Sie sind auf Seite 1von 49

Strategies for General & Special

Education
Glendon West
 On January 8, 2002, President Bush
signed the No Child Left Behind Act
(NCLB) into law. It is designed to
No Child Left ensure that “From this day forward
Behind all students will have a better
chance to learn, to excel, and to live
out their dreams.”
 This is the mantra of the Education
Ministry.
Every Child can  Every child, disabled or non-
Learn, and Every disabled is unique and learn at
Child Must Learn different rate and pace. It does not
mean that they’re unable to learn.
 Good education is special
education which is tailored made
Every Child can for all students.
Learn, and Every  Many of the strategies used in
Child Must Learn special education can be used in
the general education classroom.
“We have a responsibility to ensure
that every individual has the
opportunity to receive a high-quality
Every Child can
education, from prekindergarten to
Learn, and Every
Child Must Learn (primary) and secondary to special
education…”
(Jim Jeffords)
 Just as assessment helps students,
assessment helps teachers. Frequent
First Step in assessment allows teachers to see if their
Teaching - teaching has been effective. Assessment
Assessment also allows teachers to ensure students
learn what they need to know in order to
meet the course's learning objectives.
 A vital element in raising
achievement scores of students
involves using evidence-based
Evidence-based teaching practices. As a result,
teaching educators are being asked to
practices successfully teach ALL students,
and to accommodate students who
need it (U.S. Department of
Education, 2007).
 ClassWide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) is an
instructional strategy designed to
effectively teach specific information
to students with a variety of skill
levels. In CWPT, students work
together to learn a specific set of
Classwide and information. CWPT uses a combination
Peer Tutoring of instructional components that
include partner pairing, systematic
content coverage, immediate error
correction, frequent testing, team
competition and point earning
(Greenwood et al., 1997)
 Direct instruction (DI) is a
scientifically-based instructional
approach that has proven results for
students with disabilities. The DI
approach uses detailed teaching
Direct procedures that are presented in a
specific order (Tarver, 1999). It is built
Instruction around the concept that every child
can learn if we teach them carefully
and teachers can be successful with
effective instructional delivery
techniques.
 Self-monitoring is a behavior
management strategy, effective for
helping students improve their
academic performance and attention
behaviors (Mitchum, Young, West, &
Self-Monitoring Benyo, 2001). It is a student-centered
strategy that can be used to increase
on-task behavior of students by
encouraging them to monitor their
own behavior.
 Co-teaching is a teaching model used to
support inclusion of students with
disabilities in general education settings.
In this model, one general education
teacher and one special education
Co-teaching teacher share all instructional
responsibilities within one single
classroom. It can potentially bring the
best of teacher talents together to benefit
all students.
 Active learning approach is generally
defined as any instructional method that
engages students in the learning process.
Active Learning This approach considers the unique
Approach learning characteristics of students with
mild disabilities in the general education
classroom along-side the educational
expectations of these students.
1. Individual evaluation and
Three Elements of
the Active intervention – the student is
Learning evaluated to identify both strengths
Approach and weaknesses.
2. Cognitive learning strategy
instruction – students are taught to
Three Elements of
the Active use strategies more effectively.
Learning Students are taught cognitive
Approach strategies and how to apply these to
the demands of their classes.
3. Explicit instruction – the teacher
models the skill for the student,
guides the practice of the skill, and
Three Elements of monitors the student as he/she
the Active practices using the skill
Learning independently and then applies the
Approach skill in his/her classes. The teacher
uses systematic or direct instruction
in teaching the skill.
INEFFECTIVE LEARNER

 Do not use strategies or activate


prior knowledge PASSIVE
The learning LEARNER
characteristics of
students with mild EFFECTIVE LEARNER
disabilities and ALA
 Uses strategies and activates prior
knowledge ACTIVE LEARNER
INEFFECTIVE LEARNER

 Needs constant prompting and


guidance when learning and
The learning studying LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
characteristics of
students with mild EFFECTIVE LEARNER
disabilities and ALA
 Approaches learning and studying
without teacher prompting and
guidance INDEPENDENT LEARNER
INEFFECTIVE LEARNER

 Does not monitor their thinking


processes. Does not plan ahead
The learning METACOGNITIVE WEAKNESS
characteristics of
students with mild EFFECTIVE LEARNER
disabilities and ALA
 Monitors thinking processes and
plans ahead METACOGNITIVE
STRENGTHS
INEFFECTIVE LEARNER

