Sie sind auf Seite 1von 403

¥~

~
§
~
~
~
E3

[f)
NHA XUAT BAN TRE

VP.N&40-4'2 Ne,.T.M.Khlli. QJ_* D'I':8242151


<!T.N& 01 QJrung.Q._CVtlp "DT: 989452i
N6 9DhenDef18LU'U.QpT * DT: 2437584
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIII IIII IIW
12010000008664
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
mwtlllll~tl~~ ~ 111
Email:vwdan&mt@yahoo.COID *Website: L___v
- -----..S ia: 1 OO .OOOd
.,

-i
·C.
I
.o ~
n o-
n ::J
I -+
C.• ~
I
)>'
z
). w ,

TRAN VAN CHANH


LE ANH MINH

toan thu
- ,
. CHU' HAN
TU'. HOC
vAN NGON - PHAT THLJ - BACH THOAI - THLJ PHAP

¥J+E3~~~
X p- 1~~- 8 ~3-~$

[f;
NHA XUAT BAN TRE TP. HO CHf MINH
Loi noi d~u
.......
.JI!J 6
....::-

ach nay duqc bien saq,n dif,c bift danh cha nhilng

6/J guai tlj h9c chil Han . G9i la "Taan thu" kh6ng nhilm
y huang dq,t d~n slj taan difn, haan hda v6n kh6ng baa
gia c6 thljc, nhung vi n¢i dung cua sach baa g6m cd nhi~u
tr'inh d¢ danh cha nguai h9c chil Han tit nh¢p m6n d~n nang
caa, vai nhilng nhu cdu va m!fc dich c6 th~ khac nhau it nhi~u,
d6ng thai ciing c6 gdng cung dip m¢t luqng ki~n thuc c6 tinh
da dq,ng baa quat nhi~u lanh vljc, thu¢c nhi~u th~ laq,i van bdn
khac nhau cua chil Han.
Trang chi~u huang neu tren, ngaai PHAN MO DA U giai
thifU nhilng van d~ can bdn t6ng quat lien quan d~n chil Han,
sach con duqc cau tq,a bai cac ph&n chinh nhu sau:

I. N~P MON: G6m 126 bai h9c ngdn di tit d~ d~n kh6,
m6i bai d~u c6 phien am, dtch nghla, gidi thich tit mai va ngil
phap. Ngaai nhilng diim ngil phap gidi thich Clf th~ thea tung
bai, con c6 ph&n ngil phap ca bdn duqc giai thifu d&n d&n trdi
d~u thea cac bai h9c ma nguai h9c c6 th~ h9c ngay haif,c tuy
tifn cai lq,i trang nhilng luc rdnh r6i.

II. NANG CAO: Nguai h9c sau khi h9c ky ph&n nay (t6ng c¢ng
102 bai) c6 th~ ndm vilng them m¢t s6 tit vljng va tri thuc ngil
phap c&n y~u d~ d9c duqc h&u h~t cac sach chil Han thu¢c nhi~u
th~ laq,i va tr'inh d¢ khac nhau, tit nhilng tac phtlm tha, van, sit,
tri~t c6 dq,i cha d~n c¢n, hi~n dq,i, k~ cd nhftng Ph¢t thu va kinh
lu¢n Ph¢t giao u6n duqc vi~t Mng m¢t th~ laq,i Han ngil kha di;ic
thu c6 tinh trung gian va ph6i hqp giila Van ng8n vai Bq,ch thag,i v~

v
ca phu:ang di~n tit ngil Zan ngil phap. Khi soc;r,n phdn NANG CAO Phan K~ Binh, Hoang Thuc Tram, Nguy~n Hi~n Le, Tr&n Tr9ng
nay, chung toi da co gdng tuy€n ch9n nhilng bai th(tt tieu bi€u cho San, Phan Ng9c ...J. Trang phdn dfch tha, ngoai phdn dfch xuoi do
tung th€ loc;zi va thai ky, m8i bai d~u c6 phdn gim thi~u tac gia- chung toi tlj lam lay, con c6 bd.n dfch tha su:u tdm du:~c cua mf)t so
tac pham, giup ngu:C!i h9c c6 n~n tang d€ vita niim vilng chil Han dfch gia n6i ti~ng tnfflc nhu: Phan Huy Vfnh, Tan Da, Trdn Tr9ng
vita c6 them ca hf)i thea doi ti~n trinh phat tri€n cua van, tri~t, sa Kim, Ng6 Tat TO, v.v ... nhiim mlfC dich cung cap cho ngu:ai h9C mf)t
Trung Quae mf)t each t6ng quan, vita du ma khong phai mat qua SO tai li~u van h9c v{Ji nhilng ban dfch nrJi ti~ng d€ thu:(mg ngog,n,
nhi~u thi gia trong khi cha c6 ca hf)i d€ di sau vao nhilng loc;zi sach tang them phdn hitng thu trong khi h9c t(tp chil Han. EJQ,c bi~t
khac. Doi vm ngu:C!i khong chuyen tam vcw m~fc dicli h9c chil Han, trong phdn Kinh lu(t'n Ph(d giao, d€ bcw dam it c6 sai s6t v~ giao
cilng c6 th€ coi day la mf)t t(tp "trich di~m" hay ''giup tri nh{f' nhilng ly giao ngh'ia, chung toi da khong tlj dfch ma su:u t&m va sa dlfng
danh tac tha, van CUa Trung Quae von chita dljng nhi~u tinh hoa phdn Zan bdn dfch cua cac tu s'i hoQ,c nha nghien citu Ph(tt giao. Rat
cua tu: tu:(mg phu:ang Dong rat tham trdm, sau siic lien quan d~n mong cac vf c6 bdn dfch trong sach nay hoan hi chap nh(tn di giup
m9i Zanh Vljc cua dai song xa hf)i, tit kinh nghi~m song, Slj chiem cho nhilng ngu:ai h(tu h9c c6 them di~u ki~n tinh tan.
nghi~m ca nhan, cho d~n ngh~ thu(tt itng xu va trf mfflc... Ngoai nhilng nf)i dung chinh neu tren, sach con du:~c minh
Sach nay v€ ca bdn t¢p trung cho Van ngon (but ngil hay crf hQa bifi nhi€u hinh ve va anh maud[ ngU:ai hQC CO them tU: [ifU
ngil) nhi~u han cho Bg,ch thog,i (ngil th€ hay khdu ngil), nhu:ng tham khdo ho(j,c xem them cho da chan. Nhan day, chung toi
mf)t phdn VAN B~CH THO~! nho cilng du:~c them vao dog,n xin ghi nh¢n slj giup da t¢n tinh cua cac anh Le Minh Bite, Tg,
cu6i cua ph&n NANG CAO nay, du:~c hiiu la "nang cao them Duy Chan, EJ8 Cong Minh (Nha sach EJg,i Th~ Giai) va co Thudn
mf)t bu:ac" sau khi da hc;>c Van ngon di c6 thi dc;>c du:~c cac sach Chanh (Thi~n vifn Vien Chi~u) trong vi~c cung cap cho rat
tham khdo vitt biing titng Han hifn dg,i, chit khong nhiim vao nhi~u tai [ifU Va hinh anh dung trong sach.
dg,y titng Pho? thong di n6i nang giao dfch. EJf)c gid c6 m~fc
MQ,c du da co gdng nhi~u, chung toi van bitt khong c6 mf)t
dich h9c ti~ng Phrf thong (Bg,ch thog,i) c6 thi sil dlfng bat ky
quy€n sach duy nhat nao c6 thi du:a ngu:ai h9c dg,t d~n dinh dich
sach nao khac hifn dang du:~c phrf bi~n rat rf)ng rai.
cu6i c-ling. Trai lg,i, y~u to thanh cong chinh la a bdn than ngliai
III.THU PHAP: Ph&n nay do anh Le Anh Minh chuyen trach hQC, thi hi~n G Slj quy~t tam, kien tri, long say me Va tinh lien
bien sog,n, c6 tinh chudn xac va kinh diin cd v~ ly thuytt Zan t/fC cua vi~c hQC t¢p. Nen tim d9C them bat ky sach nao khac c6
thljc hanh, di giup nhilng bg,n yeu thich thu: phap c6 luon tai lien quan di khong ngitng niim vilng nhilng tri thitc ca bdn v~
li~u tham khdo chung trong mf)t bf) sach g9i la Toan thzt tlj tit vljng, ngil phap ... , nhat la thu:ang xuyen t¢p dc;>c, t¢p dfch,
hpc chii Han nay. t(tp viet va tra citu tit diin ma k~t qud dg,t du:~c chile chiin se tg,o
cho ngu:ai hc;>c mf)t ni~m khich l~ va slJ tu:ang thu:ang thich dang.
Trang phdn NANG CAO, h&u h~t cac bai dfch chung toi d~u tl!
dfch leiy va coy dich sat theo titng chii d€ ti~n cho vi~c h9c t(tp. Sau cung, chung toi mong nh¢n du:~c slj gop y cua nhilng
Tuy nhien, thu th(tt la di vita da mat cong phdn nao, vita di cung bg,n d6ng thanh khi, nhat la tit phia nhilng ngu:ai trljc ti~p dung
cap cho df)c gid mf)t so ban dfch c6 gia trf cila cac b¢c tuc nho ti~n . sach di sau nay se brf sung, hoan chinh them khi c6 dfp tai bdn.
b6i, chung toi da tranh thu sa dlfng trong chitng mljc cho phep mf)t
s6 ban dfch cil cua nhilng ngu:ai di tn.fflc (nhu: Nguy~n Hilu Ti~n, THAN v .AN ciiANH

VI VII
10. HOANG BiNH TRA.CH, Trung h9c sinh C6 thi van t1:1ng df?c
70 thien !=f:l~~ilg~)(§itHit+m (D6 van ban), Son
Dong My thu~t Xuat ban xa, Son Dong, 2001.

THU' Ml)C THAM KHAO 11. L Y MQNG SINH-SV LVONG CHIEU, Co? van quan
chl djch chu 6 )(_ WJt §iii (thu'<;5ng, h<;1, sach), Thuong Hai
~:tt~§
C6 tich Xuat ban xa, Thu'<Jng Hai, 2000.
12. HANH DVONG THOAI sf, Duong thi Tam bach
1.
~ '*
DU NGUYEN DAM, Cao trung Quo'c van Tan djch

1964.
wr
~X §i' D~i Chung Thu' Cl;IC an hfmh, Dai Loan.
thumg~-=- B §' D~i Chung Thu' Ct,}C, Dai Loan, 1967.
13. PHAN KE BfNH, Vi¢t Han van khao, M?c Lam xuat ban,
Sai Gon, 1970.
2. VVONG UjC, C6 dt;~i Han ngil il{i:1~§1L Trung Hoa Thu
14. NGUYEN HIEN LE, Dt;~i cuong Van h9c su Trung Quo'c (t~p
ct,Ic, Bac Kinh, 1962.
I, II, Ill), NXB. Nguy~n Hien Le, SaiGon, 1964.
3. TU MINH, Han tl! thuong thlic ~~ + '*' 'J\, Tien Tu Xuat 15. NGUYEN HIEN LE, Co? van Trung Quo'c, Van Dan, Sai
ban xa, Huang Cang, 1973.
Gon, 1966.
4. HO DO THl) (chu bien), Hi¢n dt;-i Han nga :£~ {i:/~§1§,
16. LANG NHAN, Han van Tinh tuy, NXB. Thanh pho H6 Chi
Thu'<;5ng Hai Giao dt,lc Xuat ban xa, Thu<;5ng Hai, 1999.
Minh, 1992.
5. HONG DOC NHAN, Hi¢n dt;~i Han ngil :£~{i:1~§g, H~ Mon
17. BO QUOC GIA GIAO Dl)C, Han Vi{:~t Tan kh6a ban (lop
D~i hQc Ham tht,I be) , 1963.
,. ..... ' ;:: ,..-"' ? D~ that va D~ 1t,lc), SaiGon, 1954.
6. DAI VAN BINH, TIEN QUOC LQI (chu bien), Cao trung
18. NGUYEN VAN BA, Nho van Giao khoa thu, Vi~t Nam Van
Van ngon nha't ban thong~$)( 6 -:;;tjj D~i Lien Ly
cong D~i hQc Xuat ban xa, 2001. Hien, Sai Gon, 1970.
19. TRAN TRQNG SAN, Han van, Bac D~u, SaiGon, 1963.
7. DANG KIEN ueT (chu bien), So trung Van ngon van
Tuong djch Tinh tich tJJ $ )( 6 )( 8¥ §i *~ .fJT, Van Hoi Xu at 20. TRAN TRQNG SAN, Tho Duong (cuon I va II), Sai Gon,
ban xa, Thu<;5ng Hai, 2002. 1965.
8. DANG KIEN ueT (chu bien), Cao trung Van ngon van 21. v6 NHV NGUYeN -NGUYEN HONG GIAO,Han van Giao
Tuong djch Tinh tich ~'*X~ x§'f:§if~.fJT, Van Hoi khoa thu(t~p Iva II), NXB. Da Nang, 1997.
Xuat ban xa, Thu'<;5ng Hai, 2000. 22. TRVONG vAN GTOI-LE KHAC KIEU Ll)C, sJ tay nguoi
9. Co? kim Danh tac Van tuyin il~~fFX~ (khong d~ tac h9c tie'ng Hoa, NXB. Khoa hQc Xa h()i, 1998.
gia), Chinh Ngon Xuat ban xa, Dai Loan, 1970. 23. HUYNH MINH DUC, Han van (quy~n 1), Minh Tri, Sai

VIII IX
Gon, 1973. 36. HAROLD SHADICK, A First Course in Literary Chinese
24. CHIEM BINH, Tu thu tuC!ng gidi IZ.9~§$~~' Chinh Ngon (Volume I), Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London,
Xu at ban xa, 8ai Loan, 1964. 1992.
25. HOANG THO KY-TRUONG THI~N VAN, Chu Djch djch 37. GREGORY CHIANG, Language of the Dragon (Volume I),
chu JEJ ~ §J i1, Thu<;>ng Hai c6 tich Xuat ban xa, Thu'ting Cheng and Tsui Company, USA, 1998.
Hai, 2ooo. 38. THICH HANH TR{), So ddng Phqt h9c Gido khoa thu,
26. DUONG THIEN VO, Lg ky djch chu t-1 ~c §J i1, Thu<;5ng Thanh h(ii Phi;it giao Thanh pho H6 Chi Minh-NXB. Thanh
Hai C6 tich Xuat ban xa, Thu<;>ng Hai, 1997. pho H6 Chi Minh, 1997.
27. KIM KHAI HOA, Quo'c phong kim djch ~ }!\:~§! , Kie'n 39. 80AN TRUNG CON, Chu kinh Tqp ylu, in ky dgu, Sai
Van Thu Cl;IC, H6ng Kong, (nam ?). Gon, 1970.
28. TU KY DUONG,ThuQ'ng thu r6J ~, Quang Chau Xuat ban 40. Uing nghiem kinh (ban chu Han).
xa, Quang Chau, 2001. 41. THICH DUY UjC (Dich va lu<;>c giai), Kinh Lang nghiem,
29. L Y MQNG SINH, Td truy?n djch chu, ti_ 1$: §J i1, Thu<;5ng NXB. Ton giao, 1999. ,
Hai C6 tich Xuat ban xa,Thu<;>ng Hai, 1998 . 42. D~i thifa khoi tin lu(m (ban chu Han).
30. THI MINH, Mijc til ~y, Quang Chau Xuat ban xa, Quang 43. THICH THI~N THONG (Vi~t dich),D~i thiia khoi tin !uqn
Chau, 2001. ddn nghia, 1994.
31. MA NGQC DINH, Him Phi til ~t~~r, Quang Chau Xuat 44. LE MANH THAT, Tdng tqp Van h9c Phqt giao Vi?t Nam
ban xa, Quang Chau, 2001. (Phl;l ban Han van ":Ly ho~c lui;in"), NXB. TP. H6 Chi Minh,
32. KHUAT TIEN-HO KIEN HOA, Chien quo'c sach 2001.
*1~ ffi', Quang Chau Xuat ban xa, Quang Chau, 2001. 45. Tho van Ly Trdn, NXB. Khoa hQc Xa h()i, Ha N()i, 1978.
33. VUONG THE CHINH-DAM NGQC THI~N, An til Xuan thu 46. THICH TRf QUANG, Sa di- Sa di ni (khong ghi noi va nam
tuyln djch ~ r~fjc~§J, Nhan Dan Van hQc Xuat ban xuat ban).
xa, Bac Kinh, 1994. 47. TRAN TRQNG KIM, Phqt giao thuo xua va Phqt giao ngay
34. TRI~U cAT HU~-QUACH HAU AN (chu bien), Trung nay, Tan Vi~t, Sai Gon, 1953.
Quo'c Nho h9c Tit diin r:j=l ~ f~ ~ §§] ~, Lieu Ninh Nhan 48. TRAN TRQNG KIM, Duong thi, NXB. Van hoa Thong tin,
Dan Xuat ban xa, Th~m Duong, 1989.
1995.
35. J. BRANDT, Introduction to Literary Chinese, Ederick Ungar 49. THICH TRI T~NH, Di?u phdp lien hoa kinh (Phien am va
Publishing Company, New York.
Dich nghia).

X XI
50. THICH THONG BVU, Kinh Dg.i thaa Di¢u phap lien hoa $ ~:E~{i:11=6"1J~~' Hoa ngu Giao hQc Xuat ban xa, B~c
Giang lut;in, NXB. T6n Giao, 2002. Kinh, 1989.
51 . CHANH TRi, Bat nha Ba la mt;it da Tam kinh Vi~t gidi, Sai 63. TRAN VAN CHANH , Sa lur;c Ngil phap Han van (Van
Gon, 1962. ng6n), NXB. Da Nang, 1997.
52.TRAN DOAN CAT-HO TRUNG HANH (chu bien), !'ht;it 64. TRAN vAN CHANH, Ta ddn Hu ta-Han ngil cff dg.i ''Q
kir;h Van h9c Tuy bien NiH~X~f$~, ThueJng Hai C6 tich Hi~n dg.i, NXB. Tre, TP. HCM, 2002.
Xuat ban xa, ThuQng Hai, 1999. 65. TRAN vAN CHANH, Tu diln Han Vi?t-Han ngil cff dg.i va
53. LA VI QUOC, Pht;it tg.ng dil Dg.o tg.ng 1~ffiW~ffi, Hi¢n dg.i, NXB. Tre, TP. HCM, in 1ftn thu hai, 2001.
ThuQng Hai Thu diem Xuat ban xa, ThuQng Hai, 2001. 66. UONG L~ VIEM, Han ngil Ngil phap ¥:i§B §B$;, Thu<;ing
54. NHI~M KE DO (T6ng chu bien), Pht;it giao Tiiu ta diln Hai D~i hQc Xuat ban xa, ThuQng Hai, 1999.
1~ ~5UJ\ ~P] ~, ThuQng Hai TU' thu Xuat ban xa, ThuQng Hai, 67. TRVdNG THV NHAM-VVdNG THIET CON, Gidn h6a tl!
2001. Tdnguyen .W 1t ~ ~ ~ NgG'vanXufi'tbiinxa,BlicKinh, 1997.
55. TRUNG QUOC PHAT GIAO HI~P HOI, Trung Quf/c Pht;it 68. AU DVdNG TRUNG THACH-KIM vAN xVdNG, Trung
gicio lf1 ~ 1~ ~, Dong Phuong Xuat ban Trung tam, Thu<;ing :e
Quo'c Thu phap Sa giam lf1 ~ ~! 5: ii, Trung c()ng Trung
Hai, 1996. uong Dang hi~u Xuat ban xa, 1993.
56. CHAN NGUYEN-NGUYEN TVCJNG BACH, Ta di!n Pht;it 69. TRVdNG TOAN HOI, So h9c Thu phap Ky xdo Nht;ip mon
h9c, NXB. Thu?n H6a, Hue, 1999. m :e
~ $; H: J.1j A F~' Trung Quoc Thanh th! Kinh te Xa h()i
57. TRUC LAM CV SI, Pht;it giao Nan tl! Ti! di!n Xuat ban xa, B~c Kinh, 1989.
1~ ~iff ::f: ::f: ~, Thuong Xu an ThtJ Thu phong, Dai Loan, 70. LVU NGH~, Trung Hoa Thu phap Dg.i diln, Quoc te Van
1990. h6a Xuat ban C6ng ty, B~c Kinh, 1993.
58 . THICH THANH TU, Tham db hiin quye't, Thi~n vi~n 71. TRVdNG CAO PHONG, Thu phap Nht;ip mon, Thi6m Tay
Thuong Chieu-NXB. Thanh pho H6 Chi Minh, 1997. LG' du Xuat ban xa, Thi6m Tay, 1995.
59. LVdNG VI, Tong thi Bach thuThiln thich*g~Ef§ 1~ ;f~, 72. VAN THANH LAU, Ldu Cong Quy~n Khdi thu Td phap,
V~n Ly Thu diem, Huang Cang, 1965. Ngh~ thu?t D6 thu C6ng ty, Quang Chau, 1993.
60. NHLEU D~CH GL.\, Tho Tong, NXB. Van HQc, Ha N()i,
1991.
61. KHONG DUC DINH TAN DUNG, Ta Tong, NXB. Thanh
pho H6 Chi Minh: 1992.
62. Trung Quo'c Hi~n dg.i Tac pha?m Tuyln bien,
XII XIII
~ ~ ?
TU' lll;: U HINH ANH
rgy ~:;~~~/
/.)g!j EB _iR IJ'-f

1. DAr DAT-CUNG THV Df,.C, Thi d6 bdn Trung QU(J'c Thong


sa *~ ~
2001 .
* $ ~ .® 5::., Hai Ye'n Xuat ban xa, B~c Kinh,
Phtin miJdtiu
2. PHONG LAP TRUNG-TRAN VAN KHON, Trung Quo'c NHaNG vAN oE: cAN s.AN
Ljch dc;Ii Danh nhan EJ6 h9i $ ~ frr {i; ~A [i];jl, HQc Uytin h h. /h.
~7,!] Jf.!)


,..,J..
V~
cJ- tt -:k-
~-- /f'-
\, ~"~
.fvO ~13\
Xuat ban xa, B~c Kinh, 1994.
3. DVCiNG AM THAM, Trung Quo'c H9c thu(it gia Li¢t truy¢n
$~~Viti~ 1U 1$, Huang Cang Van Uyen Thu die'm Xuat
ban xa, Huang Cang, nam?
4. TRVCiNG MAU TRACH (Chinh ly), Tli thu T¢ip chu (Sap d6
ban) rz:g ~ ~ il: , Tam T§n Xuat ban xa, 1999.
5. MA THV BIEN, Trung Quo'c Ph¢it giao Chu thdn
$ ~ 1~ ~ §i3 t$, Dofm Ke't Xu at ban xa, B~c Kinh, 1998.
6. HA TV TOAN (chu bien), Trung Quo'c Ljch dc;Ii Danh tang
r:p ~ Jrr {i; ~ 11W, Ha Nam Nhan Dan Xuat ban xa, Ha Nam,
1996.
7. H.VAN PRAAG, Sagesse de laChine, Marabout Universite,
1966.

XIV

Y2 CJTUUUUO-rVITl~,
Thi Kinh Khuat Nguyen

TU' thu' Chuang cu T~p chu Xuan thu Ta truy~n Chinh Nghia
r-
I»•
Q
-f

~
:::r
C>.
~
I.C
-f

c:n
Q
·I»
~
c:n
1»,
n
:::r

:;I

~
I.C
-f

:;I
·C
n
~I»
......-
•Q. ::::s
c::r
en~
I» I»'
<c
:::;"c:
C.•<
< C'D>
C'D>' ::::s
~

r-
2-
n
Q.

a<
::::s
IC
>
::::s
-1
::r
·I»
n
::r

~
0 >1
""'C
::r
C •
cc
0>'
ttJ
CD>'
ttJ
·I»
-f
:::::r
-s
I» ·I»>
'C
cr
1»,
-
1»,
~

3
-
:I: ·0>
c
<(D>' 'C
-
:::::r
~ I»>'
~
:;I
I» -
~
cc
roAN THU nJ HQC CHa HAN 17

Philn md dilu
NHUNG VAN E>:E cAN BAN
A.cHa HAN: rfNH cHAT vA c.Au r~o
I. TiNH CHAT CUA CHU HAN
Chu Han, thu chu cua t6 tien dan t()c Han, la mQt trong
nhG'ng h~ thong chu viet OU</C dung lau doi nhat tren the gioi.
Hi~n nay, chung ta chua biet dich xac chu Han phat sinh trong
thai gian nao, nhung tu the ky 15 truoc C6ng nguyen, doi nha
Thuong (1600-1028 tntoc CN), n6 da tr& thanh m()t lo~i chu viet
kha phat tri€n, truoc d6, chac h~n con c6 m()t lich sll' rat lau dai.
Hi~n nay, chung ta con tr6ng thay nhung chu viet xuat
hi~n each nay hon 3000 nam do nguoi doi Thuong dung trong

van phong tu bao vi~c ghi chep. Bay gio hQ rat tin vao quy th~n, nen c6 vi~c gl
quan trQng thl thuong viet len mai rua, xuong thu, vl v~y du<;1c
gQi la "giap cot van". Thu chu nay luu truy~n den nay von la
c6ng Cl;l cua nguoi Han dung a€ ghi chep ng6n ngu Han, m?c du
each viet v~ co ban van kh6ng thay a6i.
Hi~n nay, chu viet cua ph~n IOn eac nude tren the gioi d~u
thu()c lo~i chu rap v~n, dung eac chu cai a€ ghi thanh am cua tu,
OQC ra thl hi€u dt1<;1C y nghia. D6 la truong h<;1p chu viet cua
nhi~u dan tQC a chau Au, chau My, va cua chu Vi~t Nam hi~n
d ~i.
Tinh chat cua chu Han l~i khac. N6i thea thu phap thl m6i
chula m()t hlnh th€ OQC l~p, khac voi hlnh thuc cua lo~i chu rap

Mlfc Huang ky Ian D~i quoc


(doi Minh)
Mlfc chu sa mau Tay Ho
th~p canh thi (doi Thanh)
la m(}t dau hi~u cua am tiet, kh6ng th€ chi
~ ' h - ,
mQt cac ro rang.
r
v ~ n ; chu Han l~i kh6ng ket h<;1p m~t thiet voi ngu am: m6i chu
am d QG GY<l .Gl:J.~
T Hlf Y I~ N
VNC PH VN
I
J

:.~ VAN · H/\ :\JH > .


l.sn ~~~ --};<6 7:.-----
- - - - - - UJ ill~ ·- -
~-
18 TRAN VAN CHANH roA N THL1 Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 19

C6 th~ chia chG' Han ra lam hai nh6m IOn: M()t nh6m thugn Thf dl,l: )c. la hlnh ve m()t nguoi dang quy goi nhin theo
tuy bi~u y , kh6ng c6 thanh phgn bi~u am; m()t nh6m chG' hlnh trilc di~n , bi~u thi "nhan" la nguoi . Sau, hlnh th~ chG' viet bien
thanh c6 thanh phfrn bi~u am. Cac hQc gia. til xua d~u nMn ding a6i dgn, th~mh ra A .
chG' Han c6 6 nguyen de ca"u t;:to thuong gQi la Ll,lc thu. Vl chG' viet bien d6i , nen ngay nay khi nhln vao m()t chG'
II. L()C THU ta kh6ng con nh?n ra n6 la hlnh cua v?t gl. Trai l;:ti, (j Giap cot
Ll,lc thu kh6ng phai la nhG'ng nguyen uk do nguoi xua d~ t van, m()t lo;:ti chG' viet so khai, ta tr6ng thay rat r6 (xem hinh 1).
ra truoc khi d~t chG' rna do nguoi doi sau din cu vao ket ca"u cua
q ~ ~
P1
chG' viet r6i quy n;:tp thanh ly lu?n, vl v?y each giai thfch cua
moi nha cung c6 vai cho chua nha"t tri.
Sach Han van gidi tl! cua Hua Th?n 1da k~ ra 6 nguyen tac
F~ ~ 1m
MON CUNG LQC TU0NG
*
Hinh 1
nhu sau: Chi stf, Tu<;1ng hlnh, Hlnh thanh, H()i y, Chuy~n chu,
Gia ta. Hgu het chG' tu<;jng hlnh den nay kh6ng con giong hlnh ve
Han thz.t Ngh? van chi cua Ban C6'2 l;:ti c6 each gQi ten va nG'a, nhu cac chG' B (nh(jt: m~t troi), .f:l (nguyft: m~t trang), 4-
thu ttf hoi khac: Tu<;1ng hlnh, Tu<;1ng stf, Tu<;1ng y, Tu<;1ng thanh, (ngz.tu: trau), .~ (ddu: chim), ... ; m()t so chG' khac da bien nghTa
Chuy~n chu va Gia ta . nen ngay nay khi nhln vao m~t chG' ta rat kh6 doan n6 von la
Hi~n nay nguoi ta thuong dung eac thu?t ngG' cua Hua chG' tu<;1ng hlnh, nhu chG' § (tl!) ban dgu c6 nghia la eai mui, chG'
Th?n d~ gQi ten cho 6 nguyen tac ca"u t;:to chG' Han nhung xep l;:ti ~ (v<Zn) ban dgu c6 nghTa la con rit (rlt) hay eac lo;:ti trung
theo thu ttf cua Ban Co: Tu<;1ng hlnh, Chi stf, H()i y, Hlnh thanh, tuong c?n voi rft.
Chuy~n chu, Gia ta 3 . Hua Th?n n6i: "ChG' tu<;jng hlnh la chG' ve thanh eac v?t
1. Tzt(fng hinh can cu theo hlnh th~ cua n6, nhu chG' nh?t, chG' nguy~t" (Tu<;1ng
Dung phuong ph a p ve hlnh nhG'ng v? t c6 thtfc d~ d~ t ra hlnh gia, hQa thanh ky v?t, tuy th~ c?t khuat, nh?t nguy~t thida).
chG' viet gQi Ia phep tu<;1ng hlnh. Nhung chG' viet theo phuong 2. Chi S{l
phap nay gQi la chG' tu<;jng hlnh. Hua Th?n n6i: "Tha"y rna nh?n biet, xet rna r6 y, nhu chG'
thz.t(fng (__t_), chG' hq CT)'' (Chi stf gia, thi nhi kha thuc, sat nhi
kien y, thu<;1ng h;:t thi da) .
Hua Th~n (khoang 58-147) Ia ngttoi dat Nhu Nam doi Dong Han, tu Ia Thuc
1

Qua cau "thay rna nh?n biet", ta thfry chG' chi Stf va tu<;jng
Trc,mg, ngoai Him \'(In Kii.ii f1! Ia m()t b() ll! di~n rat n6i tie'ng ( 14 thien) , 6 ng
con Ia lac gia cua sach NKil hanh kinh dj nKhlu. hlnh cung hoi giong nhau. Doi Thanh, Vuong Quan trong Thuye't
2
Ban Co (32-92) tl! Ia Mc:tnh Kien, nguoi da't An Lang doi nha Han, lac gia van cu gidi khi cat nghTa chG' 1J\ (difc: canh tay) da viet: "ChG'
sach Him thu g6m 100 quy~n. nay do tu<;1ng hlnh bien thanh chi stf". Cac nha khao cuu van ttf
'Trinh Chung trong sach Chu tM', phiin chu giai lc:ti ghi Ia : Ttt<;ing hlnh , Hoi y, thuong cho ding chG' tu<;jng hlnh la do y theo hlnh th~ cua nhG'ng
ChuytSn chu, Xt'r S\1, Gi:i ta, Hlnh than h.
II! II
!I
20 TRAN VAN CHANH 21
roAN THV Tl/ HQC CHU HAN
_:..;;---

v~t c6 thlfc rna di;it ra, d~ chi m()t v~t Cl,l th~; con chu chi Slfla chfi' ~& (trdc): "ph!,I" Ia go dat, di len go bi~u th! y len cao, vl
din cu theo each tlidng nghT cua con ngi1C5i, dung chi cac khai "giai " Ia "len cao". Neu dem chu ti5- (b9) trong ~& (trdc) dao l~i
ni~m truu tlic;Jng, vi chu nay cling la m()t loi ve nhung c6 kha th1 c6 chu ~il (gidng) la xuong.
nang bi~u th! dlic;Jc nhung slf v~t vo hinh. Trong lo~i h()i y, c6 khi cung chi m()t slf v~ t rna c6 nhi~u
Nhi~u nguC5i dlfa vao cau "xet rna ro y" cua hQ Hua ma hlnh thai bi~u thi khac nhau.
cho ding chu chi slf nit kh6 ph an bi~t voi chu h()i y. TM t ra, chU' Thi du:
h()i y la do nhi~u b9 ph~n hc;Jp thanh, con chu chi slf chi dung - Ch~ ~ d;R: thai): ::K Ia "trai cay", =- la "tay", dung tay
rieng m()t minh, nhu chu "thlic;Jng", chu "h~" Ia nhung chu dung d~ lay trai cay Ia "hai".
rieng chu khong phai do chu I (c6n) va chu- (nh(tt) hc;;p l~i . - Chu ~ (1~: dac): w la "d6 v~t" (~: b6i), X.la "tay"

=
Vai thi dl,l khac: - (nhcit: m()t)
(nhf: hai)
I (c6n: tren duoi thong nhau)
(=f.: thu), d6 v~t nam trong tay c6 nghia Ia dliQC.
Chu ,c, trong t;R (thai), chu --1" trong 1~ (dac) d~u bi~u th!

