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Injection Pump

HYUNDAI MIGHTY W Engine


COMMON RAIL SYSTEM (CRS)
Operation Manual

June 2004

00400075E
© 2009 DENSO CORPORATION
All Rights Reserved. This book may not be reproduced
or copied, in whole or in part, without the written
permission of the publisher.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. DENSO PRODUCTS LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


2. SYSTEM OUTLINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. DESCRIPTION OF CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5. CONTROL TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6. DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1. DENSO PRODUCTS LIST
1-1. Vehicle Specifications

Name Engine Type Engine Displacement Reference

MIGHTY W 3.9 L Compact trucks: 2 ton, 2.5 ton, 3 ton

1-2. Part Numbers

Part Name DENSO Part Number Customer Part Number Reference

Supply Pump 294000-0290 33100-45700 HP-3 type


Injector 095000-5550 33800-45700
Rail 095440-0600 31440-45700
Engine ECU 275800-3142 39100-45700
NE Sensor 029600-0570 39340-45700 Magnetic induction type
TDC Sensor (G Sensor) 949979-1450 39350-45700 Magneto resistance element
type
Accelerator Pedal Position - - Non-DENSO product
Sensor
Coolant Temperature Sensor - - Non-DENSO product
Manifold Absolute Pressure - - Non-DENSO product
(MAP) Sensor
Intake Air Temperature Sensor - - Non-DENSO product
2. SYSTEM OUTLINE
Focused on complying with exhaust gas regulations for diesel engines, the CRS was developed to achieve the following: 1)
a further reduction in fuel consumption, 2) improved quietness, and 3) higher output.
2-1. System Characteristics
The CRS uses a pressure accumulation chamber called a "rail" to store high-pressure fuel. This high-pressure fuel is
then injected into each engine cylinder from solenoid controlled injectors. Since the engine ECU controls the injection
system (injection pressure, injection rate, and injection timing), the CRS achieves independent control uninfluenced by
engine rotational speed or load. Therefore, stable injection pressures can be maintained, specifically in the engine low
rotational speed region. As a result, the black smoke inherent to diesel engines during take-off and acceleration is sup-
pressed, exhaust gas is cleaner and reduced in quantity, and higher output is achieved.

A. Injection pressure control


High-pressure injection from the engine low rotational speed region.
Optimal control to minimize particulate, and NOx exhaust gas.
B. Injection timing control
More precise, optimal control suited to driving conditions.
C. Injection rate control
Pilot injection that delivers a very small injection prior to the main injection.
2-2. OUTLINE OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION
A. Configuration
The primary CRS consists of a supply pump, rail, injectors, and engine ECU.

B. Operation
a. Supply pump
The supply pump draws in fuel from the fuel tank, and delivers high-pressure fuel to the rail. The rail internal pressure is
controlled by the quantity of fuel discharged from the supply pump. The aforementioned control is performed by the Suc-
tion Control Valve (SCV) inside the supply pump based on signals from the engine ECU.
b. Rail
The rail is positioned between the supply pump and injectors to store high-pressure fuel.
c. Injectors
In place of the conventional injector nozzle, the injectors equipped with the CRS use signals from the engine ECU to
achieve optimal injection. The quantity, rate, and timing for the fuel discharged from the injectors is determined by signals
from the engine ECU. These signals control the length of time that the injectors are energized, as well as the timing for
injector energization.
d. Engine ECU
The engine ECU calculates data detected from each sensor to provide overall control of items such as the following: fuel
injection quantity, fuel injection timing, injection pressure, and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR.)
2-3. Fuel System and Control System
A. Fuel system
The fuel system starts from the fuel filter, and continues through the supply pump, and rail until the the diesel fuel is dis-
charged from the injectors. The fuel system also includes the return path to the fuel tank via the overflow pipe.
B. Control system
In the control system, the engine ECU regulates fuel injection based on signals from each system sensor. The control
system can be divided by component type into three categories: 1) sensors, 2) the engine ECU, and 3) actuators.

