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Annex D

Seismic zones
For the purpose of this standard, the country has been subdivided into different seismic zones,
depending on the local hazard. The hazard map is preliminary and is processed from instrumentally
recorded earth quake catalogue.

For applications of this standard the hazard is described in terms of a single parameter, the
value ag of the effective peak ground acceleration in rock or firm soil, henceforth called “design ground
acceleration”.

OLD EBCs 8
The design ground acceleration for each seismic zone, corresponds to a reference period of 100 years.to
this return period, an importance factor I equal to 1.0 is assigned.

For linear analysis the design spectrum sd (T) normalized by the acceleration of gravity g is defined by
the following expression:

sd (T)=αβϒ
The parameter α in equation is the ratio of the design bed rock acceleration to the acceleration of
gravity g is given by α= αoI

Where αo=the bed rock acceleration ratio for the site and depend on the seismic zone

I=the importance factor

The seismic hazard map is divided in to 4 zones, where the ratio of the design bed rock acceleration
to the acceleration of gravity g=αo for the respective zones is indicated as

Zones 4 3 2 1

αo 0.10 0.07 0.05 0.03

The parameter β is the design response factor the site and is given by

β=1. 2s/T^2/3
The parameter s in equation is the site coefficient for soil characteristic given by

Sub soil class A B C

s 1.0 1.2 1.5

New EBCS 8

The design ground acceleration for each seismic zone, corresponds to a reference period of 475
years (10% probability of exceedance in 50 years). To this return period, an importance
factor I equal to 1.0 is assigned.

The seismic hazard map is divided in to 5 zones, where the ratio of the design bed rock acceleration
to the acceleration of gravity g=αo for the respective zones is indicated as

zone 5 4 3 2 1 0

αo=ag/g 0. 20 0.15 0.10 0.07 0.04 0

Seismic hazard zonation for selected towns in old and new EBCs
TOWN COORDINATEs sEIsMIC ZONE
LATITUDE (N) LONGITUDE (E) OLD EBCs NEW EBCs

Addis Abeba 8.9757 38.7645 2 3

Adet 10.3323 39.4679 Not listed 5


Arba Minch 6.0030 37.5474 4 3
Bahir Dar 11.5715 37.3700 0 0
TOWN COORDINATEs sEIsMIC ZONE
LATITUDE (N) LONGITUDE (E) OLD EBCs NEW EBCs

Debire Birhan 9.6235 39.5565 4 4

Durame 07.14 38.00 4 Not listed

Mekelle 13.4056 39.5515 4 4

shashemene 11.5715 37.3700 0 0

Also some towns in new EBCs 8 described in detail than the old EBCs

TOWN COORDINATEs sEIsMIC ZONE


OLD NEW EBCs LATITUDE (N) LONGITUDE (E) OLD EBCs NEW EBCs
EBCs
Jimma Jimma Agaro 7.8531 36.5830 1 1

Jimma Chora 8.3365 37. 2376 1


Boter
Jimma Dedo 7.4141 36.9376 1
Jimma Gomma 7.8772 36.5845 1

Jimma Guma 7.9691 36.4291 0

Jimma spe Town 7.6802 34.8412 1


Jimma Kersa 1
Jimma Limu 8.0255 36.9550 1
Kosa
Jimma Limu 8.4866 36.9502 0
seka
Jimma Omonada 7.5410 37. 2397 2
SECTION 6 SPECIFIC RULES FOR STEEL BUILDINGS

6.1. 2 Design concepts

Earthquake resistant steel buildings shall be designed in accordance with one of the
following concepts:

OLD EBCs

− a) Dissipative structural behavior;


− b) Non Dissipative structural behavior.

NEW EBCs

− Concept a) Low-dissipative structural behavior;


- Concept b) Dissipative structural behavior
Design concepts, structural ductility classes and upper limit reference values of the
behavior factors
Range of the reference
Structural ductility
Design concept values of the behavior factor
class
q
Concept a) Low
dissipative structural DCL (Low) ≤ 1.5 - 2
behavior
≤4
DCM (Medium) also limited by the values of
Concept b) Dissipative
Table 6.2
structural
only limited by the values of
DCH (High)
Table 6.2

1.1.1 Safety Verifications

ONLY ON NEW EBCS

For ultimate limit state verifications, the partial factor for steel γs= γM shall take into account the
possible strength degradation due to cyclic deformations.