 Does not use strategies to aid short


and long term recall of information
The learning MEMORY WEAKNESS
characteristics of
students with mild EFFECTIVE LEARNER
disabilities and ALA
 Uses strategies to aid short and
long term recall of information
MEMORY STRENGTHS
INEFFECTIVE LEARNER

 Cannot sustain attention for extended


periods and cannot select relevant
from irrelevant information
The learning ATTENTION WEAKNESS
characteristics of
students with mild EFFECTIVE LEARNER
disabilities and ALA
 Sustains attention over long periods
and can select relevant from irrelevant
information ATTENTION STRENGTHS
Many children with LD are passive
learners. Passive learners do not:
■ approach learning with a plan
■ self-regulate their learning
Teaching Students
with MILD ■ make necessary connections between
DISABILITIES ideas
■ use effective learning strategies
■ generalize information learner to new
situations
1. Mnemonic strategies
2. Visualization
Active Learning 3. Verbalization
Approach uses 4. Graphic Organizer
six strategies
5. Structured Steps
6. Multisensory Learning
These are memory aids. They
provide structured ways to aid the
Mnemonic recall of information by creating
Strategies associations that do not exist
naturally in the content.
Mnemonic
Strategies
Mnemonic
Strategies
 Visualizing the past- by closing her eyes and
picturing a spelling word learnt, a student may
recall the correct sequence of letter in a word
 Creating a visual image that corresponds with
Visualization the information to be understood or
remembered - by picturing a caterpillar
emerging from its pupa a student may
remember the stages in the life cycle of a
butterfly.
 Verbal rehearsal of information- this is
repeating aloud information to be
learned
 Think alouds– uses language to guide
Verbalization behaviour and deepen understanding of a
concept, problem solving process or a
learning task . Example the individual
speaks to himself saying aloud First I
cross the laces, then I….
 The think alouds strategy is effective in
remembering strategy steps and also help
Verbalization students to monitor their understanding
and develop metacognitive awareness
 These are diagrams, drawings or
pictures that are used to visually
present or organize information.
 They help students to see how
Graphic information relates and is
connected
Organizer
 Graphic organizers can be
presented to students to help them
learn or students can make their
own graphic organizers.
Graphic
Organizer
 A series of steps are identified for students to follow. ■
The student learns the steps in the order in which they
are presented as a way of organizing the information.
Example when learning writing process; students learn
the steps in this writing strategy
Structured 1. Prewriting
Steps 2. Drafting
3. Revising
4. Editing
5. Publishing
 Use short and simple sentences to ensure
understanding.
 Repeat instructions or directions frequently.
 Ask student if further clarification is necessary.
Teaching Students  Keep distractions and transitions to a minimum.
with Mild  Teach specific skills whenever necessary.
Intellectual  Provide an encouraging and supportive learning
Disabilities environment.
 Use alternative instructional strategies and
alternative assessment methods.
 Explicitly teach organizational skills.
 Keep conversations as normal as possible for inclusion
with peers.
 Teach the difference between literal and figurative
Teaching Students language.

with Mild  Direct student’s attention to critical differences when


teaching concepts.
Intellectual  Remove distractions that may keep student from
Disabilities attending.
 Increase difficulty of tasks over time.
 Teach student decision-making rules for discriminating
important from unimportant details.
 Explicitly teach organizational skills.
 Teach the difference between literal and figurative
language.
 Direct student’s attention to critical differences
Teaching Students when teaching concepts.
with Mild  Remove distractions that may keep student from
Intellectual attending.
Disabilities  Increase difficulty of tasks over time.
 Teach student decision-making rules for
discriminating important from unimportant details.
 Use strategies such as chunking, backward shaping
(teach the last part of a skill first), forward shaping,
and role modeling.

Teaching Students  Use mnemonics (words, sentences, pictures,


devices, or techniques for improving or
with Mild strengthening memory).
Intellectual
 Intermix high probability tasks (easier tasks) with
Disabilities lower probability tasks (more difficult tasks).
 Use concrete items and examples to explain new
concepts.
 Do not assume that the student will perform the
same way today as they did yesterday.
 Involve families and significant others in learning
activities.
Teaching Students  Develop a procedure for the student to ask for help
with Mild (e.g. cue card, raising hand)..