3. Hf)ij
0 (vi: vay quanh) bQ )!... (hl;(u) trong chu ~ (chich), bQ ..3.. (k¢) trong chu
cling d~u bi~u thi "tay". Dung tay bat chim C%: diiu) Ia ~
*
"tay", trong each viet cua Khai thli con c6 m()t d~ng khac, nhu
(blnh)

VI kha nang bi~u d~t cua chu tlic;Jng hinh va chi Slf c6 h~n (chich), Giap cot van viet Ia A:f:. Chu "chich" ban dftu von c6
nen phai nghT den vi~c rap m()t vai dau hi~u hoi;ic m()t vai hinh
th~ d~ t~o ra m()t chu moi. £)6 la phep h()i y.
nghia Ia "bat dlic;Jc". Dung tay dm lua (%:: hoa) thanh ra
(b lnh ), Giap cot van viet"¥'\, c6 nghia "dm, nam ".
*
Theo Hua Th~n, chu h()i y la chu "hc;Jp y cua eac phftn d~ C6 m()t so chu h()i y VI nghia ban dftu bi m()t nghia khac
t~o duc;;c nghia, nhu chu .LEt (va) , chu {§ (tin)" (H()i y gia, ti lo~i xa m chiem nen rat kh6 biet. Nhli chu ~ (ich), dien ta y nlioc

* Nhu chu *
hc;;p nghi, dT kien chi vi, vo tin th! da).
(thai: hai) la do chu !T\ (trdo: m6ng tay) va
(mqc: cay) hc;Jp l~i, bi~u th! Slf vi~c "dung tay d~ hai qua
tra n ra khoi ch~u (;~ Ia nuoc, Jill. la eai ch~u) c6 nghla tuong
duong voi chu ~ ( dQ_t) ngay nay Ia "tran dfty". Chu !Ji: (mg_c)
chu bi~ u thi mi;it trC5i li;in trong dam co (:*:[ ~~ ]la co mQc urn tum, B
tren cay"; ket hc;Jp -z (chinh la -=f.: thu, nghia Ia tay), 51 (nhf:tc: Ia mi;it trC5i), nay c6 nghia nhli chu "m9 "~ nghia la "bu6i
th!t) va * (k); :thftn) thanh ra chu~ (te': cling thftn ), 3 phftn \ chi~ u ". Khi n6i "huu ich ", "m~c giao chi thlic;Jng d~" (dung cho
, * bi~u th! y "dung tay bung thit d~ te tlf truoc thftn ".
51
n6 gay (j tren canh), ta kh6 nh~n ra "ich" va "m~c" la nhung chu
Chu 7j5- (bq: di bang chan) bi~u th! khai ni~m "buoc" nen h ~. ,
Ql y.
duc;;c rap bdi hinh ti1Qng cua chan trlioc va chan sau, viet theo 4. Hinh thanh
Giap cot van la ~: hai chan di d()ng tung buoc, bi~u th! d()ng Tuc;;ng hlnh, Chi slf, H()i y d~u thu()c lm;ti chu bi~u y thuftn
tac "di ". Chu 7j5- (b9) hc;Jp voi chu 1j<: (thuy) thanh chu 1~ (thi¢p) tuy . Neu chi dung 3 phep t~o tlf nay thl khong th~ dap ling dfty
nghTa la l()i trong nuoc. D6i b() 1j<: (thuy) thanh b9 _$ (phf:t) ta c6 au nhu du phat tri~n ngay cang cao cua xa h()i. Van tlf muon
22 TRAN VAN CHANH

phat tri€n ta't phai lien h~ den thanh am va ngu ngon. a cac
-
roAN THLf Tl,/ HQC CHU HAN

_ Tren hlnh duoi thanh, nhu ~ (lai), 1ft (nham)


23

nude tren the gioi, chu viet d~u phat tri€n theo huang .tu bi€u y _ Duoi hlnh tren thanh, nhu ~ (cilu), ~ (ho(ie)
len bi€u am. Chu Han cling khong ra ngoai I~ d6, nhung n6 _ Trai hlnh phai thanh, nhu ~ (chu), ft (br;m)
khong phat tri€n thuftn tuy theo con duong bi€u am rna l<;li sinh _ Phai hlnh trai thanh, nhu ~U (tude), ~% (vu)
ra mot hlnh thuc trung gian vua bi€u y vua bi€u am gQi la chu - Ngoai hlnh trong thanh, nhu Ef (gioi), ~ (ly)
hlnh thanh. _ Trong hlnh ngoai thanh, nhu rc.~ (mu9n), rt-Hhifn)
Chung ta tha'y c6 nhi~u stf v?t va y tu&ng khong th€ dung f)oi khi moi nhln mot chu nao d6 ta tu&ng la chu hlnh
phep tu<;Jng hlnh ho~c hoi y d€ dien ta dUQC. Nhu "ngl;I'a" va thanh, nhung l<;li khong phai, nhu chu ~ (v~m), chu 1& (thifp).
"Ilia" c6 hlnh d<;lng ra't giong nhau, thl khong biet phai ve the Neu hi€u lfrm c6 th€ dt nghia sai.
nao d€ d~ t ra chu ljJl (lu: Ilia). Dung phep hoi y d€ bi€u thi "Ilia" Yi~c dt nghia cac dclu hi~u chi nghia cling dn c6 st,r uy€n
cling kh6, nen phai ngh1 ra phep hlnh thanh. chuytin. Thi dt,I: Dfru -++- cua chu 1fi_(thdo) phfrn nhi~u dung a€
Theo Hua Th?n thl chu hlnh thanh la chu "lcly stf lam ten, chi cac thtfc v?t thuoc lo(;li hoa thao, nhu 1&1 (ha: sen), ~ (cue:
lcly bo ph?n c6 am dQC gfrn giong d€ so sanh doi chieu rna t(;lo hoa cue), ?f (mao: la tranh), ~ (edt: day leo). Nhung cling
thanh, nhu chu giang ?I, chu ha iPJ" (Hlnh thanh gia, d1 stf vi khong nen cho tftt ca nhung ChU CO bo "thao" tren dfru d~U thUOC
danh, thu thi tuong thanh, giang ha thida). v~ de loai hoa ho~c co vl nhung chu chi cac loai rau trai cling

Nguyen rae hlnh thanh la dung mot phfrn lam dclu hi~u chi thuong viet voi bo "thao ", nhu ~ (lang: cu clu), ff (dn: rau
y, con mot phftn khac lam dclu hi~u chi am. Phfrn chi y d<;li khai dn) ... f)oi voi nhung loai c6 quan h~ den hoa' thao hay quan h~
neu len moi quan h~ giua chu d6 voi mot Slf v?t nao, phfrn con den mau sac, mui vi cua hoa, thao cling c6 th€ viet voi bo
l(;li chi am d€ cho biet am OQC giong ho~c gfrn giong cua chu. "thao". Thi dt,I: ~ (hanh: cQng), 3f (nha: mfrm), J!j (phuong:
Thi dl;l: thorn), if (thuong: mau xanh) ...
- Chu *(lai) do-++- (thdo) va *(lai) t(;lo thanh. "Thao" Nhung chu dung bo "thao" lam dclu hi~u chi nghia doi khi
(co) dung chi y, cho biet "Jai" thUOC V~ mot lo(;li CO, con "[ai" cling bitiu thi nhung y nghia khac, nhu chu ¥-& (lg.e: roi rt,Ing), chu
(*)chi am dQc. Neu d6i "lai" (*) ra "lan" (l*j), ta c6 chu Jil Jit (hoang: hoang vang). Truong h<;Jp nay th~t ra khong c6 gl mau
(lan) d€ chi ten mot loai co dQc la "lan ". thu~n, VI nhu chu "l(;lC" voi bo thdo con CO nghia ban dft U Ja "luc
dfru khi la cay roi rt,Ing", c6 lien quan den la cay.
£E. (trung) d€ chi nghia, *
- Chu ~ (ehu) chi mot loai trung c6 ten la "chu ", trong d6
(ehu) d€ chi am. Neu ta d6i bQ
"trung" ra bo ~ (thuy) thl c6 chu 1*(chu) chi mot con song c6 ten
Rieng dau hi~u chi thanh (am dQc), hi~n nay ta thuong
tha'y n6 chi mot am dQc khong mcly chinh xac (nhu ?I (giang)
dQc la "Chu ", mot nhanh cua song Tu thuoc tinh Son Dong. khong dQc la "cong" I), vl c6 st,r bien d6i cua ngu am. Thi dt,I:
Dclu hi~u chi nghia va chi thanh trong chu hlnh thanh c6 vi cac chu dung 12_ (!6) dti chi thanh tuy phfrn nhi~u dQc la "lo ",
tri khong nha't dinh, c6 th€ khai quat lam 6 truong h<;Jp : nhu nt, {f!, ~. I!. (l6), nhung voi chu ~Ji (lu) l<;li khac m~c du
24 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 25

d€u dung chung m()t dau hi<$u d~ chi thanh ca. Chu if (rna) dung thu'ong dung phep hlnh thanh d~ d;;it ra nhung chu moi. Thi dt,I:
}jjij (ma) chi thanh, nhu'ng ~ Va ~ thl l(;li do.c la "mi ", ~ Va fi: f~ (cdo: lam), ~ffi (do: uranium), . ~ (nai: khi neon), 'I I (qt: SQ),
thl l(;li doc la "rna", d€u kh6ng gi6ng voi am doc cua if "rna", {nj (qtc: rat) ...
thanh mau cua 4 chu do con tuong d6ng voi Jjjij (rna) . Nhung co 5. Chuyin clui.
tru'ong hQp thanh mau kh6ng gi6ng nhau, chi co v~n mau gi6ng, Phep chuy~n chu trong Lt,Ic thu' la m()t tru'ong h<_ip r~c r6i
nhu' chu ~f (khiem) , 9,l (hi~m) va • (liem) d€u dung 31Jt (kiem) d~ da sinh ra nhi€u van d€ tranh lu~n, nhi€u y kien giai thich khac
chi thanh, v~n mau d€u la "iem ". nhau:
Neu 2 chu dung cling m()t dau hi<$u chi thanh rna thanh Phai chu hlnh chu tru'ong dlfa vao hlnh th~ cua chu, nhu'
mau (pht,I am dgu), v~n mau (vgn cai) d6i voi dau hi<$u chi thanh noi: Chu ~ (khdo) quanh v€ ben ta, chu ~ (lao) quanh v€ ben
hoan toan khac thl vi<$c suy doan each doc kho khan kh6ng it, huu, chu LlJ (son) nhln m?t ben thanh chu !j3. (phlf), ... Thuyet
nhu' ~ (di?u) va {ffl] (thich). Ngoai ra, kho khan han nua la d6i nay kh6ng chinh xac.
voi tru'ong h<;jp tlf hlnh da bien d6i, khien ta kho nh~n ra dau Theo phai chu am, vl m()t chu thanh di<$u kh6ng gi6ng
hi<$u nao dung d~ chi am doc. Thi dt,I: chu :& (kim), dung ~ nhau, am doc co khac nen nghia moi phan bi<$t ra, do Ia chuytin
(kim) chi thanh, chu ~' (c!lp) dung lJz (c(lp) chi thanh, rat kho chu. Thi dt,I: chu j;, doc "thi~u" nghia la "it", doc "thieu" nghia
nh~n biet. la "tre".
Tuy nhien kh6ng vl nhung ly do tren rna noi chu hlnh Thlfc ra day chi la m()t hlnh thuc phat tri~n cua tlf nghia
thanh kh6ng co quy lu~t. Neu dlfa theo l!ch sll' am v~n cua Han (nghia chu).
ngu va phuong ng6n hi<$n d<;1i, ta thay chu hlnh thanh co quy lu~t Phai chu nghia cho ding tat d. nhung chu co y nghia tuong
r(;lch roi, nhu' chu K (ht) da dan khi nay, hi<$n nay dan Ci Tu d6ng, co th~ chu giiii Ian nhau la chuy~n chu.
Xuyen, Trung Khanh d€u doc gi6ng nhu' am cua chu J1i. (!6) 4 . Cac nha khao CUll phgn IOn c6ng nh~n thuyet nay, h<;jp voi
Chu ~PJ (ha) dung OJ (khd) d~ chi thanh, hi<$n nay dan vung y kien giai thich cua Hua Th~n: "Chu chuy~n chula l~p nen mot
Quang Chau doc thanh mau va v~n mau cua "ha" va "kha" dgu b(), cling m()t y nh~n nhau, b6 tuc cho nhau, nhu' chu khao
gi6ng nhau, chi khac chut it v€ thanh di<$u. Nghien cuu l!ch sll' ~, chu lao ~, (Chuy~n chu gia, kien lo<;1i nhat thu, d6ng y
am v~n cua Han ngu, nguoj ta co th~ l<;1i dt,Ing cac dau hi<$u chi tuong tht,I, khao lao thida).
thanh trong chCi' h'inh thanh d~ khao dinh SO lu'QC tlnh tr(;lng cac Trong Thuye't w'in, chu ~ (lao) la m()t bo thu (b() thu 302),
~
am "'
co. chu "khao" ~ thuoc v€ bo "lao". Chu "khao" la do chu "lao"
Trong v6n chu Han, chu hlnh thanh chiem mot ti 1<$ rat
bot di r6i them vao am phu '7, tuc la cling mot dgu bo va hai chu
cao, co th~ len den 90 phgn tram, va ngay nay nguoi ta cling
tu'ong d6ng co th~ chu thich Ian nhau (d6ng y tu'ong tht,I).
Tu'ong tlf nhu' the, cac chu lfU (hlnh: cat, giet) va ~u (h!nh:
4
Theo Tu Minh, Him t¥ thu&ng th!lc, tr.l6 cat c6 tlf til'),~ (dien: dinh, chop) va JJ[ (dinh: dinh, chop) d€u la
-
26 TRAN VAN CHANH
roAN THtJ TIJ HQC CHU HAN 27

nhung chu chuy~n chu vi hai chu "hlnh" va "hlnh" cl~u thu<)c b<) C6 nhi~u tru'ong h<;fp de l~m Ian khi v?n dt;Ing phep gia ta
iJ (dao), hai chu "clien" va "cli'nh" cl~u thUQC bQ J[ (hift). Hai a~ aoan nghla cua tll', nhu ~if51t (phu sa) nghTa la "canh la tot
c?p chu cl~u c6 each clQc g~n giong, y nghla thl nhu' nhau, c6 th~ tudi, sum se" de bj hi~u l~m la "canh rG la roi" vi chu "so"
dung chu thich Hin nhau clu'<;fc. nghla ban cl~u la "thu'a, it". ~i~ (w;mg duang) la nguoc nhln,
6. Gia ta ~ $ (w;ng duang) cGng la "nguoc nhln " de l~m la "tr6ng nhln
5

Nh?n thuc cua con nguoi cloi voi the' gioi khach quan ngay bi~n ca"
hay "tr6ng nhln con de" vl "vQng" la "nhln ", chG'
m<)t phong phu, so tll' vj cGng d6i dao them. Ne'u moi tll' cl~u phai ''duong" thu nhat c6 nghTa la "bi~n ", chu duong thu hai thuong
t~o ra m<)t dau hi~u rieng cl~ ghi chep thl so dau hi~u se trd nen c6 nghla la "con de".
qua nhi~u, kh6ng th~ t~o ra cho xie't va c6 khi cGng kh6ng th~ T6m l<;1i, c6 th~ n6i c6 3 phep t<;1o ttf (cl? t chu) chinh:
t~o clu'QC. VI v?y, ngu'oi ta cla dung m<)t bi~n phap rat tht,tc te': Tu<;1ng hlnh, H<)i y va Hlnh thanh.
Khi m<)t Stf v?t moi vll'a xuat hi~n ma kh6ng c6 ngay chu cl~ bi~u C6 th~ lu'QC bot phep Chi Stf vl n6 chi la hlnh thuc khac
thj, ne'u kh6ng b~t bu<)c t~o ra chu moi thl chi dn mu'<;fn dung cua iu<;1ng hlnh va H<)i y. Chuy~n chu va Gia ta cGng kh6ng
m<)t chu cl6ng am c6 san, c6 thanh am giong voi thanh am cua chinh thuc la phep t<;!O tl, VI muon dt ngh!a chu "lao" la
ten gQi Stf v?t moi. 86 la phep gia ta. "khao" tru'oc he't phai c6 "khao" ho?c ngu'QC l<;ii; con Gia ta, cla

va gdi Stf, nhu' chu l~nh -it, chu tru'ong *


Hua Th?n n6i gia ta la "von kh6ng c6 chu cl6, mu'<;fn thanh

ttf, y thanh thac stf, l~nh tru'ong thj da).


(Gia ta gia, ban v6 ky
gQi Et "ta" (mu'<;fn) tat phai c6 san, chi rnu'Qn dung theo nghla
moi chu kh6ng cl? t ra chu rnoi.
Hi~n nay ly lu?n v~ Lt;Ic thu' c6 gia trj tht,tc tien trong nhi~u
Thi dtf : truong h<;1p. Nhu n6i ffi vie't thanh do -++- va EB la clung, ne'u vie't
- Chu -% (lfnh) trong "hi~u l~nh" clu'Qc mu'<;fn lam chG' thanh do--- va E8 la sai, vl ffi (mieu: lua non) la h9i y cua--- va
"l~nh "trong "huy~n l~nh ". 83.
- Chu ~ (d6) c6 nghla la "con clu'ong", sau clu'<;fc mu'<;fn Doi voi chu hlnh thanh, chung ta c6 th~ dt,ta vao dau hi~u
dung trong "cl6 cl~" (hQc tro ). chi' thanh va chi y, tharn bac voi ten cua cac stf v? t cla quen bie't,
- Chu 11M£ (ly) von la chu chi' ten chim, sau clu'QC dung voi cl~ OQC va hi~u clu'QC nghla cua rn<)t so chu rna kh6ng phai mat
nghla moi la "lla" (ly khai, ly bi~t, phan ly). c6ng tra cuu. Thi du: Ta cla bie't chu [PJ (d6ng), ne'u thay chu ~
NhG'ng chG' gia ta sau khi clu'QC rnu'<;jn dung lau thu'ong mat
lu6n nghla ban cl~u. Thi dt;I: Chu ~(yen), theo Thuye't w'in la ten s '
· Ve til "v<;mg dttong" thu nhat, sach TrungTit, thien "Thu thuy" c6 diu : "Ha
"m<)t loai chim c6 mau vang", clu'<;fc rnu'<;fn dung lam m<)t hu' tU'
Ba thuy tuy€n ky di~n ffi\)C VQng dttong httong nhltQC nhi than". v€ til "vQng
(xem Ngil phdp PHAN NHA.P MON, bai 110), vl mu'<;fn qua Iau, duong" thu hai, sach Sit ky, "Kh6ng Tii' the' gia" c6 diu : "M1,1c nhtt vQng
kh6ng c6 ai dung l<;ii theo nghla cO nen nghla ban cl~u bj mat eli. dttong". Thien "Thich danh" sach Nhl nhu c6 n6i : "Duong Ia khi dttong, y n6i
Chu ~ (v9n) chi ten m<)t loai rit (re't), sau cGng bj mat nghla. khi duong (J tren, ngttdc dfru cao len gi6ng nhu' nhln n6 v~y".
6
Dai Chan doi Thanh n6i : "Chuy€n chu, Gia ta chi Ia cai d1,1ng cua tt!''.
'!I

28 TRAN vAN CHANH roAN THI.J Tl,l HOC CHO' HAN


29

c6 b9 ~ (kim) ben tnli, thl khong dn tra til' di6n cGng c6 th6 D6n, each huy~n An Duong 5 d~m v€ phia tay b~c, thu<)c tinh
doan chG' &rnJ OQC la "d6ng" va la ten cua m<)t thu kim lOi~i c6 ky Ha Nam trong nam Quang Tt,r (1875-1908) doi Thanh. Nai day
hi~u h6a hQc la Cu. Tuang tt,r nhu the, ta c6 th6 biet chu ,~, dQc la da't cG cua nha Thuong (1600-1028 truck CN.) nen c6 ra't
la "trung "va c6 nghia la "trung thanh" vl phfa duoi c6 b<) nhi€u di tich cua thai d;;ti nay. Til' d6 Giap cot van khong ngung
IL-l (tam); chu ±)£ OQC la "thanh" va c6 nghia la "th ~mh trl" vl ben OUQC phat tri6n. Sau nam 1928, qua nhi€u CUQC khai qu~t Ion, so
trai c6 b<) ± (thB) ... Doi voi nhung til' oa am, nha't la song am, luc;fng Giap cot van dao OUQC c6 han 15 V;;tn manh trong d6 ph§n
vi~c suy doan con d€ dang han, nhu g~p til' ~ ~, ta tha'y b<) IOn C1 vao h~u ban ky cua doi Thuang (xem hinh 2).
pMn tren cua chu thu nha't la 1t (h6a) , b<) ph~n tren cua chu thu Vi~c phat hi~n Giap cot van giup ta hi~u m<)t each chinh
hai la ~ (t?), neu chung ta da c6 nghe qua danh til' "h6a t~" r6i xac Sl/ phat sinh va phat tri6n cua chG' Han. D6 la lo;;ti chG' dung
thl c6 th6 doan ngay ~~ OQC la "h6a t~" va c6 nghia thong dao kh~c tren mai rua va xuang thu, nen net but thuong CO
thuong la "ti€n t~" ... Ap dl,m g phuang ph a p nay' hQC thu<)c OQ duong th~ng (xem hlnh 3) ra't giong hlnh ve, c6 th6 tr6ng vao a6
2000 chG' Han, chung ta c6 th6 OQC them OUQC 5,7 tram chG' moi doan duc;fc nghia, nhu cac chu f~ (b9c), iftJ (ngu), t$, ( quy),
rna do phai ton cong. ~~ (ke) , l~dmii) (xem hlnh 4) c6 hlnh d;;tng ra't r6 rang. M<)t so
Tuy nhien, cong dt,m g cua Lt,IC thu cGng c6 nhi€u ch6 h;;tn chu khac, nhu chu /:, (chuy: loai chim du6i ng~n) c6 hlnh chim,
che. Nhu chu H* (tram) nguyen la fB- va *;
§U (ti~n) la 1C d~t chG' ~ (twJc: chen uong ruc;fu) la m<)t lo;;ti a6 dung uong ruc;fu
tren fB-; m~. (ph!fc) do bo fB-, thanh It ngay nay bo ph~n fB- cua ella nguoi XUa, giong hlnh thu CUa IDQt chen uong ruc;fu; chG' ~
3 chG' nay o€u viet thanh F3 (nguyfl) khien ta khong th6 can eli (xlf: ba:n) giong hlnh cay cung truang mGi ten sa:p ba:n ...
theo LI.,IC thu a6 giai thfch 7 .
, ,...? ? ..... ,...? - ,
~~
B.Stj PHAT TRIEN CUA HINH THE CHa HAN Am
< ~ ,,,

Chu Han da c6 m<)t ljch sll' phat tri6n lau hon 3000 nam,
theo quy lu~t tien ttl bi6u y sang bi6u am (nhu ta da a€ c~p) va
-2f:Ern
di til' phuc t;;tp den don gian . ~ r1, ,,
St,r thay o6i trong hlnh th6 chu Han c6 th6 chia ra lam 3 ~
giai do;;tn chfnh: Til' van tt,r c6 doi Thuang den Tri~n thu - Til' ~CJ
Tri~n thu den L~ thu- Tu L~ thu den Thao thu, Khai thu.
Giap cot van doi nha Thuang duc;fc phat hi~n C1 thon Ti6u
Slhf
Hinh2
Tu di~n Til hdi xep "trfrm " va "phuc " vao b<) "nguy~t'', xep "ti€n" vao b<)
7
Giap cot van giong hlnh ve, nhung VUQt qua hlnh ve m<)t
"dao''.
b~c, vl da d;;ti bi~u cho tUng til' trong ngu ngon, con v€ hlnh thuc
30 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THV Tl,l HQC CHa HAN 31

ghi chep da c6 gQt sll'a. Nhung chu Han dang dung hi~n nay tri~n l~i phat tri€n thfmh Ti<iu tri~n, hofm thi~n han m<)t bu'oc so
du'<;fc bien ra tli nhung co sC:J nhu' the. voi D~i tri~n, d~ng chu cung c6 phfrn don gian han. Den nam 26
Doi Chu (1027-771 truck CN.), chu viet chu yeu con lc;ti aoi Tfrn Thuy hoang (221 tru'oc CN.), sau khi da g6m thau sau
tren m?t nhung cai chu6ng lam bang d6ng xanh, truck kia gQi la nu'oc, nha Tfrn thi hanh chinh sach thong nhat chu viet, "pham
"Chung dinh van", nay thu'ong gQi la "Kim van ". Hlnh th€ cua nhung each viet chu cua sau nu'oc kh6ng h<;fp voi lo~i chu tri~n
Kim van nft giong Giap cot van, nhu'ng dyp han va ghi chep cua Tftn d~u kh6ng dung", tu d6 Ti<iu tri~n trCJ thanh m<)t th€
cung ti~n han, kh6ng bat bUQC phai ve y theo hlnh tu'<;fng CUa S\f chu tieu chufin. Den day chu Handa phat tri€n den a<) kha hoan
v~t. C6 nhung chu Kim van don gian han Giap cot van, c6 nhung chinh.
chu h;ti nhi~u net han, nhu'ng n6i chung thu'ong gQn han (xem Muon ti~n ling d1,mg, chu viet phai tien theo huang don
hlnh 4). gian h6a. Chu Ti<iu tri~n doi Tfrn tuy da kha, song viet ra cung
Den thoi Van Chu (770-545 truck CN.), chu cac nu'oc dung con nhi~u cho kh6ng ti~n. Vl v~y doi Tfrn con c6 m<)t chu gian
a€ bien chep so voi nhung chu khac tren chu6ng va v~c c6 ti~n han gQi la L~ thu'.
nhi~u cho khac nhau. Nhung nu'oc Tfrn, m<)t nu'oc (J tren dat cu L~ thu' do Tri~n thu' gian h6a di, ban dftu kh6ng khac Tri~n
cua nha Tay Chu, da ke thua van tlf cua Tay Chu lam cho chu thu' lam nhu'ng c6 phfrn ro net han, v~ sau phat tri€n dftn moi
Han phat tri€n them m<)t bu'oc thanh Tri~n thu'. thanh ra hai th€ chu khac nhau hoan toan.
Chu 1~ bay gio chi c6 nhung "d6 I~" (m<)t chuc quan nho
Giap cilt van
1700-1400 truck CN ·~~) ~ ~ ~ chuyen chep van thu', giay to) dung nen moi c6 danh xu'ng L~
Chu d~i tri~n
766-250 trtfdc C N ~t ·n
~ tt ~ thu'. L~ thu' rat ti~n cho vi~c bien chep nen lu'u hanh r<)ng rai,
den doi Han (tu 206 tru'oc CN.)trCJ th~mh th€ chu viet chinh thuc.
Chu tiiu tri~n
250 trtf<k CN-25 sa u C N ~~ ~~ ~ £1t ~ Sau khi di bien Tri~n thu', L~ thu' da lam mat du<;fc ve
Chul~ i~ ~~. ~ 1:~ .~
25- 220 sau CN m<)c m~c cua cac hlnh ve c6 so va trCJ thanh m<)t th€ chu vua
Chu khai
it-;~ t !~ .~ dyp vua ti~n voi nhung net but c6 tr~t ttf co djnh.
3ll0 sau CN u.!n nay
Doi Han, ngoai L~ thu' con c6 Thao thu', m<)t th€ viet thao
Chu gian thi
1}- ~~ "' 117 Jh cua L~ thu'. Day la m<)t hlnh thuc viet gQn, net but li~n nhau va
BQC NGV QUY KE MA chi dn so lu'<;fc, kh6ng bat bu<)c phai ro rang tung net, ra't ti~n
uay td C:hinh ca rua ga ngifa
cho vi~c ghi chep nhu'ng l~i kh6 xem.
Hinh 3
Tu cuoi doi Han v~ sau l~i c6 them Khai thu' (chu Khai).
D?c di<im cua Tri~n thu' la ket cau d~ng chu chinh t~, net
Loc:ti nay du'<;fc di bien tU L~ thu' gian h6a di, viet do ton c6ng
but du'<;fc viet ra thanh tung net va du'<;fc sap xep kheo leo.
han L~ thu va d€ xem han Thao thu', nen tu doi NgJJ.y Tan v~ sau
Lo~i chu viet dung vao dfru thoi Tfrn gQi la D~i tri~n. D~i
(tu 220 sau CN.) cho den hi~n tc:ti loc:ti chu nay du'<;fc dung lam
tri~n tu'ong ttf Chung dlnh van nhu'ng hoan chinh han. V~ sau D~i
roAN THU Tl/ HQC cHa HAN 33
32 TRAN VAN CHANH

th~ chu viet chinh thuc. rap vgn theo mau tl,I' la tinh. Da v?y, con co nhung chu cling am
Thai Ngt,1y Ta'n, ngoai Khai thu con c6 m<)t th~ trung gian ho~c am dQc ggn giong nhau, c6 nhung chu tt! d<;1ng ra't giong
khac giua Khai thu va Thao thu gQi la Hanh thu'. Thu chu mdi nhau ... D6 la m<)t so nguyen nhan khach quan gay ra va'n d€ dQc
nay dl,I'a theo Khai thu, r6i pha phach chut it Thao thu, du<;jc
lilm va viet lgm.
thong dt,1ng tu thai Ngt,1y Ta'n v€ sau.
Tu day, neu kh6ng k~ loi chu gian th~ sau nay, chu Han Dudi day xin eli' ra m<)t so tru'ang h<;1p C\1 th~ :
kh6ng con ffiQt S\f bien d6i quan trQng nao nua. 1. Nhilng chil d6ng am: m9: M(ban);~.~ (kim) ...
Tom l<;1i, tu thu chu c6 dai Thuong, Chu, chu Han bien 2.Nhilng chil c6 tl! hinh gdn giong nhau: q~, q~ (6, minh);
thanh Tri~n thu', r6i L~ thu, Khai thu. D6 la 3 giai do(;ln ldn trong ?J, ?g (no, thu); H:, ;f5i: (ky, chi); -7, ~(hanh, huang); fw, ·1~. ~
sl,I' phat tri~n cua hlnh th~ chu Han vdi thai gian di~n bien ra't
(v\1, hoi, mai); 7], 1J (dao, ll,I'c); *fk, ~ (lt,lc, duyen); ?!f, ~ (kh6,
dai, nhu'ng n6i chung chi thay d6i hlnh thuc, con v€ ban cha't cua
van tl,I' thl kh6ng c6 gl thay d6i. Xu the phat tri~n chung cua hlnh nhu'<Jc); .tt, lit (ti, thli'); fj(, fiE (d6, ti); Jl\, J1\. (trao, qua); ~R, ?}1
th~ chu Han la di tu phiJc t<;1p den don gian, h<Jp vdi quy lu?t (ta'n, phiem); l)(, f)( (man, mai); ;=X:, ;=X:, 1)(: (thu, tua't, nhung); t;J,
phat tri~n ta't nhien do yeu du van tl,I' dn phai thich nghi vdi dai ;ft (tai, th6n); 7K, *· * (m(;lt, vi, chu); ~. ~ (bgn, tham); C,,
song xa h<)i.
B. B (ky, dT, ti); $. f-Lf (b<;1c, b<;1); *, ~ (l?t, phieu); ;~,
~ (b6ng, phung);ik , ft( (cuu, cha);J\, A. A. (bat, nhan, nh?p);
}!!!, 1~ (di~u, tr(;lo);ft:, ft (sung, doan); ~. ~ (tai, tai); f=¥, f=¥
(thi, dai); {tJ[, tJ[, J.W (khuynh, khoanh, dinh); ~. W (yeu, sQa);
__!f!.,-* (tao, h<;1n); r, -1- (ttl', kiet); fl&, f~ (vi, huy); {fE, ~~ (chua':n,
hoai) ...
Nhung chu c6 tl,I' hlnh ggn giong, am dQC l(;li giong ho~c ggn
giong:
Hinh 4: Chung dlnh van thoi Tay Chu
I;Jl, ttl (ban); ~, ~ (thli', thl,I'); 'I'~, f£ (nao); ¥. J;, Jlj,
•cmo); Mt t~ (mo); ~. ~ (d~); ,_, Fft1 (rna); WU, wU (l(;lt, thich);
DE VIET CHO' HAN
C. VAN
·1~. f~ (nQa, nho ); ~. ~ (bich, phach); *il ,*'' fl (tt,lc, tich,
tich ) ...
Qua nhung slf ki~n da trlnh bay trudc, chung ta tha'y ca'u
t(;lO cua chu Han ra't phuc t(;lp, kh6ng giong vdi nhung thu chu
34 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl/ HQC CHCI HAN
35

