguments with students
regarding fairness.

Specific rules fail to address poor


behavior.

Specific rules may punish the behavior,


but may not change a student’s attitude.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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A possible disadvantage of specific rules is that they Specific consequences may not have the Full screen photo of a mischievous
generally come with specifically stated consequences. necessary impact for every student. child panning back throughout the
For example, if you are caught talking in class three narration.
times, you will get a referral to the office. Or if you use Students will weigh the consequences
foul language, you will get a detention. against the possible rewards to Slide advances automatically
determine if breaking a rule is worth it.
Students behave in ways similar to adults. As adults, we
often weigh the consequences of our actions before
choosing to break the rules. For instance, if we’re late
and need to get somewhere in a hurry we may have
this conversation with ourselves, “I could probably
afford a speeding ticket and I haven’t seen a cop
around so the chances of getting caught are probably
pretty slim, I guess I’m willing to take the risk.”

Many of our students have these same internal


discussions, constantly weighing the costs and benefits.
When we establish specific rules with specific
consequences, many of our students do not base their
decision to follow or break the rule on their good
character, but on whether the benefit outweighs the
cost.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Another disadvantage of stating specific consequences Full screen photo of a


is it assumes that all students will respond in the same Specific consequences may not have a Teacher scolding student
way. We know that is not entirely accurate. A positive impact on students panning back throughout the
consequence that works to improve the behavior of narration.
one student is not guaranteed to have a positive impact
Delayed consequences allow for: Text appears over image
on another.

Love and Logic approaches consequences from a  Minimal disruption to the class Slide advances automatically
different angle. Instead of immediate consequences,  Decreased chance of an irrational
Love and Logic suggests delayed consequences. When a response
student behaves inappropriately, calmly tell them that  The punishment to fit the crime
behavior is not acceptable in our class and that you’re
going to have to do something about it. Tell the student Most students follow the guidelines.
not to worry about it right now, you’ll let them know Keeping consequences a mystery, may be a
later what you’ve decided. Delaying the consequence better deterrent than consequences that
allows the teacher to make an informed decision based are spelled out.
on what would be best for the individual. This also
buys you time, so you don’t make irrational
consequences that have little to do with the offense.

Todd Whitaker makes an interesting point about


consequences as well. Whitaker states that in his time
serving as a principal, he came to realize that ninety

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percent of students have never been sent to the office,
they don’t know what goes on in the office, and they
don’t want to find out. He indicates that this fear of the
unknown is perhaps a better deterrent for the majority
of your students than having the consequences spelled
out for them.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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When developing our expectations and consequences, Expectations should challenge our Full screen photo of an
we should always have our students’ best interests in students to become good citizens empty classroom panning
mind. Expectations should challenge our students to back throughout the
become good citizens who care for others. Consequences should be: narration.
 Logical
Consequences for poor behavior should be logical and
 Serve as a natural solution to the Text fades in throughout the
serve as a natural solution to the problem the student
problem slide
has created. Consequences should never be given out
of spite or anger just to prove who’s in charge. Consequences should never be: Slide advances automatically
 Given out of spite or anger
 Given just to prove you’re in charge

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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When deciding upon consequences, make sure they’re Expectations should challenge our Full screen photo of an
localized. All too often, a teacher punishes the whole students to become good citizens empty classroom panning
class for the misbehavior of a few students. back throughout the
Punishments like keeping the whole class in for recess, Whole class punishments are narration.
taking away a class activity, or assigning extra work for counterproductive
 Leads to the teacher becoming the Text fades in throughout the
bad behavior are poor consequences and should not
enemy slide
be used. Punishing the group for the misdeeds of a
 Takes the accountability away from
few will undoubtedly lead to the teacher becoming Slide advances automatically
the offending student
the enemy which takes the accountability away from
the students who deserve it. Expectations, Guidelines, & Rules
should be:
Remember when it comes to expectations, guidelines,  Simple
and rules, keep it simple, be general, be minimal, and  General
be positive.  Positive

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Knowledge Check Slide Knowledge check question.