Intellectual  Be aware that a student may be treated with


medications that could affect performance and
Disabilities processing speed.
 Proceed in small ordered steps and review each
frequently.
 Emphasize the student's successes.
 Consider alternate activities that would be less
difficult for the student, while maintaining the
same or similar learning objectives.
Teaching Students  Provide direct instruction in reading skills.
with Mild  Provide specific and immediate corrective
Intellectual feedback.
Disabilities  Allow more time for examinations, tests, and
quizzes.
 Show what you mean rather than just giving
verbal directions.
 Provide the student with hands-on materials and
experiences.
 Break longer, new tasks into small steps.
 Demonstrate the steps in a task, and have student perform
Teaching Students the steps, one at a time.
 Speak directly to the student.
with Mild
 Avoid long, complex words, technical words, or jargon.
Intellectual
 Use heavy visual cues (e.g. objects, pictures, models, or
Disabilities diagrams) to promote understanding.
 Target functional academics that will best prepare student
for independent living and vocational contexts.
 Ensure that the student has a way to
appropriately express their wants and needs.
 If the student is non-verbal, identify and
establish an appropriate functional
Teaching Students communication system (e.g. sign language,
with Picture Exchange Communication System
Communication (PECS), voice output, etc.).
Disorders  Understand that picture schedules and
functional communication systems are NOT the
same thing; they do not serve the same purpose.
 Ensure that the student has a way to
appropriately express their wants and needs.
 If the student is non-verbal, identify and
establish an appropriate functional
Teaching Students communication system (e.g. sign language,
with Picture Exchange Communication System
Communication (PECS), voice output, etc.).
Disorders  Understand that picture schedules and
functional communication systems are NOT the
same thing; they do not serve the same purpose.
 Label areas in the room with words and
pictures.
 Use sequencing cards to teach the order of
events.
Teaching Students  If you do not understand what the student is
with saying, ask them to repeat what they have just
said.
Communication
 Ask student to show you how they say “yes”
Disorders and “no” – and then ask yes/no questions.
 Engage students in role-plays to target
reciprocal conversation skills
 Provide structure and sameness (rules,
schedules)
Teaching  Use pictures to support words
Students with  Use visual cues along with verbal
Autism requests
 Use concrete language – avoid using
idioms, words with double meanings,
sarcasm, negatives, nicknames.
 Use short, clear and direct sentences
 Use concrete materials to teach concepts
Teaching  Provide a ‘safe place’ in the room for children
Students with who feel overwhelmed- referred to as a safe
period
Autism
 Help students to adapt to changes in routine by
preparing them for what may happen next.
 Break tasks into small steps
Strategies for  Ignore inappropriate behaviors
students with  Reward appropriate behaviors
Emotional &  Have clear rules Ensure students
Behavioural understand the rules
Disorders [EBD]
 Create a positive classroom environment
Strategies for  Be consistent in carrying out the rules
students with
Emotional &  Provide models of appropriate behaviors
Behavioural  Maintain a positive relationship with
Disorders [EBD] students
 Model desired behaviors, and clearly identify
what behaviors you expect in the classroom.
Strategies for  Use behavior contracts or token economies if
students with necessary..
Emotional &  Reinforce desirable behaviors that serve as
Behavioural alternatives to inappropriate behaviors.
Disorders [EBD]
 Ensure that the student knows the day's
schedule at the start of each day and can
reference schedule throughout day.
 Create a structured environment with
predictable routines.
Strategies for  Create a visual / picture schedule with
students with daily routine.
Emotional &  Allow students opportunities to move
Behavioural during instruction.
Disorders [EBD]
 Use visual organizers to help the student
evaluate appropriate alternatives to
maladaptive behavior.
 Create a “calming area” or a “sensory
area.”
 Explicitly teach and practice coping,
calming strategies.
Strategies for  When dealing with conflict, explain what
students with happened in as few words as possible
Emotional & and use a calm, not-angry voice.
Behavioural  Point out consequences of the student’s
Disorders [EBD] behavior.
 Brainstorm better choice(s) with students.
 Use language to describe feelings and
experiences.
Strategies for  Explain your reasons for limits and rules
students with in language that students can understand.
Emotional &  Model the benefits involved in
Behavioural cooperating.
Disorders [EBD]
 Use natural consequences when possible
to reinforce cause and effect involved in a
rule, request, or limit