D. VAN DE GIAN HOA CHU HAN 8 tinh gian ai au'<Jc 1821 chu 10•
2. Nguyen tile viti clu1 Han gian tlzi
Van a€ gian h6a chu Han bao g6m hai m~t : Bo bot chu d~
9 C6 thS neu thanh 8 nguyen tac :
thS va hai la giam bot net but. (l)Giu l~i phcin khung cua chu goc : ~ (~ ), ~ (~ ), ~
Ml,IC dich cua vi~c gdn h6a la nham giam bot kh6 khan (~),JJ!;t ("'" ).
trong van a€ hoc t?p chu Han, doi voi ngu'oi Trung Quoc con (2)Bo bot bo ph?n kh6ng tieu biSu, giu l~i bo ph?n tieu biSu:
nham nang cao hi~u qua sll' d~.,Ing va phat huy mot bu'oc tac d~.,Ing ~ <ft ), 93- <r£ ), l2f <~H), 7f <OO ), it <* ), 1E <11! )...
giao te cua chu Han. (3)86i thanh mot bo ph?n chi thanh (thanh bang) ho~c biSu y
1. Bo but clzil dj tlzi (hlnh bang) tuong aoi gon hon:
Chu d! thS la nhung nh6m chu co am va nghia giong nhau eD6i phftn thanh bang: :IE (ii),:ii (Jjf), H WID ...
nhu'ng each viet l~i khac. • D6i phcin hlnh bang: it& <m~ )...
Thi d1.,1: • D6i d thanh bang Ian hlnh bang: t~~ (• ), $
- Chu "mau ": ~' ffii,ffi.L\ ... cling c6 nghia la "don vj dung <~). 1P <al) ...
do ruong gcin bang 60 tru'Qng vu6ng". (4 )T~o ra mot chu hoi y moi khac: ~ (~ ), 1* <R ), xY-
(~) ...
- Chu "song":$, :t, ~. ~~--- cling c6 nghia la "cll'a s6".
(5)Khiii h6a chu thiio: Tuc la lay chu thao viet l~i theo loi
Nguoi ta da dem du'<;ic 1405 nh6m chu dj thS nhu' tren va da
khai thu: Bt (B~ ), * C* ), -K: (~ ), ~ (~ ), 7g (~ ), 1t C$1- )...
(6)Dung mot dau hi~u aS thay the: 15Z ({.i ), ifX (J!fl ),
N Phfrn nay chi d~ c~p mot each so lu'QC. Vi~c tlm hi€u chu gian th€ ciing Iii lK (!@:), x~ (~1:E),;f5Z. (ffl), .!lft ( ~g~) ···
mot each tiep t1,1c theo doi stf phat tri€n hlnh th€ chu Han sau giai doc_tn Khai
thu'. (7)Dung mot chu cling am aS thay the (dtfa tren am ph6
Th~t ra, vi~c giiin h6a chu viet da c6 tu hon 1000 nam tru'oc. Theo Nhan Chi thong tuc pinyin) : f[ (~ ),f§ <1& )JL (~ ).~ (~ ),.fr (~ ), X
9

Th6i doi Ba:c T~ (500-577), thoi bily gio chu gian th6' da du'<;ic ph6 bien. Sach (!l:,t~ )...
Can l(Jc It! thu cua Nhan Nguyen Ton da dtfa vao chu Han du'ong thoi chia
each viet ra lam 3 th€ : Tuc, Thong va Chinh. Th€ tuc bao g6m phfrn !On Iii (8)Dung mot thS chu c6 Xu'a:
chu gian th€. Trong cac ban khi{c cua doi Tong, Nguyen (the ky X-XIV),
e Dung mot chu goc c6: £E (n), r:: (~),% (5}jt),
ngttoi ta thily c6 nhi~u chu gian th€. Hoang Ton Nghi, mot hQc gia song vao
cuoi Minh dfru Thanh ciing quen dung loc_ti chu nay. Ong n6i: Dung chu ti,IC d6
° Can ell' theoH6ng 8oc Nhiin, Hi~n cl9i Han nxu, thu'<;lng sach, Hc_t
1
Mon 8c_ti
chep sach CO th€ 00 ton cong Ou'QC mot nlta.
36 TRAN VAN CHANH
roAN THli Tl,l HQC CH(/ HAN 37

M. (f;£), ~ (~), ::/if ( ~) ... iitC~) -'fl- ( .'lfi ) JL(~) :ffC~) R CllX:)
•Dun-gmqtchud!thtic6: lj(J;), ]G(~),·
5EC~) ~ C'&) · ~(~) ~(\t) [,ftC$)
J\Cm),*LO~) ...
eDung mqt d<).ng chu da bo: ,Itt (ij9j) (~i la
_)((~) AU.(.ffi.) ~e::~n ~(Jel) ~Cit)

chu goc cua §Jf, sau kh6ng con dung), *C*J?.) <*la chu Jf('ftf) *(;;;) ~(E£) It'7C~) -&ctn
goc cua fl, sau kh6ng con dung). ~eft) Ji: C~i~J ~(Mf) !]'G ( *~)
Neu da quen hQC chG' ph6n thti (du net), ta c6 th~ dQC chG' Clui tlziclz
gian th~ bang hai each : Nhung thien bang gian h6a c6 ky hi$u ·chi dli<;ic dung ben tr6i
cua chQ.
- Otfa vao 5 nguyen tac gian h6a tren d~ suy doan.
- Dung bang "Gian h6a ttf ki~m ttf bi~u" (Tong gian E.C6 TONG CQNG BAO NHIEU CHO' HAN ?
th~ tra ph6n th~, tong ph6n th~ tra gian th~) thttong c6 th~ tlm So ltt<;5ng chu Han rat IOn, va hil$n van con dang tang len
dltQ~ de dang 0 cac hil$u sach. oti dap ling nhu du di~n d~t moi cua xa h9i hil$n d~i. Ne1J
kh6ng k~ nhung chG' Gi::h ;c:ot van (c6 han 4500, nh~n biet 1lt'!C
hun 1700) va Chung dinn van (c6 hem 3500, nh~n biet dltQC hoi~
Bang d6i chie'u d:;mg gian th~-ph6n th~ m()t s6
2000) thl bang lil$t ke sau day tren mot so ttf ditin ho?c tu di~n
be? thii ho~c be? ph~n n~m ben ciia chii' (thien bang) . tieu bi~u se giup ta hlnh dung kha chfnh xac t6rig so ltt<;5ng chu
Han dltQC ghi nh~n qua cac thai d~i:
~ * ( ~) 9\!.(~) t * (§") !)1(~) $($) Nicndl.li Ttf-tU di~n Sol_ln ho~c chu bien S6chft

~(iE) f . (~) -KC~) n c~~) *Oil~) Dong Han ( 100)


Nguy (230)
Thuye't viin giiii ft!
Thanh lo(,li
Hua Th~n
Ly Dang
9
11
353
520
{?;-(Aff) [XJ(Itlij) ~(~) !IX(~) ~Ct) Tan (t.k)' IV) Tt! Wm Ly Thfim 12 824
B~c Ng1,1y(t.k)' V) 13 734
0:(~) MtC@.) t .(i ) me~) r~J(~) Nam tri<Su (534)
Tt! thlfng
Ng(JC thien
Dttdng Thua Khanh
C6 Da Vttdng 22 726
!

~(,~) ~(~) !}ifJ(trfj) ~(~) (£(~) Tuy (601) Thie't v(j.n L1,1c Phap Ng6n 12 150
Duong (751) DuilnK wJn Ton Mi~n 15 000
~(,~) ~(~) {K(JR[) r-um) =tz-CIJf.) Lieu (997) Long khdm thii Kidm Thich Hanh Quan 26 430
T6ng ( 1008) Quiing wJn Tr~n Banh Nien 26 194
Tong (1066) Lo(,li hien TttMii Quang 31 319
Tong< 1039) T(j.p V(7n Dinh D(l 53 525 '
Minh (1615) Tt! hlfi Mai VngT(> 3 3____1_22_j
h9c Ham thu b(l, thang 9. 1963.
I
i,
I
1

1
!I'
!Ill
38 TRAN vAN CHANH roA N THV nJ HQC CHCI HAN 39

1 Truong Tt! Li¢t 33 549 - Trung Hoa dt;zi lf! diin


Minh (1671) Chfnh ll! th(inx
Thanh (1716) Klwn g Hi If! clif n TrutJng NgQc Thu 47 043 - Han ngrl dt;zi tf! diln
Hi¢n d<).i (1915) Trun g Hou d(t i If! difn Tu Nguyen Cao 48 200 - Han ngrl dt;zi tit diin
1

':II·. Hi~n dai (1962) Trung win ch,ti til difn Tniung Ky Quan 49 905
I"1'1 51 000
- c6 dt;zi Han ngrl tit diln ( ctla Thucmg V{J An thu quan).
Hi¢n d~i (1988) Tan hr) 1/ ' d<;ti It! (1/e'n VLtcin~? True Khc
56 000 - c6 Han ngrl thuang d{Jng lf! lf! diin (Thucmg V{J An thu /
11'1' Hi¢n d~i (1985) Hcin nxit d<;ti l~t clifn Ti:f "I rung ThLf
Hi¢n d~i (1994) Tr11ng Hou It! luii Lanh NgQc Long 85 000 quan)
- Tit vj
Can cu vao bang tn~n. cGng c6 th~ coi t6ng so chiT Han c6 V~ til di~n Han - Vi~t (hay Trung-Vi~t, Hoa-Vi~t), tru
du'Qc Ia tren 85000 chiT, nhu'ng tren thtfc te chi c6 khoang tren cuon cua Dao Duy Anh con c6 nhG'ng tac gia khac nhu': Thi~u
du'oi 12 000 chiT thu'ong dung, so con l?i phfrn IOn la chiT di th~ , Chuu, Nguyen Van Kh6n, Nguyen Quoc Hung, Van Tan,
nhG'ng chG' 1?, chG' c6 xu'a ho~c chG' viet nhfrm rat it khi dung den. Nguyen Ton Nhan, Trfrn Van Chanh ... Lo?i tieng Han hi~n d?i

~I
Theo eac nha nghien cuu, so lu<;~ng chiT Han thtfc te su dt,mg chi co rat nhi~u tac gia, co th~ k~: Hfru Han Giang (chu bien), Le
nam trong khoang tu tren 6 000 den tren 12 000; neu khong tinh Van Quan (chu bien), Nguyen Kim Than, L?c Thi~n, Truong
nhG'ng chiT thu<)c lo?i chuyen dung thl so chiT <lu'Qc dung chi vao Van Gidi ... Ngoai ra con rat nhi~u tu di~n Han ngu c6 d?i ho~c
khmlng 6-7 ngan chiT. Nam 1952, B<? Giao d1,1c Trung Quoc da hi ~n d?i khac do eac tac gia Tay phu'ong bien SO?n.
c6ng bo m<)t bang chiT thu'ong dung ("Thttong d1,1ng ttf bi~u") Du'oi day la phftn hu'ong dan so lu'QC each tra va each dQC
chi g6m 2 000 chiT; den nam 1988 Uy ban Cong tac Ngon ngG' chG' Han trong eac tu di~n cua ngu'oi Trung Quoc SO?n 11 •
Van tl;l' Quoc gia va Uy ban Giao dl.,lC Quoc gia con cong bo
them bang chiT Han hi~n d?i thuong dung ("Hi~n dai Han ngG' I. CACH TRA TO DIEN
Thu'ong d1,1ng Tl;f bi~u") g6m 2 500 chiT thu'ong dung va 1 000
Cac tu di~n Van ngon nhu' Tit nguyen, Tit hdi ... d~u tra
chG' "ke muc thu'ong dung" (thu thu'ong dl.,lng).
theo each nh~n b<) chG'. d day xin lay Tit hdi lam thf d1,1.
Muon tra m<)t chu nao d6, tru'oc het ta phai xem chu d6
, ""' - ,. ' ,..?

F.CACH TRA VA DQC CHa HAN TRONG TO' DIEN thu<)c b<) gl trong so 214 b<) (til 1 net den 17 net). Xong ta l~t
Tu di~n Ia lo?i sach cong Cl;l rat dn thiet doi voi chung ta vao nhung trang dfru noi ch8 "Tu hai b<) thu sach dan" xem b<)
d6 Ci trang thu may. Ta l~t dung trang c6 b<) do r6i do lftn theo
khi hQC chu Han.
v~ tU di~n Van ngon, nhG'ng cuon thu'ong du'QC dung nhat trang sach d~ tlm chu muon tra.

la: 11
TU' di~n Han Vi~t c6 cuon tra theo b(> (nhu' cua Thi~u Chll'u, Tr~n Van
- Khang Hi. Cha nh), c6 cuon tra theo so net chu (nhu' cua Dao Duy Anh), ho~c theo am
- Tit nguyen. ph6 thong (nhu cua Nguy~n Kim Than chu bien), d(>c giil c6 th~ can eli theo
'I -Tit hdi. ph~n huang diin ho~c pham I~ cua tac gia Cl dfru sach.
40 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tl,f HOC CHa HAN
41

Thi dt,I: Muon tra chG' ~~ . Ta biet chG' nay thUQC bQ 5E chG' thl chu tren chi thanh, bat lu~n n6 thu<)c v~ v~n nao; chu
(tuc), 7 net, .xem ph~n sach d~n ta biet bQ nay() trang ... Tim den dudi chi vgn, bat lu~n n6 thu<)c v~ thanh nao. N6i gQn di tuc la
trang vua tra du'<;lc r6i do den nhung chG' trong b9 "tile" c6 phgn chG' tren chi giG' ph~n phat thanh, bo ph~n v~n, chu dudi chi giG'
con l<;ti 6 net (ph~n trong chG' nay c6 6 net), ta se tlm thay chG' phfrn v~n, bo ph~n phat thanh, cho nen chu tren c6 nhi~m Vt,I xac
~~- djnh thanh, chu dudi xac d!nh v~n " .
.86 la tnrong h<;lp thong thuong. Neu g~p phai nhung chu N6i m<)t each gQn han nua, phien thiet la dem hai tieng
kh6 nh~n ra chung thUQC bQ nao thl phai l~t den bang "Ki~m tlf n6i l<iy l<;ti vdi nhau thanh m<)t tieng khac; tieng tren cho biet
bi~u", hay "Nan tra tlf bi~u", dem chu mlnh d!nh tra xem c6 bao phai dQC bang pht,I am d~U nao, tieng du'di cho biet phai dQC VOi
nhieu net, r6i do theo "Ki~m tlf bi~u" cho c6 nhung chu c6 so viin nao. Thi dt,I: "phu" vdi "van" dQc thanh "phan ": "true" vdi
net tu'dng du'dng muon tlm. "giac" dQc thanh "trac "v.v ..
Cac tii di~n mdi hi~n nay, ngoai bang tra theo bQ, con c6 Thu ap dt,Ing phu'dng phap trend~ dQC chG' fw va chG' ~-
them cac bang tra theo so net ho~c theo am (am ph6 thong neu • Dudi chu fW, Tit hdi ghi la: "tuc, nhien" thiet. V~y chG'
la tu di~n cua Trung Quoc, am Han Vi~t neu la tU di~n cua Vi~t fw phai dQc Ia "tien ".
Nam), nen rat ti~n dt,Ing. Ngoai ra, con c6 each tra theo "tu giac • Dudi chu ~'Tit hdi ghi la: "ky, yen" thiet. V~y chu
hi~u rna quy moi g6c chG' thanh m<)t con SO, nhu'ng nay rat it
II ~ phai d 9 c Ia "kien ".
dung. Thi dt,I khac :
II. eAcH DOC CHU HAN • Chu ~,Tit hdi chua Ia : "tuc, udc" thiet, duqc v~n. V~y
phiii dQc Ia "tude".
1. Cach dQc chii' Han theo am Han Vi~t
• ChuJ:, Khang Hi tl! diin ghi la: "thai, lu<;~ng" thiet, am
Cac tU di~n Van ngon cua Trung Quoc thu'ong hudng d~n thuqng rss.
V~y phai dQc la "thu<;~ng".
each dQC chG' Han bang phu'dng phap "phien thiet" . .D6 la
V di phuong pha p don gian tren, ta c6 th~ dQc du'<;lc tat d
phu'dng phap dung am cua 2 chG' "thiet" thanh am cua mQt chG'.
nhung chu Han trong tii di~n vdi di~u ki~n da trai qua giai do<;tn
Sach L~ b9 v9n luqc dt nghia tu "phien thiet" nhu sau: d~u hQC chu Han va da thUQC long du'QC m<)t so chG'. Muon di sau
"Am v~n tac d<)ng hoa h<;lp nhau gQi la "phan ", cling gQi la vao chi tiet, c6 th~ tlm hi~u them d bai "Loi dQc chG' Han" cua
"phien "; hai chu CQ sat nhau t<;to ra thanh gQi la "thiet", thlfc ra
Le NgQc Trt,I dang trong t~p san Dr;Ii H9c Van Khoa so 5, thang
chi la m<)t" (Am v~n tri~n chuy~n tu'ong hi~p v! chi phan, di~c 12, 1968 (c6 in trong ph~n pht,I lt,Ic Tit diin Hdn Vift cua Tr~n
tac phien; luong tlf tuong rna di thanh thanh v! chi thiet, ky thlfc
Van Chanh) ho~c bai "Cach dQc chG' Han" trong pht,I lt,Ic cuon Ti!
nhat da). h9c, m9t nhu c6.u cua thai dr;Ii cua Nguyen Hien Le .
Sach Am luqc cua Hoang Khan giai thich phu'ong phap
phien thiet nhu' sau: "V~ phan thiet (tuc phien thiet), trong hai
42 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU n,l HQC CHO' HAN 43

2.Cach dQc chu Han theo am phfi thong (pinyin) (7) C5<) en> cc> en> <-t> C:7) C'h>
1. CHO' CAl VAN TIENG HAN g k h J· q X

(-) :1- 7~ .t# :tL


I , <'P El ~-E): C«) (""5") (T) (1-J) C<) (T)
zh ch sh r z c s
Bang chii' cai vfin tie'ng Han (~) (~) (?) (8) (11) (-t) (b)
il ~f; ;#f % ~ -fF *-
B<? may phat am
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg -i-%~'t~
y ?it -tit nit ~ itC «it

Hh Ii Ji Kk Ll Mm Nn
rY I 1-Jiit ""5"it it'/] itn "}it

Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu
c: 5<it <IJZ YJL itb -tit X

Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
:.7-tr XY Ti IY "Pit I . m6i tren 7. m6i du&i I3. day thanh

Chu thich : 1. V chi dun g o<S phien am tie'ng ntJ'oc ngoai, tie'ng da n 2. rang tren 8. rang du&i I4. khiquan
toe it ngu'oi va tie'ng dia phu'dng. 3. lqi 9. d~u luai 15.thl!c quan

2. Y , 7 -tr , -tit··· Ia nhung "chu am phu hieu" cua 4. ng;:tc cfrng IO. m~t Ium I6. hang mi~ng

tie'ng Han , nay da it dung. 5. ng;:tc m~m II . g6c Iuai I7. hang miii
6. Jooi con I2. hang h~J.l
2. PHl,J AM
( -==- ) t;f: -E): 3. NGUYEN AM
( -::: ) ..>ig]E-
a,...,-c;-

He th6ng ngu am Trung Qu6c c6 36 nguyen am, g6m 6 nguyen


H~ th6ng ngu am Trung Qu6c c6 21 ph1,1 am:
am ddn, 13 nguyen am kep, 16 nguyen am mGi va 1 nguyen am u6n
b p m f d n Iuoi.
TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tl)' HQC CHU HAN 45
44

• 6 nguyen am ddn: e -t 1e 11!- u··e U1t-


a [a] o [o] e [5 ] i [i] · u [u] : [y]
a1 1fi ua1 x97
y z -t I X u
Cl \. ue1 X\.
• 13 nguyen am kep :
ao ~ 1ao I~
ai [ai] ei [ei] ao [au] ou [ou] ia [ia]
1fi \. ~ X IY ou X lOU IX
ie [iE] ua [ua] uo [uo] : e [yE] iao [iau] x17 U17
an 17 Ian 117 uan u··an
11!- xY xz U1t- I~
en '-, m I'-J uen X'-7 u··n U'-,
iou (iu) [iou] uai [uai] uei (ui) [uei]
IX x97 X\. ang ;t 1ang l;t uang x;t
• 16 nguyen am miii: eng L mg IL ueng XL
an [an] en [an] in [in] u··n[yn] ian [icn] uan [uan] ong XL iong UL
17 '-, I'-J U'-, 117 X17
u··an[ycn] uen (un) [uan] ang [all] eng [all] ing [ill]
U17 x'-J ;t L IL
4. HVONG DAN eACH PHIEN AM HAN NGO'
ong [ull] iong [iull]
XL UL
iang [iall]
l;t
uang [uall] ueng [uall]
x;t XL (~ ) it *.m- -tr ~~ 51
• 1 nguyen am u6'n h.toi: er [ar]
JL PHlJ AM TUONG DUONG VOl

b am "p" ciia ti~ng Phap trong ti~ng '"papa".


:Y; .;,.Ji.. ill .:tc... .i%0 _a. ot. c am "ts" ciia ti~ng Phap trong ti~ng '·tsar...
I~ 9p "11T E1 1'1~ "-7- ~
Bang nguyen am ch am "tch" ciia ti~ng Phap trong ti~ng ''tcheque".
d am "t" ciia ti~ng Vi~t.
I I u X U" u f am "ph" ciia ti~ng Vi~t.
g am "dl' ciia ti~ng Vi~t trong ti~ng "ca".
a y Ia IY ua xY
h am "h" ciia ti~ng Vi~t. !

0 z uo xz - J am "chi" ciia ti~ng Vi~t. :


li~
111;1

'
TRAN vAN cHANH roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHG HAN 47
46

am "kh" cua tiing Vi~t. e am "e" cua ti~ng Vi~t.


k
am "1" cua tiing Vi~t. i, yi am "i" cua ti~ng Vi~t (khi ghep sau cac ph!f fim c. s. z.
1
ch, r, sh. zh thi ''i" d9c "u").
m am "m" cua tiing Vi~t.
ia, ya am "da" cua ti~ng Vi~t (gi0ng mitn Nam).
n am "n" cua tiing Vi~t.
ian, yan gfrn nhu am "dan" cua ti~ng Vi~t (d giong nlitn Nam,
ng am "ng&" cua tiing Vi~t.
an gipng mitn Bic).
p am "p" cua tiing Anh trong tiing "party".
iang, yang am "dang" cua ti~ng Vi~t (gi0ng mitn Nan1).
q am "ch" cua tiing Anh trong tiing "cheer".
iao, yao am "dao" cua ti~ng Vi~t (gi9ng mitn Nam).
r am "ru" cua tiing Vi~t, nhung hoi u6n 1u6i
1e, ye am "de" cua ti~ng Vi~t (gipng nlitn Nam).
s am "x" cua tiing Vi~t.
m,ym am "din" cua ti~ng Vi~t (d gi9ng nlitn Nam. in gi0ng
sh am "s" cua tiing Vi~t (gi 0ng nliJn Nam).
mitn Bic).
t am "th" cua tiing Vi~t. mg, ymg gfrn nhu am "inh" cua ti~ng Vi~t (d gipng nlitn Nam,
w am "u" cua tiing Vi~t. inh gipng mitn Bic).
X am "xi" cua tiing Vi~t. iong, yong am "dung" cua ti~ng Vi~t (gi0ng mitn M111l).
y am "d" cua tiing Vi~t (gi0ng mitn Nam). m, you am "deu" cua ti~ng Vi~t (gi9ng mitn N,111l).
z Gfrn nhu am "chu" cua tiing Vi~t. 0 am "6" ci!a ti~ng Vi~t.
zh am "tru" cua tiing Vi~t (gi0ng nliJn Nam). ong am "ung" cua ti~ng Vi~t.
NGUYEN AM ou am "au" cua ti~ng Vi~t.
TUONG DUONG VOl
VA VANCAI u, wu am "u" cua ti~ng Vi~t.
a Am "a" cua tiing Vi~t. ua, W(!__ am "u a" cua ti~ng Vi~t. I
\

aJ Am "ai" cua tiing Vi~t. uai, w\!i am "u ai" cua ti~ng Vi~t.
1

ao Am "ao" cua tiing Vi~t. uan, W® am "u an" cua ti~ng Vi~t.

an Am "an" cua tiing Vi~t (gipng mitn Bic). uang, W@g am "u ang" cua ti~ng Vi~
Am "ang" cua tiing Vi~t. ui,w~ am "u ay" cua ti~ng Vi~t.
ang
Am "a" cua tiing Vi~t. un, wen. am "u an" cua tiing Vi~t.
e
Am "ay" cua tiing Vi~t. ueng, W@g am "u ang" cua tiing Vi~t.
e1
Am "an" cua tiing Vi~t (gipng nlitn Bic). UO, WQ_ am "u o" cua tiing Vi~t.
en
u··, yu am "u" cua tiing Phap (khi ghep v6i cac ph!f fimj, q.
eng Am "ang" cua tiing Vi~t. X

thi c6 the' viit thea ']u, qu, xu,. bo hai chim tren aliu).
er am "o" cua tiing Vi~t, nhung hoi u6n 1u&i.
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THLl Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 49
48

lran, yuan Am "u" (tiing Pbap) va am ''an" (tiing Vj~l) dQC


li~n l~i.
~c ··hao rna" . .. rna·· dQc nh<;!. hcri cao). I
U..e,yue Am ·'u" (tiing Pbap) va am "e" (tjing Vj~l) dQC
li~n l~i .
DAUCACHAM
li:!n, yun Am "u'' (tjing Pbap) va am "an'' (tiing Vj~t) dQC Nhung am ti~t ma dftu h~ng nguyen am "a, e, o" d~ dQC lfin v&i
li~n l~i . am ti~t d5ng tn.r6c. do d6 ngooi ta dung dfiu each am [') d~ tach n6
ra, nhu: &:t~ (£10 da) thl vi~t [pi'ao ), ch(r kh6ng vi~t [piao] vi nhu

BON THANH th~ se lfin v&i chfr i!9


7T" (ve) .

Ti~ng phb thong Trung Qu6c c6 b6n thanh (giQng) di phan r---
bi~t y nghia: 5 '
Q) thanh thfr I ' 5
• Thanh thu nhfit (am U1anh) la m()t giQng "cao 9~ng", dQc len gfm I
nhu m()t thanh kh6ng dfiu cua ti~ng Vi~t. NguCri ta danh dfiu CV thanh tht12 I 4 j ~... •' 4
"-" tren v~n cai, nhu rna 9!!j (lam~. dQc "rna" giQng hcri cao).

• Thanh thu hai (dllV11g thanh) la m()t giQng "cao bbng", dQc len
tuung tl! m()t thanh c6 dfiu hoi cua ti~ng Vi~t. NguCri ta danh dfiu
cr> thanh thfr 3

® thanh tht14
I 3 i
121 "-.Gl
i0i.,
/f-······
o/
......!
'\

;~ t2
' 3

" " "tren v~n cai, nhu: rna~ (la day, dQc " rna" ). )4

• Thanh thu ba (thuvng thanh) la m()t giQng "tr~m bbng", dQc len
~ • v • 1
gi6ng m()t thanh c6 dfiu huy~n cua ti~ng Vi~t. NguCri ta danh dfiu GHI CHU
" " " tren v~n cai, nhu: mil -~ (la ngva, dQc "rna ~").
Dtfa theo bang doi chieu tren, ta thay c6 m(lt so ph1,1 am va
nguyen am phat am giong ho?c g~n giong cac am va v~n trong
• Thanh thu tu (khli thanh) la m()t giQng "tr~m h~n", dQc len g~n tieng Vi~t. Tuy nhien, each phat am tieng Trung Quae dung nhi~u
nhu m()t thanh hcri c6 am dfiu s~c cua ti~ng Vi~t. NguCri ta danh each "b~t hoi", "gat", ngan han tieng Vi~t.
dfiu " ' " tren v~n cai, nhu: rna ~ (la m~ng, dQc " rna", nhung ·4 ph\} am: b, p, m, f. Khi ph3.t am phai ghep voi nguyen am
am ng~n gQn). "o" OQC Ia: bo (pu6), po (bu6), m (mu6), fo (phu6). Neu ghep voi cac
nguyen am khac, thl phat am g~n giong trong tieng Vi~t.
Ngoai b6n thanh ca ban con c6 m()t thanh dQc nhc;: (khinh
Th£ df:i: Neu ghep voi nguyen am "a" dQc la: ba (pa), pa (ba),
thanh), do la tnrong hqp dQC bi~n giQng Vtra nhc;: Vtra ng~n Va
ma (ma), fa (pha).
thtn'mg kh6ng danh dfiu, nhu: Huo rna? tlfO,~ ? (la c6 t6t kh6ng?
50 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tl,l HQC CHU HAN 51

• 7 phl). am: d, t, n, I, g, k, h. Khi phat am phiii ghep voi M9t b9 c6 th~ c6 nhi~u hlnh thuc khac nhau. Thi d1,1 :
nguyen am "d" OQC la : do (W), w (tho), no (no), lo (lo), go (co), ko B9 "nhan" c6 hai hlnh thuc: A (hlnh thuc chinh),
(kho) , ho (ho) . Neu ghep voi nguyen am khac khong phiii "o", thl
{ ( hlnh thuc ph1,1).
phat am giong nhu' tieng Vi~t.
B9 "tam" c6 ba hlnh thuc: {,,(hinh thuc chinh),
Thi dl:l: Neu ghep voi nguyen am "a" OQC la: da (ta), ta (tha),
·1· ;J~ (hlnh thuc ph1,1).
na (na), la (la). Neu ghep voi nguyen am kep "ua" OQC la: gua (qua) ,
kua (khoa), hua (hoa) .. . Trong bang duoi day, moi b9 c6 m()t hlnh thuc chinh mang cac
.cac phl). am: j, q, x, r, khi phat am phiii ghep voi nguyen so thu tl/ 1,2,3 ... Hlnh thuc ph1,1 dt1<;1c viet kern theo trong dau ngoi;ic
am "i" thl OQC la: ji (chuy), qi (khuy), xi (xi), ri (ri); cac phl). am z, c, don.
s, zh, ch, sh, khi phat am phai ghep voi nguyen am "tf' tieng Vi~t va
dQc la : z (tchu), c (txu), s (xu), zh (tru), ch (tsu), sh (su). Sfl net
Bf} tlut Ten gpi
Y ngh'ia (hoijc co Thi d~t
Neu ghep voi nhung nguyen am khac thl each phat am giong lien quan de'n ... )
SflTT
hoi;ic gfrn giong trong tieng Vi~t.
1 NE1
Trong 10 ph1,1 am tren, c6 4 ph1,1 am khong c6 chu cai nao
trong tieng Vi~t du'Qc phat am giong ca.
Cach phat am nhu' sau: 1 - nha't m9t
'
-t thlit: so bay

+ Ph1,1 am q (ban tdc-vo thanh b9-t hoi). B9 ph?n phat am la 2 I


A?
con '
so
;.>
r:p trung: trong
ng?C cling Va giua lu'oi, luc phat am khong khi tu khe rang phat ra. 3 ' chu cham
'
.3:. chit: nglfoi chil
+ Ph1,1 am z (ban tdc-vo thanh b9-t hoi). B9 ph?n phat am la 4 J phi~t phay jz_ cilu: la u
rang tren va dfru h.l'Oi, luc phat am khong khi tu khe rang phat ra. fL cilu: so chin
5 6 a't cong
+ Ph1,1 am c (ban tdc-vo thanh b9-t hoi). B9 ph?n phat am la
6 J quyet m6c T ldu: xong
rang tren dfru lu'Oi, luc phat am khong khi tit khe rang phat ra.
+ Khi phat am 4 phl,l am: zh, ch, sh, r, d~u phai uon lu'Oi .
2NET
G. cAc BQ CHO' HAN 7 - nh! hai Jingu: so nam
-
NhC:i biet cac b9 chu Han , ta c6 th~ : 8 - d.1u (kh6ng biet nghla) L.: vong: mat di
a. Tra cac tlf di~n va tu di~n chu Han. 9 A ( 1) nhan ngu'C:ii ~kim: nay

b. Hi~u y nghia cua cac chu (vl chu Han la m()t h~ thong 10 JL nhan ngu'C:ii £huynh: anh
bi~u y). nh~p pq nt)i: trong
11 A. vao
C6 214 b9 chu Han xep thu tlj tu 1 net den 17 net. 12 )\ bat tam ~ [f:!C: so sau
'----
52 TRAN VAN CHANH
roAN THU Tl,/ HQC CHCI HAN 53

