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Seismic zones

For the purpose of this standard, the country has been subdivided into different seismic zones,

depending on the local hazard. The hazard map is preliminary and is processed from instrumentally

recorded earth quake catalogue.

For applications of this standard the hazard is described in terms of a single parameter, the

value ag of the effective peak ground acceleration in rock or firm soil, henceforth called “design ground

acceleration”.

OLD EBCs 8

The design ground acceleration for each seismic zone, corresponds to a reference period of 100 years.to

this return period, an importance factor I equal to 1.0 is assigned.

For linear analysis the design spectrum sd (T) normalized by the acceleration of gravity g is defined by

the following expression:

sd (T)=αβϒ

The parameter α in equation is the ratio of the design bed rock acceleration to the acceleration of

gravity g is given by α= αoI

Where αo=the bed rock acceleration ratio for the site and depend on the seismic zone

The seismic hazard map is divided in to 4 zones, where the ratio of the design bed rock acceleration

to the acceleration of gravity g=αo for the respective zones is indicated as

Zones 4 3 2 1

The parameter β is the design response factor the site and is given by

β=1. 2s/T^2/3

The parameter s in equation is the site coefficient for soil characteristic given by

New EBCS 8

The design ground acceleration for each seismic zone, corresponds to a reference period of 475

years (10% probability of exceedance in 50 years). To this return period, an importance

factor I equal to 1.0 is assigned.

The seismic hazard map is divided in to 5 zones, where the ratio of the design bed rock acceleration

to the acceleration of gravity g=αo for the respective zones is indicated as

zone 5 4 3 2 1 0

Seismic hazard zonation for selected towns in old and new EBCs

TOWN COORDINATEs sEIsMIC ZONE

LATITUDE (N) LONGITUDE (E) OLD EBCs NEW EBCs

Arba Minch 6.0030 37.5474 4 3

Bahir Dar 11.5715 37.3700 0 0

TOWN COORDINATEs sEIsMIC ZONE

LATITUDE (N) LONGITUDE (E) OLD EBCs NEW EBCs

Also some towns in new EBCs 8 described in detail than the old EBCs

OLD NEW EBCs LATITUDE (N) LONGITUDE (E) OLD EBCs NEW EBCs

EBCs

Jimma Jimma Agaro 7.8531 36.5830 1 1

Boter

Jimma Dedo 7.4141 36.9376 1

Jimma Gomma 7.8772 36.5845 1

Jimma Kersa 1

Jimma Limu 8.0255 36.9550 1

Kosa

Jimma Limu 8.4866 36.9502 0

seka

Jimma Omonada 7.5410 37. 2397 2

SECTION 6 SPECIFIC RULES FOR STEEL BUILDINGS

Earthquake resistant steel buildings shall be designed in accordance with one of the

following concepts:

OLD EBCs

− b) Non Dissipative structural behavior.

NEW EBCs

- Concept b) Dissipative structural behavior

Design concepts, structural ductility classes and upper limit reference values of the

behavior factors

Range of the reference

Structural ductility

Design concept values of the behavior factor

class

q

Concept a) Low

dissipative structural DCL (Low) ≤ 1.5 - 2

behavior

≤4

DCM (Medium) also limited by the values of

Concept b) Dissipative

Table 6.2

structural

only limited by the values of

DCH (High)

Table 6.2

For ultimate limit state verifications, the partial factor for steel γs= γM shall take into account the

possible strength degradation due to cyclic deformations.

Assuming that, due to the local ductility provisions, the ratio between the residual strength after

degradation and the initial one is roughly equal to the ratio between the γM values for accidental

and for fundamental load combinations, it is recommended that the partial factor γs adopted for the

persistent and transient design situations be applied.

In the capacity design checks, the possibility that the actual yield strength of steel is higher than

the nominal yield strength should be taken into account by a material over strength factor γov

1.2 Materials

OLD EBCs

Steel sections, welding and bolts shall conform the requirements specified

NEW EBCS

In dissipative zones

- Dissipative zones are expected to yield before other zones leave the elastic range during

the earthquake.

a) The upper value of the yield strength fy,max of the steel of dissipative

zones satisfies the expression fy,max ≤ 1.1γov fy

Where γov is the over strength factor used in design; and

b) the design of the structure is made on the basis of a single grade and nominal yield strength

fy for the steels both in dissipative and non-dissipative zones; an upper value fy,max is specified

for the steel of dissipative zones; the nominal value fy of the steels specified for non-dissipative

zones and connections exceeds the upper value of the yield strength fy,max of dissipative zones.

c) The actual yield strength fy,act of the steel of each dissipative zone is determined

from measurements and the over strength factor is computed for each dissipative

zone as γov,ac t= fy,act / fy , fy being the nominal yield strength of the steel of dissipative

zones.