Assuming that, due to the local ductility provisions, the ratio between the residual strength after
degradation and the initial one is roughly equal to the ratio between the γM values for accidental
and for fundamental load combinations, it is recommended that the partial factor γs adopted for the
persistent and transient design situations be applied.
In the capacity design checks, the possibility that the actual yield strength of steel is higher than
the nominal yield strength should be taken into account by a material over strength factor γov

1.2 Materials

OLD EBCs

Steel sections, welding and bolts shall conform the requirements specified

In dissipative zones -structural steel should conform to approved standards

-The value of yield strength should be specified

-In bolted connection high strength bolt should be used

NEW EBCS

In dissipative zones

- Dissipative zones are expected to yield before other zones leave the elastic range during
the earthquake.

a) The upper value of the yield strength fy,max of the steel of dissipative
zones satisfies the expression fy,max ≤ 1.1γov fy
Where γov is the over strength factor used in design; and

fy is the nominal yield strength specified for the steel grade.


b) the design of the structure is made on the basis of a single grade and nominal yield strength
fy for the steels both in dissipative and non-dissipative zones; an upper value fy,max is specified
for the steel of dissipative zones; the nominal value fy of the steels specified for non-dissipative
zones and connections exceeds the upper value of the yield strength fy,max of dissipative zones.

c) The actual yield strength fy,act of the steel of each dissipative zone is determined
from measurements and the over strength factor is computed for each dissipative
zone as γov,ac t= fy,act / fy , fy being the nominal yield strength of the steel of dissipative
zones.

- The required toughness of steel and welds and the lowest service temperature
adopted in combination with the seismic action should be defined in the project
specification. In bolted connections of primary seismic members of a building, high
strength bolts of bolt grade 8.8 or 10.9 should be used.
1.3 Structural types and behaviour factors

1.3.1 Structural types

Steel buildings shall be assigned to one of the following structural types according to the behaviour
of their primary resisting structure under seismic actions.

Both OLD AND NEW EBCS

Describe similar structural types with detail drawings.

1.3.2 Behavior factors

OLD EBCs

The behaviour factor ϒ introduced for energy dissipation for regular buildings in zones 1 and 2 is
listed below and for non-regular buildings in elevation the values listed should be increased by 20%
(but need not be taken more than ϒ=1.0)

Structural types ϒ=Behaviour Factor

Moment resisting frames 0.18

concentric braced frames diagonal bracing 0. 25

v-bracings 0. 2

k-bracings 1

Eccentric braced 0.17

Cantilever 0.5

Dual structure 0.18

Mixed structure 0.5


NEW EBCS

The behaviour factor q, for the energy dissipation capacity of the structure. For regular
structural systems, should be taken with upper limits to the reference values which are given in Table
below.

Upper limit of reference values of behavior factors for systems regular in elevation

Ductility Class
STRUCTURAL TYPE
DCM DCH
a) Moment resisting frames 4 5αu/α1
b) Frame with concentric bracings
Diagonal bracings V-bracings 4 4
V-bracings 2 2.5
c) Frame with eccentric bracings 4 5αu/α1
d) Inverted pendulum 2 2αu/α1
e) Moment resisting frame with concentric bracing 4 4αu/α1
f) Moment resisting frames with infills
Unconnected concrete or masonry infills, in
contact with the frame 2 2
Connected reinforced concrete infills
Infills isolated from moment frame (see moment
frames) 4 5αu/α1

If the building is non-regular in elevation the upper limit values of q listed in Table above should be
reduced by 20 %

The parameters α1 and αu are defined as follows:

α1 is the value by which the horizontal seismic design action is multiplied in order to
first reach the plastic resistance in any member in the structure, while all other design actions
remain constant;

αu is the value by which the horizontal seismic design action is multiplied, in order to form
plastic hinges in a number of sections sufficient for the development of overall structural
instability, while all other design actions remain constant. The factor αu may be obtained from
a nonlinear static (pushover) global analysis.

6.4 Structural analysis

The same in both NEW and Old EBCS


6.5 Design criteria and detailing rules for dissipative structural behavior common to all
structural types
The same in both NEW and Old EBCS

6.5. 2 Design criteria for dissipative structures

The same in both NEW and Old EBCS

6.5.3 Design rules for dissipative elements in compression or bending

Depending on the ductility class and the behaviour factor q used in the design, the requirements
regarding the cross-sectional classes of the steel elements which dissipate energy are indicated in Table
below

NEW EBCS

Requirements on cross-sectional class of dissipative elements depending on Ductility Class and


reference behavior factor

Ductility class Reference value of Required cross-


behaviour factor q sectional class
1.5 <q ≤ 2 class 1, 2 or 3
DCM
2 <q ≤ 4 class 1 or 2