13 n quynh coixa fflJ sach: cuon sach 37 d~i lOn 7C thien: troi
14
15
~

'(
mich
bang
trilm len
bang gia
7f£quan:cain6n
{~\bang: mt& dong
38 *
-!;:: nii' dan ba H· had: tot d~p
39 -=f til' con 1f:. hie'u : hieu thao
16 JL ki ghe fLpham: d~i khai
40
r---'--7
mien l<;ip trum 9:an: yen 6n
17 u kham ha mi~ng t:fjxui{t: ra
41 ']- thon tac ~tif:chua
18 7J iJ dao dao )]- phan: chi a ra
42 ;j\ ( +) ti~u nho j)thi!u: it
19 1J hjc sue m~nh fi}J tn;: giup do 43 ::tOLfr) uong kieng chan 1t vuu: min tr<ich
20 7 bao bao b9c mv4t: dung, cho 44 F thi thay nguoi Rxich:th11oc
21 t- chuy thla, muoi l tbdc: phu'cJng bac 45 tri~t CO moi mQC 4!. truan: gian nan
lfJ
22 c phu'dng d6 dl,l'ng [K tLt(!ng: th<;l 46 LlJ son nui ~s&n:nili nho cao
23 c h~ d6d~y ~ tha't: tam (vai)
47 JII xuyen song ~ tuAn:tu~n tra
24 + th~p muC:fi -T thien: so ngan 48 I cong nguoi th<;l I tc_ta: ben trai
25 ~ boc b6i 2:1 chiem: xem b6i 49 c. ki mlnh :%t h9ng: hem
26 p (~) tiet dau an EP a'n: in 50 rtJ din khan $thi: ch<;J
27 I han slion nui JffJh4u: day q:.
51 can xamph~m ~ binh:phftng
/._:, khu'
28 rieng tu :ti:kha: di 52 t, yeu nhobe Y.}J a'u: be
29 'X. hlfu l<;ti nua 1_xhilu: b<;tn 53 ) nghi~m mai nha /lWI0:kho chua
3NET 54 L d§n bu& dai 9tkie'n: xay dl;mg
30 0 khfi'u mi~ng r:!ic6: doi xua 55 ft ?
cung cat tay len W.lfmg: dua bOn
31 D vi vay quanh [2g tic giam giu 56 -t di;ic ban ten ~ thac: phep tac
32 ± th6 dar frl{Ii:d 57 i=7 cung cay cung ifdie'u:phung dieu
..3- .3..
33 ± si h9c tro ~±trang:khoe 58 ky d~u heo tfi.tr~: heo mii
34 )( truy den tu sau *-phung: dat di 59 J sam long dai ff5 hinh: hlnh dang
35 5z: tuy ch?m ch<;tp ~h[!: mua he 60 1 xfch buoc ngan f=!fdiii: cho
36 ;; tich dem, toi )l}ngo{Ji: ngoai 4NET ---- - --
54 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THUTl,l HQC CHO' HAN
55

61 {.~'I' ;j~) tam tnii tim ,iG', kY.: ghet 86 )<( }\) hoa
1\\\ lll'a *viem: n6ng
62 Jt qua giao mac PX. thanh:lam xong 87 [f\(m) trao m6ng, vuot 1?bvi: lam
63 p hQ cll'a JJ} phong:bu6ng 88 )( phi) cha iffr da:tieng gQi cha
64 -=f. (1 ) thu tay 1l bai: l~y 89 X
X. hao hao (Kinh Dich) ~sang: sang
65 x chi nhanh tfN.khi: nghieng 90 ~ tuong tam van M-f: tang: de dtfc
66 ion pho'c danh khe ct cai: sll'a d6i 91 h phie'n manh ~bai : tam bi~n
67 x_ van net, van ttl ban: sac l~n 19n 92 ?f nqa rang '!$ sanh: chong do
68 d§u 93 4-t
69 *fT can
(cai) dau
(cai) r'iu
*{ta: nghi€mg
f-F xich: duo1
ngu'u
94 :*0) khuyin
bo, trau
ch6
t~v(1t: v?t
j-f ngc;zn: nha ng~:~c
70 1J phtio'ng vuong,huong ~bang: ben S NET
71 5E VO khong ~~ky: da 95 :Yz huy~n den $ sua't: noi theo
72 B nh~t m?t trC:fi _§_dan: bu6i sam 96 I. ngQc ngQc ~ bich: ngQc bich
73 B vie't n6i ~ thu: sach 97 Jl\ qua trai dua ~J.libdu: trai b~u
74 ,1=3 nguy~t m?t trang ]1)j bdng: be bqn 98 EL Ngoa ng6i, sanh #li: bznh: cai lQ
mQC
75
76 *1\. khie'm
cay
ngap
tflam: rung
BXd~:tc: muon
99
100
1t
~
cam
sinh
ngQt
sinh ra
31:t di~m: ngQt 13:m
&f. san: sinh de
77 11: chi dung .li chinh : ngay thhg 101 ffl dl)ng dung ffiphu:ton xttng dan 6ng
78 37 (j7) ng~t xuongtan :9[ trl: che't 102 83 di~n
)""U
ru<)ng !fj nam: con trai
79 .X thu thu (vii khl c6) ~~sat: gie't 103 JE(J:E) so' chan I
M:_nghi : ngC:f vtfc
80 m VO dung fiJ:mdu: m~ 104 r- n~ch b~nh t?t 111l bz: m~t moi
81 1t ti so sanh mlc rz: giup do 105 >"'<- bat g~t ra, d~p ~dang: len
-=B mao ttcdu: qua du 8
82
a thj
long
-
106 b~ch tdng a bach: m<)t tram
83 hQ ~ dan: nguC:fi dan 107 Bz bl da $$Jltruu: nhan nh6
84 ~ khf hoi, khl ~ khi: chat hoi liil
108 manh bat dia ii;_b6n: ch?u sanh
85
1N {) thuy nuoc i.k v'lnh: lau dai 109 §(nu) ml)C m3:t !§ mi: long may
56 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THLI nJ HQC CHOHAN 57

7 .--
110 -;y mau giao ~ding: khoe 134 B cii'u coi gia ~ctlu: c?u
Ill !;;;_ thi · mui ten ~D tri: biet 13"5 % thi~t lt.toi ~ xa: quan trQ
112 ti th~ch ~J?.nKhien:nghien ml!'c
da 136 94 suyen rliiro .vii: mua
113 /]\, * ky thfm illlt tlxa : d~n tho th6 dja
til; c&m: loai chim
137 fr} chu thuy~n fi.JB h{Ic:thuy~n ldn
114 FJ nhlju chan thu d~p illlt 138 ~ ca'n que Ca'n N_luO'ng: hi~n lanh
f.L. tu: rieng
115
116 *
...........
I\
hoa
huy~t
(cay lua)
hang, 16, hoc ~ kh6ng:trong
139 ~
140 !}!~ ( -++-)
sac
thao
mau sac
co
l@ddm: d~p
zchi: co chi
117
-'-
Jj_ l~p dtlllg li d6ng: tre con 141 F ho van v~n fJe ho': COn CQp
6NET 142 £E trung sau bQ ~van: con much
118 t'r (Irk) true tre '1I l(lp: cai n6n 143 .Itn huye't mau iiiihoang: mau
119 me g<;J.O ~ tuc: th6c lua 144 fj hanh ilrv?: phong giG'
* mjch ~Ih6ng: mau do 1X y
di

*ffi
120 SQi t0 nho 145 ao ~kham: ao ngu
121 phii'u vo n.I'Qu mi cang:cai chum to 146 fH1 (j!§[§) a chetrum ~ yiu:quan trQng
122 ~IJOJC vong h.toi '?f?. han: ft 7NET
123 .¥-.:£ du'ong (con) de l3f qudn: bfry 147 Jl kie'n tha'y tlthj:nhln
124 ~~ vii long (vG) 1Jj tuang: lt.t<;Jn 148 :fij giac sung ~~gidi:giang r6
125 :t Hio gia ~ ky: gia 60 tu6i 149 l=l ngon n6i §15 phong: hoi
126 rm nhi long rna ffffJ n(li: chiu dti<;Jc 150 1§ c6c hang 1W hoat: r()ng rai
127
128 *
If
l6i
nhl
caicay
tai
fflcanh:cay
rm vein: nghe
151
152
R
~
d~u

thi
caid?u
heo (l<;Jn)
'Jlphong: dfiy thjnh
~ tuf!ng: con voi
129 ~ du~t (cay) but Ei til: ti~m hang 153 ~ rai (tri) m()t loai thu ~Jcm(lo: dang m~t
130 ~(,Fj) nh~c thit ~JL ca: bap thit 154 ~ bo'i vo so ~bdn: ngheo
131 E2 thfin mat ngt.toi ~ngQa : nam 155 iffi xich do iff!J:.. xa: tha tQi
132 § tlj tl,l' mlnh ~xu: hoi, mui 156 ;E t~u ch(;ly ~khoi: d~y
133 ~ chi den,tdi ~~ trf: .dt.ta den 157 JE tuc chan ~J[ chl:ng6n chan
-
58

158 ~ than than mlnh


TRAN VAN CHANH

~ 5 cung: mlnh
-
toAN THli Tl/ HQC CHU HAN

r
181 w hi~t dftu (nguoi) Jji dinh: dinh dftu
59

159 ~ xa xe *qulin: d()i binh 182 ~ phong gi6 ~phieu: gi6 th6i
160 tan cay ¥~ bi¢ n: tranh lu~n 1ft phi bay llJm phien: l~t len
161
*JN: th§n chi Thln ey nhf:tc: xa'u h6
183
184 ~ thtfc an ~ dm: uong
162 ;{(}.___) stfoc ch9t di ch9t dung
'.±..
~
.A
v1en: xa 185 § thu (cai) d~u jr@:qu5': con duong
163 E.c ~)
A'
ap d6 ftp :f~ bang: m.toc 186 w htfo'ng mui thorn V. hinh: huang bay
164 @ d~u rtfQU 1@ tU'u: n1Qu tO NET
165
166 *_m
bi~n

ly
bi~n bi~t * thai : mau rvc ro
m:_ tr9ng: ni;ing
187 .% rna ngtfa
xuong .'
.~ cliu : ngtfa

m£thl than mlnh


non
lang que 188 ~ cot
i'I'B .,
-a- cao cao l§ft cao : cao
8NE1 189 rRl

~~ tieu t6c dai ~ phdt : t6c


167 iTi: kim vang, kim lo<:li W
Nnglin: b<:iC 190
168 ~ tntong ctai ~ di¢t: ran GQC 191 r~ da'u danh nhau lffilndo: ~m 1

169 F~ mon cii'a (hai canh) I*J khai: md 192 ~


~
stfdng niQU thdm d~ cung til ua't: bu6n ba
170 $. ( ~) phv go aa't ~~ [f:tc:da't 1i€n 193 <=I
1¥1 each n6i, ch6 ~ tdm: ch6 IOn
?
quy rna 8J[phdch : via
*
dai
171
172 it chuy
ki.P
chim du6i ngan
~~ l¢: ph~:~ thu()c
~ tQ.p: hQp l<:li
194
11 NET *
173 ~' vii mu'a ~van: may 195 i!2, ngtf d. ~' ly: ca chep
=E.
174 thanh xanh ij¥ ti:nh: yen li;ing 196 diiu chim ~~ minh: h6t, keu
F.l
.~
175 ~~ phi loi l~m ~mi:: kh6ng 197 ~ 16 dftt mi;in f!W( ham: mi;in
198 lc')c huou, nai Hl~: Gyp
9NET !It
m~ch lua m'i ~ khuc : men nr9u
176 1m di~n mi;it ~die'n:e thyn 199 ~
177 :;: each da ~ tien: cai roi 200 )jJij rna (cay) gai ~huy: co d~u
=b..
178 &! vi da thu()c 'W_pha't:cai pha't 12NET
'
179 gt cii'u rau hy ~giai: ch~t hyp 201 ji hoang (mau) vang i&ithdu:mau vang

180
::ft..
E3 am tieng ~vQ.n: v~n 202 ~ thtl' lua nep ;6 niem: cha't dfnh
roAN THLinJ HQC CHU HAN 61
60 TRAN VAN CHANH

203 ~ h~c den ~/idiim: dau cha


204 f,fiT chi theu thua ~phctt:cai bit goi
13NET
~t ~ i l1~ I 2os §l manh con ech & bitt: con ba ba H. eAcH VIET cHa HAN
206 ~§Fi- dinh <llnh, V<;lC fm.niii: cai V<;lC IOn
207 ~~ c6 cai tr6ng ltf_b~: tr6ng tr~n
1. cAc NET cd BAN cuA cHO' HAN
208 Jhlt thii' chu<)t ~h~: chu<)t nh~t ~~*¥*¥~
14NET
209 • ti mGi gffhan: ngay
A'

210 '/If t~ t~ chinh fit trai: an chay CHAM

~0 £
lSNE \) "\:) (} \J
cham xien chamxulndiu char" bubng cham ha·t
I @ I xi I rang I t(p linh: tu6i H .f-6 f<. H.r.1, k ;!'.~ ~~t :n.
16NE \)
2121 'ij~ I long I r6ng I M. bang: hQ Bang
17NE NGANG
213
214
~

~
quy
du'<fc
rua
ong sao
fithu:muathu
;f hoa: hoa hQp
fi
=="
=
ngang ng~n
~R t)l!
==
ngang da1
-&H't
~
ngang x1e n
~+ +~
+
so
A?

Jill

Nha rhu philp VurtnK Hi Chi (307-365)