- The required toughness of steel and welds and the lowest service temperature

adopted in combination with the seismic action should be defined in the project

specification. In bolted connections of primary seismic members of a building, high

strength bolts of bolt grade 8.8 or 10.9 should be used.

1.3 Structural types and behaviour factors

Steel buildings shall be assigned to one of the following structural types according to the behaviour

of their primary resisting structure under seismic actions.

OLD EBCs

The behaviour factor ϒ introduced for energy dissipation for regular buildings in zones 1 and 2 is

listed below and for non-regular buildings in elevation the values listed should be increased by 20%

(but need not be taken more than ϒ=1.0)

v-bracings 0. 2

k-bracings 1

Cantilever 0.5

NEW EBCS

The behaviour factor q, for the energy dissipation capacity of the structure. For regular

structural systems, should be taken with upper limits to the reference values which are given in Table

below.

Upper limit of reference values of behavior factors for systems regular in elevation

Ductility Class

STRUCTURAL TYPE

DCM DCH

a) Moment resisting frames 4 5αu/α1

b) Frame with concentric bracings

Diagonal bracings V-bracings 4 4

V-bracings 2 2.5

c) Frame with eccentric bracings 4 5αu/α1

d) Inverted pendulum 2 2αu/α1

e) Moment resisting frame with concentric bracing 4 4αu/α1

f) Moment resisting frames with infills

Unconnected concrete or masonry infills, in

contact with the frame 2 2

Connected reinforced concrete infills

Infills isolated from moment frame (see moment

frames) 4 5αu/α1

If the building is non-regular in elevation the upper limit values of q listed in Table above should be

reduced by 20 %

α1 is the value by which the horizontal seismic design action is multiplied in order to

first reach the plastic resistance in any member in the structure, while all other design actions

remain constant;

αu is the value by which the horizontal seismic design action is multiplied, in order to form

plastic hinges in a number of sections sufficient for the development of overall structural

instability, while all other design actions remain constant. The factor αu may be obtained from

a nonlinear static (pushover) global analysis.

6.5 Design criteria and detailing rules for dissipative structural behavior common to all

structural types

The same in both NEW and Old EBCS

Depending on the ductility class and the behaviour factor q used in the design, the requirements

regarding the cross-sectional classes of the steel elements which dissipate energy are indicated in Table

below

NEW EBCS

reference behavior factor

behaviour factor q sectional class

1.5 <q ≤ 2 class 1, 2 or 3

DCM

2 <q ≤ 4 class 1 or 2

OLD EBCs

ϒ ≤0. 25 Class 1

0.5≥ ϒ≥0. 25 Class 2

ϒ≥ 0.5 Class 3

Non dissipative connections of dissipative members made by means of full penetration butt welds may

be deemed to satisfy the over strength criterion.

Old EBCS

For fillet weld or bolted non-dissipative connections, the following expression should be satisfied:

Rd≥1. 2Rfy

NEW EBCS

Rd 1.1 ov Rfy

Where

Rd is the resistance of the connection in accordance with EBCS EN 1993;

Rfy is the plastic resistance of the connected dissipative member based on the design yield stress

of the material as defined in EBCS EN 1993.

γov is the over strength factor

Foundations

The Design values of action effects Efd on the foundations should be derived as

Efd=1. 20(Efg+αEfe)

Where Ef.g action effect due to due to the non-seismic actions included in the combination of

actions for the seismic design situation.

Efe Action effect due to the design seismic action multiplied by importance factor

α= Rd/Sd

6.6. 2 Beams

For plastic hinges in the beams it should be verified that the full plastic moment of

resistance and rotation capacity are not decreased by compression and shear forces. To this end,

for sections belonging to cross-sectional classes 1 and 2, the following inequalities should be

verified at the location where the formation of hinges is expected:

Old EBCS

𝑀s𝑑

𝑀𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑

≤1.0

𝑁s𝑑

𝑁𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑

≤0.15

𝑉𝐺sd+Vmsd

V𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑

≤0.5

Where

NEW EBCS

M Ed

1.0

M pl,Rd

N Ed

0.15

N pl,Rd

VEd

0.5

Vpl,Rd

Where

(6.5)

MEd is the design bending moment;

VEd is the design shear;

Npl, Rd , Mpl,Rd , Vpl, Rd are design resistances in accordance with EBCS EN 1993;

VEd,G is the design value of the shear force due to the non-seismic actions;

VEd,M is the design value of the shear force due to the application of the plastic Moments Mpl,Rd,A

and Mpl,Rd,B with opposite signs at the end sections A and B of the beam.