a. Sensors
Sensors convert engine and driving status into detectable electric signals.
b. Engine ECU
The engine ECU performs calculations based on the electric signals from each sensor, then sends signals to each ac-
tuator to achieve the optimal system conditions.
c. Actuators
The actuators operate based on electric signals received from the engine ECU. The fuel injection system controls the
actuators electrically. The injection quantity and injection timing are determined by how long the injector Two Way Valve
(TWV) is energized, while injection pressure is determined by controlling the Suction Control Valve (SCV) for the supply
pump.
3. COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION
3-1. Supply Pump (HP-3)
A. Outline
The HP3 supply pump primarily consists of the pump body (eccentric cam, ring cam, and plungers), SCV, fuel tempera-
ture sensor, and fuel pump.
Two plungers are mounted in vertical opposition on the outside of the ring cam, creating a compact assembly.

The supply pump is actuated in a 1:1 ratio in relation to the engine. The feed pump (trochoid type) is built into the supply
pump to draw fuel up from the fuel tank for delivery to the plunger chamber.
Fuel delivered to the plunger chamber is placed under high pressure by the two plungers (driven by the internal cam-
shaft), then sent to the rail. The quantity and timing for the fuel supplied to the rail is controlled by SCV operation via
signals from the engine ECU. The SCV described herein is a normally open type (when not energized, the SCV is open.)
*1: Expanded View (Reference)

B. Fuel flow inside the supply pump


Fuel drawn from the fuel tank is sent to the rail from inside the supply pump through the path shown in the figure below.
C. Supply pump construction
An eccentric cam is attached to the supply pump drive shaft.
In turn, the eccentric cam fits into the ring cam.

When the drive shaft rotates, the eccentric cam turns "eccentrically". As a result, the ring cam moves up and down while
rotating.

Plungers and suction valves are attached to the top of the


ring cam. The feed pump is then attached to the end of the
drive shaft.
D. Supply pump operation
As shown in the figure below, the ring cam and plunger A are pushed upward by eccentric cam rotation. Conversely,
plunger B is pulled in the opposite direction of plunger A due to spring force. As a result, plunger B draws in fuel, while
plunger A sends fuel to the rail.
3-2. Explanation of Supply Pump Components
A. Feed pump
The feed pump is a trochoid type pump built into the supply pump. The feed pump draws fuel from the fuel tank, and
sends the fuel to the two plungers via the SCV. The feed pump is operated by the drive shaft. When the feed pump inner
rotor turns, an amount of fuel is drawn in from the suction side of the pump that is equivalent to the space (increasing or
decreasing in size) created between the outer and inner rotors. This fuel is then sent to the pump chamber from the dis-
charge side of the feed pump.

B. Suction Control Valve (SCV)


The SCV is a linear solenoid type valve. The engine ECU controls the amount of time that the SCV is energized (duty
ratio). In turn, the SCV regulates the fuel flow volume supplied from the high-pressure plungers.
The SCV reduces the supply pump actuation load by drawing in only the quantity of fuel necessary to meet the target
rail pressure.
When electric current is sent through the SCV, the internal
needle valve moves in accordance with the duty ratio to con-
trol the fuel flow volume.
When the SCV is off, the needle valve is pressed down by the
return spring. As a result, the fuel path completely opens,
supplying fuel from the plungers (entire quantity suctioned,
entire quantity discharged.)
When the SCV is on, the return spring contracts, and the fuel
path closes.
When the SCV is cycled on and off, fuel is supplied in a quan-
tity corresponding to the SCV open surface area(determined
by the actuation duty ratio). The fuel is then discharged from
the plungers.
a. Short duty on time large valve opening large suction quantity
When: short duty on time large valve opening large suction quantity
b. Long duty on time small valve opening small suction quantity
When: long duty on time small valve opening small suction quantity
c. Relationship between actuation signals and current (magnetomotive force)
Diagram of the Relationship Between Actuation Signals and Current (Magnetomotive Force)

C. Attention points for supply pump removal and attachment (reference)


To preserve SCV (attached to the supply pump) performance accuracy, the engine ECU performs idle learning correc-
tions. Be aware that when the supply pump is replaced, work must be done with a vehicle manufacturer tester (at a car
dealer) to match the learning value for the old SCV with the new SCV.
3-3. Rail
A. Outline
The rail stores high-pressure fuel delivered from the supply pump for distribution to the individual injector for each cylin-
der. A rail pressure sensor and pressure limiter are attached to the rail. The rail pressure sensor detects the pressure of
the fuel inside the rail, and sends a corresponding signal to the engine ECU. The engine ECU controls the supply pump
SCV based on this signal to regulate pressure inside the rail.