What may be some disadvantages of Participants will be given up to three
specifically stated consequences? (Select opportunities to answer correctly.
all that apply)
Slide will advance once correct answer
Some students may decide that the has been identified.
benefit from breaking the rule is worth
the consequence.

Specific consequences may not have the


desired impact for all students.

Specific consequences may not be severe


enough for some kids.

If the consequence is irrational, it may


not dissuade misbehavior in the future.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Every classroom has a diverse population. We Our classrooms are diverse places full of Full screen photo of students sitting in a
have students that come to us from all walks diverse people. classroom panning back throughout the
of life, affluent neighborhoods, low income narration.
housing, and foster homes. We have some Never assume your students will do
students that don’t have a worry in the world what you want just because they should Slide advances automatically
know better.
and others who are charged with caring for a
sick parent or taking care of younger siblings.
Some students come from extremely
structured households and others from homes
where seemingly no structure exists at all. Yet,
when this collection of students enters our
classroom, we desire and expect them all to
operate, behave, and perform in a specific
way that meets our needs as a teacher.

In order to work toward achieving this utopia


that we dream of as new educators, we must
methodically develop procedures for every
task that needs to be done in the classroom.
Because our students are individuals, we can’t
ever just assume they will do something the
way we want them to just because we feel
they should already know how.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Todd Whitaker describes the beginning of the Full screen photo of a Teacher in a classroom
school year as an exciting time. Although it “Like every major league baseball team panning back throughout the narration.
means an end to the long summer break, in spring training, we can dream about
many teachers approach the new year with making it to the World Series.” Slide advances automatically
great anticipation. Education is a field unlike (Whitaker 2013, p. 16)
most other professions in that each new year
is a blank canvas, it’s a chance to reinforce
what worked well and also a chance to
improve the things that may not have been so
successful. Whitaker describes this period as a
time when “we are still undefeated”, and so
are our students. Whitaker states that it’s
“like every major league baseball team in
spring training, we can dream about making it
to the World Series.” (Whitaker 2013, p. 16)

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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The beginning of the school year is the best When it comes to reinforcing procedures Full screen photo of a Teacher in an
time to plan for and implement in the classroom, those minutes can uncooporative classroom panning back
procedures. It allows teachers to set a mean the difference between throughout the narration.
standard of behavior from the first day. organization and chaos.
Unfortunately, all too often, new teachers Slide advances automatically
feel pressure to get right to work. The first
day of school may be fun and games, but
after that some feel that they may be
wasting valuable time that should be spent
teaching content.

Research has shown that this notion


couldn’t be further from the truth.
Benjamin Franklin once said, “for every
minute spent organizing, an hour is
earned.” When it comes to reinforcing
procedures in the classroom, those minutes
can mean the difference between
organization and chaos.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Knowledge Check Slide What are some of the most important Knowledge check question.
things to do during the first few days of Participants will be given up to three
school? (Select all that apply) opportunities to answer correctly.

A. Make sure the students know you’re Slide will advance once correct answer
in charge. has been identified.
B. Begin teaching right away so the
students know you have high
expectations.
C. Inform the students of the expected
procedures in your class.
D. Hold off on instruction until the
students have learned your
beginning procedures.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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The types of procedures that you will need as Procedure #1: What happens at the Full screen photo of a chalkboard.
compared to another teacher can vary depending beginning of the day or class period? Objectives fade in in chalk-like text
on grade-level and subject area, but there are Do the students line up? Do they
just walk in? Slide advances automatically
some procedures that all teachers should begin
their year enforcing. Procedure #2: How do they find
their seats?
Procedure #1: What happens at the beginning of
the day or class period? Do the students line up? “It is a mistake to let any
Do they just walk in? This is the first lesson you misbehavior, such as entering a
should teach your students each year. room inappropriately go
unchallenged under the rationale
Whatever you choose for the procedure to be, that you will have to deal with this
enforce it. if a student walks in and gathers with later” (Wong, p. 108).
friends or does something other than what the
stated procedure is, call them back and explain
the procedure again using phrases like “in our
class we...” Wong tells us that “it is a mistake to
let any misbehavior, such as entering a room
inappropriately go unchallenged under the
rationale that you will have to deal with this later”
(Wong, p. 108).