6.6.3 Columns

NEW EBCS

The columns shall be verified in compression considering the most unfavourable combination of the

axial force and bending moments. In the checks, NEd, MEd, VEd should be computed as:

M Ed M Ed,G 1.1 ov M Ed,E

VEd VEd,G 1.1 ov VEd,E

- The column shear force VEd resulting from the structural analysis should satisfy the following

expression:

VEd

0.5

Vpl,Rd

The shear resistance of framed web panels of beam/column connections should satisfy the

following expression:

Vwp,Ed

1.0

Vwp,Rd

- The shear buckling resistance of the web panels should also be checked to ensure that it

conforms to

Old EBCS

Msd=Msd.G+1. 2Msd.E

Where

Msd.E bending moment due to the design seismic action multiplied by the

importance factor.

𝑉s𝑑

- The column shear force Vsd 𝑉𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑≤0.5

Old EBCS

The connection of beam to columns should be designed for the required degree of over

strength taking in to account the moment resistance and shear force.

NEW EBCS

Dissipative semi-rigid and/or partial strength connections are permitted, provided that all of the

following requirements are verified:

a) The connections have a rotation capacity consistent with the global deformations;

b) Members framing into the connections are demonstrated to be stable at the ultimate limit state

(ULS);

c) The effect of connection deformation on global drift is taken into account using nonlinear static

(pushover) global analysis or non-linear time history analysis.

(3) The connection design should be such that the rotation capacity of the plastic hinge region θp

is not less than 35 mrad for structures of ductility class DCH and 25 mrad for structures of ductility

class DCM with q > 2. The rotation θp is defined as

P 0.5L

Where

δ is the beam deflection at mid span;

L is the beam span

The rotation capacity of the plastic hinge region θp should be ensured under cyclic loading without

degradation of strength and stiffness greater than 20%. This requirement is valid independently of the

intended location of the dissipative zones.

6.7 Design and detailing rules for frames with concentric bracing

6.7. 2 Analysis

1.6.1 Diagonal members

Old EBCS

The non-dimensional slenderness ratio λ should be limited λ≤1.0 in order to prevent elastic

buckling.

The tension force Nsd should be limited to the yield resistance of gross cross section.

The connection of the diagonals to any member should fulfil the over strength condition

Rd≥ 1. 2 Npl,Rd

NEW EBCS

limited to: 1.3 2.0 .

In frames with diagonal bracings in which the diagonals are not positioned as X diagonal bracings, the non-

dimensional slenderness should be less than or equal to 2.0.

In frames with V bracings, the non-dimensional slenderness should be less than or equal to 2.0.

The yield resistance Npl,Rd of the gross cross-section of the diagonals should be such that Npl,Rd≥ NEd.

checked that the maximum over strength Ωi does not differ from the minimum value Ω by more than

25%.

Dissipative semi-rigid and/or partial strength connections are permitted, provided that all of the

following conditions are satisfied:

b) The effect of connections deformation on global drift is taken into account using nonlinear static

(pushover) global analysis or non-linear time history analysis.

Beams and columns with axial forces should meet the following minimum resistance requirement:

Old EBCS

NRd(M)≥1. 20(Nsd.G+αNsd.E)

- In v bracing the beam should be designed to resist all non-seismic actions without considering

the intermediate support given by the diagonals.

- The connection of the frames to the foundation should fulfil the over strength function as given.

NEW EBCS

− all non-seismic actions without considering the intermediate support given by the

diagonals;

− The unbalanced vertical seismic action effect applied to the beam by the braces after

buckling of the compression diagonal. This action effect is calculated using Npl,Rd for the

brace in tension and γpbNpl,Rd for the brace in compression.

In frames with diagonal bracings in which the tension and compression diagonals are not

intersecting, the design should take into account the tensile and compression forces which develop

in the columns adjacent to the diagonals in compression and correspond to compression forces in

these diagonals equal to their design buckling resistance

6.8 Design and detailing rules for frames with eccentric bracings

Old EBCS

Eccentric bracings shall be designed so that beams are able to dissipate energy by

the formation of plastic bending or plastic shear mechanism.

NEW EBCS

Frames with eccentric bracings shall be designed so that specific elements or parts

of elements called seismic links are able to dissipate energy by the formation of

plastic bending and/or plastic shear mechanisms.

behaviour of the whole set of seismic links is realised.

6.8. 2 Seismic links

ONLY ON NEW EBCS

Old EBCS

- The inter storey drift sensitivity coefficient of the column should be limited to θ ≤ 0.20.

- The cantilever structure, the columns and their bases should be verified.

𝑁sd

- MRd≥1. 2 Mpl Rd(1 − 𝑁𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑)

NEW EBCS

In inverted pendulum structures, the columns should be verified in compression considering the

most unfavourable combination of the axial force and bending moments.

6.10 Design rules for steel structures with concrete cores or concrete walls and for moment

resisting frames combined with concentric bracings or infills

6.10. 2 Moment resisting frames combined with concentric bracings

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