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2nd Quarter | A.Y.

2018 - 2019 
Economics Reviewer 

→ the detailed study of individual firms, consumers and markets. 
💬 What is elasticity? 
Elasticity​ (ε) refers to the ​degree​ to which individuals, consumers or producers ​change​ their 
demand or the amount supplied ​in response to price or income changes​. 
💬 What are the different degrees of elasticity? 
At the very least, there are three. 
● Elastic​: ​If the ​elasticity ≥ 1​, the good is considered to be elastic. 
● Unit-Elastic​: ​If the ​elasticity = 1​, the good is considered to be unit-elastic. 
● Inelastic​: ​If the ​elasticity ≤ 1​, the good is considered to be inelastic. 
But you also have some polar extremes. 
● Perfectly Elastic​: In which ​elasticity = ∞​, because even if price doesn’t change, the 
quantity demanded or supplied is always shifting 
● Perfectly Inelastic​: In which ​elasticity = 0​, because even if price keeps shifting, the 
quantity stays the same all throughout  

​Perfectly Inelastic Perfectly Elastic Unit-Elastic 

Price-Elastic Price-Inelastic 
Figure 1. ​The different degrees of elasticity. Note that these are all SUPPLY curves, which 
explains why they’re ​upward-sloping​. Demand curves would be ​downward-sloping​, but still 
follow the same principle: ↑ Elasticity = Flatter curve. 
2nd Quarter | A.Y. 2018 - 2019 
Economics Reviewer 
💬 What are the different kinds of elasticities? 
Four Types: 
1. Price Elasticity of Demand (PεD) 
2. Income Elasticity of Demand (IεD) 
3. Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand (CPε​D​) 
4. Price Elasticity of Demand (PεS) 
💬 How do we solve for different elasticities and what are its applications? 
Price Elasticity of Demand (Pε εD​​x​​) 
calculated by: 
% change in quantity​X​ demanded / 
% change in price​x 
REVIEW: ​Percentage Change ​= ΔX / initial​x​ · 100% = [ final​x​ - initial​x​ ] / initial​x​ · 100%  
● However, economists want to be as accurate as possible in their calculations, so they 
don’t wanna divide ΔX by just one of the X values.  
● Instead, they use the AVERAGE of the final and initial values to compute for the 
percentage change. 
● That means the exact formula for calculating PεD​x​ would be: 
Q1+Q2 ÷ Q1+Q2  
2 2
the simplified equation: 
● PεD​x​ is ​always positive​. 

Determinants of PεD​x 
A good is more likely to be elastic (↑PεD​x​) if… 
● It has substitutes 
● It is a ​luxury good​ → a good for which demand increases when ave. income increases 
○ Ex. high-end automobiles, jewelry, watches 
○ As people become richer, more luxury goods will be bought 
● It takes up a higher percentage of your income/budget 
○ If the price of ​Chocnut ​were to increase, you wouldn’t really mind buying it 
anyway since it takes up so little of your income. Chocnut, then, is inelastic. 
○ But if you were considering buying a ​condominium unit​ and the price suddenly 
went up, you might change your mind about buying it because it’s a big deal 
considering your budget. 
2nd Quarter | A.Y. 2018 - 2019 
Economics Reviewer 
○ That’s why ​salespeople​ are so important for goods that take up a high fraction 
of income. They coax you into thinking the good is inelastic. 
○ This is also the concept behind the goods placed near cashiers in groceries!! 
They take up a smaller fraction of your income, so you wouldn’t think twice 
about buying them if you wanted to. 
● You have more time to adjust before your purchase 
○ If you have a lot of time before you upgrade your operating system, you can still 
search around for the best price; hence, elasticity is high. 
Think of it this way—if the price of a certain good went up and you wouldn’t really mind buying 
it anyway, it’s inelastic to you. 
A good is more likely to be inelastic (↓PεD​x​) if… 
● It has unique value to you → This is related to the presence of substitutes determinant. 
When a good is unique in your eyes, nothing can replace it. ​It has no substitutes.  
● It is a ​necessity​ → products and services that consumers will buy regardless of the 
changes in their income levels, therefore making these products less sensitive to price 
○ Ex. tobacco products, haircuts, drinking water, electricity 
● You have little time to adjust before your purchase 
○ If you’re panicking to get to the airport ASAP, you’d still get a taxi ride no matter 
how expensive the price offered by the driver is. 
Relating PεD​x​ To Revenue 
When given options for a good’s price, to maximize revenue... 
● Choose the LOWER price if a good is elastic.  
○ A price increase would reduce the total revenue. 
● Choose the HIGHER price if a good is inelastic. Consumers wouldn’t mind. 
● It doesn’t really matter which one you choose if the good is unit-elastic. 
○ A price decrease leads to no change in total revenue. 
Income Elasticity of Demand (Iε εD​​x​) 

calculated by: 
% change in quantity​X​ demanded / 
% change in income 
the simplified equation: 
· ∑P
This time, IεD​x​ can be either positive or negative. 
2nd Quarter | A.Y. 2018 - 2019 
Economics Reviewer 
You can tell if a good represents a normal good, a luxury or a necessity based on IεD​x : ​
  Normal Good 
Inferior Good 
Necessity  Luxury Good 