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Procedure #2: How do they find their seats? Will
you put name tags down, project a seating chart,
assign students a number, put sticky notes on
each desk or table? Will you allow them to sit
wherever they’d like on the first day? Whatever
you choose, explain the procedure as the student
enters the classroom, and call them back to try
again if they do it incorrectly.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Developing procedures is as much of an art as it Full screen photo of a students and a


is a science. Although there can be some There are multiple solutions to the same teacher in a classroom panning back
procedures that would be ill-advised in the problem. throughout the narration.
classroom, there are multiple procedural
solutions that may be effective in preventing To be successful you must: Slide advances automatically
 Practice
the same problem.
 Be Consistent
What works great for one teacher may not work
at all for another due to differences in their
personalities. Chosen procedures are all about
the teacher that is developing them. The most
important things to remember about
successfully implementing procedures are
practice and consistent enforcement.

Todd Whitaker states that “If we present


guidelines to students and eventually ignore
them, students will choose to ignore them as
well” (p. 24).

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Knowledge Check
Slide Read the following scenario and answer the question that follows. Knowledge check question.
Mrs. Park was excited about beginning her first teaching assignment as a Participants will be given up to three
sixth-grade teacher. She spent the summer researching classroom opportunities to answer correctly.
management strategies and developed several procedures to teach to her
students. The first day of school arrived, and just as planned, Mrs. Park Slide will advance once correct answer
taught her students the procedures she had developed. The students were has been identified.
receptive and quickly began following the procedures.
A couple of months went by and Mrs. Park found that her class was often
off task, and a lot of instructional time was being wasted on disciplining
and reprimanding her students. Mrs. Park feels that all of her time
developing her classroom management plan was wasted.
Where did Mrs. Park go wrong? (Choose the best response)

A: Mrs. Park didn’t do anything wrong: some classes are just


challenging.
B: The procedures Mrs. Park developed may not have been
appropriate for her grade level.
C: Although Mrs. Park developed appropriate procedures, she didn’t
continue to practice with her students.
D: Mrs. Park is a new teacher, and she needs more experience to
effectively manage her classroom.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Although the guidelines for developing your procedures may be Procedures to Consider: Full screen photo of an empty
vague and the specifics are left mostly for the individual teacher classroom panning back
to determine, there are several areas every teacher needs to  What is the first thing throughout the narration.
consider when planning the procedures for their class. students should do when they
get in the classroom? Text fades in throughout the
Harry Wong offers an extensive list of procedures in his book slide
The First Days of School. Any teacher, regardless of experience,  How to gain the teacher’s
would benefit from visiting and revisiting this list from time to attention to speak or ask a Slide advances automatically
time to consider management areas for potential improvement. question?

Some of the basic procedures to consider are:  How papers should be turned
in?
What is the first thing students should do when they get in the
classroom?  How do students get the
supplies and materials they
 Critical Thinking Questions need?
 Journal Entries
 Write down an agenda  What do students do if they’ve
 Write down a quote of the day been absent?
 Daily oral language
 What do students do and
 Math review
 On-This-Date in history where do they go in
 Character quote and reflection emergency situations?

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Whatever you choose, make sure students don’t have idle time  What will you do to gain the
at the beginning of class, they should know each day that you students attention at the
are prepared. beginning of class or after
independent or group work?
How to gain the teacher’s attention to speak or ask a question?
 How do students get into, and
How papers should be turned in? work in groups?
How do students get the supplies and materials they need?

What do students do if they’ve been absent?

What do students do and where do they go in emergency


situations?

What will you do to gain the students’ attention at the


beginning of class or after independent or group work?

 Hand signal
 A phrase that the students respond to
 A bell or other instrument
 A timer

How do student’s get into, and work in groups?

 What does it sound like?


 What does it look like?
 What jobs should each student have?
 What is supposed to be accomplished?