B. Rail pressure sensor


The rail pressure sensor detects fuel pressure within the rail, and sends a corresponding signal to the ECU. The rail pres-
sure sensor is a Piezo resistance type semiconductor pressure sensor. The sensor uses the pressure added to a metal
diaphragm, and the accompanying changes in electrical resistance to detect pressure inside the rail.
C. Pressure limiter
The pressure limiter is a valve that opens to release excess pressure when the rail internal pressure reaches an abnor-
mally high value. When rail internal pressure reaches approximately 221 MPa, the pressure limiter opens. When pres-
sure returns to approximately 50 MPa, the pressure limiter closes. Fuel released from the pressure limiter is returned to
the fuel tank.

D. Flow damper
The flow damper mitigates pressure pulsations in the rail, and functions to supply fuel when leaks occur downstream of
the damper. When pressure pulsations occur in the rail, the flow damper piston acts as a damper to mitigate the pulsa-
tions with spring drag and orifice flow resistance. When a fuel leak occurs in an injection pipe or injector, the balance
between the following three forces is disturbed: 1) the pressure of the fuel being supplied via the orifice downstream of
the flow damper, 2) spring drag, and 3) the fuel pressure being applied to the piston surface prior to the orifice. As a
result, the end of the piston closes the fuel supply port to terminate the supply of fuel. When rail internal pressure reaches
approximately 1 MPa (10 kg/cm2), the fuel damper recovers.
3-4. Injectors
A. Outline
The CRS uses compact, energy efficient, TWV electromagnetic control type injectors.
B. Construction
C. Operation
The TWV regulates control chamber internal pressure, and starts and stops injection by opening and closing the outlet
orifice path.

a. Non-injection
When no current is supplied to the solenoid, the TWV is pushed downward by the spring, and the outlet orifice closes.
Therefore, the control chamber pressure pushing down on the command piston becomes equal to the pressure pushing
the nozzle needle up. The nozzle needle closes due to nozzle spring force, and the difference in areas to which pressure
is being applied, and as a result, fuel is not injected.
b. Injection
When current is initially applied to the solenoid, the attraction of the solenoid pulls the TWV up, opening the outlet orifice
and allowing fuel to flow out of the control chamber. As the fuel flows out, control chamber pressure decreases, pulling
the command piston up. As a result, the nozzle needle rises, and injection begins.
c. Injection complete
When current continues to be applied to the solenoid, the nozzle is lifted fully, and the maximum injection rate is
achieved. When current to the solenoid is turned off, the TWV falls and closes the orifice. Fuel then flows into the control
chamber via the inlet orifice, increasing the pressure. As a result, the nozzle needle rapidly closes, and injection stops.
D. Injectors with QR codes
a. QR codes
QR Code Location

Correction Points Using QR Codes


b. Service instructions
When replacing the injectors or the engine ECU, it is necessary to record the ID codes in the ECU using a diagnostic tool
(available from the vehicle manufacturer.)
<Attention>
(Failing to correctly register the ID codes for the installed injectors may lead to engine malfunction such as rough idling
and/or abnormal noise.)
Injector Replacement

Engine ECU Replacement


4. DESCRIPTION OF CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
4-1. Engine Control System Block Diagram

4-2. Sensors and Relays


A. NE sensor
The NE sensor is a Magnetic Pick Up (MPU) type sensor.
When a signal pulsar attached to the flywheel passes over
the sensor, the magnetic field of a coil within the sensor
changes, generating AC voltage. A signal pulsar is positioned
every 6° on the flywheel with the exception of four missing
teeth, bringing the total number of signal pulsars to 56.
Therefore, 112 pulses are outputted for every two revolutions
of the engine. These signals are used to detect engine rota-
tional speed, and the crank angle every 6°.

