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Chant- refers to a song with an

unaccompanied melody and variable rhythm.
Music- considered to be the least tangible of This is usually found in epic songs.
the arts
C. Song Debate- a song involving male and
-defines as an arrangement of sounds to create female singers who try to outsmart each other
a continuous and unified composition about a certain topic
ELEMENTS OF MUSIC European- influences Religious and Secular
Melody- refers to the succession of consecutive Music
notes or tones changing in pitch and duration. It A. Art Song- a composition characterized by
is also considered to carry the overall theme of merging the voice part, lyrics, and the
music. Melody is inseparable with rhythm accompaniment together, “to achieve an
Rhythm- this has something to do with the artistic musical whole.” A kundiman, which is
patterns in time. It has three qualities: tempo, considered as the signature love song of the
meter and rhythmic pattern. Tempo describes Philippines, is an example of art song.
how fast or slow the music is. While meter B. Habanera/Danza- this refers to a social dance
refers to the unit of time that is made up of a in duple time. Originally from Cuba, this is
group of accented and unaccented beats or usually performed on a stage or in a ballroom.
C. Liturgical Music- Liturgical music refers to a
Harmony- refer to a combination of different vocal and instrumental compositions that go
tones or pitches played or sung together. together with the official rites of Christian
Texture- refers to the relationship of melodic churches.
and harmonic lines in music. Music is D. Kumintang- originally documented as a war
considered to be have thicker texture if it has song, the kumintang is a dance of love
more melodic lines accompanied by a guitar and bajo de unas
Dynamics- refers to the degree of softness and (string bass)
loudness of music or changing from soft to loud E. Pasyon Chant- The pasyon chant refers to the
and vice-versa. various styles used throughout the country for
Timbre- also known as tone color, refers to the singing of the pasyon. It is typically performed
quality of sound generated by an instrument or in two group formations: the first involving the
by a voice two persons or groups singing alternately and
the second involving each person taking his or
Form- refers to how other elements of music her turn in singing
are organized
Classical Music
Ethnic Traditional Music – has the same
elements with our Southeast Asian neigbors A. Chamber Music- refers to the instrumental
music played by a small ensemble. Each part of
A. Ballad- refers to a song that explains an event the music is played by one performer.
occurring in a community
B. Choral Music- This involves music written for D. Symphonic Poem- the symphonic poem is
a group of singers. Choral compositions can be also called the tone poem, based on a
monadic, meaning to be sung together or in nonmusical poetic or realistic idea. Themes for
unison without accompaniment; homophonic. symphonic poems include biblical theme and
personalities, historical events, literary works
and local scenery.
C. Opera- is essentially drama that is sung and
accompanied by instruments. Semi-classical Music- includes band and
rondalla music, hymns and amrches, sarswela
Solo Instrumental Literature- highlights a solo
music, and stylized folk songs
instrument. This solo instrument may also be
accompanied by another instrument or by a A. Band music- refers to the composition
number of instruments created for the band, which is a group of brass,
percussion, and woodwind instruments.
A. Concerto- the concerto refers to a piece for a
Examples are brass band, percussion and
solo instrument or a group of solo instruments,
woodwind instruments.
and an orchestral ensemble.
B. Marcha/march- refers to a composition with
B. Sonata- The sonata is a work for solo
music played in regular phrases, and a strongly
instrument with four movements. The typical
accented rhythm, usually in 4/4 time signature.
sequence of movements is allegro-andante
The march is played in some dances or with
minuet (or scherzo-allegro)
marching groups.
Symphonic Literature- refer to lengthy
Popular Music- includes original music
orchestral composition. A composition for an
composed by Filipinos, which utilizes western
orchestra may contain several movements or
and local music influences
may contain one movement with many
sections. Works that fall under symphonic A. Pinoy rock, which involves the use of
literature include the following: drums, electric guitars, synthesizers, and
other electronic instruments;
A. Symphony- This considered as a sonata
written to be played by an orchestra. Just like a B. Safe Pinoy pop or “middle of the road” type
typical sonata, the symphony has three or four of music,as shown in the compositions of
movements. Apo Hiking Society and Jose Mari Chan;