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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One of the most important determinants of your success Every time you introduce something Full screen photo of a students and a
as a teacher will hinge on how well you implement new in your class, you need to teach teacher in a classroom panning back
procedures in the first few weeks of school. However, the accompanying procedures for the throughout the narration.
need to develop procedures doesn’t end there. new task.
Slide advances automatically
In addition to consistently practicing and enforcing Don’t ever take for granted the
existing procedures, every time you introduce something power of procedures in your class.
new in your classroom, you need to teach accompanying
procedures for the new task. This could be using a new
piece of equipment, gathering materials for a lab, using a
new device, or using online tools.

Consistently and strategically practicing and enforcing


procedures in your classroom should be a never-ending
cycle. Those with experience will tell you that the day you
become comfortable and confident that your students
can handle it on their own, is the day that your
management plan will quickly begin to deteriorate.

Don’t ever take for granted the power of procedures in


your class.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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As a first-year middle school teacher, Lyndsay 8 question multiple choice quiz Navigation back to question 2
Thompson began the school year with great
anticipation. As the first student day began, Ms.
Thompson enthusiastically greeted her students and
welcomed them to her class. She was pleasantly
surprised to find that class after class came in and
quietly found a seat without being asked. Lyndsay had
a short assignment for the students to work on, and
without issue, the students quietly got to work. Ms.
Thompson was impressed. She had prepared to spend
each class period teaching her new students about her
expectations and working on several procedures that
she had determined would be necessary for the
students. Knowing that her students were middle
schoolers, Ms. Thompson had expected the kids to be
rowdy and rambunctious, but they were so quiet and
well behaved that she decided that lecturing them
about expectations and procedures might set a
negative tone and come across as an insult after they
had been so respectful. Lyndsay ultimately skipped
over the majority of the “housekeeping” items she had
planned for the day. After two months of school, Ms.
Thompson can’t believe the students she is now
dealing with are the same well-behaved students from
the first day. Her students are talking constantly, she
typically spends the first ten minutes of class just

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getting the students to their seats and quiet. She is
constantly interrupted during her teaching by students
getting drinks, walking out to go to the restroom, and
side conversations. Lyndsay is stressed out, and dreads
going to work each day. She is doubting her ability to
do her job and she’s worried that next year she may be
looking for a new one.

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Mr. Louis recently began his first-year teaching. After 8 question multiple choice quiz Navigation back to question 2
applying to several school districts, he finally received a
job offer to teach sixth grade at a school that had a bad
reputation for poor student behavior and performance.
This position wouldn’t have been Mr. Louis’s first
choice, but he figured it was at least a “foot in the
door” with the school district. In the weeks leading up
to the first day of school, he mentally prepared himself
for the challenges he was sure would come. Mr. Louis
knew he would need order in his classroom and to
ensure things ran smoothly, he prepared a list of many
rules and consequences to teach the class on the first
day of school.

When the bell rang on the first day, Mr. Louis stood at
his door, dressed nicely, arms crossed, with a stern look
on his face. As the students began to walk to the
classroom, he told each student to stop and form a
single file line outside the door. Once the tardy bell
rang, Mr. Louis walked beside the line and called out
any student who was laughing or talking by saying “in
my line, we don’t talk or mess around.” Mr. Louis was
not ordinarily a mean teacher, but he knew it was
important that “these types of kids” knew who was in
charge.
As the first day progressed, Mr. Louis spent over an
hour going over each rule and consequence with his

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new class. During his speech, a student laughed loudly
at one of the rules, then turned to his friends and said,
“yeah right, this guy’s crazy”. Mr. Louis promptly called
security and had the student taken to the office. After
all, he couldn’t allow that kind of disrespect on the first
day.

As the days went on, Mr. Louis found that his greatest
fears were being realized. Many of Mr. Louis’s students
were disrespectful, they rarely did their work and those
who did, did it poorly. He often thought to himself, that
it was no wonder why the school had such bad
reputation with kids like these. Each evening Mr. Louis
told his wife that if he hadn’t signed a contract, he
wouldn’t even go back to work the next day. He often
says you can’t help someone who doesn’t want to help
themselves.

Where does Mr. Louis go from here?

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Nice Job! Quiz Results Navigation back to question 2

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Establishing Effective Expectations and Procedures

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Reference Slide Reference Slide Exit Button

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