B. Top Dead Center (TDC) sensor (cylinder recognition


sensor)
The TDC sensor is an Magneto Resistive Element (MRE)
type sensor. When a signal pulsar attached to the flywheel
passes over the sensor, the magnetic resistance changes.
The resultant change in current is converted into a rectangu-
lar wave by an internal IC circuit, and is outputted to the en-
gine ECU as a signal. A cylinder recognition pulsar is
attached to the engine camshaft gear to output the cylinder
recognition signal.
There are four pulsars every 90° on the camshaft, plus one
additional pulsar. Therefore, for every revolution of the pump
(or two engine revolutions), five pulses are outputted. Cylin-
der recognition is referenced by combining the NE signal with
the TDC signal. Additionally, the irregular pulsar is used to
distinguish cylinder #1.

TDC for cylinder # 1 occurs after the irregular pulse, located 96°CA after the No. 1 TDC reference signal. The interval
between each cylinder is the same number of degrees (refer to the chart below.)

C. Fuel temperature sensor (THL)


The fuel temperature sensor is mounted on the supply pump to detect fuel temperature, and to send a corresponding
signal to the engine ECU. The detection portion of the sensor utilizes a thermistor in which the internal resistance chang-
es according to the temperature. The engine ECU applies voltage to the thermistor, and detects the resulting voltage
change from variations in the engine ECU internal resistance value, and the thermistor resistance value. This voltage
change is then detected as a change in temperature. The resistance value of the sensor at 20°C is 2.45kW, and 1.15kW
at 40°C.
D. Atmospheric pressure sensor (built into the engine ECU)
The atmospheric pressure sensor converts atmospheric pressure into an electrical signal. This signal is inputted into the
engine ECU to correct the maximum injection quantity data programmed into the ECU.

4-3. Engine ECU


A. Outline
The engine ECU is the command center that controls the fuel injection system, and overall engine operation.
B. External wiring diagram
C. Terminal layout

D. Terminal symbol explanation


Terminals 1-34

No. Terminal Name Signal Name No. Terminal Name Signal Name
1 (GND) Signal Ground (Auxiliary) 18 (CASE GND) Case Earth (Auxiliary)
2 (GND) Signal Ground (Auxiliary) 19 KWP2000 KWP2000 K Line
3 IN3 Auxiliary 20 IN1 -
4 ÅiIN3-) Auxiliary 21 AD1 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor 1
5 +B Power 22 AD2 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor 2
6 +B Power 23 AD10 PTO Accelerator Position Sensor
7 +B Power 24 AD12 Auxiliary
8 TAC1 Tachometer Signal (SOURCE) 25 AD19 Auxiliary
9 TAC2 Tachometer Signal (SINK) 26 AD20 Auxiliary
10 POUT1 Auxiliary 27 VS1 Vehicle Speed Sensor
11 POUT2 Auxiliary 28 CASE GND Case Ground
12 POUT3 Auxiliary 29 IN2 -
13 POUT4 Auxiliary 30 AD14 Idle Volume
14 PIN1 Auxiliary 31 AD15 Auxiliary
15 PIN2 Auxiliary 32 AD16 Intake Air Temperature Sensor
16 33 AD17 Auxiliary
17 34 AD18 Auxiliary

