net/publication/323060117
CITATIONS READS
0 193
3 authors:
Eko Akpama
Cross River University of Technology
6 PUBLICATIONS 3 CITATIONS
SEE PROFILE
Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:
Dynamic modeling and implementation of split phase induction machine View project
All content following this page was uploaded by Daniel Abara on 12 June 2018.
Abstract—When a short-circuit occurs in a power system, the paper) for each type of fault and hence determine the ratings
magnitude of the fault currents, which is very high compared to of the protective relays and circuit breakers to be used in the
the steady state current that flows in the power system, is power system. Such analysis enables the fault MVA due to a
determined by the reactance of the power system equipment symmetrical 3-phase fault at a point of interest to be
(and the reactance of the ground if ground is involved). It is determined. Also, the current at the point of fault and how it is
essential that symmetrical and unsymmetrical analysis of the distributed [1]. This paper presents an analytic method for the
power system network be undertaken to determine the solution of each fault. For symmetrical faults, only one phase
magnitude of these fault currents and fault MVA (Megavolt- is analyzed since the system is balanced that is, the
Ampere) so as to select adequate ratings of the power system characteristics of the system are the same across all three
protective devices – such as circuit breakers, relays and fuses.
phases. The result obtained will be the same for the other two
Otherwise, these protective devices will not operate properly in
the event of faults thereby causing considerable damage to life phases, hence only one phase needs to be analyzed [2]. The
and equipment. In this paper, the Nigeria 330KV network, 32 solution of symmetrical fault analysis consists of: (1) deriving
bus system is considered using relevant data which was obtained a single line diagram representing one phase of the network,
from the Nigerian National Integrated Power Project (NIPP) in- (2) choice of a common base KVA by which all impedance
house Grid Study Team Report, and the Transmission Company and reactance are converted to per unit values, (3) deriving a
of Nigeria (TCN). Power System toolbox in MATLAB was used single line reactance diagram from the single line diagram and
to carry out the simulation analysis. Fault impedance was set to (4) finding the Thevenin resistance as seen from the fault
j*0.1, and the various kinds of faults were simulated at bus 32 point. From this point, the fault current and fault KVA in per
(Calabar) and bus 6 (Ayede). Base MVA of 100 MVA and Base unit are determined and then converted to their actual values.
KV of 330 KV were used. The results obtained show that The current and voltage distribution throughout the system can
symmetrical three phase fault is the most severe kind at the be worked out by retracing the steps of the calculation [3].
transmission lines, while for faults occurring very close to the Also, the short circuit can be divided into three periods: (1)
generating station or synchronous generator, single line to initial sub-transient period, lasting for the first few cycles,
ground fault is the most severe. during which the decrement is very rapid, the magnitude of
the short-circuit current is very high and this is the period
Index Terms--Power distribution faults, Power distribution lines, where the most damage is caused, (2) the middle transient
Power grids, power system faults, safety devices, protection.
period covering a relatively longer time, during which the
decrement is moderate and (3) the steady state period [3].
I. INTRODUCTION
Analyses of unsymmetrical faults may be carried out using the
A 3-phase AC power system operating under normal method of symmetrical coordinates. By this method, an
condition has magnitude of both current and voltage equally arbitrary unbalanced 3-phase voltages (or currents) are
distributed across each phase. However, fault may occur to transformed into three sets of balanced 3-phase components.
disrupt this condition. This fault may be symmetrical These components are called symmetrical components. ‘Such
(balanced) or unsymmetrical (unbalanced).A symmetrical three balanced systems constitute three sequence networks
fault is that which involves all the phases while an which are solved separately on a single phase basis. Once the
unsymmetrical fault involves only one or two phases. problem is solved in terms of symmetrical components, it can
Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults analysis is carried out be transferred back to the actual circuit condition by
to determine the value of the fault currents and fault Kilovolt superposition or phasor addition of these quantities (currents
Ampere (KVA) or Megavolt Ampere (MVA) (and also to or voltages) easily’ [3]. The short circuit currents in an AC
determine relay settings but this is outside the scope of this system are determined mainly by the reactance of the
B1
(a) C1 (b)
C
A2 A0 B0 C0
.