.a

ij
so k1m~ !reo
11!, M ~
~
:iJ st.ong btilng
~~t~
~
so ngan
1-ii ~ti: t
62

PHAY
A?
..,?>

pha'y ngang
jl
ph~y ngan
j)
phal' xien dai
TRAN VAN CHANH

--
roAN THlf Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 63

l'i -'T'- Jilit


y
~ii 4ilii -kHJiiit
A II. QUY TAC VIET CHO' HAN
~~~~~±:~m~u
J? J
J ptfiy
-k&W
tha'K] dili ph.iy ngang g~p ~rya'ljl)il~
t~Hif ~i!R HH'f41fJiiit
QUY
,
TAC THf Dl)
MAC ~Jl ~lj ~ f§tl
t~ ~
mac x1en
~
mac ngang
/~
ngang tnrdc s6 sau
- --
f .. - - - f
~+ 4t + .Jt 7ttl1i~
~
ph~y tnJoc mac sau
A'
7tfift~1it~
/_f-·/
. AAA
_, A
-:(
HAT
~ 1 trai truoc phai sau

*~
tit ~
hat xien
~
hift ngang so hat ngang g~p hat ~t£ "tr_ ~IJ -;;(5 1~: / 1 1/11~~
c:;;?' ~-4- .Jit + JJ!:. ~ Ji!:. f~ 41f JJ!:.
tre n tnJdc dlidi sau
$'c 1: 1~ -,;:-
-±- . - -l- -±- -±- -±- -±-
0 • ' If 0

-~·
MOC ] ~ =V ngoai trlidc trong sau
s6J
1y moe x1en moe cong m6c nam m6c ngang m6c
~t£9'1-~lj~ f0J: rJFJfFJ0)~
~ 1.]

L moe 7J
M 1:J ~~ ±]

1L
!1.1-. 1.]

. ~
tifi" 1.]
/j ' 1

1 sa cong
"' •-:t 1.]
ngang gap rn6c "'91'1J!i1JID1J"il: s'l !W 1/ll nn:
,fj( 41]- 1:] ,f~41f·~ 1:] ~Nif4!fi:J
ngang trlioc ph~y sau
Jfct~1~il £:-J-T-JT£
GAP gWa truck hai ben sau

L d= z $'c cp Fs, 1~ i:r_ :fi 7](. : 1 7] 7}' 7](.


~fi 1 ~

/}
ngang
Wr 4rr
g~p so
~
g~p
41f
phay g~p
~ 4./f
phay ditlg gap
.Jffll..Hi 41f
OJ vao truoc dong sau
- !Jc*g~1~i1 Cl IN : l nAJfll*liN
64 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THll Tl/ HOC CHa HAN 65

c6 nguai hoc them B;;tch tho;;ti. Ch~ng h;;tn, Cl;J Phan B<?i Chiiu trong
cu6n Vi¢t Nam vong qu6c stJ da dung m<?t thCr Van ng6n c6 pha
I. VAN NGON VA B~CH THO~I phach chut it B;;tch tho;;ti. D6i v&i Ngl)c trung nh(it ky cua H6 Chi
Minh thi Sl! pha Ian B;;tch tho;;ti cang r6 net hon.
1. Slj TACH Blr;T GIUA VAN NGON VA B~CH THO~I
Ngu6n g6c cua Van ngon cling la m()t v~n d~ kha phfrc t;;tp.
Van ngon va B~ch tho~i Ht hai th~ van cua ngooi Trung
Th~ van fry da dtnh hinh trong thai ky nao ? Cach xufrt phat th~
Qu6c.
nao?
Bc;tch thoc;ti con gQi la Ngfr th~ hay Khftu ngfr Ut th~ van vi~t
C6 nguai cho Van ngon la lo;;ti van tl! ghi chep lai n6i cua
thea ti~ng n6i. Van ngon la lo~i but ngfr chi dung trong vi~c bien
ngtr&i xua, c6 thuy~t bao n6 chi la m<?t thfr but ngfr, lo?i van tl! vi~t,
chep ho~c tn! thu~t.
do no li!C ch~ bi~n cua cac van gia Itch d;;ti.
D~n nay, nguUi Trung Qu6c phfm l&n chi dung Bc;tch tho~i
Nhung cii hai thuy~t d~u c6 cho chua 6n .
nhu'ng van con s6t l;;ti it nhi~u dau vet cua Van ng6n.
Danh ttr "van ngon" chi chung m()t thfr van tl! cua nhi~u thai
D6i v&i ngooi Trung Qu6c, each thl!c te d~ phan bi~t la: "H~
d;;ti va mang nhfrng th~ d;;tng khac nhau. V~ m~t thai gian, ttr Giap
dung tai nghe va hi~u duqc la Bc;tch thoc;ti; h~ kh6ng dung m~t d~
c6t van la lo;;ti chfr vi~t nguyen thuy cua ngooi Trung Qu6c, tinh
xem thi khong hiiu duqc la Van ngon" . B&i vi B;;tch tho;;ti la th~
d~n nay da c6 han 3000 nam. V~ m~t th~ d;;tng, phong each thi Van
van dung d~ ghi l&i n6i: n6i sao thi ghi v~y, con Van ngon chi d~
ng6n da trai tu cho cao siiu kh6 hi~u d~n cho gian dan binh d! nhu
vi~t ch(r khong d~ n6i. M<?t nguUi Hoa kh6ng bi~t chfr c6 th~ hi~u
lo;;ti Van ngon duqc vi~t ra gftn diiy.
du'Qc khi nghe dQc m<?t bai van bc;tch tho~i, n~u nghe dQc m<?t bai
Tren th~ gi&i, khong th~ c6 lo;;ti but ngfr nao hoan to~m khong
van ng6n thi hQ vfin mu ttt nhu m<?t nguai nu&c ngoai. Trai l~i, m<?t
thoat thai tlr khfru ngfr tfrc ng6n ngfr thong dl;lng trong cac tftng l&p
nguai Vi~t Nam c6 hQc Van ng6n, du khong bi~t n6i ti~ng Hoa, khi
quftn chling. Vi v~y chfic chfin Van ng6n kh6ng phai do t6 tien
g~p m<?t ngooi Hoa hai ben vfrn c6 th~ n6i nhau b~ng but (but dam)
ngooi Trung Qu6c d~t ra l11Qt each dQC l~p hoan toan v&i khfru ngfr.
rna vfrn hi~u nhau duqc.
Nhung m~t khac, Van ngon cling khong ghi chep khfru ngfr
Nguai Vi~t Nam theo hQc chfr Han da liiu va tru'oc day chi
CUa l11Qt thai d;;ti n~lO do l11Qt each y nhu thi!C, nhu truang hqp CUa
hQC Van ngon, tfrc cai hQC "chi, h6, gia, da", con Bc;tch thoc;ti it khi
B;;tch tho;;ti dung d~ ghi chep cac th~ lo;;ti k!ch, ti~u thuy~t ttr dai
ta dung d~n, trtr m<?t vai cu6n ngfr h:~c nhu cu6n Trin tritu Hu¢
T6ng tr& di.
Trung Thuvng Si ngtJ il)c rna ngay nay con tim th~y. Trang giai
do~n gfm diiy, khoang cu6i th~ ky 19 dftu th~ ky 20, cac nha nho ta Trang cac th~ d;;tng cua Van ngon, chung ta thfry c6 m9t lo;;ti
vi nhu d.u doc cac "tiin thu" vi~t b~ng B~ch tho;;ti cua Tau nen m&i "chinh th6ng van ng6n" la th~ van doc thfry trong cac sach v& thai
Tien Tftn, Luang Han cung c6 van cua Han, Li~u. Au, To dai
66 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THV nJ HQC CHCI HAN 67

Dt.rOng T6ng. Lo~i Van ngon nay so v&i kh£iu ngfr cling thai c6 le Giap c6t van: nhfrng lo~i d~n sau, dieu luy~n va tach roi v&i khfru
khong each bi~t nhau xa Him, vfin con trong ffilrC dQ c6 thi nghe va ngfr han nhi~u la cac tfr phu, bi~n van ... Van ngon "thong t~.Jc" la
hiiu dll'Q'c. Nhfrng ban dich kinh Ph?t tu Ph<;1n qua Han, nhung lo~i CO pha phach khfru ngfr; dllQ'C ap d~.Jng trong ffiQt s6 tac phfrm
cu6n ngfr l~.JC cua cac thi~n su' Trung Qu6c va nhfrng ban van tiiu tiiu thuy~t (nhll Tam qucfc cbf dj§n ngbia cua La Quan Trung), cac
thuy~t B<;1ch tho<;1i tt! dai T6ng (the ky 10) cho bi~t tinh tr~ng cua ban dich kinh Ph?t tu Ph<:tn ra Han, va trong cac gifty ta hanh
kh£iu ngfr a cac thai ky do da ch(rng to Sl! khac nhau khong xa liim chinh, thu' tfr giao d!chv. v.
gifra hai thi van - tl'rc gifra Van ngon v&i lai n6i ngoai xa hQi. Dllang (705 - 960) v~ sau, m9t lo~i "khfru ngfr xlla"
Tu dai
Nhung lai n6i v&i d<;1ng chfr vi~t cua n6 la B~ch tho~i thi bi~n d6i thllang dllQ'C dung trong nh&u t~p ngfr l~.JC cua cac tu s'i Ph~t giao
rfrt nhanh, ngu'Qc l<;1i Van ngon bi~n d6i ch~m hon nhi~u, vi le ho~c d~o gia va m9t s6 it thll tt! khac. D~n lo~i tiiu thuy~t binh
nhfrng ngllai dung Van ngon khong c6 each gi khac hon la phai vi~t °
tho~i dai T6ng, Nguyen 3 ) m&i thl!c Sl! dllQ'C vi~t b5ng m9t lo~i
mo phong theo kiiu each cua nhfrng b~c t&n b6i. Da v~y, tinh thftn Ngfr thi tllang tl! v&i Ngfr thi hi~n d~i. Cac kich khuc dm Nguyen,
"t~p c6" thm bfty gia rftt n~ng, nhfrng ngllai tri thl'rc "mu6n cho ra Minh (tfr 1206 d~n 1648) la m9t lo~i van pha tr9n cii hai thl'r nhung
ngooi tri thl'rc" phai vi~t c6 van, con B~ch tho~i chi dung di vi~t c6 phftn thien v~ Ngfr thi hon.
ti~u thuyet, kich. Tm&ng hqp nay khong khac v&i ben ta liim d6i Lo~i van chllong ngfr thi thllang bi cac hQc gia Trung Qu6c
v&i vftn d~ ll!U chQn gifra chfr Nom va chfr Han cua cac nho si xem thllang nen hQ chi dung nhi~u trong llnh Vl!C vi~t tiiu thuy~t,
Nha nghien Clru van hQC H6 Hoai Sam ( l 2 ) con cho ding tm&c ffiQt lo~i thi van hQC bj li~t ra ngoai hang ngu cua bach gia tLr dai
h~t Sl! khac nhau gifra Van ngon va Ngfr thi la do van tl! Trung Han (l 4 ). Mai d~n CUQC v~n d9ng Tan van h6a cua ngllai Trung
Qu6c ngay tlr dftu da khong xuftt phat tlr ngfr am rna tlr tllQTig hinh, Qu6c sau nay (nhung nam 1917-1919), dia vi cua Ngfr thi m&i
biiu y. Ngoai ra, Sl! bi~n d6i ch~rn l~i cua but ngfr con la mQt vAn dU'Q'c cong nMn. Nam Dan qu6c thl'r 9 ( 1920), B9 giao d~.Jc Trung
d~ ky thu~t: Ngay XU'a, vi~c khiic in rfrt kh6, n~u khong ti~p t~.JC duy Qu6c ban b6 m~nh l~nh dung Ngfr thi (B~ch tho~i) lam chuyin ngfr
tri Van ngon la lo~i van "dung it chfr rna n6i dllQ'C rfrt nhi~u" thi se cho cac tru'ong hQc. Tu d6 B~ch tho~i m&i dftn dftn thay th~ Van
g~p tr& ng~i cho vi~c ph6 bi~n. ngon di dung ph6 bi~n trong mQi nganh sinh ho~t & Trung Qu6c.
D~i khai, d6 la qua trlnh thanh l~p cua lo~i "Van ngon chinh
th6ng".
<IJ> 86'i Tong c6 nhling nglfD'i gQi Ia "thuyet tho~i nhan" chuyen ngh~ ke chuyen d
Trfr "Van ngon chinh th6ng" ra, ngllai Trung Qu6c con c6 nhvng nai hqi he dlnh dam . HQ thlfD'ng ke nhling chuyen c6 lien quan den ljch si'r. nhling

lo~i van c6 hon ghi chep tren nhfrng manh Xllong thu rna ta gQi la ban van hQ dung gQi Ia blnh tho~i nhlf : NgtJ Til Tlf bi nh tho<# EJ?i Tong Tuyen Hoa di slf,
EJ?i EJlfong Tam T?ng thu kinh thi tho?i .. ..
Llfu Ham (khoang 46 trlfO'c CN - 23 sau CN .) so~n ra That llfQ'C co n6i : "Chlf ti'r
14
< >
2
Cl >Trung Qu6c van h9c S1i khai llfQ'C (Phon phi.! ll!C}, Thlfqng Hoi Tan van h6a thlf xa, mlfO'i nha, kha quan chi c6 chin nha". 6ng muon bao lieu thuyet gia kh6ng trQng yeu b~ng
1935, tr. 1 - 4. cac phai khilc.
68 TRAN VAN CHANH
roAN TH U Tlj HQC CHU HAN 69

2. SL/ KHAC NHAU GI(!A VAN NGON VA BACH THOAI ~~B)j thong minh th ong minh
VE MATTUV! ~~ tich mjch . vang ve
N6i chung tu trong Van ng6n vatu trong B:;tch tho:;ti c6 nhi~u II. Cung m9t tu nhlfl1g f nghia da thay dol
diim di d6ng.
1. Tir d011 iim :
Ttr trong Van ng6n phfm 16n thUQC don am (1 tlr t6), con
trong B:;tch tho:;ti phfrn 16n thUQC da am (2 tu t6 tr& len), nhi~u nhfrt Ttl Am NqhTa
Ut song am (2 tu t6). M<?t tu song am b:;tch tho:;ti tht.rOng bao h~un ?
Van ng6n Bc;tch thoc;ti
m<?t nghia tuong dtrong v&i m<?t tu don am trong Van ng6n. Thi d1,1: !!: tau ch;:ty di
"Nhi d6a" (tai) trong B:;tch tho:;ti tuong duong v&i "nhi" Van ng6n . §~ thuy~t thuy~t ph1,1c n6i
"Nhi" Ia m<?t tu t6 trong "nhi d6a". 'i'j( khoai thich chi mau I~
<I g1ang Tnrcmg Giang song
Di vao chi ti~t, chung ta c6 thi chia lam mfry trt.rOng hQ'P
§5Z co blip v ~ v~ (trong thO')
chinh sau day:
l Tu Van ng6n va tu B9ch tho;;Li gi6ng nhau Ngoai ra. con c6 ITIQt s6 tlr rna ngay xua Van ng6n dung v&i
nghla ph1,1. nay B;;1ch tho;;1i dung v&i nghla chinh .
1. Tu d011 iim :
Thi dl) :
Ttl Am NqhTa Ttl Am NqhTa
- ftu (rhiiu): nghia chinh ngay xua Ia "diu tha", nghla ph1,1
A nhan nguai '~ rna noua
o.
ngay xua Ia ''tr<?m"; ngay nay nghla chinh duy nhfrt Ia "tr<?m".
=¥- thu tay ~ tm&ng ctai
JL, tam long ~_§ doan ngan - 'l'i(m;;m): nghla chinh ngay xua Ia "khinh nh&n" (Thi d1,1:
¥ but viet (~ liinh l?nh Nh pp gia bit vfn tfc mpn: Vao nha kh6ng hoi Ia khinh nh&n),
4- ngLTU trau rz:g ttl b6n nghla phtJ ngay xua Ia "tutu" (kh6ng nhanh 1~) ; nay dung v&i nghla
~ hliu c6 ft nga toi chinh duy nhfrt Ia "tu tt1".
M<?t s6 tu khac c6 nghla ngay nay r<?ng han nghla ngay xua.
2. Tir da iim :
Thi dl):
Ttl Am NghTa
con d~ - ~ (chuy) , xua vi~t ~. nghla Ia "mo chim", nay dung di
t*C.• 9!$ tat suat
~~ h6 di~p con bu&m chi chung mo c:ic loai d<?ng v~t.
7:. Y:. thien van thien van - *I (h6ng), xua nghla Ia "mau do nh;;1t", nay dung di chi
~*
quoc gia quoc gia chung mau do .
TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 71
70

-*
(kf](fc) xua dung di chi Sl! kh6c len th~mh ti~ng, n~u
kh6ng th~mh ti~ng thi dung ~il (khip), ngay nay dung chi chung
da lim trong B{lch tho{li :
Bq.ch thoq.i Am Van nq6n Am N_ghTa
"kh6c".
Trai l;;ti, cling c6 nhfrng tu ma ngh'ia hi ~n nay l;;ti h~p hon .
4r
r%r
~~
tj ttl'
ton ttl' •
f,%
tj
ton
miii
chau
b6n nhi ~ b6n caich~u
Thi dli:
:g~ danh nhi :g danh ten gQi !
- 1~ (thang), Xtra ngh'ia la "nooc n6ng", nay chi "canh cai ti~J[ th~ch dfi u ti th~ch Cl)C da
n6ng". -5-~J[ thi~t dfi u -5 thi~t cai lu6i
C6 m(lt s6 ngh'ia chinh cua tlr van ng6n ngay nay da dtrQ'C If~ nhi d6a If nhi tai
dung thay btng m(lt tlr khac nhtrng nghla cua tlr van ng6n vfrn giu ~Iff. lao h6 ~ h6 con CQp
!§=€:; mimao !§ mt long may
l;;ti .
~~ xi bang ~ xi cai canh
Thi dli:
.F3 :;~ nguy~t h.rqng .F3 nguy~t m~t trang
- Ngh'ia chinh cua D (khflu) da dtrQ'C thay btng ~ (clu]y), =f:;Wg mao b~nh Wg b~nh Ifim Ioi
nhtrng "khflu" di chi chung "mi~ng" (nhfm khflu, hai khflu ... ). ~@ can tjnh @ tjnh s~ch se

- Ngh'ia chinh cua [:§] (di~n) da dLrQ'C thay btng ~~ (kie;n) if§{~ tlfO'ng tin {~ tin tin tudng
nghla ta "cai ma" trong "b(l mi;it" cua m(lt nguoi con "di~n" dung
di chi t~t ca mi;it nhtr mi;it d~t. mi;it ban ... 2. Tir da lim trong Van ng6n va tir da lim trong B?Jch tho?Ji c6
m9t phdn gi6ng nhau.
2. Tir da lim :
Tn.rong hqp nay kh6ng nhi~u lAm va trong thl!C t~ c6 thi
TCr Am NqhTa dung lfrn nhau dll'O'c.
Van nq6n Bq.ch thoq.i
~=n:
00 quae ngfr siiCh Qu6c ngtr chfr qu6c ngfr I
Van ng6n Am Bq.ch Am Ph an NghTa
cai hQC am duang tofm hQc thoq.i giong
~~ s6 hQc
khiu thi~t ngon ngfr tranh cai ~9w phu phl) ~~ phu the phu vq ch6ng
D-5
m,~~, tieu tuc sinh di~t tin tuc 9$~ ti mu<?i ¢.§.~ thu mu<?i mu9i chj em
thoi thuqng 5L5fj huynh d~ 5fj£ d~ huynh <ct6i thu tl,l') anhem
IP-1~ thai h~10 hao ki~t mQt thai
WfX anh hi gian bong di~n anh
88 b~ch nh~t 87( b~ch thien b~ch ban ngay
)j'~.tJ
9!'F%fu trach manh ,~9(F rna trach trach chau ch~u
-
III. Ti't Van ngon va B{lch tho{ti co mi)t pluin giolzg nhau
3. Hc;rp 2 d011 lim trong Van ng6n thimh m9t tir trong B?Jch tho{li.
l. M9t rir d011 lim trong Van ng6n baa ham trong nghia m9t tir
72 TRAN VAN CHANH ro AN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 73

Tv Am NghTa TV Am NghTa Van ng6n Am Bq.ch thoq.i Am NghTa chung


J1K: than thi than thi ~§ ~f£j d§u nao c!fi u ~~51 khtiU d~n ~!Ill~ khuc thi~n con gmn
"--
&:Iff bl phu da ~ffl :R phi) nfr ph~1 nfr §m ml)c tuc ~ 1t * kim hoa thai cay m1,1c tuc
iJE± ne th6 bun da't ~~~ tl!Cmg bich vach tuemg f~diWi thu nhu ~ -T n1,1y tit ngt.r&i lun
:ti ii!Lr
,EB
c,, ;f§
ID'-
ky thu~t
tu tudng
ky thu~t
ttr ttrdng
-<- ~
f J ""
~~
h~mh vi
my I ~
h ~mh vi
d~p de
~00
~tt ~..
,c:., ••d.;:..
kien du
tung dung
•-r
tlU~
ki~u tit
thmin chuy~t
ciii ki~u nr&c
xui gil}c
7$T~ ti~m ti~m dfin dfin ~~ cG'u cG'u c~u ~~
, tf tung dung ;fjj: 13: ph6ng nhi~m ph6ngtung
Nhfrng tll' ngfr lo:;1i tren day c6 m<?t s6 c6 thi dung trong Van ~:X nghla ph1,1 ~~ can da cha nu6i
ng6n, nhfrt Ht trong Van ng6n & cac thai ky gfrn day khi ngu&i ta 1&£3: h~u m~u B~j_& van mrong m~ke'
~~# thang binh ~{I* ~ mi~n di~u nhi banh tr6i nu&c
cfrn d~n nhfrng tll' m&i.
~"# man dfiu banh chung
~I'! chung binh il9.&
IV. Tit Van ngon vatic B{lch thot;Li hoan toim khac nhau
3. Van ngon dung m9t tirdon am, B{lch tho{li dung m9t tirda am.
1. Tirdon am:
Van nQ6n Am Bq.ch thoq.i Am NghTa chung
Van ngon Am Bq.ch thoq.i Am NghTa chung
1j[ g1ap ~E-T chuy ba tit go rna
El ml}C §_N nhan mat
fA
z tu ~-T h6 tit rau
7tt quan $\§ rri;:to non
m~t treri
~ thi.JC PZ; ng~t an
8 nh?t
*~~ thai duong
~ trl n~ da ke chim trl
~ kich n cta danh
~l oa EE~ di~n ke ~ch nhai
Ui d()c ;J\4- tiiu ngtiU trau nghe
Van ng6n Am Bq.ch thoq.i Am NghTa chung
fJt canh flti£ chung d~a lam ru()ng, cay
1t cam 3tt di~m noot

??/. cap H* cta thuy muc ntr&c
JE tuc JJW cu&c chan
u ~ d~ch """Fm h~ ky danh c&
Jfi
mx
.ly
am ~
hai
hat
giay
uong tt (rc ~J!~ ttrdng khdi nh&

51 d~n ;tj{ l;:tp keo 1m bai IfJm thu tieu bai bo


~ li~m .t&*fs thu sue co l;:ti
tan ~ l;:tt cay
*
Trang thl)'c t~, Sl)' khac bi~t cua nhfrng tlr thu<)c lo?i tren nay
Thl!C ra con m<?t s6 tll' van ng6n dung di chi nhfrng SlJ v~t chi
c6 trong thai c6 nen n'gay nay trong B:;1ch tho:;1i kh6ng c6 tll' tuong
cilng kh6ng tuy~t d6i. DQc Van ng6n d6i khi ta van thfiy c6 nhfrng
duong. Thi dlJ :
tlr dU"Q'C dung v&i nghia cua B?ch tho<;li ngay nay.
- ~ (mi~n): lo<;li n6n cua cac d<;li phu thai xua.
2. Tirda am:
74 TRAN VAN CHANH roA N THU Tl/ HOC CHCI HAN 75

- m(heft): tftm the b~ng tre (hay b~ng nga, b~ng ngQc) dung nhU' tu z (chi) c6 thi dung v&i 7 tu lo~i khac nhau.
di ghi nhiing 101 chu~n bi Uiu v&i vua rna. cac quan thu0ng dung
1. -§-BXZ !¥i® • iilJ~D? Ng6 dl;lc chiNam Hai, ha nhtr ?:
m6i khi vao chftu.
Toi djnh di Nam Hili, ong thay thi niw ? (Banh Doan Thl;lc: Vi
-~(!ham): c6 xe ba ngl!<l. h9c) (d()ng tu, tuung duung v&i 11 (vang) trong B;,tch tho;,ti).
- .!MF (phi): hai con ngl!<l c~p hai ben cua c6 xe ba ngl!<l (con 2. mft*f~ ... ' W.:E~ 0 .:Ei)ll~~tz Tri~u Dalai
di gifra gQi la "phl;lc"). xam ... , dfr vuung chi~n. Vuang di' linh n6 x;,t chi: Tri~u Da sang
-~~(chi m1): loai yeu quai h6a ra tu trong g6, d£1. xam Juvc, d:inh v6i An DUV11g VUV11g. An DUV11g VUV11g Jiy no
- ~~ ( vong lu6ng): loai yeu quai a tren rt1ng nui. thin bin Da (Kham dfnh Vi~t sif thong giam cueing m/!c, quyin 1)
(d;,ti tu, tuang dtrang v&i 1-t.l! (tha) trong B~ch tho~i).
Nguqc h;ti cling c6 m()t s6 tu thong dl;lng trong B;,tch tho;,ti rftt
k.h6 tim thfty m()t tu van ng6n c6 nghi'a tuung duung. TruOng hqp 3 . .:EJJ~ttfffi;g Z rt!1 Vtrang
niii L~c Long Qufm chi tu
nay do Sl! bi~n d6i cua khfru ngfr ngay cang t;,to them nhi~U ttl m&i da: Nha vua fa con ciia L?c Long Qufin (Kham dfnh Vi~t sif thong
di chi nhiing Sl! v~t rna ngay xua v6n kh6ng c6. giam cueing m/!c, quyin 1) (trQ tu ket diu, tuang dtrang v&i 1¥:1
(dich) trong B~ch tho~i).
Thi dt.j:
- fM ~ (h6 dol: h6 d6, kh6ng r6 rang. z
4. 1~ /f' 1~ • EJ ~ ifrJ D~c chi bftt diic, vi~t hfru m~nh:
D uvc va khong duvc, g9i JiJ c6 m~nh (M.anh Tii: Van ChllV11g) (lien
- '~ J]E (mii ho): nghi'a bong la "sa sai lfty c6".
tu, tuang dU'ang v&i :fD (hoa) trong B~ch tho~i).
- 5.&*-1
(trllV11g fa): nghi'a den la "giang ltr&i", nghi'a bong la
5. z=nx iilJ~D? Chi nhi trung hl!ll ha tri ?: Hai gi6ng
"qua quao cho c6".
tnlng iy /fli biit gi ?(Trang Tii:· Tieu dao du) (d~i tu chi thi, tuang
- Jjjijjt *U (ma th~ng): l~n d~n, thftt nghi~p. duung v&i 13~ (na) trong B~ch tho~i).
3. Slf KHAC NHAU GIO'A VAN NGON VA Bf\CH THOf\1 z
6. /f' ~D ~ ~~ :¥: Bftt tri lao chi tuung chi: Khong hay tuo}
VE MAT NGO' PHAP gia sip din (Lu[in ngff: Thu[it nhi) (trq tu).
Van ng6n va B;,tch tho;,ti tuy cling la phtrang ti~n di trinh bay 7. &:¥:~ • rz91:J*imz · ~@ZmG · ~~liZ-R • ~
ng6n ngfr cua Trung Qu6c nhtrng ngfr phap l~i c6 nhi~u ditim
kh6ng gi6ng nhau. N6i chung trong Van ng6n, Sl! bi~n dl;lng, dao tri
*
f3 'l)t C~p chi tang, tfr phtrang lai q uan chi, nhan siic chi thich,
kh6c khftp chi ai, di~u gia d;,ti duy~t: Din khi chon cit, ngt.r&i b6n
va tinh ltrQ'C phong phu va phCrc t;,tp han so v&i B;,tch tho~i. phllV11g /fli xem, thiy thi tif bu6n thiim nhu thi. kh6c /6c nhu thi,
L Tit lo?i ciia Van ngon khong xic dfnh nhiJng nguOi din diiu tang dtu thoa long (M.anh Tir. Dffng Van cong
Kha nang kiem lo;,ti cua tu trong Van ng6n rftt phong phu, thur;mg) (ph6 tu, tli'Ol1g duong v&i 13~~ (na rna) trong B~ch tho~i).
76 roAN THU' Tl,l HQC CHU HAN
TRAN VAN CHANH 77

Ngoai ra, n~u "chi" duqc dung v&i tu each la dc;ti ttr, no lc;ti co "ng6 ~, du T, du ~, thai -EJ, ngang .rp, thftn ~ , tr~mB~ ", trong
kha nang thay th~ cho nhi~u tmemg hqp khac nhau. khi & B;;tch thoc;ti chi dung "nga". D;;ti tt! nhan xung dung di d6i
Thi dfl : xung, ngoai "nhfr" tJ: , ?fJ:. COn CO "nht r.iW, tlr y, nhi ffi}, nhl!Q'C ;fi,
niii lJ, nhung 1)(; ... ", trong khi B;;tch tho;;ti chi dung "nl'' {f]\ .
1. !i: ~~.:E.~ t$ A B rEJ j j ~f;J {~ z
An Dtr011g V tr011g hiiu
thftn nhan vi~t Cao Thong phl;l ta chi An DllV11g VUV11g c6 tha~ D6i v&i nhfrng tt! loc;ti khac, nhu lien tu,
gi&i tu,
dl;lng ngfr
nhan ;a Cao Thong gitip d6(Kham d/nh Vi~t sifthong gidm cu(Jrzg cang phl!c t<;tp. Ch£ng hc;tn, loc;ti lien ttr binh li~t (dung di neu m6i
mf:iC, quyin 1) (tha xung, ttrong duong v&i "tha" 1-tf1 trong Bc;tch quan h~ d5ng l~p gifra hai hay nhi~u ttr, ngfr, cau, doc;tn cau) co t&i
thoc;ti). khoang 14 tt! khac nhau : t/uJ _§_, c~p & , dtJ W, hf!U )Z, kj jt, nhi
ffiL dil-), vu--T, vi~t$, duy!JfE, duy*tf., vi~, chi;Z_, nlurf;o ...
2.~-=rz*~:flt' ~PIT{~' 1§-1~M~5!z Kim tlr chi lai
ki~n nga, v6 s& hi~p, ng6 do tuong tmong chi Nay nfu ong din 3. Khic nhau v§ to' chuc cifa cfiu
g{fp toi, du khong c6 sci trur3ng g1: toi ctlng se eft cif(Han Du: T6ng Trong k~t du phu djnh cua Van ng6n, tan ngfr cua d9ng tu
VUV11g tti tai tt/) (d6i xung, ttrong duong v&i "n1" {f]\ trong B;;tch ngoc;ti d9ng tht.rOng d~t tm&c d9ng tu ;
trong k~t du nghi vfrn, khi
thoc;ti). dung dc;ti tt! lam tan ngfr thi tan ngfr cling di;it tnr&c d9ng tt! (xem
3.~~.l-:J-~::X:1mmf1 , 7G~Dt3"#*Si*Six~z Du lien d1 Ngil phdp trong PHAN NHAP MON, bai 93 ).
tc;tp van bai trufrt, bfrt tri gia di~c phan phan giao ti~u chi Toi nhiJu Khi mu6n noi "Kh6ng bi~t ta", Van ng6n kh6ng vi~t "Bfrt tri
Jdn vi!t t{lp van bj' truft, nhtlng ngu&i kh6ng hilu ctlng tip nhau cwi ng6 da" rna vi~t "Bfrt ngo tri da" 7f ~ ~D tJ1 (Lu~n ngtJ: Tien tifn),
toi (Ly Tuemg: T6ng Phung D/nh tt/) (tt,r xung, tuong dtrong v&i Bc;tch thoc;ti vi~t la "Bfrt hiiu d5c nga" 7f B~ 1~ :fit .
"nga" :fit ). Mu6n hoi "Khach thich gi ?" thi vi~t "Khach h'a hiio? "
4.tlm 7~ ffi] ;i, ~ z
Uyen tham nhi ngu sinh chi V~ c6 sau ~ f6J H·? (Chifn qucfc sach: rJ sach), Bc;tch tho;;ti vi~t "Khach hi
thi en m6i sinh ra 6 d6 ( Sif kf) (dc;ti ttr chi thi, ttr011g duong v&i hoan th~m rna?~ :g fA ft I'M!? "
~ • (gin if) trong B;;tch tho;;ti). 4. Sf!' ti'nh ii..TQ'c trong Van ngon phong phti hOTJ trong B{lch
Ta nh~n thfry trong 4 diu tren, van bc;tch thoc;ti d~u dung 4 ttr thofli
khac nhau. Thi dfl:
2. D!lng ngii ciia Van ngon phong phti va phuc tf}p - Khi dung d9ng tt! EJ ( vift noi), chu ngfr thu'ong du'Qc lu'Qc
Tu d6ng nghia trong Van ng6n rfrt phong phu: Cung chi m<?t bot (xerri Ngil phdp trong PHAN NHAP MON, bai 115 ).
st,r v~t co hon m<?t chl,lc tu khac nhau. - Trong k~t du dinh nghia, thay vi dung cac d9ng ttr "thi,
Dc;ti tt! nhan xung dung di tt,r xung ngoai "nga" :fit con co nai ... " ~, lJ, ngu&i ta chi dn dung nhfrng trq biiu thj y tu
xac dinh. Nhu "Nguyen gia , thi~n chi tm&ng di''
78 TRAN VAN CHANH

f-* f3 , ~ z
:Bt {Q (Dich: Can Van ng6n), n~u dich ra B(:lch
tho(:li phai dung d6ng d<)ng tu "th(: Nguyen thj. thi~n chi thu
J-* ~ ~ Z !§f (Nguyen la dfru m6i cua di€u thi~n).
Thl!c ra con v6 s6 tnr&ng hqp khac nfra. Nhu' trong Van
ng6n c6 dC;li, c6 nhi~u each vie't d~c thu chilng nhfrng kh6ng
thfty trong Han ngfr hi~n d<;1i rna con kh6ng thfry ca trong lo(:li
Van ng6n duqc vi~t trong cac thai ky gfrn day.
Trong C6ng Duo'ng truyfn c6 cau: "Ph<;it gia vi chu, ph<;it
gia vi khach" {;It f3 ~ .3:. ' fJt f3 ~ ~ (C6ng Duo'flg truyfn:
Trang c6ng nhi thPp bit njen) (Nglf(}j dj dinh Ja khich, ngur}j bi I
dinh JiJ chu - chi nll'6c T§ va nU'6c Vf), kh6ng phan bi~t ai chu
d<?ng, ai bi d<)ng; cau ng<;1n ngfr "Thfrt u nQ nhi thi u s~c" NHAP
. MON
:¥: ~~ rg 7fij m~~-§, (Thay vi: N<? u thfit nhi s~c u thi, nghia E1: }- ~ i7
- - ;;.it)


/'-. IV f1
J
Gjpn d nha mil bjin sic d chq) d~n trong Ti truyfn ( Chjeu c6pg
th~p cifu njen) va cau "Da u lim thl!c" !:f ~~~it (Thay vi: Am
thl!c u da, nghia la: An ucfng d d6ng) trong thien "Phi nh(:lc"
sach M~c tifd~u la nhfrng tnr&ng hqp dao tri dit d~c bi~t.
Sach M~c tif quen dung ~ (yen) v&i nghia tucrng ducrng ·
v&i l!; (niii), m~ (U' thJ), nhu trong thien "Kiem ai" c6 cau
"Tfit tri lo(:ln chi s& tl! kh&i, yen nang tri chi"
£, ~D ~L Z ?JT E! ~ ' ~ §~ 1~ z (Co bjit dau li1 ngu6n gcfc cua
lo[ln, m6j c6 thl tri dU'qc), n~u ta hiiu "yen" la m<?t tu dung di
hoi nhu trong diu "Vi nang Sl! nhan, yen nang Sl! quf'
*§~~A ' ~ §~ ~ *(
ChU'a bjit thcJ ngll'cJj sao bjit thcJ quj)
trong Lu~n nguthi se djch sai.
Vi~c hQc t~p ngfr phap van ng6n v&i nhfrng tnr&ng hqp
di;ic thu nhu' tre n se giu p ta dQC dtrQ'C cac sach c6.
81
roAN THU Tl,f HQC CHO' HAN

1
~ §
SOMl)C

[9 Ii __L.
/'\ -t )\ 1L +
nhi tam tu ngG llJC that bat cuu th~p
Nhat

+ - += + - +lz:9 +Ii +-t


th~p nhat th~p nhi th~p tam tMp tu th~p ngG th~p that
+JL =+ -+ Ii+ 1L + - 8
th~p cuu nhi th~p tam th~p ngG th~p cuu th~p nhat bach
-=f ~ {~ Jls f_$
thien v<;w uc tri~u ti

D [CH NGHlA Cac con si{