DCH q> 4 class 1

OLD EBCs

Behavior factor ϒ Cross sectional class


ϒ ≤0. 25 Class 1
0.5≥ ϒ≥0. 25 Class 2
ϒ≥ 0.5 Class 3

6.5.4 Design rules for parts or elements in tension

The same in both NEW and Old EBCS

6.5.5 Design rules for connections in dissipative zones

Non dissipative connections of dissipative members made by means of full penetration butt welds may
be deemed to satisfy the over strength criterion.
Old EBCS

For fillet weld or bolted non-dissipative connections, the following expression should be satisfied:

Rd≥1. 2Rfy

NEW EBCS

Rd  1.1 ov Rfy

Where
Rd is the resistance of the connection in accordance with EBCS EN 1993;
Rfy is the plastic resistance of the connected dissipative member based on the design yield stress
of the material as defined in EBCS EN 1993.
γov is the over strength factor

Foundations

ONLY ON Old EBCS

The Design values of action effects Efd on the foundations should be derived as
Efd=1. 20(Efg+αEfe)
Where Ef.g action effect due to due to the non-seismic actions included in the combination of
actions for the seismic design situation.
Efe Action effect due to the design seismic action multiplied by importance factor
α= Rd/Sd

1.6 Design and detailing rules for moment resisting frames

6.6.1 Design criteria

6.6. 2 Beams

For plastic hinges in the beams it should be verified that the full plastic moment of
resistance and rotation capacity are not decreased by compression and shear forces. To this end,
for sections belonging to cross-sectional classes 1 and 2, the following inequalities should be
verified at the location where the formation of hinges is expected:
Old EBCS
𝑀s𝑑
𝑀𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑
≤1.0

𝑁s𝑑
𝑁𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑
≤0.15

𝑉𝐺sd+Vmsd
V𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑
≤0.5

Where

Nsd,Msd design action effects

Npl,Rd ,Mpl Rd ,Vpl,Rd design resistance

VGsd shear force die to the non-seismic actions

Vmsd shear force due to the application of resisting moments

NEW EBCS

M Ed
 1.0
M pl,Rd

N Ed
 0.15
N pl,Rd

VEd
 0.5
Vpl,Rd

Where

VEd = VEd,G + VEd,M ;


(6.5)

NEd is the design axial force;


MEd is the design bending moment;
VEd is the design shear;
Npl, Rd , Mpl,Rd , Vpl, Rd are design resistances in accordance with EBCS EN 1993;
VEd,G is the design value of the shear force due to the non-seismic actions;
VEd,M is the design value of the shear force due to the application of the plastic Moments Mpl,Rd,A
and Mpl,Rd,B with opposite signs at the end sections A and B of the beam.

6.6.3 Columns

NEW EBCS

The columns shall be verified in compression considering the most unfavourable combination of the
axial force and bending moments. In the checks, NEd, MEd, VEd should be computed as:

N Ed  N Ed,G  1.1 ov  N Ed,E


M Ed  M Ed,G  1.1 ov  M Ed,E
VEd  VEd,G  1.1 ov VEd,E

- The column shear force VEd resulting from the structural analysis should satisfy the following
expression:

VEd
 0.5
Vpl,Rd

The shear resistance of framed web panels of beam/column connections should satisfy the
following expression:

Vwp,Ed
 1.0
Vwp,Rd

- The shear buckling resistance of the web panels should also be checked to ensure that it
conforms to

Vwp,Ed < Vwb,Rd

Old EBCS

The design bending moments to the connection of column to foundation


Msd=Msd.G+1. 2Msd.E

Where

Msd.G bending moment due to non-seismic actions

Msd.E bending moment due to the design seismic action multiplied by the
importance factor.
𝑉s𝑑
- The column shear force Vsd 𝑉𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑≤0.5

6.6.4 Beam to column connections

Old EBCS

The connection of beam to columns should be designed for the required degree of over
strength taking in to account the moment resistance and shear force.

NEW EBCS

Dissipative semi-rigid and/or partial strength connections are permitted, provided that all of the
following requirements are verified:

a) The connections have a rotation capacity consistent with the global deformations;

b) Members framing into the connections are demonstrated to be stable at the ultimate limit state
(ULS);

c) The effect of connection deformation on global drift is taken into account using nonlinear static
(pushover) global analysis or non-linear time history analysis.

(3) The connection design should be such that the rotation capacity of the plastic hinge region θp
is not less than 35 mrad for structures of ductility class DCH and 25 mrad for structures of ductility
class DCM with q > 2. The rotation θp is defined as

P   0.5L

Where
δ is the beam deflection at mid span;
L is the beam span

The rotation capacity of the plastic hinge region θp should be ensured under cyclic loading without
degradation of strength and stiffness greater than 20%. This requirement is valid independently of the
intended location of the dissipative zones.