Figure 1. Example of a figure caption
C2
Considering an R-L series circuit shown in Fig. 1. It is B2 (c) (d)
connected at time t = 0, to a source of alternating voltage =
sin( + ) where α is the phase displacement between
the voltage and the reference wave which passes through Figure 2. Symmetrical Faults
zero at the time t = 0, is the angular speed. The relationship
between applied voltage and current is given by, Fig. 2 can be further described as follows: (a) unbalanced
vecetors (b) positive phase sequence components (c) negative
+ = sin( + ) (1)
phase sequence components and (d) zero phase sequence
where is the current, is the resistance and is the components. the positive sequence component phasors are of
inductance. The complete solution of (1) will correspond to equal magnitude, spaced 120 degrees apart and move in the
the steady state conditions and the initial condition of the same direction sequence as the phasors of the unbalanced
system and is given by: system, and my be represented in complex form as
= sin( + − )+ sin( + ) / /
(2) ; = = (3)
where is the phase angle. A 500MVA, 30KV, 60Hz The complex number in the above operation is the operator of
synchronous generator operating at no load with a constant the three-phase system and is denoted by the letter ‘ ’.
excitation voltage of 400V was considered. The variation of
Multiplication of a phase by ‘ ’ turns it through 120 degrees
short circuit current with time was obtained by simulating the
in counter clockwise direction. The negative sequence
symmetrical short circuit fault at the generator terminals, using
a program by Prof. H. Saaddat [4] in Matlab. The results are components phasors are like the positive sequence phasors
given in the Results section.
only that they have a sequence of A-C-B. They are IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
represented in complex form as, Table 1 shows the bus names and their respective bus
/ /
numbers, table 2 shows the positive sequence line Impedance
; = = (4) data, and table 3 shows the negative sequence line impedance
data.
The zero phase sequence is the single phase vector and
represent the residual currents or voltage present under fault TABLE 1. BUS NAMES AND RESPECTIVE N UMBERS
conditions on a 3-phase system with a fourth wire or earth
return present. They are expressed in complex form as,
1 Benin-Kebbi
Furthermore, the phasors of an unbalanced system can be
represented in terms of their symmetrical components as, 2 Kainji
3 Jebba Ts
= + + (6) 4 Jebba Gs
5 Oshogbo
= + + (7)
6 Ayede
= + + (8) 7 Ikeja West
8 Akangba
A phase relationship exists between the components of the 9 Egbin Gs
three sequences, as a result, all the phasors of the symmetrical
10 Aja
components can be re-written in terms of,
11 Egbin 132kv
= (9) 12 AES Gs
13 Shiroro Gs
= (10) 14 Kaduna/Mando
15 Katampe
16 Kumbotso/Kano
= (11)
17 Jos
27 28 0.007 0.104
28 29 0.023 0.041 0.5
30 27 0.011 0.158
30 31 0.02 0.229
ia, A
-0.5
-1
-1.5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
t, sec
-0.5
i c, A
-1
-1.5
-2
Total Fault current (per unit)
Fault Type
Bus No. 32 Bus No. 6
Symmetrical -2.5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
Three phase 1.9472 1.8513 t, sec
2 4000
1.5 3000
ib, A
1 2000
1000
0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
t, sec
-0.5
The results so far show that the symmetrical three phase
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
t, sec
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 fault is the most severe type of fault for transmission lines.
But when the fault is very close to the terminals of the
Figure 4. Three-phase Short-circuit at phase B
generator (such as that at bus 32), single line-to-ground fault
TABLE 3. NEGATIVE SEQUENCE L INE IMPEDANCE is the most severe. The simulation results for bus 6 and bus
32 are summarized in table 4 below:
TABLE 4. S UMMARY OF RESULTS OF D IFFERENT TYPES OF
F AULTS FOR B US 6 AND BUS 32
Again, the current can be split-up into; a fundamental
frequency component, a Direct-current (DC) component and
a double frequency component. The fundamental
frequencycomponent is symmetrical with respect to the time
axis. Its superposition on the dc component will give an
unsymmetrical wave form. The dc component represents the
displacement of the ac wave-form from the zero axis [4]. The short circuit occurs very close to the terminals of the
generator, hence the magnitude of line-to-ground fault current
is greater than that of symmetrical three-phase fault as
observed from table 4. Also, the actual fault currents and fault
MVA can be calculated by substituting relevant values into
the following formula:
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.