M<'Jt, hai, ba, bo'n, nam, sdu, bay, tam, chin, nutoi, muoi mt)t,
muoi hai, muoi ba, muoi lam, muoi bay, muoi chin, hai muoi, ba
muoi, nam muoi, chin muoi, mt)t tram, mt)t ngim, muon (muoi
ngim), uc (mt)t tram ngim), tri?u (mt)t tri?u), tl (muoi tri?u).

NGU PHAP
so TV ~~PJ
1. s6 tu la tu dung d~ chi s6 l11qng ho~c thfr tl!.
Thf dl}:
- MI ±m :n =+ ~~ ~
Tri~u d!a phoong nhi thien d11 ly.
Dft cua Tii~u vu6ng h011 hai ngim difm ( Chiin qu6c sach).
2. C6 hai lo<:J.i chinh:
82 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THlJ Tl,/ HQC CHU HAN 83

(1) sci tirchlluvng: m


a) Chi s6 xac dink - (nhfit), = (nhD, a (bach) ... 2
b) Chi s6 bfrt dinh: ~ (s6: m()t vai), jJfj - (ltr6ng tam: vai A 7:.
ba) ... NHANTHIEN
A 7:. B fj
c) Chi phan s6: - z =(tam chi nhi: 2/3), + = - (th~p nhi Nhan thien nh?t nguy~t
tam: 2,3 phftn 10) ...
TU Mdi
(2) sci tir chi thti tt;: ~ + )t (d~ th~p ctru: thtr 19), ;!t- (ky Nhan A (2net): nguoi-Thien *
(4 net): troi-Nh~tB (4 net):
nhfrt: cai thtr nhfrt) ... mi;it troi, ngay-Nguy~t fj (4 net): mi;it trang, thang.
3. s6 tu c6 nhfrng di}.c diim ngil phap nhtr sau:
a) Thmmg d~t tnr&c danh ttr di chi s6 ltrqng cua v~t hay TAP VIET
ngt.IDi ;
b) Di}.t tm&c danh tu don vi (xem Ngu phap, bai 3):
- l'i~-f-~_61 · a ~a~ A ) A
Hoang kim thien d{it, b:;tch bich bach song.
Vimg ngim d{it, ng9c tram doi (Chiin qucic sach). 7:.
___.. ~

r 7(
c) s6 tu c6 thi tl! n6, hoi}.c k~t hQP v&i nhfrng tu khac, trl,fc
ti~p lam vi ngil cua cau: B I n A B
- ~tw~0ft · ff.lln+
B~c Son Ngu c6ng gia, nien tha ciiu th{ip.
J=j ) n fj J=j
Bifc SOTJ Ngu cong, tuo] d5 gin chin muvi (Li~t tif).
..6-- §'Eff ~ '#I; --'-
m
- Wf~' J=j f f i / ' \

H<?i khoa, Dl;lc d~ iLJc.

Vao thi, DLJc dting thti sau (Han thu).


A* A ;J" 3

-tm &~aft+ n ,... ..... ,...?

Nguy~n
qui n6ng gia th{ip ciiu.
NgurJi xin v§ lam ru<)ng c6 din chin phdn murJi (Han Du).
A * A I J\ * ~ .* w
NHAN DAI NHAN TIEU
B 1t fj 8)3
nhan d~i nhan titiu thien cao thien thanh nh?t quang nguy~t minh
84 TRAN VAN CHANH
roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 85

nJ Mdi (2) Danh tir pho? thong: chi ten chung cac Sl! v~t cling m<?t
D~i.:*:(3 net): to, Mn-Tiiu ;j\(3 net) : be, nhb-Cao ~(10
net): cao (trai wJi tha/J)- Thanh 1f (8 net): xanh, mau xanh-
loai, nhu * (gia), .~ (rna).:.
C6 thi chi a danh tl.r ph6 thong ra lam 7 lo<;1i nho :
Quang jt (6 net): sang-Minh Sjj (8 net): sang.
a) Danh tl.r c~:~ thi: it?, (ngu). ~ (but) ...
D!CH NGH[A b) Danh tl.r trl.ru tuqng: $ (phap), ~ (d<;1o) ...
NguiJi cao - nguiJi nho - triJi cao - triJi xanh - m(it triJi sang - c) Danh tl.r t~p hqp: §ffi (su: don vi quan d9i gdm2500 nguV-1),
m(it trang sang. ~ (d~ng: bon, lli) ...
d) Danh tl.r v~t chfit: :Sfz:- (kim), ± (th6) ...
NGUPHAP
e) Danh tl.r don vt: .R (xich: thu6c), ~ (quyin: cucfn sach) ...
DANH TU 15~ f) Danh tl.r thai gian: B (nh~t: ngay), ~(kim: hom nay) ...
1. Danh tl.r la tu dung di chi ngum hay Sl! v~t. g) Danh tl.r khong gian: __t (thi.I'Q'I1g),
(tfty) ...
'"f (h<;!), * (dong), jZ§
Thi di!:
- A (nhan): nguai. 4. M<?t s6 d~c diim cua danh tu
- f!:t (th~:~): cay. a) Tm&c danh tl.r, n6i chung, c6 thi di;it: nhling tl.r chi so
- ki (tinh): hQ .
- ~ (d<;1o): d<;1o, con duang. (thi: nay),
chan bcfn canh),
fBz (bi: kia) ... , nhll' noi:
f& LlJ (bi son: nui kia).
=
luqng, nhu "nhflt" "tam hr&ng" ... ; nhling tl.r dung chi thi nhu ~
JE [9 ~ (nht tUC tlr dt!C: hai

2. Can Clr vao hlnh thuc diu tc;to, c6 hai loc;ti danh tl.r:
Di;ic diim nay khong ap d~:~ng d6i v&i m<?t s6 danh tl.r thm
(1) Danh tir don am, nhu (ngu: ca), .~ (diiu: chim) ...
Jt?, gian, danh tl.r khong gian, nhu khong thi n6i - __t (tam thuqng),
Phftn l&n danh tl.r trong Van ngon thUQC lo<;!i nay.
(2) Danh [lr da am, nhll'. 'R (nong phu), M15 :j:t§ (vo danh
.=:.. ~ (tam kim), ~ *
(tht dong) ...
b) Danh tl.r di;ic hfru n6i chung khong k~t hqp di.I'Q'c v&i nhling
chi: ng6n ap ut) ...
tl.r chi s6 hoi;ic chi thi, trl.r 3 troong hqp sau day:
3. Can Clr vao nQi dung, ta c6 thi chia ra: - Tm&c mot
.
ten n 0ouai khi c6 Sl.l'
.
so sanh v~ tai nang, tri tu~.
(1) Danh [Lr difc JuJu: dung chi ten rieng cua cac Sl! v~t:
Thi df!:
~* ~ 1~ (Tr5.n Qu6c Tufln), ::k ~ (D<:!i Vi~t), 9!,_~ tj£ (Loa
nr "s - f~ ~ ~ £Z ' ~~§= .l-:,1, .!r ff Jt ffi · · · ' Sit£ lf B ~ '
Thanh) ... ~J 1"J' ffiJ F~'~~ ~ ?
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THlJ nJ HQC CHU HAN 87
86

Sl'r Ng6, Sa phlm, Th6 di thfm nhi~m ky nguy ... , tuy hGu bach - DU'Q'C k~t thuc b5.ng trQ' tu -ti1 (da), biiu thi Sl! xac dinh.
U &ng, kha d~c nhi gitm tai? Thi dl!:
Nfu Ng6, S6 lam phan, Tho' dem than ra ch6ng d6: .. , thi du - liWH.i\ ~ 13 , ~ J II -ti1
c6 m9t triim (ten sam thin nhu) Vjen Udng ctJng kh6ng thliy gjan Than thi quan gia, Tri~u Xuyen dii.
duvc (T6 Thfrc: Tri~u Thff lut?.n). Ke tv minh gjft vua Ja T!i¢u Xuyen ( C6ng DUV11g truy¢n).
- Tnr6c h9 ngurJ-j vi c6 thlc6 nhjtu nguVi cung h9.
Thi di!: TAP VFET

-*•$·-~=~·~~-~·~mmw
~

T
D?i Khang trung, tam Tnrong nhj L~:~c, lu6ng Phan nhit Ta,
b<)t nhi phl)c htmg.
Trang niim D{lj Khang, ba h9 TrUV11g, haj h9 Ll!c, haj h9
Phan, m9t h9 Ta, d9t ng9t n61 len k.h6j phl!c phong trao (Chung
*
;J\ / ;J *
Jj\
__.__. __.__. __.__. __.__ ~
___.__. ____,_
~ --'- 1=1 p l=t
1=1
Vinh: Thj phim tt/j. 1=1 I n l=l n Jl=iJ
rPJ I rTl
- Tn.r&c ho~c sau ten sach, vi m<)t cu6n sach c6 thi g6m
nhi~u quyin, ho~c m<)t quyin in lam nhi~u b6n.
3::::: ~
-=f:=' ~ ~ ~ ± .3::::.
~
~

I n fJ !=§
c) Danh tu kh6ng thi c6 tnr&c n6 m<)t tu chi mfrc d<) ho~c chi
\r \ r/
Sl! dtu khi~n, do d6 kh6ng thi n6i: /f 7j'( (bfrt thuy), :;& A (th~m
nhan), ~ !#, (m?c ngu) ...
-Yt \ _llL
-!T -Yt ,,

d) N6i chung, danh tu kh6ng thi trl!c ti~p lam vi ngfr. Khi lam
vi ngfr, danh tu phai:
B)j B H 13Jj
- Dtrng sau nhfrng tu dung di dinh nghia ho~c phan doan m
nhu: ~ (thi), 1\% (vi), l!; (nai: fa); JF (phi: kh6ng pha1), ~ (v6: 4
kh6ng co), f@ (do: gjcfng nhtij, ff (hGu: co) ... x w
THIEN THANH
Thi di!:
- -§- JF fL Sjj w x a a fj A ff .~ if: .~
sJl m
Ng6 phjKh6'ng Minh. thanh thien b~ch nh?t minh nguyc$t nhan h~mh rna tl:fu di~u phi
T6j kh6ng phaj Ja Kh6ng Mjnh (Tam qu6c chi dj8n nghia).
roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 89
TRAN VAN CHANH
88

Nur5c tlwnh khiit(nu&c s;,tch).


TU M(JJ
B~ch 8 (5 net): trdng-Hanh fr (6 net): cli-Ma ,~ (10 net): b) Khi d~t sau danh tt! thi hinh dung tt! c6 thi tn,fc ti~p lam vi
con ngl,l'a-Tfi'u iE (7 net): ch(ly-Di~u ,~ (llnet): con chim-Phi m; ngfr:
(9 net) : bay. - wrSJ fj ;j\
Son cao, nguy~t tieu.
D[CH NGHlA Nui cao, triing nhb (To Thfrc: H(iu Xich Bich phu) .
Trai xanh Mijt trC!i sang Mijt trang sang Nguai eli Ngf!a
Hinh dung tt! con co thi d:;it sau danh tt! di lam vj ngfr, thong
ch(ly Chim bay.
qua d6ng d(>ng tt! ~ (vi):

NGU PHAP -~~ jt


Dfm viqui
HiNH DUNG TV% y ~~
Dan fa qui (M:;mh ttl) .
I. Hinh dung tirdung d{ them vao m9t difc diem, m9t phiim
c) Phftn l&n hinh dung tt! co thi dtrQ'C b6 sung y nghia b~ng
chit cho ngurJi hay sv v?t.
cac tlr Chl mfrc dQ, nhtx foj (Cl!C), l& (th~m):
Thi dl):
- mmto:E 37
- rli :& m , ~u m-+- Cam, qufrt qrcda.
D<:> tru&ng ki~u, chi Nam Binh.
Cam, quit rft nhitu (To Thuc).
Qua cay c:lu dai, din mii Nam Binh (Ton Gia Kim).
2. M9t slf difc die'm ngii phap ctla hinh dung tir: TAP VIET
a) Hinh dung tt! tht.rCmg d~t tm&c danh tt! lam dinh ngu cti
trl!c ti~p b6 nghia cho danh tt! do:
- .L-J§ID~l~ZZ.~$
8 /'
( 11 R1a
/.- /.-
Di cvh(,lm tai chi Ngo Trung.
~ { /.- /.~

Dem thuytnl6n dlch6din Ng6 Trung(Vuang S! Chinh).


fT /
1 1- fT
Hinh dung tt! co thi d:;it tm&c danh tt! lam dinh ngu thong
qua trc;1 tt! ket diu z (chi): I~ I I F F w ~ ,EIS I~
- 1~~Z.JJ<.
Thanh khi~t chithuy.
90 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THLI n,l HQC CHa HAN 91

-T T
~

At
~

J:fl (trung) la danh tu chi kh6ng gian, thuong d?t sau m<)t

J~
/
( (1 F f3 * !E
~ ~ ~~
danh tu khac voi nghia la "trong, (j trong", nhu':
_ :(± * J:fl (TC:J.i gia trung) CJ trong nha.
_ ~ J:fl~frroi~D:f(Thu' trung huu ncr nhan nhu' ngQc)
Trang sdch c6 nguiJi con gdi dfp nhu ngQc.

m ~ \. ~ ~
~ Tt ~ m _ t[ijtiffiJ¥, t~ti:fj~ ~J:fl(Ham th<:J.ch nhi chi, d~u th<:J.ch
u' h6 trung) Ng(j_m qtc dd bay dln, nem dd vao trong V(li nuoc
(Bai 120).
m _ [t -=f i::Y :fj~ tlJ J:fl (Trang Ttl' hanh u' son trung) Trang tzl
dang di trong nui (Trang Tzl: Son mqc).
5
1± * J:fl TAP VIET
TA.I GIA TRUNG

1£*J:fl• 4~-BJ:o A* fX•~)t~


fr
~

r 1 t= tF 1£
TC:J.i gia trung, hieu ph1,1 mau. Nh?p hQc hi~u, kinh W~n sinh.
' J • ~ 1::::!:::7 ?
TU MOl
T~i :(± (6 net): b-Gia * (10 net): nha- Trung J:fl (4 net):
* n t==J
~ ~
*
trong, ben trong-Hieu 4 (7 net): c6 hie'u (hlt long thiJ cha thiJ
9=J I
9=I
mf)-Phl) ~ (4 net): cha-Mfiu £3: (5 net): m?-Nh~p A (2 net):
-+
4 _±__..
7 ~ =¥ ~
~

vao-HQc hi~u ~ fX (16 net, 10 net): truiJng h9c-Kinh ~ton


tr9ng, kinh tr9ng- Tien sinh 7t ~ (6 net, 5 net): thdy gido.
)( /
D!CH NGH!A iJ trong nha
/"
')" Y2
(J trong nha, c6 hie'u voi chd mf. Vao truiJng hQC, kinh trQng
thdy.
a L [J a a -EfJ:

NGU PHAP A / A '


+ Cach dzl.ng chil J:fl (trung)
92 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU n,l HOC CHU HAN 93

m ..... X X
><
-x
X
r~ ~=~ t:~l ,m mtjt trt'ing a huang dong.
* * TAP VIET
rx -
t t t t' f-L. 1~ tx
t ~ f fJ rJJ
I
7
/@~ r rr -f.-f-.
7 4-f-

fJ
4-f-

1IJ 1@7 /@~


*JJ
BW. B B/ B_,., BA Bfli Bt6 Bfo Bffc
7t I f- If- 1±:.
~ 7t
±_ I f- f-
+ ±_ $
..:>...L-
;----!---?

\
r
\ t
7'o

.:LL.
r
~
r4
..:>._L-
m 1¥1
..:>...L-
til
ljlj § ljl ljlj
m
'..:±::.. .±. .±. ..::±::. ..::±::. ..::±::. '..::±::. '..::±::. ' ..:±::..
6 ~ 1=1 'T -!? ?R ?F- '?R ~
x tJJ 8~
THIEN SO VAN e ft]
.::E.
_L.
t.- t.-f] -eft] eft] eft]
~
eft]
..::E.
x tJJ 8~ ,
S)j o
Thien so van, nguy~t quang minh .
$JW ~ ~'
t:! 7C
,F:j
Song ti€n vien VQng, nguy~t t<;li dong phuong.
fr * jj o *1J
~

I
I

__L.
n

)
E3

tJ
• }ff
*
TU MOl m
Sd tJJ (7 net): bdt ddu, mai- Va n 8~ ( 11 net) : mu(}n, bu6i
7
chiiu-Song ($16 net): nla s8-Ti~n JW (9 net): tnt6c, phia wg ~ -r-
tnt6c- Vi~n ~ (14 net): xa- VQng ~ (11 net): trong ra xa-Dong
* (8 net): huang dong-Phtidng jj (4 net): huang.
tt • )'} , wg
LVoNG YEN

~ -r-
TV
f&-7fZ*•f&-7fZ~o
D!CH NGHiA Tri1i c/zijp tot Tru c liem ngo<;li, luang yen tll'; hot phi Iai, hot phi khu.
Troi ch(ip to'i, dnh trang sang to. Truac ella s6, trong ra xa,
94 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THLI Tl/ HQC CHV HAN 95

nJ Mdi
True t'r (6 net): diy tre-Liem .BI
(19 net): hac mimh, tfirn tt I r .t t/ t;- tt
rem-Ngo~i ::$'}(5 net): ngoai, ben ngoai-Ltlo'ng jJfg (8 net): hai-
Ye'n ttl'~ r(16 net, 3 net): chim en-H6t ZJ.. (8 net): b6ng, chc;t,
* - •M- I r /\A- ~
I F 152f

thinh llnh-Lai

D[CH NGHiA
(8 net) : h~i, cle'n-Khu :;t (5 net): eli.

Hai con chim en


Ngoai hac manh tre, (c6) hai con chim en, chc;t bay din, chc;t
bay di.

)7} /
'J 'J
-
J[ j}

NG0PHAP
ffi
~ -
I n m m ffi m
0 ::$'} (ngo~i) cling thu'ong cli;i t sau danh tu nhu' chu r:p
f6t
J \ \ \
-I+ -f::f-" r r ::1~ ::I~L --±:1--
::lot
J
::1~1:
.I\\\

7
(trung) clt3 chi "ngoai, () ngoai, phia ngoai"; nhu':
_ "f'J .BI ::$'} (True liem ngo{li) N goai hac manh tre.
r
-=f J ~
_$:$'}(Song ngo{li) Ngoai ella so'. o/J
ID'
I 0 h !7;0 !7;0
J
o/J
JLJ
o/J
ID
m
ID'
_ ~ ::$'} ( Quoc ngo{li) 0 ngoai nu:oc.

-r 7f f
* *
~

nhu':
@ ZJ..
(hO't) la m()t ph6 tu thu'ong lam tr<;lng ngu cl~ b6
nghia cho cl()ng tu, voi nghia la" b6ng, chc;it, V~:It, thlnh llnh ...",
1;; --=±::.
±- ~
*
_%!lit* , tellt::tCHot phi lai hot phi khu) Chc;t bay den m
chc;t bay di.
_ ~g)®.%! :::zt (Luong phong 8
(Li¢t tTl: Thang vfln).
hot chi) Gi6 h,mh chc;t tho'i dln

_ ;f§ 1$llt 1J%! J[ 17~ ll:t (Tuong truy~n thll' th<;1ch hot kie'n u'
* LO ~~
DAI THV<)NG
J:

thll') Tu:ong truy~n hem dd nay b6ng nhien xut{t hi¢n Cl ch6 nay
(Tay du:ong tc;Ip trCI: N(ic cao kY thu:c;ng). 7\ ~~ J: •A 11 *'~ * ]j[•~ 7J7 f=fo
D<;ii 19 thu'c;ing, nhan vang lai, hoi;ic thua xa, hoi;ic b9 hanh
TA.P VIET
96 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU n,J HQC CHa HAN 97

Tl) Md! rAPVIET


L() n( 13 net): con duong- Thu'qn·g __t (3 net): tren, ben tren-
Vang 1i (8 net): di-Ho~c ~ (8 net): c6 nguoi, nguoi thl, hoij.c-
Thua * (1 0 net): cuiii xe, di xe-Xa lf[ (7 net): chile xe-B() ti7 (8
net): di chan, bu(Jc.
~~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~/ ~7 ~)(_ ~~I
_t I r- _t I

D!CH NGH[A Tren dttdng cai /


~ f 1 1-
/.' /.' /..2...
Tren duong cdi, nguoi di lt;zi, hoij.c cuiii xe, hoij.c di bi). 1i 1~ 1=F 1i
NG0PHAP
- ~
~ ~

9t
~

p
WG r:1 WG
0 __t (thu'Q'ng) cling thtt<Jng d~ t sau danh tu a€ chi " tren, Ci - -
;1f ~ ~
I
tren, phi a tren "' each dung cling giong nhu' 9=J (trung) d bai 5 va * * *
_*
)'}(ngo<:ti) d bai 7. Thf dt} :
~~ J:. (D<:ti 19 thtt(lng) Tren duong cdi.
_ 7( J:. ~~(Thien tlut(lng hil'u van) Tren bdu troi c6 may.
~
!};
~

I
I

_L
n
..LL
EJ

Jl:::.
•*
~ ti7
_ 'l1t ?I J:. Z 1fi 1$\ (Duy giang tlul(lng chi thanh phon g) Chl
c6 gi6 mat o tren song (To Thric: Xich Bich phu).

6 ~ ... ~ ( ho~c ...h o~c): Nguoi thl... nguoi thl..., ke


w *
9
thLke thL: S D~.j.:
~~ f!fA
_~*-* ' ~ti7fr (Hoijc thua xa lz oijc b9 hanh) Nguoi thi DIEU THU
cuiii xe, nguoi thl di b().
_* Z.W.A~*~Jl. (Ng6 chi tQi nhan lzoijc bon lzoijc chi) .% ~ ~ ~ , i55z: §g m
o ~X ~ !Z:9 JE , ~5z: ~ IE o
Di € u huu lttong dtfc, co nang phi. Thu huu tu tuc, co thi~n tffu.
o
Tu nhan Ngo nguoi thl cht;zy tro'n, nguoi thi dang lt;zi (Td truy¢n:
Chieu cong nhj th(jp tam nien).
_ ~~'E~~tJ..-:1.1\%~ ' ~~t:W:J..-:1.1\%~* (H oijc dau ke di vi 1<:tc,
T(J MOl
hoijc a6 bac di vi ngu) Ke thl ch9i ga di lam thich, ke thi danh Huu ff (6 net) : co-Dtfc ~ ( 17 net): cdnh chim-C6 ~5z: (9 net):
bt;zc eli lam vui (Tdn Quae Tm1n: D~ chu ti tuong hjch win). vi vt;ly, cho nen-Na n g §g ( 1o net): co thi dur;c- Thu iX (19 net):
loai thu , loai muong- Tuc JE (7 net) : chan- Thi ~ n ~ (12 net):
TOAN THL1 n,l HQC CHU HAN 99
98 TRAN vAN CHANH

- pp llll llll llll pp pp


gioi, kheo. 00}\
m.. t:l t:lt:l
I n Ft FFt. EE EE
p

D!CH NGHlA Chim muong


Chim co hai cdnh, nen bay dut;~c. Muong c6 bo'n chan, nen gioi
OP
m..
1=1
OP
ru-
1=1
OPt
EEl
1=1
00*
EEl
1=1
00~
EEl
1=1

chg_y.
JE D T 9- Jf JE
NCO PHAP ~
~
~ ~
.....:.....L-
==¥=: £ ~ ~
+ Cach di'tng chil i!O( (co) 1=1
1=.1

!!&
(co) la mQt lien tu rat thong dl;lng thu'ong du'Qc dung (j m
m~nh d~ sau cua mQt cau phuc d~ chi ket qua, voi nghla la" nen,
10
cho nen". Thi dl;l:
m
_ .~1:f~W , ?I)(§~ (Di~u huu luang dtfc, co' nang phi)
~~ w m
KHATDDCO
Chim co hai cdnh, nen bie't bay.
_ lEI 1:f{§{,' ' ?&:If' Nil ( Nhan huu tin tam, bat uy nan) co ,',12.
{w
EB Pm
,~, [.\. '
&ln 83
1=.1 L ,~,
~
~ 0 :. 12..
{141
83;:
~::!))(.
':f
Pm /.\:: &ln tP;:
[.\. Jf, ' 1=.1 L 1-j>:f ~
-&.. g!;=; 0

VI co long tin tuang, cho nen khong ngg_i kh6 khan. Khat tu' §m, cci tu' thtfc. Khat thai §m tra, cd thai thtfc ph~n.
_ §2.MAU8t~;$: ' ?iJ~~~9Jy~ (Thftn van binh dl ke
vi b?tn, co' da toan thang thi~u toan) Thdn nghe vi¢c binh chu ye'u TU MOl
Ia (J Sl/ tfnh ke~ cho nen tfnh todn nhiJu se hay han tinh todn it Khat 1~ (12 net):khdt nu'(Jc, muo'n uifng nu(!c-Tti ~. (9 net):
(Han thu: Tri¢u Sung Quo'c truy¢n). nghi-Am JV;: (13 net): uting-Cd (11 net): d6i-Thljc ~ (9 net): m
TAP VIET
an-Thai ~ (10 net): /uc-Tra '* (10 net):tra, che-Ph~n i& (13
net): cum.
~
~

r r- fJ ~
D!CH NGHlA Kluit va doi
3=1~

_,. -
w.
~~
~ ~ w w w _..,
~~

~
Khat, nghl c1e'n uo'nf?. £1lli. nghl de'n an. Luc khat u/fng tra, !uc
(16i an com.

~5<: + t ~t ~J ~5<: TAP VT~T

.L>.l:J
§~:::.
.L L .[_,
§
.L>.L.,
§
.L>.tJ
§
.L>.tJ
§L..
.L>.l:J
§!:::. [ ¥1£ I ; 11 11s \¥71 11~ 11~ I ¥1£ I I
100 TRAN vAN CHANH roAN THU Tl,/ HQC CHU HAN 101

B3 n R Ffl 83 83 EE B3 B3 net): cay cdu-H~ T (3 net): du'Cii, ben du6i- Thuy~n JiYd ( 11 net):
,~, ;{_; I~ ,~, .
j
chie'c thuy~n .
,6;., /' /-:> A A .b A Ah ,6;.,
~A I 3
e ~ ~ ~A
--.. D[CH NGH!A Giila hai biJ song
Giila hai biJ sonx. co bdc qua cay cdu vein. Tren cdu c6

M
/' /-:>
~ A
3
.b
e A
~ w M nf!,Ltili eli, du·oi cdu cr5 thuy€n di.

/"--.. ~ ~ NCO PHAP


~
/ /.'--
fr jt ~
+ TntiJng lujp dqng til vj ngil dijt tnt(/c clulngil
B~ 8 8± 8± 8=3= B~ Thong thucmg. chu ngfr d~t tm&c vj ngfr. Trang bai hoc
tren, cau "ki€u thlit}ng hanh nhan, ki€u h<;l hanh thuy€n" c6
~ --t-1--
./' X R );\._ ~ _R th ti dliQc viet l<;1i thanh "ki€u thlic;1ng nhan hanh, ki€u h<;t
7K f 5-f /K
thu y€n hanh". Nh1111g trong m()t s6 twang hqp sau day, vj ngfr
~
/' /-:>
~ A
3
.b
e .b
~ w~ -
th u&ng & tm&c chu ngu.
I. Trang cfiu cdm thin:

w - fJ&~~+-!

jJ;fg *
11
Fs,
LUONG NGAN GIAN
Vi tai ng6n h6!
M3u nhifm tlwy Jc}i n6i fy.' (Mai dinh m9ng kj ti!) .
- a! , ?1!'ic~~ , JfG~z;; -ill
~ * Fs, , ~ tR -tt o tt _t fS: A,ttT
Luong ngan gian, gia b?m ki€u. Kieu thlic_1ng hanh nhan, kieu h~
Hi, di~c thai th~m hi, tien sinh chi ng6n da!
6i, Jc}j tien sinh n6i ctlng qui Jim tlwy.' ( Chitn qu6c sich).
ff JiYd 0

hanh thuyen. 2. Trang thi ca. vi kji tlw~t hiwh viin, de' cha cic v3n hc;p
nhau, ngt.rcJi ta c6 the'd9t vi ngif ra trt.r6c chtl ngif:
TU Mdl
Ng~n *
(8 net): biJ (song)-G ian Fs, (12 net): khadng-Gia ~
(9 net): gdc len, bdc qua-Ban t&: (8 net): ta'm vdn-Ki~u tft (16
- 13Z:*@.~
Dc;1 Jai phong vu than h.
Dem din tiing gi6 mt.ra (Mc;1nh H<,1o Nhien: Xuan hiiu).
102 TRAN vAN CHANH roAN TH V Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 103

±±"'f3.-::l ~~-~~ . 3=:-l:(!ll~--'--'-=li::D::F==J


- 'I l'i\'9 L...:@: ~ litl!'3 t:. • !=§ 'l~l-'1~f.llj Br:d~'~, 7L

D6 quyen dl tn,1c hoang ly lao ; thanh li~u lau ti~n ·ngtJ y


nhi.
Nay quyen cia gh!c oanh giil: f nhi i{Ji giy tnr6c nhil Jiu lo
( Chinh ph f.! ngam khtic).
tJ~z7272, ~9~9~*; z-r-r&~, :§:~:¥:*
-
Dao chi yeu yeu , chu6c chooc ky hoa; chi tt! vu qui, nghi
ky thilt gia.
Cay c!ilo c!?p de, hoa n6 t6t woi; co kia v~ nhil clu5ng, nen
hqp v6i gia c!inb nbil cb6ng (Thi Kinh: Qu6c phong: Dilo yeu).
m NGU PHA.P
12 • Vi trf Clt(l so' ttl trong kit edit so' ltt(lng
1M_ iW t!:t Trong bai hqc trcn, cau "ti~u di~u nhat quftn" cGng c6 th€
DINH TIEN THl) viet l<:ti thanh "nhat quan ti~u di~u" .
1. v~ mi;it d.u true ngfr phap, vi tri tuang quan gifra cac bQ
/M_ §U t~J '
~ ,~ ~ 0 I h ,~ ~, t~1 Fs~ m ph~n dung trong k~t du chi s6 ll1Q11.g duqc sip x~p theo nhi~u each
Dlnh ti~n th1,1, hG'u di~u sao. Ti~u di~u nhat quftn, th1,1 gian phi
kh ac nhau:
~~ 0

min h. (1) s6 tt.fc!~ltnr6c danh tir(tbuimg Jj danb tirc!on vj):


- ~1~ffiT-!2l
Tl) MOl Tu~ a:ic b;;tch Lhien thfrt.
Dlnh 1M_ (10 net): san-ThQ ~J (16 net): cay co'i-Sao ~ (11 Moi niim du~rc ng.iln tim ]f!a (To ThCrc: Phuong San Til
net): td chim-Qm1n ~ ( 13 net): bdy, dan-Minh ~~ (14 net): Tru y¢n).
(chim) keu. (2) s6 tird~t s:.w danb tirchl ngur3i lwz v~t:
- @l~tF~-=-+f-f ~
D[CH NGH[A Cay tnt{/c sa il
Tri a5'u m6n tam LPp bt,m ]f!C.
(Tren) cay tru6c san, c6 td chim. M9t bdy chim nho, viia bay
D~t ba mL!V'i siu cih ( Kham djnb Vi~t sii}.
vita keu giila cdc cay.
104
TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 105

(3) s6 tir d.at tnr6c danh ttl: thea ki ca"'u:


thQ.
S6 ttl -i- danh ttl don vj + danh ttl (ten Sl! V~t). PhUV77g Ba dem b6n chijc lur;mg vizng xin chuc th9 mr rh.iy
- ~ 9. if m- -1~H;t (Phuang Ton Thanh: Kf LU11 M.nnh D6 tien sinh d~t st/) (tinh ltrgc
Nhi chi binh thtremg nh~t chich ke. chi!~ (luvng).

nh~t kf,
Mi chi JiJ m9t con gil binh thur3ng (H6 Chi Minh: Ngijc !rung
Thinh ke minh).
m
13
2. N~u s6 llfQ11g chi la "m<?t", ngt.r&i ta thtr&ng tinh lugc s6 tt!:
-Wf~J[''* ' ~~ ( )::>t~
Ttr tu chuyin d~i, to~i tm&ng (
.~)\ [2l
MA BATTHAT
) tmgng d u.
B6ng ch6c biin thiznh m9t ngwi to 16n, cao h011 (m9t) trur;mg • ~ ~~ ' .~ )\ [2l 0 QiG ~ ' QiG fL ' QiG {Iff ' QiG
(Ng[f Jam) (= nha"'t tmgng du). HQa nhf1t buc, rna bat that. Ho~c ngoa, ho~c l~p, ho~c phu, ho~c
- -g~ (
Ngo hfru (
'
) *~ HitZ.~*
. ) dflu tLru, tang chi dru hi.
{LP o

ngttong.

' T6i con m9t dJu ruvu. ca"'t gi[f dJ Mu r6i (To Thfrc: lfau Xich TU MOl
Bich phu} (= nha"'tdi.u tLru). HQa :m: (12 net): ve,
tranh ve, blic tranh-Buc ~@ (12 net): khff
r9ng cua vdi, blic (tranh)- Tha't [2l (4 net): con (ti:t dung di de'm
3. C6 tmemg hQp le ra phai dung m<?t danh tt! don vi d~t sau
ng(ia) -Ngc;>a ~ (8 net): ndm-L~p fL (5 net): dling-Phu {Jff (1 0
s6 tt!, nhtrng ngt.r&i ta l~i bo di:
net) : cui xuong-Nguong {fP (6 net): nga'ng len.
- Jt~BIZ:91i ( ) OJkffiJ~ra'i
Ky s6 tu ngii ( ), t£10 nhi tn,Jc mieu. D[CH NGHiA Tam con ng~ta
(Day Ia) m9t buc h9a, c6 hinh tam con ng(ia. Hoijc nlim, hoijc
Chim nho b6n nam (con), izo t6i la het, ruvt duo] mea (Ti~t
dung, hoijc cui xuo'ng, hot;ic nga?ng len.
Phuc Thanh: Mieu b9 rhii) (tinh llrQ'c chi!~ (chich)).
- ~bl.J~J}~ ' .q:. _§_JL +( ) NG(/ PHAP
B~c son ngu cong gia, nien tha ciiu th~p ( ). + Caclz di'tng mi)t sf{ danh til ddn vt
Bic S011 ngu c6ng. tuol" dJ g.in chin muoi (Li~t tii: Ngu c6ng
Danh tt! don vj (con gQi la Iuc;1ng tu) dung di goi ten cac d6
di s011) (tinh ltrgc chfr ~ (tu~)).
v~t trong khi do ltr&ng ho~c tinh tofm.
-~mu~~~+c > ·~m~~m• Tuy theo m6n d6 v~t, ngu&i ta dung nhfrng danh tt! don vj
Phuong Ba di b~ch kim tu th~p ( ), thi'nh v.i tien sinh mfru khac nhau, nhu .:g (danh : chi s6 ngu&i). ~ (vien : chi s6 vi en
106 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THV Tlj HQC CHG HAN 107

chCrc, quan l<;li). [J (kh:{u: chi s6 sue v~t lo<;li nho, nhtr heo ga). 1¥. m
(vi: chi s6 con ca). h (p!nln : chi s6 d6 v~t c6 d<;lng mong nl1Lr
14
van, ng6i). f* (c/w: chi s6 ciiy l&n), ¥ (can: chi s6 ciiy nho), jj
ti ti
(phong chi nhfrng d6 v~t c6 hinh g6i), IE, [2.!:=. ( th:ft. chi s6 vai l1,1a),
!Jt (chich: chi s6 con v~t nhu gL.), ~ (song chi s6 v~t thanh d6i).
TA
?

HUU THU * .,

fflJ ' *' if (s:ich. bdn. quye'n: chi s6 cu6n sach), msti (suv: chi s6
thuy~n be). g[ (ron: chi nhfrng v~t to l&n, nhtr nha, nui ... ), @. (6c:
1I ti * •# + :t~ o ti 1i :t~
Ta huu thu, c(>ng th~p chi. Ta ngu chi, huu ngO chl.Nang thu v~t,
• ti 1i :t~ o fJE IfX ¥!J '

chi s6 ng6i nha). ~~ ' tJ[ (btic. khodnh: chi s6 ru(>ng), ffi ' fT §~ 11= $ 0

(/lfQ77g. ct!.n: chi s6 vang b<;1c ). [2.!:=. (th:ft. chi s6 ngt.ra), tt


(chi chi s6 nang tac slf.
ciiy viii).
TU MCJI
vai thi dtj:
- :X.*il,~f~-f~~[Z!:=.
Ta ti_ (5 net): hen trdi-Hii'u tJ (5 net): hen phdi-Thu (4
net): tay-C(>ng # (6 net): chung, cunf? nhau, c()nf? lCJi, t!fng c()nf?-
*
HL!U dp rna s6 thien dtr thk Chl :t~ (9 net): ng6n tay- Thu If~ (8 net): My- V~t tVJ (8 net): c16
L;Ji c:fp cho ngf!<? h011 m:iy ngan con (Binh Ngo d;Ji c:io). v(lt-Tac 11= (7 net): lam-Srf $ 0~ net): vi?c.
49. -1::::: ;rJ-r r+t ~ s= lftt H::. Y.L>- : 1:¥.: Ji -;:r; ~ 11Ifh 8U: ·,m: : ~
- ~n"T JJ J.l'..X.. ' t-''J § .~.?fl:. ' JLil>~=thlmi t=1 ~J\PJ>t ' eJL1JxtS
.L-o

rm 1®- _a il ma_t w D!CH NGHlA Tay trai va tay plziii


Tham tu&ng Phoong Chinh, N(>i quan Ma Ky, tien dp h<;1m Tay trdi, tay phdi g6m muC!i ng(5n. Tay trdi nam ng6n, tay phdi
ngu bach du suu, ky d(> hili nhi do thii h6n phi phach tang. nam ng6n. C6 thi la~v d6 vt;Zt, c6 rhi lam c6ng l'i?c.
Mfi Ky. PhllV71g Chinh, cap cho h011 nlim trim chiic thuy§n. w
ra t6i bie;z con chlKl thoi trbng ngvc (Binh Ng6 dc;Ii cdo).
15
-*~~+tt ' Y¥Jff.j;1i+,(E El.
-?)"
.fill!!!
§'5'.
T6ng d'm th~p cJn: Nam sa ngu th~p thk THAN THE
Gtfm nha Tbng muvi cn"y. the ta nlim c/Jf!C t:fm (Khn"m djnb
Dai
. nam hoi
. dien Slf