6.7 Design and detailing rules for frames with concentric bracing

The same in both NEW and Old EBCS

6.7. 2 Analysis

ONLY ON NEW EBCS


1.6.1 Diagonal members

Old EBCS

The non-dimensional slenderness ratio λ should be limited λ≤1.0 in order to prevent elastic
buckling.
The tension force Nsd should be limited to the yield resistance of gross cross section.
The connection of the diagonals to any member should fulfil the over strength condition

Rd≥ 1. 2 Npl,Rd
NEW EBCS

In frames with X diagonal bracings, the non-dimensional slenderness  as defined in should be


limited to: 1.3    2.0 .

In frames with diagonal bracings in which the diagonals are not positioned as X diagonal bracings, the non-
dimensional slenderness  should be less than or equal to 2.0.

In frames with V bracings, the non-dimensional slenderness  should be less than or equal to 2.0.

In structures up to two storeys, no limitation applies to  .

The yield resistance Npl,Rd of the gross cross-section of the diagonals should be such that Npl,Rd≥ NEd.

In order to satisfy a homogeneous dissipative behaviour of the diagonals, it should be


checked that the maximum over strength Ωi does not differ from the minimum value Ω by more than
25%.

Dissipative semi-rigid and/or partial strength connections are permitted, provided that all of the
following conditions are satisfied:

a) The connections have an elongation capacity consistent with global deformations;

b) The effect of connections deformation on global drift is taken into account using nonlinear static
(pushover) global analysis or non-linear time history analysis.

6.7.4 Beams and columns

Beams and columns with axial forces should meet the following minimum resistance requirement:

Old EBCS

NRd(M)≥1. 20(Nsd.G+αNsd.E)
- In v bracing the beam should be designed to resist all non-seismic actions without considering
the intermediate support given by the diagonals.

- The connection of the frames to the foundation should fulfil the over strength function as given.

NEW EBCS

N pl,Rd ( M Ed )  N Ed,G  1.1 ov N Ed,E

In frames with V bracings, the beams should be designed to resist:

− all non-seismic actions without considering the intermediate support given by the
diagonals;
− The unbalanced vertical seismic action effect applied to the beam by the braces after
buckling of the compression diagonal. This action effect is calculated using Npl,Rd for the
brace in tension and γpbNpl,Rd for the brace in compression.

In frames with diagonal bracings in which the tension and compression diagonals are not
intersecting, the design should take into account the tensile and compression forces which develop
in the columns adjacent to the diagonals in compression and correspond to compression forces in
these diagonals equal to their design buckling resistance

6.8 Design and detailing rules for frames with eccentric bracings

6.8.1 Design criteria

Old EBCS

Eccentric bracings shall be designed so that beams are able to dissipate energy by
the formation of plastic bending or plastic shear mechanism.
NEW EBCS

Frames with eccentric bracings shall be designed so that specific elements or parts
of elements called seismic links are able to dissipate energy by the formation of
plastic bending and/or plastic shear mechanisms.

The structural system shall be designed so that a homogeneous dissipative


behaviour of the whole set of seismic links is realised.

Seismic links may be horizontal or vertical components.


6.8. 2 Seismic links
ONLY ON NEW EBCS

6.8.3 Members not containing seismic links

ONLY ON NEW EBCS

6.8.4 Connections of the seismic links

ONLY ON NEW EBCS

6.9 Design rules for inverted pendulum structures

Old EBCS

- The non-dimensional slenderness of the columns should be limited to  ≤1.5.

- The inter storey drift sensitivity coefficient of the column should be limited to θ ≤ 0.20.

- The cantilever structure, the columns and their bases should be verified.

The resistance of the base connection of column to foundation should satisfy


𝑁sd
- MRd≥1. 2 Mpl Rd(1 − 𝑁𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑)

NEW EBCS

In inverted pendulum structures, the columns should be verified in compression considering the
most unfavourable combination of the axial force and bending moments.

In the checks, NEd, MEd, VEd should be computed as in 6.6.3.

The non-dimensional slenderness of the columns should be limited to  ≤1.5.

The inter-storey drift sensitivity coefficient θ should be limited to θ ≤ 0.20.

6.10 Design rules for steel structures with concrete cores or concrete walls and for moment
resisting frames combined with concentric bracings or infills

6.10.1Structures with concrete cores or concrete walls

The same in both NEW and Old EBCS


6.10. 2 Moment resisting frames combined with concentric bracings

The same in both NEW and Old EBCS

6.10.3 Moment resisting frames combined with infills

The same in both NEW and Old EBCS

6.11 Control of design and construction

ONLY ON NEW EBCS