Terminals 35-69

No. Terminal Name Signal Name No. Terminal Name Signal Name
35 +BF +BF (Flyback +B) 53 SW7 Brake Switch
36 OUT5 Exhaust Brake Solenoid Valve 54 A-GND4 Sensor Ground 4
37 OUT6 Auxiliary 55 A-GND5 Sensor Ground 5
38 OUT7 Auxiliary 56 SW1 Key Switch
39 NE-SLD Engine Rotational Speed Shield Earth 57 A-VCC4 Sensor Power Supply 4
40 NE+ Engine Rotational Speed + 58 SW8 Idle Switch (Accelerator Switch)
41 NE- Engine Rotational Speed - 59 SW10 Auxiliary
42 OUT1 Auxiliary 60 SW12 Auxiliary
43 OUT2 Overheat Warning Light 61 SW17 Auxiliary
44 OUT3 Exhaust Brake Light 62 AD21 Auxiliary
45 OUT4 Glow Light 63 AD22 Auxiliary
46 SW1 Key Switch 64
47 OUT8 Auxiliary 65 A-VCC5 Sensor Power Supply 5
48 SW2 Starter Switch 66 SW9 Neutral Switch
49 SW3 Exhaust Brake Switch 67 SW11 Auxiliary
50 SW4 Engine Stop Switch 68 SW16 Diagnosis Switch
51 SW5 Idle Up Switch 69 SW18 Auxiliary
52 SW6 Auxiliary
Terminals 70-101

No. Terminal Name Signal Name No. Terminal Name Signal Name
70 OUT19 Glow Relay 86 SW31 Auxiliary
71 OUT20 Glow Relay 87 SW31 Auxiliary
72 GND Signal Ground 88 SW20 Idle Down Switch
73 GND Signal Ground 89 SW21 Power Take Off (PTO) Switch
74 OUT17 Main Relay 90 SW25 Auxiliary
75 OUT18 Main Relay 91 SW26 Auxiliary
76 +BF +BF (Flyback +B) 92 SW13 Auxiliary
77 SW27 Clutch Switch 93 SW28 Auxiliary
78 SW19 Auxiliary 94 SW29 Auxiliary
79 SW14 Auxiliary 95 CAN2H CAN2 High
80 SW15 Auxiliary 96 CAN2L CAN2 Low
81 SW24 A/C Idle Up Switch 97 SW32 Auxiliary
82 S-OUT1 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) 1 98 SW22 QT CUT Switch
83 S-OUT2 Auxiliary 99 SW23 Auxiliary
84 S-OUT3 Auxiliary 100 SW30 Auxiliary
85 S-OUT4 Auxiliary 101 CAN2-SLD CAN2 Shield Earth

Terminals 102-136

No. Terminal Name Signal Name No. Terminal Name Signal Name
102 P-GND Power Ground 120 G Cam Angle Signal
103 TWV1 Injector Actuation Signal 1 121 AD4 Rail Pressure Sensor 1
104 TWV3 Injector Actuation Signal 3 122 AD11 Auxiliary
105 TWV5 Injector Actuation Signal 5 123 A-VCC3 Sensor Power Supply 3
106 COMMON1 Injector Actuation Signal 1 124 NE-VCC Auxiliary
107 COMMON1 Injector Actuation Signal 1 125 A-VCC2 Sensor Power Supply 2
108 OUT9 Auxiliary 126 A-VCC1 Sensor Power Supply 1
109 OUT10 Auxiliary 127 AD13 Auxiliary
110 OUT11 Auxiliary 128 AD3 MAP Sensor
111 OUT12 Auxiliary 129 (GND) Signal Ground (Auxiliary)
112 OUT13 Auxiliary 130 (GND) Signal Ground (Auxiliary)
113 OUT14 Auxiliary 131 G-GND Cam Angle Ground
114 OUT15 Auxiliary 132 AD5 Rail Pressure Sensor 2
115 OUT16 Auxiliary 133 G-VCC Cam Angle VCC (5 V)
116 134 A-GND1 Sensor Ground 1
117 135 A-GND2 Sensor Ground 2
118 GND Sensor Ground 6 136 A-GND3 Sensor Ground 3
119 NE (MRE) -
Terminals 137-167