. /e)
. . A z .§t G: f'f = g5 5} o §ffi ~ ~f: W 1Z9 ij~ o §J~:
Nhan chi than thE huu tam b6 phan.Ddu, khu,can, du tu chi.Dfru
-Wit~- a!T · a~lisffi
Hoang l<;1p tam bach can, b<;1ch kim ngu bach lur;mg.
?± _t ' ~ ~f: 13 $ ,. ffi. 5E tE T • ~ tE ffi
t~i thu'<;ing,khu can elf trung,luong tuc tai h~,h.tong thu t~i Iuong
*
Sap vang bn tram cn"n. b;Jc nlim trfim Juvng (Khn"m djnh D!li 5§Zo
nam hoi
. dien Slf
. /e).
. bang.
108 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THV TV HOC CHU HAN 109

TU MCJI __t ~ }§ ; ~ 1} :(£ ffij z


1I iJ 5I 0
Chi Z (3 net): trr; tit ke't d{u (xem Ngil phdp bfli 16)-Than thu<;5ng huu mi; luang nhT t<~i di~n chi ta huu bien.
thi ~ R (7 net, 22 net): than thl-B() ph~n g~ )j- (10 net, 6 net):
TU MCJI
b9 phi}n, phdn-Dfiu §j (16 net): cdi ddu-Khu can I'Uf: (18 net,
Di~n [§] (9 net): rn¢'t- Vi ,A la- Tang ~ (19 net): cdi
(12 net) :
13 net): than rnlnh-Dfi W (13 net): va-Tu chi rz:g §3Z (5 net, 8
trdn-Crfc 1~ (12 net): cung, hon he't-H~m aJ:i (16 net): cdrn-Ti J!
net): bifn chi, tay chan-Cu Ji5 (8 net): a-Bang 'J!j (10 net): ben.
(14 net): rnui- Trung liong $ -5R: (4net, 5 net): o giila- Thi~t % (6
D!CHNGHlA net): cdi ht8'i-M1;1c § (5 net): con mdt-Mi }§ (9 net): long may-
Than thl
Than thl ( cua) nguai ta c6 3 phdn: ddu rnlnh va chan tay. Ddu Nhi 1} (6 net): tai-Bien 5I (19 net): ben, ria.
iJ tren, mlnh ogiila, hai chan iJ duoi, hai tay o hai ben. D[CH NGHlA Mijt ngztdi
Phdn tren cua rnijt nguai ta La trdn, duoi cung la dim; rnui iJ
NGU PHAP
chinh gia"a, duoi mui c6 mi~ng, trong mi~ng c6 luO'i; tren mui c6
+ Cach dilng chil W (dfi) hai con mdt, tren rndt c6 long may; hai tai 0 ben trdi va ben phdi
W (dfi) }a lien tU dung d€ n6i ket hai hay nhi€u tu, Cl;lffi tu, cua mijt.
c6 nghTa Et cung, va Thi dl;l:
II II 0

_ §.J:i, ~~f:W!Z9 §3Z (D~u, khu can dil tu chi) Ddu, rninh va NGU PHAP I I

tTl chi.
_I *W•
va nang nghi~p.
* (Cong nghi~p dil nong nghi~p) Cong nghi~p
0 ~ (vi) la m<)t dbng d9ng tit (xem Ngil phdp bai 30, mtJc3
[3] ) thuong dung trong ca u dinh nghla, c6 nghla la la" Thi dl;l:
II 0

_ AIID.-t€f~m~' {PjT_Aa~ (Nhan di~n thu<;5ng b9 vi tang,


_ ~rZatiW5'(~(Phu ttl' chi ngon tinh dil thien d<;1o) qtc h? vi h<;1m) Phdn tren cua mijt nguai ta la trdn, duoi cung la
Phu til n6i vi tinh va dc;to trai (Lu(jn ngil).
clim.
m ~r¥Ji!i5<::E"mi9X:1i$(Vi~t Nam c6 quan vi Ham Nghi de)
16 Vua cu cua Vi~t Narn la vua Ham Nghi (Phan B<)i Chau: Vi~t Nam
A Nfi vong quo'c sa).
NHANDI~N
- ~r~~El : -Tm~? El : ,A 19" EB (Ki~t Nich viet: Ttl' vi thuy?
A IID _t g~ -A ~ , ~ T -A aJ:i , • m 9J :R:, • Viet: Vi TrQng Do) Ki~t Njch hc3i: Ngai la ai? Trd lai: (Toi) La
Nhan di~n thu<;5ng bQ vi tang, eve h<;1 vi h<;1m, ti cu trung uong·, ti Trr;ng Do (Lu(m ngil: Vi til).
T~D·D $ ~%·41: ~~ §•§
h<;1 hliu kh~u, kh~u trung hii'u thi~t,ti thu<;5ng hliu luang IDtJC,mtJc
110 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU nJ HQC CHU HAN 111

f} Z (chi) tntdc day du'QC cac nha ngu phap xep vao l0<;1i giOi 17
tit, nay thu'ong du'QC coi la m9t trr; tit ke't diu rat thong dt,mg trong miti
NAO
Van ngon, dung d~ noi ket th~mh phfrn djnh ngil (xem Ngil phap bai
98) voi til' ho?c ngu trung tam. Trong m9t so tru'ong h<;p, chu ~J[ r=p ~ §fisj 0 §fisj 3::. it fJ ; *
5E j}\ §fisj z
z (chi )nay c6 th~ du'QC dich la "cU. a". Thi dl,l: Diiu trung huu nao. Nao chu truy€n l~nh; thu tuc thll'a nao chi
_6-. r, r ;;--
A ~+, rw< .L.t:; t.::¢:. =n r-1': ~ err- .L.t:;
D[J iJ .V_A IJ !3!-!) 0 fjBJ §t:, J>C jj,C., ~~ ~ ' ~J' §t::.
- [§j Z~F11 (Di~n chi ta hliu bien) Ben trai va ben phai cua
m~nh l~nh d1 hanh d<)ng. Nao nang tiep nh~n cam giac, di~c nang
m(it ( [§j la dinh ngu, b6 nghia cho c1,1m til' trung tam~ F1fthong ~ ±. }Sl, ;tg 0
qua slj noi ket cua;Z). phat sinh tu' tu'Cing.

AZ. ~e (Nhan chi than th~) Than thi (cua) con nguC!i.
TU MOl
_ .E r zy:_ (Quan tll' chi giao) Sf! giao du cua nguui quan til). Nao §fisj (13 net): 6c-Chu j::_ (5 net): giil vai tro, chuyerz vd,
_¥_01~zf,t(Sa m<;lC chi chau) Con thuy~n cua sa 111flC (am chl lam chu -Truy~n l~nh 1$ fJ (13 net, 5 net): truydn /fnh-Thua 7}\
con l9c cla). (8 net): dam nhqn, nh(in -M~nh I~nh ti[J -fJ (8 net, 5 net): m¢nh
_ ~ ' rtL ' 5R-J-Z -T--tg (Til' Nhien, Til' Kh6ng, Tong til' lfnh-Di .1-) (4 net): di, thea -Hanh d()ng iT ib (6 net, 11 net):
chi til' da) Til Nhien, Til Kh6ng la con cua Tffng til (Ta truyfn: Tuctng lam vifc, hanh d9ng- Tiep nh~n -t~ 'IF2 (net): nh(in ta:v. tie}J nh(in-
Cam giac ® :W; ( 13 net, 20 net): cam giac-D i~c # (6 net): ciJng-
cong thqp cilu nien). r,·
Phat sinh ~ ±. (13 net, 5 net): phat sinh. lflo ra, gay nen- Tti
_ r=pfj( z ~ (Trung thu chi d<;i) Dem trung thu. ttidng -~· ;tg (9 net, 13 net): tu tu!Jng.
_ YfJ@- z §(Hoang duong chi ngon) Ufi n6i hoang du(Jrzg.
- 1'J~Z.A (Hanh ac chi nhan) N guui lam VifC ac.

_ ;j<.)Hz~f(VInh Chau chi da) Canh d6ng Vlnh Chau.


_ ~ZB ' ~Z~ ' a~zf&' i~JJt!t}(H<:i chi nh?t, dong
chi d<;i, bach tue chi h?u, quy vu ky cu') Ngay hfl, dem dong, sau m9t
tram nam, tr!J v~ voi phdn m9 cua mlnh (Thi Kinh: Du(Jrzg phong, Cat
sinh).

m D[CH NGHlA 6c
Trang ddu c6 1ic. Oc giil vi¢c truydn l¢nh; tay chan vang thea
112 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 113

m~nh l¢nh cua 6c di hanh d()ng (lam vi¢c). 6c c6 thi tie'p nh(m {,- P] ~ J1n ' ij$ 3:. Of o,& ; ~T
ij~ ~ ;j \ §~ tSj
duc;c cam gidc; cilng c6 thi tr,w ra dur;tc tu tuang.
~ 1~ 1t z@ '§; *
Tam ty phat huye't, phe chu ho hap; can, tl, vi, tieu tnCt'-ing quiln
§~' ~ w
1m .~W: ~
thu()c tieu h6a chi co quan; d~i tnr0ng, th~n du bang quang giai
NG0PHAP
0 _l:_) (di) la lien tlr chi ffil;IC dich, dich la "de":
ff ~F ntt z f~ o
nhi~m bai tiet chi dich.
_ -¥ JE.ll\N~Z.$15- 1..-)Jrfb (Thu tuc thua nao chi m~nh l~nh
di hanh d()ng) Tay chan vang thea m¢nh l¢nh cua 6c di hanh
nJ MOI
d()ng.
Tam {,' (4 net): tim- Ty P] (5 net): cai, giil, phf! trdch v~­
_ 11;J*~J.itJ,~~~ (Cau m()c vi sao diti qu~n h~i) Ghep Huye't jJn (6 net): mau-Phe' ij$ (9 net): ph6'i-Ho hap Of D,& (8 net,
nhdnh cay lam t6 di trdnh Sf! gay hc;zi cua cdc laai thu ri:tng (Han
6 net): thi! ra hft \'aa, ho ha]J-Can ~T (7 net): gan-Tl ij' ( 12 net):
Phi Til: Ngii do). .
ti, La loch-Vi~ (9 net): baa til, dc;z day-Tiiu tniong 1]\§~ (3 net,
_ ~AfX*J..-jj~)':~(Sd nhan ph~t Tong di cuu Trinh) Sa 13 net): ru()t nan-Quan tSj (7 net): eMu- Thu()c ~ (21 net): thu()c
ddnh To'ng di cliu Trinh (Ta truy¢n: Hi cong nhi thQ_p nhj nien).
vJ-Tieu hoa m1t (10 net, 4 net): tieu h(3a-Co quan t~'§ (16
@ 1.]\ (di~c) la ph6 tu lam tr~ng ngu , c6 nghia la "cling,
net, 8 net): co quan, b() m6y-D~i tniong *§~ (3 net, 13 net):
dlng la" : ru()t gia-Th~n ~ (12 net): trdi cQ_t, thQ_n-Bang quang 1m §7\: (14
_
fj(((.4t:; t.ti:"'V r=t>; ~ N-ao nang
- . "" n h~~n
±""'1::5?;¥..!+- 83 ;;f§ (
tlep
o[1g!k. r~ii'c.' ~~JR., ~J\§t:.'Y.;[.::t.,~''D'
net, 10 net): bang quang, b9ng ddi-Giai ~ (10 net): dJu-Nhi~m
d.m giac, difc nang phat sinh tu' tu'dng) Oc c6 thi tie'p nhQ_n dur;tc 1-:f: (6 net): gi(J nhi¢m Wj, phl;l trdch, dam nhi¢m-Bai tie't ~F {tl:t ( 11
cam gidc, ciing c6 thi phdt sinh dur;tc tu tuang. net, 7net): bai tilt, thai ra-Dich fjt (6 net): vi¢c.
_ :a-1.0~~A$ z- (LQ difc vu trung trung chi nhat) Co
ciing La m()t trang nhilng laai c6 long vii (Tho Nguy~n Cong Trli) .
_ ~ji1.f\?f ' ~1.]\?f (Thi tien di~c uu, thoai difc uu) The
thi tie'n ciing lo, thodi ciing lo (Ph~m TrQng Yem: Nhc;zc Ducmg
lau ky).

w ~

18
!li HIM
TANG PHU
D[CH NGHlA Tcpzg phzl
114 TRAN vAN CHANH TOAN THV Tl/ HQC CHC! HAN 115

Tim giil vi¢c phdt huye't, pho?i chuyen "2 ho hajJ (thO' ra hit
vao); ·gan, tl (ld lach), bao tit, ru()t non ct2u thu()c vP ca quan tieu ~ R z )'} · rm ff J5Z ~ , 12 ~ ff Rll ~ , ~
h6a; ru()t gia, qua cQ.t (thQ.n) va b9ng cldi ct2u dam nhifm giil vi¢c Than th~ chi ngo<;~i di~n hO'u bl mao, bl hc;1 hO'u co nh1,1c, nh1,1c
bai tie't. $ ff ~15 ~ o :j(f 1?b ~ ~ Z J:. o :j(f $ ff ~
trung hO'u din c6t. Tich vi qufrn cot chi chu. Tich trung hut! tuy . .
:filf r!& A r .t... t:. --'- :fi1f ,_~ ) r .t...t::. m a;+, 0
NG0PHAP "" Fl ' I' lk. J1.. 0 " " flJJ \ ' I' f3t:: ~ "i!IJ
V6 cot nhan bat nang l~p. V6 can nhil.n bat nang cu d(>ng.
0 :!$) (quan) Ia ph6 tu lam trang ngO', c6 nghTa "d~u, d~u Ia,

_
cling":
TlJ MCJI
~f~'~ ;j\§~ :t~J?jmftz ~'§ (Can, tl, vi, ti~u tn.rong
Bi J5Z (5 net): da-Mao ~ (4 net): 1/Jng-Cd Rll (6 net): bdp thjt,
quan thu<)c tieu h6a chi eel quan) La Ldch, baa tit, ru()t non d2u
ur-Nhl)c ~ (6 net): thit-Can ~15 (7 net.): gan-C6t ~ (10 net):
thu()c vi co quan tieu h6a.
xuong-Tich ~ (10 net): xuong so'ng-Vi 1?b (12 net): La-Tuy ~
_ /]j~f3:t~ff~?*fi (Xuat tjch gia qufm huu bi~u quyet
(23 net): tuy- Vo fW; (12 net): khonf< c6-Ba't /f (4 net): khong,
quy~n) Nhilng nguai d{n dl! ct2u c6 quyin bdu quye't.
chdng-Cli dc)ng ~ ib (17 net, llnet): cit' d()ng.
_ ~J;)1i! ' fff1z..t~J~ ~ffi] -~ (Thj dT S0, Tri~u chi dan
quan bftn nhi qua phu) VI the' dan hai mMc Sd, Trifu d2u ngheo
ma it c6 nguai giau (Diem thie't luqn: Thong hilu). D!CH NGHiA Ngoai vii trong
M(it ngoai ciia than thi c6 da, Lonf?, duoi (lOp) da c6 thit, trong
thjt c6 gan, xuong. Xuong so'ng La xuong chinh cua ta't ca cdc
6 ~ (giai) cGng c6 nghTa "d~u, d~u Ia ",each dung nhu' chO'
:t~ (quan) 0 tren:
xuong. Trang xuong so'ng c6 tiiy.
Khong c6 xuung. nguai ta khong thi dung dur;c. Khong c6 gan,
7J~ ' ~ Wlm§Yt~{:E~I=nttz f~ ( D~i truC1ng, th~n dO'
_ nguai ta khong thi cit d()ng dur;c.
bang quang giai nhi~m bai tiet chi djch) Ru()t gia, thQ.n va bang
quang diu dam nhifm Fife hili tilt.
NGO PHAP
_A ~~OZ. (Nhan giai tri chi) M9i nguai diu hilt vi¢c d6 .
+ Cach dilng /f§g
(ba't nang)
_?.~~lift~~~ (Chieu kien ngG ufi'n giai kh6ng) Soi tha:v
/f§g (ba't nang) Ia m(>t Cl,lm tlf quen dung, ke't hc;Jp giG'a
nam wi'n ct2u khong (Bat nha Ba La mQ.t da Tam kinh).
ph6 tu phu dinh /f (bat) voi trQ d(lng tu §E(nang), djch nghia Ia
m "kh6ng th~":
19 _ ~~A/f§g.ll_ o ~1f15A/f§E~ib (Yo c6t nhan bat
~ ~ nii.ng l~p. V6 can nhan bat niing cu d(lng) Khong c6 xuong nguai
~?
ta khong th~' dung dur;c. Khong c6 gan nguai ta kh6ng thi ell
'

BIEU LY
116 TRAN vAN CHANH TOAN THV TV HQC CHCI HAN 117

cl<'}ng dLtQ'c. (ne'm), tay la co quan .nlc Ride ( r&, chg.m).


. _ /f'f:JE~ti (Bat niing h6t thD Khong thi xem thuifnf<. Ke khong nghe dLt(!C lei (nguiJi) die'c, ke khong tha~\' duQ'c Ia
_ m.X:ff:\: /f'f:JEFte (Uy vG bat niing khuatJ Uy ,.a khong lam (nguiJi) mu, ke khong nc5i dliQ'C La (nguiJi) cam.
cho khulft ph~:~c duQ'c.

m NCO PHAP
+ Cdch dt'mg chil :f3 (gia)
20 Chu :f3" (gia) truck day duc_jc coi la mot d~i tu, hi~n duc_jc
E '§
cac nha ngu phap xep van lo~i trc_j tu, thuong dung sau dong tu,
NGU QUAN
hlnh dung tu, s6 tu d~ chi v~ nguoi hay slf v?t, c6 nghia la"cai,
nguoi, ke .. . ". Thi dt,~:
If ~ ~ '§ ' § ~ tJ?. '§ ' 4 ~ o~ '§ ' -§§- ~ o;t:
Nhi vi thinh 4uan, mt,~c vi thi quan, tj vi khuu quan, thi~t vi vj _ /f'f:JE~~~V, /f'f:lEtJ?.~~~ (Bat nang thinh gia vi
. '§•=J= W&:~ ~ '§o lung, bat nang thj gia vi manh) NguiJi (ke) khong nghe duQ'c Ia
quan, thu du bl vi xuc quan. nguiJi die'c, ngli(li ( ke) kh/Jng tha~V d!iQ'C fa ngLtiJi 111U.
/f' f:JE ~ ~ ~ j@ , /f' f:JE ti :f3 ~ ~ , /f' f:JE _ 9(0=!Jt~ (Tri nga gia) Ke bie't ta.
Bat nang thinh gia vi lung, bat nang thj gia vi manh, bat nang _ JL)C~~=r' ::*:~~~, ;J\~]j_~(Kh6ng Van Cll'
~ :f3 ~ 02 0
huu nhj tlt, d~i gia lt,~c tue, ti~u gia ngG tue) Kho?ng Van Crl' c6
ng6n gia vi a. hai con trai, dua !Cin sdu tudi, clua nho niim tuo?i (Thi thuyit tan
nga: Ngon nga).
TU MCJI
Thfnh quan ~ '§(21 net, 8 net): co quan thinh gidc (di nghe)- m
Th! quanti'§ (12 net, 8 net): co quan thi gidc (di nhin)-Khuu 21
quan a~ '§ ( 13 net,8 net): co quan khuu gidc (di ngrli)- V! quan i* m
MQC D{)C
o;t: '§ (8 net,8 net): co quan vi gidc ( di nem)-Xuc quan ~3!) '§ (20
net,8 net): crf quan xuc gidc (eli riJ, chg.m)-Gia ~ (8net): cdi, ke,
nguiJi-Lung V (22net): diic-Manh ~ (7 net): dui, mu-Ngon ~ &: Pi ~ JL , fi!TJ;J ~~ ntt ~f ~ ill o ;g: ~ ~ ±Fo fi!T
(7 net): noi- A. o2 <11 net): cam . Bl phu hG'u kh6ng, sd di bai tiet han djch da. NhliQC vi tr~n cau sd
~.!3. , ~ IJ ?t nJt /f' ~ , (JJ: ?* m 1i Jn
o
trd, tac han tiet bat sliong, c6 IDOC dt,~c nghi dn.
D!CH NGH[A Niim gidc quan
Tai lei uJ quan thinh gidc (nghe), mdt la co quan thi gidc
i* ¥1t /f' ~~ ~~ ±Fo , x f:JE g}J l1n ~ z?liE ;m o
Moe dt,~c bat d?c tru cau, hlfu nang trc_j huyet djch chi llill thong.
(tha~\'), mui Ia co quan khuu gidc (ngrli), lu8i la co quan vj gidc
118 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THV Tl,l HQC CHU HAN 119

_ fifu:;$:~j:f~ • pJTJ--)/GJl(Duban phi le, sll di bat bai) Du v(/n


TUM6I val~. nen khtmg 1{1.\' (The' thuye't tan ngfl: Ngfl nf?on).

m phu ~ J1 (5 net,l5 net): da, da de-Kh6ng fL (4 net): 16-S(J di Ia lien tu bi€'u thj giii thiet, dich Ia "neu, neu
@ :;§f (nhtiQ'c)
pfT l--) (8 net, 5 net): nen, cho nen; cai dunf? eli- Han cijch ?f Wl (6 nhli". Trong h~li tren, :;g: ... ~lj (nhLWC ... tic ... ) Ia mot each thl"rc co
net, 11 net): m6 hoi-Da -ill, (3 net): v(ly (tr(J tu')-NhttQ'c :;§f (8 net): djnh, c6 nghla la"neu ... thl...":
ne'u (lien tU')-Vi ~ (12 net): bj (xem phdn Ngfl phap (; du6'i)-Tr~n _ :;§f ~ ~±JS pfT~.§. • ~IJ?fitJ+/G~ (Nhu'(JC vi trdn cau st1 trff,
ca'u ~ ±}6(15 net, 9 net): b~i do, b~i b(im-Trd ~.§. (7 net): ngan tro, tiic han tiet bat sudng) Nlu bj b~i do ngan tro thi m6 hoi tilt ra
ngan can-T~c ~lj (net): thi (lien ti'A')-Sttong $~ (14 net): thong suo't- khong thong suiJ't.
M(>c dt.Jc ~* tB (7 net, 10 net): tdm n}a, tdm g9i-Nghi :.§: (8 net): _ .:E;§fi\~)3;M,#ffi]~}LJE±il?, • ~lj!:j=-$fiJ}j~~? (Vuong nlut(lc
nen (ph6 ti'A')-C~n f1J (13 net): cham, sieng-Ba't d~c /Gt:f (4 net, 10 fin ky v6 t()i nhi ttfu tu dja, tdc nguu dLiclng ha tr<:~ch yen?) Niu
net): khong chl, ch!lng nhflng- Tru ~~ (1 0 net): trit ho-HtfU 3Z (2 nha vua t9i nghi~p cho con v(lt w) t9i rna eli din ch6 chit thi ch9n
net): lfli, l9i con (ph6 tit)-Huye't cijch lfn.Wl (6 net, 11 net): mau-Lttu lam gi gifla b() l'a de? ( M9nh til: Luong Huf vuong thu(Jng).
im (1 0 net): chay.

D[CH NGHlA Tiim gQi €) ff.S ... pfT (vi...sd) dung d~ bi~u thj y bi dong, theo cong
Da c6 !6, nen hai tie't dut;~c m6 hoi. Nlu bj b~i do ngan tra thi m6 thuc:
hoi tilt ra khong thong suift, cho nen vifc tdm g9i nen cham. Chu ngu +~(vi)+ St! v~t chu dong+ pfT( sCi)+ dong tCr.
Tiim g9i ch!lng nhflng triA' du(Jc du, rna ciJn c6 thi giup cho sf:( htu
Thf d~1:
thOng cua huyet djch (mciu).
_ :;§f~~±§ pfT~.§. ( Nhlic;5c vi tr~n cau sll trd) Niu bj b~i h(im
NGUPHAP ngan tro.
0 .Pfft)(sd di) Ia m9t lien tu dung d~ chi ket qua, co nghTa Ia _ 8 ~;;;pfT~& (Nh~t vi van sll te) M(it trai hi may che.
"vi the, nen, cho nen, v?y nen": _ t~P~~=Jj(JJ[pJTJ)( (Lieu Thang vi nga quan sll c6ng) Ldu
_ ~Je lftL ' .P!T,1;) :f91=ilit?fWl-tQ ( B1 phu hG'u kh6ng, sll di bai Thiin g bj quanta ta'n cang (Ngu_v~n Triii: Blnh Ngo dCJi ccio).
tiet han djch da) Da c6 !6 nen hai tilt elu'(JC m6 hOi.
-~itt£*~ • i!V3ff.S~;!t~ • .PfftJ,f.tBM' tt~~~iW"fi.(Xtr
0 /f!f-B: ... ~ ... ( ba't d~c ... hlfu ... ) Ia Cl;lm tu quen dung,
the nhlic;5c d;:ti mong, h6 vi lao ky sinh, sll di chung nh?t tuy, d6i
nghla Ia "khong nhCrng ... ma con ... ", "kh6ng chi... l;:ti con ... ".
nhien ngQa ti~n doanh) () dai nhu' gia(: chiem bao, lam chi rna phai
lao dao cho doi, vl).y-rr€rrsay-suo't hom mai, ben cay c9t tru6'c nlim CGng dung /Gt'¥ ... # ... (bat dac ... di~c ... ):
dai khinh chan ( Ly B9ch: Xuan nh(lt tuy khai ngon chi). _?t¥-8-/Gt:f~~±Fo, ::x.§g.§.JJlfn.Wlz?mJr (Moe dl,lc bar a{ic
120
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THLI Tl)' HQC CHV HAN 121

tnl' cau, h{tu nang tr<J huyet dich chi lt.tu hanh) Tdm g9i chdng I)[CH NGHlA Tlzithao
nhilng trit dur;c do, ma C()n cd thi Rhip cho St! htu hanh cila mdu. Than thi con ngur'!i nho \'Qn df}ng ma ngay cang mflnh khoe.
-~AZx·~~-~Z~~~~~·-~Z$#~~~ V(in df}ng c6 ich, khang gi bitng thi th(JO.
(C6 nhan chi van, bii't dijc nhat thien chi trung v6 nhung phuc da, Thi thao ldm hoqt df}ng cdc mr;~ch mdu, lam mr;~nh gan co't, lai
CrJ thi giup vao Sl/ phdt dl;-lC cua IOCl/1 than thl
nhat t?p chi trung difC v6 nhung phlic) Van chuang cua nguoi
xua, khong chl trong m9t bai kh6nR c6 chJ trung ldp du thita, ma NG0PHAP
cd trong m9t t(jp cilng khong cr) chJ trung ldp du thita (Nh(it tri 0 .[:) (di) trong bai dliQc dung nhli m()t gioi tu a<i chi
l~:~c: c 6' nhan t(ip trung v6 nhilng phtic). nguyen nhan, voi nghia Ia "vi, do, nho":

m _ AZ.§t~' .L-~~IbffiJBl}t(Nhan chi than th~. di v?n


cl()ng nhi nh?t ki~n) Than thi con nguoi nho v(in df}ng ma ngay
22 cang mr;~nh khoe.
G: t* _ ~U0~U~~!z·li# ( Lt.tu Cong Can di that kfnh ly t9i)
THE THAO Luu Cong Can vi tha't kinh md mdc tf}i (The' thuyit tan ngil).
_ ifij.g .L-~t~Mt1171f
(Nhi ng6 di b8 xa d()c t6n) Ma toi nhr'!
A Z .§t G: , t) ~ Jb ffiJ B 1lt o ~ lb z ~ c6 ngh~ bdt rdn m(/i rieng dur;c C()n (Lieu Ton Nguyen: B6' X(l
Nhan chi than th<i, dT v?n cl()ng nhi nh?t ki~n. V?n cl()ng chi hU'u
gia thuyit).
~ -t3 ' ~ YO G: t%; o G: t*§~ ~5 Itn Hili ' j$
ich gia, m<,tc nhu th<i thao. Th<i thao nang ho<,1t huyet nwch, cttong _ :t:~U*IJ)t ' §R.Urtlt~~ ( Phu sif di m?t thanh, ngu di tiet
ffE ~ , x §~ ttiJ ~ G: z ~ ~ o b<:ti) Vi?c lam nho kin ddo ma thanh cong, loi n6i vi tilt l(iu md
can cot, hifu nang trQ toan th<i chi phat due. tha't br;~i (Han Phi Tit: Thui ~an).

TU MOl 6 B (nh~t) trong bai nay att<Jc dung nhu ph6 tu lam tr~ng
V~n d()ng ~ lb ( 13 net, I 1 net): v(in d9ng-Nhi ffi] (6 net): ma ngu, voi nghTa la"ngay cang, ngay m()t them":
(lien tit)-Ki~n 1}! (1 1 net): m9nh khoe-ich ~(net): them-M~c nhti _ .L-~ ~lbfffi B 1}! (DT v?n cl()ng nhi nhijt ki~n) Nho v(in
~ YO (1 0 net, 6 net): khong l{l being- Th~ thao mH* (22 net, 16 df}ng ma ngdy cang mf]nh khoe.
net): thi thao-Ho~t ~5 (9 net): lam cho hor;a d9ng (dung nhu df}ng _ m~z $ ' ?ffb1 8 tli (Phong oc chi trung 6 ue nlzijt
tit)-Huyet m~ch rtrrff@ (6 net, 10 net): mr;~ch mdu-Ctiong j$ (10 tfch)Trong nha, nhilng d6 do bri'n ngay m9t cha't chua ( Bai 62).
net): lam cho mr;~nh (dung nhu df}ng tit)- Toan ~ (6 net): tat cd- _ 11Jxz{,'8 :@:~~ (D()c phu chi tam nhijt fch kieu co)
Phat d~;Jc ~~ (12 net, 8 net): phat dw:. d(iy thi, truang thanh. Long cua ten vua VrJ df]O ngay cang them kieu cang ngoan ca' (D6
M1,1c : A Phong cung phu ).
122 TRAN VAN CHANH 123
TOAN THU nJ HQC CHU HAN

24
€)~~0 (m::tc nhu), c~,~m til quen dung, nghia la "khong gl ~ A ~· w,
bang, ch~ng bang, ch~ng tha, chi bang": LAO NHAN MAl NGU
_ ~~b Z i'f;f;it 13 ' ~~omU~ (Y~n d<)ng chi huu fch gia,
lll(lC nlut th€, thao) Vi?c v(in d9ng c6 ich, kh6ng gi bdng thl thao. 1=f~ A , t~ tt ~ , A $ r:fl , ~ w, -
~ $ ,
~~DJ§m~(D6 cltu vien gia, 11l{lC n/ut tay quy)
_iiJ7_ji13 ' Huu Hio nhan, d~ true lam,nh~p thi trung, mai ngu' nhat vi, b9
Muon tinh chuy?n lau dai, kh6ng gi bh.ng v~ mi~n tay (Han Du: Tl f=r ~ *0
Thf)p nhf lang win). hanh hoan gia.

w TU Mdi
23 Lao~ (6 net): gia-D~ t~ (12 net): cdm, ndm ta:v-Lam ~ (20
~ ill
/~ ~/ net): cai giu-Thi $ (5 net): ch(Y-Mai ~(12 net): mua-Ngtf W,
ME D0 BO . ( 11 net): con ca- Vi ~ (7 net): cai du6i, con (a day lc1 lu(Yng tit

* :g, Y• ffl 4 £ o ~ ~ ~£• JfJ R ;_ o


Me da thi€,u, d1,1ng dfru lu'Qng. Bo tru'ong doan, d1,1ng xfch lu'Qng.
dung dl chi sr'{ con ca)-BQ hanh 7)5-fj (7 net, 6 net): di bc)-Hoan
~ ( 17 net): tro v~ .

*+ ft•~-4 o ~+'f•~- R_ o D[CH NGHiA Ong gia mua cti


Me th~p thang, vi nhat dfru. Bo th~p thon, vi nhat xfch. C6 m9t 6ng gia xach cai gio tre, di vao trong ch(Y, mua m9t
con ca, (r6i) di b9 v~ nha.
TU Md!
w
M~ (6 net): gt;Io-Da (6 net): nhi~u- Thiiu (4 net): it-Dt,mg (5
25
net): dung-Diiu (4 net): cai d(tu-LtfQ'ng (12 net): dong, do-B6 (5
net): vdi-Truong (12 net): dai-Doan ( 12 net): ngdn-Xich (4 net):
ffi,, w ~
NGU DU MIEU
cai thu6'c- Thang (4 net): cai thung- Thon (3 net): trJc.
t~ t~ mr r:p , ~ ffi_ m~ o ;J\ ~; *, fi'X. 1m w,
Pha ly cang trung, kim ngu' luang vi Ti€,u mieu lai, d1,1c bQ ngu'.
o

D[CH NGHlA G{lo va vai


G9o nhidu it, dung da'u dong. Vai dai ngdn, dung thu6'c do.
ft A'¥>~ ~ti;o
Nga nh~p that, mieu dao khu.
Muoi thung gt;Io la m9t da'u. Muoi ta'c vai la m9t thu6'c.

w TU Mdl
Pha ly I,& I~ (9 net, 15 net): kinh, thuy tinh, pha le-Cang ml (9
124 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU n,l HQC CHCI HAN 125

net): cdi chgu /6'n-Kim :&


(8 net): vang-Mieu %Eti (16 net): con -=0m£~~n7t±.?
nu?o-DQc· $}:: (11 net): muon-B(> (bci'Hmoo net): hdt-Nga :fj(; (7 Nhi c6ng thuy thi NgQa Long tien sinh?
net): ta, toi- That ~ (9 net): nha 3-Dao m(
10 net): tron di. Trang hai 6ng, ai JiJ Ng9a Long tien sinh? (Tam qu6c chi diJn
nghia).
D!CH NGHiA Cava meo Gi6ng nht.r danh tu (lo<;1i tu rna n6 tht.r&ng thay th~ ), d<;1i tu c6
Trang ch¢iu pha le, (co) hai con cd vang. Con meo nho de'n, thi lam chu ngfr, tan ngfr, k~t hqp v&i ct6ng d()ng tu ~(vi) (xem
muon hdt cd. Toi vao nha, meo tron di:
Ngil phdp, bai 39, do<;1n 3 [31 ) cti lam vi ngfr. Trang nhi~u tm&ng
hqp, mot s6 d<;li tlr nht.r J;i (an), ~ (nhien) ... chi c6 thi lam tan ngfr,
NGO PHA.P
djnh ngfr (xem Ngil phdp, hai 93 va 98 ), chCr kh6ng thi lam chu
flAI TlJ {i; ~ ngfr nht.r danh tu.
1. D:;ti tlr dung cti thay th~ cho ten gQi trt)'C ti~p cua c:ic S!! v~t, 3. C6 thi chia d:;ti tu thanh 3 lo<;1i l&n:
vi ly do kh6ng ti~n li].p l:;ti hoi].c kh6ng thi n6i ra. (1) Dt;Ji tir nhfin XU77g: :fit (nga: t61). i~ (nhfr: anh), {/Z (bi: 6ng
D:;ti tlr c6 thi thay th~ cho mot tlr hay cho cii mot y dt.rQ'C di~n dy) ...
d:;tt b~ng nhi~u tu. (2) Dt;Ji tir chj thi: Jl:t(tht!: cai nay. ngu&i nay), flR (bi: cai kia.
Thi df!: ngur}i kia), {ifL (tha: cai klzac), ~ (m<;lC: kh6ng aJ) ...
- gl=f*fj, ~~Pf!H~ (3) Dt;Ji tir nghi vfn: m£ (thuy: m), ~ (h~: 6 dfiu)... .
Dich hfru thai C!!C, thi sinh ltr6ng nghi. m
Dich g6m c6 thai qrc, tir d6 (= thai eve) sinh ra hai nghi 26
tu
(dich) ("Thi'' thay cho "thai C!!c"). ~ ~
--~,*~ffl o~ B:~~~-$? KHACH CHI
Nhan Uyen, Quy Lo thi. Tu vi~t: H:;tp cacng6n nhichi?
Nhan Uyen, Quy L9 dung hdu. Kh6ng tJ hoi: Sao mOi nguVi
1'f ~ ~'~ )(o:f\t J!}1
:fj(; ~' A~ P'Jo
Huu khach chi, khan nga ph1,1. Nga nghenh khach, nh?p that n<)i.
kh6ng n6i chi minh (Lut;Jn ngtJ>) ("cac" va "nh1" thay cho "Nhan )( ~ ~ ' Fo~ ~1 ~ 0 ) ( ~ {5 ' ~ ~ li 0
Uyen, Quy Lo"). Ph1,1 kien khach, van tinh danh. Ph1,1 tQa huu, khach tQa tiL
2. V~ di]_c diim, noi Chung, d<;li tlr kh6ng thi dt.rQ'C tfi!C ti~p b6
ngh1a b~ng m<)t lo<;1i tu nao khac. Kh6ng thi n6i: - :fj(; (tam nga), TU Md!
* ~ cci:;ti ngo ), ~ llt (tMm thu) .. .. tru mot s6 tnr&ng hqp di?.c bi~t: Khach ~ (9 net): nguili khdch-Chi ~ (6 net): dln-Khan ;g
126 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl,l HQC CHU HAN 127

(9 net): vie'ng, tham-Nghenh (nghinh) Jill (8


net): don, tie/J, ntoc- w
Kie'n J! (7 net): trong thl/v- Vfin Fo~ (11 net): hoi- Tinh fti (8 net): 28
h9-Danh 1; (6 net): ten- TQa ~ (7 net): ngbi. S)j ,Ej ~~ 1±\
MINH NGUYI;:T TUdNG XUAT
D[CH NGHiA Khacli den nha
Co khach de'n, tham cha toi. Toi ntoc khach, w1o trong nha. S)j ,Ej ~~ tJj , ~ ~ [!] ~ o ~ rE] ~ 11J: '
Cha trong tha:v khach, hoi hQ ten. Cha ngbi ben phdi, khach ngbi Minh nguy~t tu'ong xuat, trung thanh tu khC:Ii . Thai cao thai de,