B. Suite- refers to a well-arranged set of C. Pinoy folk, which inspired by simple and
individual movements, which are unified repetitive tunes made popular by Wester
because of using either a common form or key, folk singer (Pinoy folk music later involved
or a nonmusical element. The usual themes the use of Asian or ethnic musical traditions
include scenery or folk songs. and instruments;

C. Concert Overture- A concert overture is a D. Pinoy disco music, which is essentially a

composition that is typically written in a sonata- Filipino adaptation of Western disco music;
allegro form. This has one movement with
E. Rap, which is described as a musical form
many sections.
involving a fast-paced rhythmic narration
accompanied by electronic musical instruments.
It is usually performed with dancing, Francis
Magalona introduced Pinoy Rap
F. Protest songs became highly popular A. Courtship and Wedding Dances- A courtship
during the 1970’s during the time when dance is a ceremonial dance which involves the
student activism emerged. These songs male pursuing the female. Wedding dances are
were created and sung to express and performed by newlyweds.
promote ideas on changing the social and
B. Game Dances- These folk dances are usually
political system at that time.
acted for fun, but have a set of rules and
DANCE structures. Usually done in informal social
gatherings, these dances are also played to test
Dance- is an art form involving a series of the skills of the dancers
rhythmic human movements that are
purposefully selected. C. Martial Dances- combative in nature and
used to enact a battle
D. Mimetic Dance- aim to imitate actual or real
A. Body Element- this describes how the body life movements. May categorize into animal
of a dancer moves, what part of that body is dances and occupational dances. The latter
moving, what actions are performed. And how portrays everyday activities in the community.
the body aligns to support itself.
E. Ritual Dancing- involves dancing to spiritual
B. Space- this focuses on the area where the beings and gods
dance is performed.
F. Social Dancing- primarily performed to
C. Time- terms such as accent, beat duration, celebrate important milestone in life, and to
meter, rhythm, and acceleration can be used in mark harvests
describing time.
G. Song Dance- refers to a dance performed to
D. Energy- this element describes how energy is a song, which typically describes the history and
directed through the body, and how the body radition of the community
releases it. In some reference, this is referred to
dynamics. Ballet- is a theatrical dance presentation in
which a plot is integrated with dancing music,
E. Relationship- this element has a lot of and stage designs.
aspects. Relationships may mean how a dancer
relates to one another dancer, how he or she A. Modern Ballet utilizes the techniques and
relates to an object, or how he or she relates to style of classical ballet in portraying
the group of dancers. It could also mean how a contemporary art.
person relates to the stage and to production of B. Opera Ballet defined as dance within the
elements. In short, relationship involves the context of an opera.
awareness of dancers on their environment.
C. Folkloric ballet is a type of ballet that involves
FORMS AND TYPES OF DANCE IN THE stylizing and editing stories, motifs, and styles
PHILIPPINES found in the culture of ordinary people, and
Folk Dances- These refer to the dances that are adapting these materials to contemporary
developed and performed together by theater.
ordinary people.
Modern Dance- refers to a dance that emerged He starred in a number of films: Mga Alikabok
during the 20th centure. Still theatrical but it sa Lupa, Totoy Bato, Asedillo, Partida, Ang
veers away from the technique and style of Probinsyano, Ang Alamat, Ang Pagbabalik ng
ballet Lawin, the Panday series, Ang Kampana de
Santa Quitera and Alupihang Dagat
Other Forms
Francisca Reyes Aquino- best known for her
A. Aerobic Dance- this is primarily dancing to
research on Philippine folk dances, which later
the tune of popular music with the purpose of
resulted to a thesis entitled “Philippine Folk
increasing consumption of oxygen over a long
Dances and Games”
period of time.
Works: “Philippine Folk Dances and Games”,
B. Bodabil Dancing- this form of dancing used to
“Philippine National Dances”, “Gymnastics for
be popluar during the American period. It
Girls”, “Fundamental Dance Steps and Music”
included popular dances from the United
States. Leonor Orosa Goquingco- known as the
“Mother of Philippine Theater Dance”. She
C. Jazz Dance- this dance form uses African
blended folkloric and Asian styles in ballet
dance techniques like isolation of individual
human body parts, rhythm, and polycentrism.
Works: “TREND: Return to Native,” “VINTA!,”
D. Polynesian and Tahitian Dances- these
“Firebird,” “Noli Dance Suite,” and “Filipinescas:
dances began from the people living in the
Philippine Life, Legend and Lore,”
Polynesian chain, which is composed od seven
major island groups in southern part of the Ramon Obusan- dancer, choreographer, artistic
Pacific Ocean director, researcher, and documentary
filmmaker, utilized the art of dance for a deeper
E. Tap Dance- this is a dance which entails
understanding of the Filipino culture, he also
tapping with toes and heels to generate
founded Ramon Obusan Folkloric Group in 1971
rhythmic patterns.
and promoted Filipino culture in other countries
NATIONAL ARTISTS using the art of dance of the group