No. Terminal Name Signal Name No. Terminal Name Signal Name
137 TWV2 Injector Actuation Signal 2 153 PCV1 Auxiliary
138 TWV4 Injector Actuation Signal 4 154 AD6 Auxiliary
139 TWV6 Injector Actuation Signal 6 155 AD7 Coolant Temperature Sensor
140 P-GND Power Ground 156
141 P-GND Power Ground 157 CAN1H CAN1 High
142 COMMON2 Injector Actuation Power Supply 2 158 CAN1L CAN2 Low
143 COMMON2 Injector Actuation Power Supply 2 159
144 SCVLO HP3, 4 Lo 160
145 SCVLO HP3, 4 Lo 161 (CASE GND) Case Earth (Auxiliary)
146 SCVHI HP3, 4 Hi 162 AD8 Auxiliary
147 SCVHI HP3, 4 Hi 163 AD9 Fuel Temperature Sensor 2
148 164
149 165 CAN1-SLD Auxiliary
150 PCV2 Auxiliary 166
151 PCV2 Auxiliary 167 (CASE GND) Case Earth (Auxiliary)
152 PCV1 Auxiliary
5. CONTROL TYPES
The CRS provides more appropriate control of the fuel injection quantity and injection timing than the mechanical gover-
nor and timer used in the conventional injection pump. In system control, the engine ECU performs the necessary cal-
culations based on signals received from the sensors located on the engine and the vehicle. The ECU then controls the
timing and duration of the current that is applied to the injectors in order to obtain optimal injection timing and injection
quantity.
5-1. Control Functions
A. Fuel injection rate control function
When the specified conditions are satisfied, fuel injection rate control performs a pilot injection to deliver a very small
injection quantity prior to the main injection. The purpose of this function is to improve engine startability.
B. Fuel injection quantity control function
The fuel injection quantity control function replaces the function of the governor in the conventional injection pump. The
optimal injection quantity is achieved by regulating fuel injection based on engine rotational speed and accelerator pedal
position signals.
C. Fuel injection timing control function
The fuel injection timing control function replaces the conventional timer function. The optimal injection timing is achieved
by performing control based on engine speed and injection quantity.
D. Fuel injection pressure control function (rail pressure control function)
The fuel injection pressure control function controls the pump discharge quantity by measuring the fuel pressure with the
rail pressure sensor. Fuel pressure information is then fed back to the engine ECU. Pressure feedback control is per-
formed so that the discharge quantity matches the optimal (command) value set in accordance with the engine rotational
speed and the injection quantity.
5-2. Fuel Injection Rate Control
A. Main injection
As shown in the figure below, main injection begins just prior to engine TDC, and is directly related to engine output.
Depending on engine running conditions, injections other than the main injection may or may not be performed, or may
be regulated in quantity or duration.
B. Pre-injection
Pre-injection is a very small injection that is performed prior to the main injection (refer to the graph on the previous page).
While the injection rate increases due to the use of high-pressure fuel injection, the ignition lag (the delay from the start
of injection to the beginning of combustion) cannot be shortened to less than a set value. As a result, the quantity of fuel
injected before ignition increases, and explosive combustion occurs at the time of ignition, increasing both NOx and
noise. To counteract these conditions, a pre-injection is provided to keep the initial injection at the minimum required rate.
As a result, the primary explosive combustion is dampened, reducing NOx and noise.

C. Pilot injection
The pilot injection is a small injection performed prior to the
main injection to increase startability when engine rotational
speed is low at engine start (pre-heating effect.)
5-3. Fuel Injection Quantity Control
A. Starting injection quantity
The injection quantity when the engine is started is deter-
mined by engine rotational speed and coolant temperature.
As the coolant temperature decreases, the injection quantity
increases. When engine rotational speed reaches a specified
value, the injection quantity decreases.

B. Injection quantity increase delay correction during


acceleration
If there is a large change in the accelerator pedal position
when accelerating, the injection quantity increase is delayed
in order to prevent black smoke emissions.

C. Basic injection quantity


The basic injection quantity is determined by the engine rota-
tional speed (NE) and the accelerator pedal position. The in-
jection quantity increases if the accelerator opening
increases when the engine speed is fixed.

D. Injection quantity for the maximum rotational speed


setting
The injection quantity for the maximum rotational speed set-
ting is determined by the engine rotational speed. The injec-
tion quantity is restricted to prevent an excessive rise in
engine speed (overrun.)
E. Maximum injection quantity
The maximum injection quantity is determined by the engine
rotational speed, and is corrected according to the engine
coolant temperature. The correction quantity increases as
the engine coolant temperature decreases.

F. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) correction


When MAP is low, the boost pressure correction restricts the
maximum injection quantity in accordance with the boost
pressure to reduce black smoke emission.