0 > IεD​x   0 < IεD​x ​ < 1  IεD​x ≥​ 1 

As income grows,   As income grows,  As income grows, 

consumers turn to more  proportionally less is spent  proportionally more is spent 
costly substitutes  on necessities  on luxuries 

Ex. Instant noodles, canned  Ex. Tobacco products,  Ex. Branded goods, 
goods, McDonald’s coffee  haircuts, staple groceries,  expensive holiday trips, 
(compared to Starbucks)  water, electricity  high-end automobiles 
💬 What are independent goods, substitute goods, luxury goods*...? 
● Independent Goods​: Two or more goods whose consumption have absolutely ​no effect 
on each other; meaning, CPε​Dx​ = 0. 
● Substitute Goods​: Two or more goods sharing the ​same function​. This means a good's 
demand is increased when the price of another good is increased; meaning CPε​Dx​ > 0. 
● Normal Goods​: Goods for which ​demand increases when income increases 
● Superior Goods​: Goods that typically make up a greater percentage of a person's 
spending as their income rises 
○ Synonymous with luxury goods according to most sources 
● Inferior Goods​: Goods for which ​demand decreases when income increases 
*See section on PεD​x​ for the definition of luxury and necessity goods. 

Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand (CPε ε​Dx​) 

calculated by: 
% change in quantity​X​ demanded / 
% change in price​y 
the simplified equation: 
ΔQ ∑Q y
ΔP y
· ∑P
Complementary goods—goods used in adjunct with each other, ​Ex. coffee and 
coffeemate​—have a negative CPε​Dx​. See the review section above for the case with substitute 
goods and independent goods. 
2nd Quarter | A.Y. 2018 - 2019 
Economics Reviewer 

→ refers to the ultimate economic effect of a tax on both producers and consumers 
💬 How does elasticity affect the incidence of tax? 
The tax incidence depends on the relative price elasticity of supply and demand. The presence 
of a tax will increase production costs for the producers, ​shifting the supply curve to the left​. 
The table below shows the different cases depending on PεD. 
Curve  Degree of Elasticity  Who pays the tax? 

Perfectly Inelastic  ● The burden is shifted entirely forward to the 
PεD​x =​ 0  consumers ALONE.  

Relatively Inelastic  ● The burden is shifted towards the consumers. 
0 < PεD​x <​ 1  ● The producers’ revenues are also affected by 
the tax, though not so much as what the 
  consumers. experience. 

Unit-Elastic  ● The consumers and producers share the 
PεD​x =​ 1   burden of the tax equally. 

Relatively Elastic  ● The burden is shifted towards the producers. 
PεD​x >​ 1  ● The consumers are also affected by the tax, 
though not so much as what the producers. 

Relatively Elastic  ● The burden is shifted entirely backward to the 
PεD​x =​ ∞  producers ALONE.  
2nd Quarter | A.Y. 2018 - 2019 
Economics Reviewer 

Figure 2. ​A graph illustrating the incidence of  Figure 3. ​A graph illustrating the incidence 
a tax on producers. A unit-elastic curve is  of a tax on consumers. A unit-elastic curve 
assumed for both demand and supply.  is assumed for both demand and supply. 
● The revenue shown in the graph above goes to the government. Some of it comes from 
the consumers (upper box), others from producers (lower box). These rectangles show 
the ​total tax burdens​ of both parties. 
● DWL stands for ​Deadweight Loss​. It’s the fall in total surplus cause by the tax, and a loss 
of economic efficiency. No one gets any revenue from that. 
○ Being in the government is hard because you have to choose between social 
equity and economic efficiency. ​Equity is the opportunity cost of efficiency. 
Sure, you can raise taxes to increase revenue, but people will complain that it’s 
too high. At the same time, you can tax citizens lower but they’ll also complain 
because you won’t have enough funds for government programs. Hayst. 
● The ​per unit tax burden​ can be calculated by taking the vertical distance between the 
original equilibrium point and the new one caused by the tax. In the context of Fig. 2, 
that’s ​Ptax​
​ - P​E​. 
● Consumer Surplus​: Refers to the difference 
between what consumers are willing to pay 
and what they actually pay. 
● Producer Surplus​: Refers to the difference 
between what producers are willing to 
produce and what they actually produce. 
Figure 4. ​A graph illustrating ​consumer  
and ​producer​​ surplus.  F 
2nd Quarter | A.Y. 2018 - 2019 
Economics Reviewer 

● Do not memorize, understand. 
● Go back to first quarter topics. 
● You ace tests and recitations by overlearning, and looking beyond the material in front 
of you. Learn about current issues, watch Crash Course, and study with Khan Academy. 
● Do practice exercises. Here are some— 
● Remember to stay calm throughout the test! Good luck y’all <33 
● When all else fails (literally), remember that you are not your grade.