Ishmael Bernal- hailed as a genius of the Works: “Vamos a Velen! Series,” “Unpublished
Philippine cinema and hailed as Director of the Dances of the Philippines,” “Glimpses of ASEAN
Decade of the 1970s by the Catholic Mass Dances and Music of the ASEAN-Member
Media Awards; four time Best Director by the Countries,” and “Saplot: Philippine Costumes in
Urian Awards (1989, 1985, 1983, and 1977) and Dance.”
given the ASEAN Cultural Award in
Lucrecia Reyes-Urtula- dance director of the
Communication and Arts
Bayanihan Philippine Dance Company, for which
Works: Himala, City After Dark, Nunal sa Tubig’ she choreographed different Philippine folk and
ethnic dances, pageants and festivals, also a
Ronald Alan K. Poe- popularly known as researcher and educator, she studied Philippine
Fernando Poe, Jr., he is considered a icon of the Folk Dances for almost four decades
film industry working as an actor, director,
writer, and producer Alice Reyes- known in blending styles and
movements from Philippine indigenous dance,
classical ballet, and modern dance in expressing
Filipino subject matters, this is said to be Works: “Ugma-ugma,” “Pagsamba,” and
“contemporary dance language that is uniquely “Udlot-udlot”

Works: “At a Maranaw Gathering,” “Tales of

the Manuvu,” “Rama Hari,” and “Bayanihan

Antonino Buenaventura- known for his marches

including the “Triumphal March,” “History
Fantasy,” “Echoes from the Philippines,” and
“Ode to Freedom.” together with Francisca
Reyes-Aquino, he did research on Philippine
folksongs and dances

Works: “Triumphal March,” “History Fantasy,”

“Echoes from the Philippines,” and “Ode to

Ernani Cuenco- known for the following songs:

“Bato sa Buhangin,” “Gaano Kita Kamahal,”
“Inang Bayan.” “Isang Dalangin,” “Kalesa and
Pilipinas.” these works brought contemporary
Filipino music to a higher level, he added
elements of kundiman to a Filipino ballad in the
song “Gaano Kita Kamahal”

Francisco Feliciano- known for the use of modal

scales in his operas and orchestral works, his
were technically demanding when compared to
those of western composers

Works: “Ashen Wings,” “Sikhay sa Kabila ng

Paalam,” “La Looba Negra,” “Yerma,”
“”Pamugun,” and “Pokpok Alimako.”

Jovita Fuentes- best known for her portrayal of

Cio-cio San in Giacomo Puccini’s Madame
Butterfly in Italy in April 1925, her performances
in Europe were acclaimed and placed
Philippines on the map in terms of performing

Jose Maceda- conducted researches and

fieldwork to explore Filipino traditional music
and to understand the nature of Philippine
ethnic and traditional music and because of his
efforts, huge number of recorded Philippine
ethnic and traditional music were made