G. Atmospheric pressure correction


As shown to the right, the atmospheric pressure correction
adjusts the maximum injection quantity correction line in ac-
cordance with the atmospheric pressure sensor signals.

H. Idle Speed Control (ISC)


ISC controls idle speed by regulating the injection quantity such that the actual rotational speed matches the target ro-
tational speed (primarily determined by the engine coolant temperature) calculated by the engine ECU.
a. Automatic control
Automatic control determines the target idle rotational speed
in accordance with the engine coolant temperature.
b. Manual control
Manual control enables the rotational speed to be raised or
lowered using the idle rotational speed adjustment volume at-
tached to the driver's seat.

c. A/C idle up
When the conditions shown in the figure to the right are sat-
isfied, the idling rotational speed is set to a constant value.

d. Auto cruise correction


Under auto cruise correction, the engine ECU receives signals from the cruise computer to adjust the injection quantity
such that the actual vehicle speed matches the target vehicle speed.
5-4. Fuel Injection Timing Control
Fuel injection timing characteristics differ according to whether the injection is the main injection, or the pilot injection. To
control the injection timing, the NE sensor uses the target for normal injection timing control. The TDC sensor then uses
this information as a reference signal.
A. Main injection timing control
The main injection timing is determined by the basic injection
timing in the ECU memory. The basic injection timing is cal-
culated based on the final injection quantity, engine rotational
speed, and the coolant temperature. When the engine is
started, only the coolant temperature and engine rotational
speed are used for the calculation.

B. Pilot injection timing control (pilot interval)


The pilot injection timing is controlled by adding a pilot inter-
val to the main injection timing. The pilot interval is calculated
based on the final injection quantity, engine rotational speed,
coolant temperature, atmospheric temperature, and atmo-
spheric pressure (corrected using the engine ECU MAP da-
ta). When the engine is started, only coolant temperature and
engine rotational speed are used for the calculation. For de-
tails on the pilot interval, refer to "Pilot injection", under "Fuel
Injection Rate Control" in this manual.
5-5. Fuel Injection Pressure Control
A. Fuel injection pressure
The fuel injection pressure is calculated by the engine ECU
using the final injection quantity and engine rotational speed.
When the engine is started, the value determined by the en-
gine ECU is calculated based on the coolant temperature and
engine rotational speed.
6. DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTC)

DTC Malfunctioning Part Malfunction Details

P0122 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Signal for accelerator pedal position sensor no. 1 is too low
P0123 No. 1 Signal for accelerator pedal position sensor no. 1 is too high
P0222 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Signal for accelerator pedal position sensor no. 2 is too low
P0223 No. 2 Signal for accelerator pedal position sensor no. 2 is too high
P0121 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Accelerator pedal position sensor no. 1 has not reached idle output
No. 1
P0221 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Accelerator pedal position sensor no. 2 has not reached idle output
No. 2
P0120 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Accelerator pedal position sensor no. 1 has not reached non-idle output
No. 1
P0220 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Accelerator pedal position sensor no. 2 has not reached non-idle output
No. 2
P1120 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Accelerator pedal position sensor bi-directional signal is invalid
P0226 Idle Switch Idle switch is stuck open
P0225 Idle switch is stuck closed
P0238 Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) MAP sensor signal is too high
P0237 Sensor MAP sensor signal is too low
P0236 MAP sensor signal is invalid
P0193 Rail Pressure Sensor Rail pressure sensor signal is too high
P0192 Rail pressure sensor signal is too low
P0194 Rail pressure sensor signal is stuck at the intermediate value
P0563 VB High Vehicle system voltage is too high
P0562 VB Low Vehicle system voltage is too low
P0118 Engine Coolant Temperature Engine coolant temperature sensor signal is too high
P0117 Sensor Engine coolant temperature sensor signal is too low
P0183 Fuel Temperature Sensor Fuel temperature sensor (attached to the pump) signal is too high
P0182 (Attached to Pump) Fuel temperature sensor (attached to the pump) signal is too low
P0113 Intake Air Temperature Sensor Intake air temperature sensor signal is too high
P0112 Intake air temperature sensor signal is too low
P0108 Atmospheric Pressure Sensor Atmospheric pressure sensor signal is too high
P0107 Atmospheric pressure sensor signal is too low
P0615 Starter Switch Starter switch is shorting to the battery
P0335 NE Sensor No NE sensor signal
P0340 TDC Sensor No TDC sensor signal
P0385 NE and TDC Sensor No signal from either the NE sensor or TDC sensor
P0503 Vehicle Speed Sensor Vehicle speed sensor frequency is too high
P0502 Open or short in the vehicle speed sensor
P0501 Vehicle speed sensor signal is invalid
P1231 Exhaust Brake Open or ground short in the exhaust brake MV1 output
P1232 Battery short in the exhaust brake MV1 output
DTC Malfunctioning Part Malfunction Details

P2148 Injector COM1 Battery short in the COM1 output, or battery short in TWV1 or 3 output
P2147 Ground short in the COM1 output, or ground short in TWV1 or 3 output
P2146 Open in the COM1 output, or open in both TWV1 and TWV3
P2151 Injector COM2 Battery short in the COM2 output, or battery short in TWV2 or 4 output
P2150 Ground short in the COM2 output, or ground short in TWV2 or 4 output
P2149 Open in the COM2 output, or open in both TWV2 and TWV4
P0201 Injector No. 1 Open in TWV1 output, or open in injector coil
P0202 Injector No. 2 Open in TWV2 output, or open in injector coil
P0203 Injector No. 3 Open in TWV3 output, or open in injector coil
P0204 Injector No. 4 Open in TWV4 output, or open in injector coil
P2503 Charging Circuit (Inside ECU) Capacitor charging circuit malfunction (insufficient charging)
P2504 Capacitor charging circuit malfunction (over-charging)
P0088 Rail Pressure Sensor Rail pressure sensor has exceeded the upper limit
P0089 Rail pressure sensor has exceeded the high upper limit
P0629 Suction Control Valve (SCV) Battery short in the SCV (+) output
P0627 (Pump) Open or ground short in the SCV (+) output
Open or ground short in the SCV (-) output
Open in the SCV coil; short in the SCV coil
Battery short in the SCV (-) output
P1190 SCV seizure
P0301 Injector (FCCB) # 1 cylinder injection system malfunction
P0302 # 2 cylinder injection system malfunction
P0303 # 3 cylinder injection system malfunction
P0304 # 4 cylinder injection system malfunction
P0219 Engine Overspeed Engine overspeed
P1384 Glow Plug Open or ground short in the glow relay output
P1383 Open or battery short in the glow relay output
P0217 Engine Coolant Temperature Engine coolant temperature has exceeded the upper limit
Sensor
P0704 MT Clutch Switch Clutch switch circuit malfunction (MT vehicles only)
P0850 Neutral Switch Neutral switch circuit malfunction (MT vehicles only)
P0093 Fuel Leak Pressure sensor output invalid (including fuel leaks)
P2293 Pressure Limiter Pressure limiter operation
P1217 Supply Pump Supply pump protection
P1218 Supply pump replacement
P1219 Supply pump malfunction (insufficient feed)
DTC Malfunctioning Part Malfunction Details

P0091 Flow Damper #1 cylinder flow damper operation (fuel leak other than from the flow
damper)
P0092 #2 cylinder flow damper operation (fuel leak other than from the flow
damper)
P0093 #3 cylinder flow damper operation (fuel leak other than from the flow
damper)
P0094 #4 cylinder flow damper operation (fuel leak other than from the flow
damper)
P1616 Main Relay Main relay seizure
P0602 QR Code (Injector Compensation) QR data not written
P0611 QR D data error
P0612 QR definition error (definition for QR correction not correct)
P0607 CPU Malfunction CPU malfunction, watchdog IC malfunction
P0606 CPU malfunction, main CPU malfunction
P0601 Checksum error - flash range
Published: June 2004

Duplication prohibited without permission


Edited and published by:
Service Department, DENSO Corporation
1-1 Showa-cho, Kariya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan

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