rP;: ~.±. rP;: ' ~ -t:T *~ T
ben trai. l-j'J ~ l-j'J J.Ll o :;!=!: ~ / I' - o

thai vien thai c~n. Ky thanh bat nhat.


m
27 -TU M(JJ
*1T ~ - Bfr Tu'ong ~~ (11 net): se, sap-Xufl! 1±\ (5 net): ra-Trimg ~ (18
TAN THlf NHAT sAcH net): loai sau bo, con trung-Thanh ~ (17 net): tieng-KhO'i ~
(10 net): n6i d~y-De 1fr (7 net): thap-C~n J1i (8 net): gftn-Ky ;!t
*JT ~- fflJo Jt ~ ~' ~ ~ ~o)t ~~::f: (8 net): cua n6 (d~i til, c1 day thay cho "trung").
Tan thu' nhat sach. Tien sinh giang, hQc sinh thin h. Tien d<)c ttf
Iz:.. :(~ {1,71 9 $.
E3 ' I~ f.jtj: T ~ o
D[CH NGHiA Triing sang sifp m()c
am, h~u giai tli nghTa.
Trang sang sdp mQc, tie'ng con trung n6'i len bo'n phia. Luc cao
luc thap, luc xa luc gdn. Tie'ng cua no khong gio'ng nhau.
TU M(JJ
Tan *1T ( 13 net): moi- Thu' ~ (5 net): sach-Sach Bfr (5 net): NGU PHAP
cw5'n, quyln (luc;ng tit dung di dim sach)-Giang ~ (17 net): 0 ~ (tu'ong) la ph6 til dung lam tr;,tng ngu, d~t truoc d<)ng
gidng gidi-Thinh ~ (22 net): nghe-D()c ~~ (22 net): dQc-Trf ::f: til d~ bi~u thi "sap, sap slia, gftn":
(6 net): chit-Am 1§- (9 net): am, tie'ng-H~u 1& (9 net): sau-Giai
_ S)j ,Ej ~~tB (Minh nguy~t tzto'ug xuat) Trang sang sdp mQC.
_ r±~~~A~(Trang nhi tztdng nh~p hQc) Be Trang sdp vao
~lt. (13 net): gidng cho ro, gidi thich-Ngh1a ~ ( 13 net): y ngh'la.
hQc ( Bai 61).
_ 1.}~~"_x (C6ng tztdng chien) Trang cong sdp danh (Td
D[CH NGHiA MQt cuon sach nuJi
truyfn: Trang cong th4p nien).
(Day Ia) mf)t cuo'n sach moi. Thdy gidng, tro nghe. Truoc dQc
am chit, sau gidi thich ngh'la chit. 6 [9 (tu) trong bai duc;rc dung nhu ph6 til, d~t tru'oc d<)ng
128 TI~AN VAN CHANH TOAN THll Tl/ HQC CHO' HAN 129

tu, voi nghia la "b6n ben, tu phia, kh~p noi": AV!Z:9~ (Trung Nh:~m net): chim nhqn-Nam r¥J (9 net): huang nam-Khong
Hi (11
thanh tu khdi) Tie'ng con triing nfli d(jy bon ben. ~ (8 net): khodng khon,~?-Nhtf ~0 (6 net): gio'ng nhu.

@ ~-·· ~ (th<li...th<li)
nghia la "hie thl... hie thl ": D[CH NGHlA Bay nlu;n
_ ~r'@J~f~ (Thdi cao thdi de) Luc cao luc thflp. Ngay thu tri1i l'ita quang tg_nh, nhilng con nhg_n ttl" phuonR nam
_ ~_¥ ~"* (Thdi chi thdi khu) Luc de'n luc di. dln. (Chung) bay cao tren b6u troi, ho(ic Ri/InR chil nha't
(-),hor;ic giong chil nhiin (A.).
0 ;t:t (ky) la d~i tu chi thi dung a sd huu each, di;it tnroc
danh tU d~ bi~u thi "cua n6, cua 6ng a'y ... ": NCO PHAP
- ;t:t V/f'- (KJ thanh ba't nha't)Tieng cua n6 khong giong
nhau (trong bai h9c tren, chil ky du(fc dung thay cho chil trung).
HiNH DUNG TU DUNG NHLJ PHO TU
_ D~~~~ o ~;(:Ej} • ;!t-§,$ o ~;(:Er*J • Jt-§,8 (Khftu Hinh dung tt1 dung nhu ph6 tt1, lu6n lu6n d~t tm&c d()ng tt1:
huu th~n huu xi. Th~n t~i ngm;ti, ky s~c xich. Xi t~i n()i, ky s~c - rm n JJ ;g= *IT ~ 11~ liJfiJ
b~ch) Mi~ng c6 moi c6 riing. Moi a ngoai, mau cua n6 do.Riing a Nhi dao nhfrn nhl!Q'c tan phat u hinh.
trong, mau cua n6 trdng. Miz dao nhLr mrfj duvc mizj xong (Trang Tti: Duiing sinh chu ).
_ )}Ig:.fifl • ;!t~m'~ (Dlnh trung chung que', ky di~p thuong I ' I )ita ;i;-[2 -$"B
- .V.A r,c:;; 'fill. ,L:., '
IEf t{j:; ;::t;:; ~ CJ;
1¥ /)!!!- IIIJ {-q- .=E.
h,Ic) Trong san tr6ng que: La cua n6 thuong mau l~c.
Dl dtrc biio oan. h?u thl nhi b:;c VQng.
m Liy dtic bio oin. cho nhj§u miz mong it (Sti kj Du hj~p li~t
29 truy~n) .

u Hi w
QUANNHAN
30
f)c B $JT ~ •U Hi r¥J *or'@Jm 7( ~· ~
Thu nh~t tan tlnh, qu~n nh~n nam lai. Cao phi thien kh6ng, hoi;ic
~
VIEN TRUNG HOA
'* 1E
~o - ~ ·~ ~o A ~
nhu' nha't tl,l', hoi;ic nhu' nhan tl,l'.
o
~ J:f:l 1E , 7t: 1~ 1*1 o tJt 1E ~I , :ft tl
Vien trung hoa, tien h?u khai. Dao hoa h6ng, ly hoa b~ch, que
* a,
TU Md! 1t, j!{o Wj ff ~ ff• @@:If' rPJo
hoa hoan g. Cue huu da chung, nhan sac bat o6ng.
Thu fj( (9 net): mua thu- Tinh ~ (12 net): troi quang tt;mh-
130 TRAN vAN CHANH TOAN THU TV HQC CHU HAN 131

TlJ M(JJ Surmg tan (tr<_1ng thai, bi~n hoa).


Vien ~ (13 net): VU'(fn-Hoa 1t. (8 net): bong hoa-Khai 00 (12 - :ftrffl

do-Ly *
net): (hoa) no-Dao :fj~ ( 10 net): cay dao-H6ng ~J (9 net): mau
(7 net): cay mijn, trdi mqn-Que ff ( 10 net): cay qul-
Hoang ~ (12 net): mau vang-Cuc ~ ( 12 net): cay cue, hoa cuc-
Hoa khai.
Hoa nd· (vi~c xiiy ra).
2. M<)t s6 d~c di~m ngfr phap cua d('>ng ttr
Chung fj (14 net): gio'ng, loai (lo9i)-Nhan ~Ji (18 net): dang
a) D('>ng tt! c6 th~ dLYQ'C b6 nghla b~ng nhfrng tt! chi trinh d('>,
m(lt-Silc '§. (6 net): mau mo-D6ng [PJ (6 net): gi/J'ng nhau.
thai gian. y ki~n v.v.
D!CH NGHlA Hoa trong vttifn Thi d1,1:
Hoa trong VU'On, no trur'lc no sau. Hoa dclo mau do, hoa m<ln - *'lyt
mau trdng, hoa qui mau l'ang. Hoa cue cr) nhi~u gio'ng, mau sdc D~i duy~t.
kh6ng gi6ng nhau.
Ci nnrng.
NGU PHA.P - ~ 5t
Bit ki~n.
8QNG TLJ itJ ~ Kh6ng tidy.
J.D(5ng tu Nhlfl1g chi nhfrng d<)ng tt! di~n 6 nhfrng d<)ng tac tam ly. nhu
t;x._ 83 ' • '
D<)ng tu dung d~ di~n ta m<)t hanh d<)ng, m<)t xuc cam tam ly,
=f= o
-§(hi: mung), ·~' (no: p~n). - ~ · ( tu: suy nghi) mm co the dLYQ'C bo
? A • A A? A?

m<)t vi~c xay ra, hay m<)t tr<;tng thai cua nguai hay Sl! V~t. nghla b5.ng nhfrng tLr chi trinh dQ. con hftu h~t nhfrng d('>ng tlr khac
Thi d1,1: thi kh6ng, nhu kh6ng th~ vi~t "Chitfiu" (rdt ch~J'?), "Th~m ki~n"
"~-!' ..±. (rdt tlw)i?) ...
- WJ\ I£

Thu tau. b) Moi c!('>ng tt! d~u c6 th~ k~t hqp v&i m('>t tt! chi s6 xac dinh
Mu6ngch~y(hanh d<)ng). d~t & tm&c n6 d~ chi s6 lftn di~n ra cua d('>ng tic, hinh vi, bi~n hoi.

- -§-It: '1'00 ~ Thi d1,1:


Ng6 th~m min yen. • - -:Z§::
--:r- X..
--:r .:7_
-T -
= Efl rtn j .<t. :(
IIIJ I~ I
•l.:,•
=-J
Ta rit dau long (Dpi Vift Stf k.f toim thif; (cam xuc). Qui Van tu tam tu nhi h~u hanh.
~ ±±f-r
- ;t§ 1'3)(.
Qui Vin llr suy di nghi Jpi ha J.in r6i m6i himh d(5ng (Lu~n
Suong tiin.
ngtf) .
132 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THlf Tl,l HQC CHU HAN 133

c) Hfru h~t d<)ng tt1 c6 the' trt!C ti~p lam vj ngfr trong cftu (xem b) D<)ng tt1 n<)i d<)ng khong hoan to~m.
Ngil phdp bai X9)
Thi df!:
Thf df!: - }'jf - I§ :13 {!
- 121~ ' fj [IT}( Phffn nhfrt cai giii vang.
Hoa tim. nguy~t khuyit. Gi3 Jilm m9t ngt.r&i iin xin mil J:;Ji (Ngl;ly Tufrn: Bien thimh).
Hoa tim. uiing khuyit. (2) D9ng tir ngo:;Ji d¢ng: dung dien til m<)t d<)ng tac rna th~ lt,rc
3. C6 thlchia c!9ng tir ra lam 41o{li: CO thi d<;lt d~n cac Sl! V~t khac, ngh!a la CO thi ho~c cfrn phai CO mQt
(I J D9ng tir m;5i d¢ng: de' chi nhfrng hoc;1t d<)ng khong tac d<)ng tan ngfr.
d~n m<)t st,r v~t khac. nghla la khong dn phiii c6 tan ngfr. Thi df!:
Thf df!: -~~7t~~~
-fltfj Huy~n An tien sinh thjthu.
Nguy~t xufft. HuyJn An tien sinh thich (d9C) sach (B{lch Or DJ).
Trfing m9c. C6 thi chia lam 3 loc;1i nho:
Tuy nhien. n6 c6 the' c6 b6 ngfr chi trc;1ng thai, dja diim. thOi a) D<)ng tt1 ngoc;1i d<)ng ph6 thong:
gwn: - ~IX ~IH.f +~ £ ·
- fl & n~ *wz _c
Nguy~t xufrt u Dong 5071 chi thur;mg.
T~c lifttr~n tMp duly.
Giifc dim qufm dai ra tren mt.r&i difm ( VU071g Nguyen).
Trling 1119c tren nui Dong 5071( To Thtir:: Tiin Xfch Bfch b) D<)ng tt1 ngoc;1i d<)ng khong hoan toan: ~(vi), .1-.:J, (dT),
Phu) . 1~ (su), '% (ljnh) ...
C6 2 loc;1i nho: - ~s fit t.:J, ?tc ~ ~ A :r~ ?
a) D<)ng tt1 n<)i d<)ng ph6 thong. Thuy nga dinhfr vi thanh nhan da !
Thf df!: Ban c!du ta cho nguui JiJ b[lc thanh nhan ! (Trang Tif>) .

- @lf:ffi.~i~ c) D<)ng tu ngoc;1i d<)ng c6 hai tan ngfr: G6m nhfrng d<)ng tt1
Phong vu s~u chi. bii u thi Sl! ban t~ng nhu ~ (tfr), -T (du), W(dfr). ~ (thl;J), 1=-f (bai) ...
- -T~~"9:~~~z~
Mw gi6 Vf!t din (Au DU071g Tu: Thu thanh phu).
Du tunhfr Mc;1nh Chu chi mi .
roAN THV Tlj HQC CHU HAN 135
134 TRAN VAN CHANH

Ta cho ngurri con nai ciJa M.anh Chli( Ti truyfn). d) Bi~u thi bj d(lng: ~(ki~n). fJY(bj). ~(vi) .. .

(3) D6ng d9ng tLr: GQi la "d6ng dong ttY' vi n6 khong bi~u thi e) Bi~u thi Sl! thong thi BFl (h<;l). j! (hoang) .. .
mot dong tac Ct1 th~, nhung trong cftu, no CO vi tri va vai tro ngfr
phap nhu m<?t d<)ng tu. D6ng dong tu thucmg dung trong cac tm&ng
hqp kh~ng dinh. phu dinh, so sanh.
Nhilng d6ng dong tu thu&ng dung la: ~ (thi), ~(v i) ,
t!DCtCrc). ~lj(tiic). ]J(nai), ff(hilu), ~f:(phi), !iE(phi), ~(v6).
-f#Cvo), f~(vi). j~(do). ~(lo;;1i), ~(d~ng).

(4) Trq· dr)ng tir: dung kem v&i dong tlr chinh.
- Trq d(lng tu khong th~ dung doc l~p, n6 lu6n lu6n dUng 31
tm&c hay sau d(lng tlr chinh; tg tfOJ ~ f.*
- Trq dong tt! kh6ng th~ c6 ttin ngil; NGO DONG LUONG CHU

- Trong nhi~u tm&ng hqp, chCrc nang ngil phap cua trq dong
tt! tuong tl! nhu ph6 tt1, nhung khac v&i ph6 tu &cho n6 khong dung
tg tfOJ ~ f.* ' tt ~ ;ffi
j€ *
~~ 1& ' j€
0

Ngo d6ng luong cl1U, chi cao di~p d(li. Suong giang h~u, di~p
bcS nghia cho hinh dung tu. Ta c6 th~ vi~t "tuc uu" (dang Ia), ''nang
hanh" (co the' Jilm). nhung kh6ng th~ vi~t "tuc my: (dting d(::p? ),"
i~Jf 0
w j!!j 1£ P7c *'
~ j€ i~ W§ 0
tiem hoang. Tay phong xuy lai, 19-c di~p man giai.
nang thanh ( c6 the'xanh ?).
TU Mdl
Cin cCr vao y nghia, ta c6 th~ chia trq dong tu ra lam 6 nh6m Ngo d6ng tg f["Q] (II net, I 0 net): cav ngo dbng, cay vong-Chu
chinh sau day: f.* (1 0 net): cay ( htr;ng tli, dung so' cay )-Chi t5z (8 net):
cti de'm
a) Bi~u thi nang nguy~n: PJ (kha), .L.f:: (
fk -
nang,) cimh cay-D i~p j€ (13 net): Ia cay-Stidng ;ffi (17 net): hgt suang-
)E. (tuc ) ... , f!!! (ung). :§: (nghi), ~J:[ (tu) ... Giang ~~ (9 net): sa, rrJi xuo'ng-Ti~m ~jf (14 net): ddn ddn-Tay
].7_§ (6 net): hudng tG_v-Phong [£ (9 net): gic5-Xuy PJ\ (7 net): thbi-
b) Bi~u thi kha nang xay ra (SL! vi~c sip xay ra): N:ft (tuang).
L~c ~ (13 net): rai r~:Jng-Man 1~ (14 net): ddy-Giai ~~ (12 net):
fJ (h(li). &' (duang) ...
bf!c th~m.
c) Bi~u thj y chi: $)\ (dt1c: mu6n), ,~ (nhftn: nO), ~ (ninh:
th'a) ... DfCH NGHiA Hai ciiy ngo d6ng
136
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THLI n,l HQC CHU HAN 137

(C6) hai cay ngo d6ng, cimh cao ld to. Sau mua suong xuo'ng, D!CH NGHlA
ld d{m ddn wing. Gi6 tay th6'i de'n, ld Tf!-ng ddy th~m. Xuan, h(l, thu, dl5ng, d6 Ia bt/n mua. Xuan di, h<I de'n, h<I di thu
din, thu di dong de'n, tilt trifi nuJi miia mbi khdc.
NCO PHA.P

8QNG TlJ DUNG NHU HINH DUNG TU NCO PHAP

D<)ng tt! dung nhu hinh dung tt!, khi d~t tm&c danh tt!, n6
o ~ (thD Ia d~i tu chi thi dung dti thay the va chi l~i nhung
ngu'oi ho~C Sl,J' V~t da neu ra d tru'dc, CO thti djch "day, d6, cai
thtremg cung danh tlr do
t~O th~mh mQt tlr da am :
nay, nguoi nay ... ";~~ (thi vi) djch "d6la". Thi dl;l:
- ~~P~:¥:
Than ngl! giang du(mg.
_ ~~ f:k~ ' ~~ ~ *(
Xuan h~ thu dong, thi vi tu
quy) Xuan, h(l, thu, dong, d6 La bon mua.
(Vua) dich than din ngv 6 nhil giang (Han tht.l}. - ~mfl:i.J B rmff ' ~~*:IJ (Kim nhT huang nh~t nhi hanh,
-~~'*'~m~ thi vi dong phu'ong) Nay chdu huang v~ phia m(it trai ma di d6 Ia
L~ Sinh thu(mg vi thuyit khach. phuong dong (Bai 79).
L~ Sinh tht.rOng liJm thuyit khtich (Sti kj) .
6 ~ (cac) cGng la dai tu chi thi bitiu thi sl,l' trl;Jc chi (chi
m tung cai), c6 nghia "moi thu, moi cai, moi ngu'oi ... ":
_ 7(~~~ (Thien khf cdc dj ) Tie't trai mbi mua mbi khdc.
32
~
TUQUY
* _ ~ :f:f~c~Z{,' ( Cdc huu an l~c chi tam) Mbi nguifi d~u
c6 long an vui ( Bili 106).
_~~A 51' ( Cdc an ky ph?n ) Mbi nguai d~u yen v6i ph(tn

~ ~ f:k ~· ~~~* 0 ~ 7i ~*· ~ ::Jif:k*• min h.


Xu an h~ thu dong, th~ vi tu quy. Xuan khu ha lai, h~ khu thu lai, m
f;k::Ji~ *'* ~19-~ o
thu khu dong lai, thien khi cac d~. 33
If! ~
NONG PHU
TU MOl
Xuan ~ (9net): mua xuan -H::) ~ (10 net): mua h<I-Dong ~
(5 net): mua dong- Thj ~ (9 net): nay, cdi nay, d6 (d<Ii tit')-Quy
1=f If! ~ ' f:E Ll.J T o ~ "* ~~ ,~ tt ~ ~~
Huu nong phu, tru son h~. Bien mao vi oc, bien true vi ly. Nh?t
o B tJJ
* (8 net): mua-Khf ~ (10 net): khi trai-Cac
Dj ~ (12 net): .k hdc, khdc nhau.
19- (6 net): mbi cdi- 7t ' w
jjj te
o B ~~ Yi- ' Wfj}j o
thang, h~ su xuat. Nh?t tu'ong l~c, h~ su quy.
&*
S(1
138 139
TRAN vAN CHANH roAN THV TlJ HQC CHO' HAN

TU MOl
NGU PHAP
Nong #! ( 13 net): ll[?Uifi lam ruqng-Phu X (4 net): n[?U(fi dim
6ng- Tru {1 (7 net): d-So'n L1J (3 net l: m.ii-Bien ~ ( 15 net): b~n. PHOTLJ~U~
dan-Mao ~ (9 net): cd tranh- Vi m(
12 net): !am-Oc ~ (9 net): !. Ph6 tir:
nha- Ly ~i (25 net): hang rao. bu gi(lu-Thang ft- (4 net): len, len
Pho tu la tu dung di b6 sung y nghia cho d<)ng tu va hlnh
cao- H:;t f#iJ ( 11 net): vdc (tren mi}-Su i}J ( 15 net): ccii bua-Quy
~~ ( 18 net): tuJ ,.2_ dung tu.
- 7j( ~j(~ *z :rr ' OJ ~ 13 :@ ~
Thuy ll;IC thao ll1QC chi hoa, kha ai gia th~m ph6n.
Hoa cua de Joai ciiy co scfng tren c:;m va durii mr6c. nlulng
thifdfmg yeu c6 rit nhi~u (Chu Don Di: Ai lien thuyit ).
- fJfi'i§ -!-- I
J:_. , /\..I..
¥J\.
I
~t rC_
I'' p
-7 J.h
-~

Nguy~n d;;ti vl.l'O'ng thl!c k~ chi da .


Xin d{li vuung tinh kj VifC d6 ( Chiin qucfc sach).

2. Cac lo<Ji ph6 tir:


(l) Biiu th! trlnh dQ, s6 llrQ'ng: 'l'f:E (duy) , X (hl!U) . -'§f (giai).
Zl: (du). -A (thai).~ (ct,rc) ...
(2} Biiu th! tlnh thai: ~(chan) . ~ (thanh), U!!] (c6 )...
(3) Biiu tht thai gian: 8 (dl), 1J (phucrng). __§_ (tha).
---- =-~~~~--c-:-~-=::._~
o/J '
·t> (hot) ...
-- -::-=----:,.-~~:-:~
~"}- .c::::::--~-. ., -...._~---L""-~ ...__....._~

- ·- - ___, · ~ ..r;~ ~Q__,c_::._,..,~~~~~ (4} Biiu tht phu dtnh: /f (btlt), m(v~t) ...
D[CH NGHlA Nang phu
(5) Biiu thj khuyb Jinh: :1't (ky). Dl (duy), r6J (thUQ'ng) .. .
C6 bdc nang phu, o duai nrAi. B~n co tranh lam nha, dan tre
lam giqu. M(it trui mai 1119C. \'clC buo di ra. Mijt trui sdp !(in. vdc
(6) Biiu th! klnh nhUQ'llg: ~ (hu~). ¥ (h;;tnh). ~ (thi~t) .. .
bua fro vl
m
140
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU n,f HQC CHV HAN 141

34 TU M(JJ
A liV
~
Vii ffi (8 net): mua-Ha iPJ (8 net): song- Thuy 1j<. (4 net):
NHAN ANH
nuJc-Thanh 1~ (II net): trong treo-Ngti ~, (14 net): ddnh cd-
Ong ~ (10 net): ong (tie'ng ton xung nguifi gia)-Tu ~ (22 net):
~ *- t~ :t~· Yt W~ 1ZY 'Nf. oA 1£ :t~ )§<·
rau-Mi !§ (9 net): may-Phi :j:,&: (8 net): khodc do- Thoa it (14
Thu hoa nhien chile, quang chieu til' bfch. Nhan t<:ti chile bang,
'M_ _t 1lf ~ o A ~·~ # ~oA fr·~ net): do wi- Y t( (6 net): cdi do-Dai ~ (16 net): d(Ji-Nhti(jc ~
bfch thuc;5ng hii'u anh. Nhan tqa, anh di~c tQa. Nhan hanh, anh (15 net): tre-M~o rJf@ (12 net): cdi n6n-Trtidng ~R (11 net): giang
# fj 0 ra- Vong *~ (14 net): ta'm fuJi.
di~c hanh.

D!CH NGHlA Hai ong chai


TU M(JJ Mua sdp t(Jnh, nuJc song trong. Hai ong chai, rau may d~u
Thu Jf)( (8 net): la~v-Hoa )< (4 net): /U'a-Nhien t~ (16 net): b{lc. khodc do Wi, d(Ji n6n tre. Cung ng6i tren bif song, giiing fuJi
do't-Chuc ;!:~ ( 17 net): duo'c·-Quang Jt (6 net): dnh sdng-Chie'u bdt cd.
~~
?
(13 net): chie'u n;i, soi sdng-Bich 'Nf_ (15 net): tUiJng, vdch-
Anh ~ (15 net): bong, hlnh bong. NCO PHAP
+ Cach diing chiliP] ( d6ng)
D!CH NGHlA Bong ngliiJi IP.] ( d6ng) la ph6 tu thuong lam tr<:J.ng ngii', d?t truck d<)ng
La~v lila do't duo'c, dnh sang chie'u len bon vdch. Nguoi ben a tu, c6 nghla "cung, cung nhau":
duo'c, tren vdch c6 b6ng. Nguifi ng6i, b6ng cung ng6i. Nguifi di, _ 111] ~/¥_t ( D6ng tQa ng<;1n thuc;5ng) Cung ng6i tren biJ
b6ng cung di.
song.
m _111J1i:t*~ (D6ng vang thai lang) Cung di hdi a'u (Bai 56).

35 _ 5(J?5$ ' 111]~¥£ ~*(Huynh chieu d~. d6ng tQa 6n kh6a)


~ ~
/..a.. Anh vdy em l{li. cung ng6i on bai (Bai 68).
3.3'8
m
LVONG NGV ONG
36
ffi M~ ~ , iPJ *: 1~ o ~ ~ ~ , ~ !§ W 8 , :t.&: 4-
NGVU
VG tuong tlnh, ha thuy thanh. Luong ngt1 6ng, tu mi giai b<;1ch, phi
~ t<. ·~ ~ rJf@ , l1lJ ~ J¥ _c , ~R *~ :tm ~, o
thoa y, dai nhucJc m<:J.o, d6ng tQa ng<;1n thucJng, truong vong b<) ngu.
4- tJ *- , §g *# EE ' §g ~ .1¥ o;tt ~ OJ it '=!t
Nguu ltfc dai, nang canh di€n, nang van xa. Ky nhl,lc kha thtfc, ky
142 TRAN VAN CHANH 143
roAN THU TV HOC C HG HAN

:JL OJ ~ 'A fiE! W Bz , ~ OJ ~ ~ o


nhU kha <fm, ky giac du bl, giai kha che khf.

TU Md!
Ngu'u 4- (4 net): con b()-Lljc 1J (2 net): sue m~nh-Canh #j:
(10 net): cay-Di~n EE (5 net): ru9nJ?-Van ~ (10 net): keo-Nht;IC
~ (6 net): thit-Kha OJ (5 net): co thi (trr; d()ng tU')-Nhii :JL (8
net): sii'a-Giac fo=:! (7 net): sU'ng-Dii' W04 net): va, cung (lien
tU')-Bi Bz (5 net): da-Che' ~ (14 net): chi tc;Io, lam ra-Khi ~ (16
net): db dung. .
w
D!CH NGH[A
37
Bo ( c6) sue m[,mh, c6 thi cay ru()ng, c6 thi keo xe. Thjt ho an ~
dur;c, sfla n6 uo'ng dur;c. SU'nJ? va da n6 ddu c6 thi chi tqiO db 6c
dung.
i! $ ~ ~ ,[9 oo ~If Mt , ~ r¥J I*J r~ o
H<;1 ng trung huu oc, tu di~n doan tuong, huang nam khai m6n.
NCO PHAP ~ ¥ 1£ §I] ' ~ ~ 1£ )§' ' ~ :¥: 1£ 1& 0
+ Cac tr(l dqng tic§~ (nang), DJ (kha) Kh ach auong t<;1i ti€n, thu trai t~i bang, ngQa that t<;1i h~u.
§~ (nang) va DJ (kha) a€u Ia nhung tr<;J d<)ng tu rat thong dt,mg,
oat tntoc d<)ng tu khac, va a€u c6 nghia Ia "co th€, dt1<;1c": TU Md!
H~n g i! (8 net): ngi5, hem- T u'ong Ml (17 net): bU'c vdch-
_ 4-tJ* ' §~#tEE ' §~ ~ ]j[ (Nguu llfc d<;1i, niing canh
Hu6'ng ~ (6 net): quay vd, huang vd, vd phia-Mon F~ (8 net):
ai€n, niing van xa) Bo c6 sllc m~nh, c6 thi (bie't) cay ru()ng, c6 thl cii'a-Dtio ng ¥ (11 net): nha chinh- Trai ~ (17 net): phong dQC
(bitt) keo xe.
sd ch, nha hQc.
- Jt~DJ~ 'A :JLOJ~ •JtfiEJW Bz '~OJ~~ (Ky nhl;lc kha
D!CH NGH[A Nha 11
thlfc, ky nhG kha ftm, ky giac du bl, giai kha che khi ) Thjt n6 Trang hem c6 nha, bo'n mtjt c6 tuong ngdn, mJ cU'a ,.d huang
an dU(Jc, sfla n6 u6ng dur;c. Sung va da n6 ddu c6 thi chi tc;Io db a
nam. Nha khdch phia truoc, phong h9c J ben c~nh, nha ngu J
diuw phia sau.
145
TI~AN VAN CHANH roAN THLI TV HQC CHU HAN
144

NGU PHAP
NGU PHAP
GIOI TVfr~
+ Ctich dz'tng chil rtJ (htfong)
rtJ (htfong) la gidi tu dung d€ neu hu'dng nham tdi cua 1. Gi&i tl.r dung d<f neu Sl! lien h~ y nghia gifra cac tl.r hay die
d<)ng tac, hanh vi, c6 th€ d!ch la "quay v~, hudng v~, v~ phia": th~mh phfrn c6 nhi~m VIJ b6 tuc cho nhau.
_ (.:Df¥ilmF~ (Hztdng nam khai m6n) Ma ella vi huc!ng nam. Gi&i tl.r c6 th~ n6i thanh phfrn ph1,1 v&i d(lng tl.r, hinh dung tl.r
_ 4-fi'(.:D 8 Yffiff ' ~.f.%*)] (Kim nhT hztdng nh~t nhi hfmh, d~ b6 nghia cho d(lng ttr. hinh dung v~ m~t thai gian, nai ch6n,
th! vi dong phu'ong) Nay chau huc!ng vi phia mijt trai ma di, d6 La
nguyen nhfm, phll'ang ph:ip v.v.
phuO'ng dong (Bai 79 ).
Thi dl}:
m -+AB·~n~.f.%~M~·~~~~~
38 zn
)( ~:g: ~ Th~p bat nh~t. Li~u Thang ky vi nga s& c6ng. k~ trl.)y u Chi
PHl) BCH KHACH
Lang chi dii.
Ngay muVi tam. Lieu Thang bi quan tn t[{n cong, ke' tha't bt;Ii
gg _t ~' ~ JJ *o)( ~.g ~' ~ q:.
Toa thu<Jng khach, vien phuong lai. Ph1,1 b6i khach, thlfc ngQ
a di Chi Uing (Binh ng6 d;;i cao) ("ll" n6i thanh ph~J ''Chi Lang chi
~ o ~ 1& ili F~ , W ~ ~~ ~Jt o iW ff 1f da" v&i d(lng ttr ''tr1,1y" di cho bi~t v~ nai ch6n) .
ph?n. Ph?n h~u xuat m6n, du khach nhan thie'u. Ti~n huu thanh 3. Nhi~u ttr kh6ng c6 ranh gi&i r6 r~t gili'a d(lng tu v&i gi&i ttr.
LIJ ' ~ ff ?JTE 1J' o N6i each kh:ic, nhli'ng ttr thu(lc lo<;~.i nay tr6ng gi6ng nhll d(lng ttr,
son, bang huu luu thu y.
nhll'l1g l<;~.i gili' vai tro ngli' ph:ip nhll' gi&i ttr.
TU MOl Thi du:
. ' l
TQa gg (10 net): cho ng6i-B6i ~%(11 net): thea ben, ng6i thie'p
- ~~*·~~_tf5t~£
khach-NgQ q:. (4 net): giila trua- Ph~n ~ (13 net): CC!m, bila iin-
Thi~p dan xa khu thUQ71g M~u Lang.
Nhan ~~ (12 net): thong thd-Thie'u ~Jt (11 net): trong ngdm-Ltfu
Thifp m9t minh len xe ruoi t6i M{w Lang (Han tlul).
iffL ( 10 net): troi, chdy.
D!CH NGH!A Cha tiip khtich
-t~~'* , !l!~n
Phu chi sang. dam li~t ttr.
Khach tren cho ng6i, dln til phuong xa. Cha ng6i ben khach,
D6ain giu&ng thi m4t v6 rn chit(Phllang Hi~u Nh1,1).
iin cC!m trua. Sau bila cC!m ra ella, cr:.tng khdch thong thd ngdm
Trong 2 thi d1,1 tren. "thllqng", "chi" dong vai tro cua gi&i ttr.
trong. Phia truc!c c6 nui xanh, ben qznh c6 nuc!c chdy.
146 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU nJ HQC CHU HAN 147

vi .. thuqng" dung lien h~ "khu" v&i "M~u Liing", "chi" c6 nghla Ia Gi6 hdc (bile) n6'i len, tuye't bay r({t nhi2u. Len ldu tr6ng ra. xa,
"d~n", d~u chi hanh d(lng, nen cling c6 thi coi Ia d(lng tt!. Vi v~y c6 (thl(v) m9t deli mau trdng. Tuye't ng~(ng. m(it tn!i mQc, nuoc tren
y ki~n cho nhfrng tt! nhu tren Ia m(lt tiiu lo:;ti cua d(lng tt!, va gQi Ia mdi hien chdy xuo'ng thanh biinJ?. hinh gi/JnR chie'c diia.
"ph6 d(lng tt!'' hay 'tht! d(lng tt!" .
D~c diim ca ban giup ta phan bi~t gi&i tt! thuftn tuy v&i d(lng NCO PHAP
tt! b: D(lng tt! c6 the' dung d(lc l~p, gi&i tt! thuftn tuy kh6ng thi LIEN TV :1J!! ~
dung d(lc l~p.
1. Lien ttr dung di n6i k~t c:ic tlr. ngCr, thanh phftn cua cau
m ho~c do:;tn cau, do:;tn van v&i nhau.
39 Thf dl):
§ m - N6i kit tir v6i tir:
TUYET PHI
- it!L t!Lz 1§- ?~ t) ~J
~t oo. ~ , * § m o ~ tt ~ ~ , -
B~c phong khdi, cl<:1i tuyet phi. Bang !au vien vqng, nhat phien
Jt Lo:;tn th~ chi am o£m d1 n(l.
.Am tlwnh doi !o~?n thi nghe nlur ai oin va han gi~n
a @o § Jl a
te , ~ rrg JJX: <1.k o ~ 7f; ~o (Li kj) .
b~ch s~c. Tuyet chi nh~t xuat, thi~m llfu th~mh bang. Ky hlnh nhu'
~0 - N6i kit ngtJ v6i ngtJ:
tr<;:i. - 'I~ ?I _t Z
¥~ 00. ' W LlJ Fs9 Z Bfl f-3
Duy giang thuqng chi thanh phong. dii san gian chi minh
TU MCJI nguy~t.
B~c ~t (5 net): phu'(fng bdc, phfa bdc-Tuyet § (11 net): tuye't Ch/ c6 gi6 mit tJtn song va trfing sing gitJa kho!mg m)i (To
(do hoi nuoc d9ng l(ti)-Dang ~ (12 net): len-Lau ft (16 net): Thuc: Xich Bich phu ).
/6u-Phien Jt (4 net): mdnh, ddi-Chi lt (4 net): thai, ngung-
- N6i kit de thanh ph!m cua cfw:
Thi~m ~ ( 17 net): mdi nha gie ra tren th~m nha, mdi hien-Ltfu
~ (13 net): nude nura t~r tren nu.ii hien chdy xuo'ng-Thanh FJ)t (6 - 1& ~IJ A A rJT ftiJ •
net): triJ thanh. trif nen-Bang <*
(6 net): bang, giLi-ffi nh lf~ (7 Hau rife vi nhan s& ch~.
net): hinh dang- TrQ' ~ ( 1S net): chie'c dua. Sau ift bj nguvi tic chi (SJ kj).
- Ncfi kit hai do{ln c5u:
D!CH NGHiA Tuyit bay
- u ,_f~, ~ w ' t51: * .L-). Ilt hl: u ill
148 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THlf Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 149

Nga tAt hliu tQi, c6thien dl thtr bai nga da. a) Biiu thi st,r chuyin y: ~ (nhien), ¥: ~0 (chi nhtr),
Ta fr c6 r(Ji nen rnJi vi d6mil bora (L5 rhj Xudn rhu). ¥)t, (hu6ng) ...
- Ncfi k!r hai do{ln van: b) Biiu thi thm gian: WI (hC)i), 1lt (dll'O'Og) ...
c) Biiu thi nguyen nhfm va k~t qua: 1-:1. (dl), (i)c (c6) ...
-*~~~·~E~~~rn•·~=~·~~~·•
€~~·~-~~Mz·~~-E~~~·~~~·- d) Biiu thi gia thi~t: 1Sj (diu), ~9: (thi~t) ...
~ /. B ---'? 1+1 flil h.. f'E L- ;;A. m _fr T1. -f--A d7 81-r
5'..>[ l'D' ;<___ • ~ ; , 7F .~ _L.. ollll m" , ' ;x. r::l ,
~ =:m
JJ.X.. Yv'<. ' 1::::1 of3- 1-J'f *
Q.:f;: -.s-
e) Biiu thi di~u ki~n: % (linh), fB ~ (dan su) ...
±
Dtr ·t<:J.i Ky Son, ki~n Phuung Son tt! tong luang ky, hi~p nhi f) Biiu thi nhliQ'Og b<): §ll (tuy), *iif (tung) ...

thL du Tay Scm. Thtr&c kh&i tr ti~n, st! ky tn:~c nhi X<:J. chi. BAt g) Biiu thi so sanh: ~0 (nhtr), ::5 (nhtrQ'C ), w... /f ~0 (dfr... b~t
ho<:J.ch. Phtrang San tt! n<), ma d<)c xufrt, nhAt phat d:ic chi. Nhdn dfr nhtr... )...
dtr ma thtrQTig lu~n dt,mg binh, c~p c6 kim th~mh b<:J.i. tt,r vi nhfrt thai (3) Bilu thi svdE tiip:
hao si Lo;;1i lien tl.r nay con gQi la phat ngii tir, thtr&ng dung & dftu
H6i ra Cf mJi Ky. c6 g{fp PhLr071g S011 rucung lwi nguiri ky m5, diu hay dftu do(,ln van nghi lu~n. Thtr&ng dung: ::K
(phu), __§_ (tha),
deo hai mtii ren, rang cho'i vung Tay S011. Chr;rr c6 nu)r con chim i! (cai), 13_ :;K (tha phu), :i! :;K (cai phu):
kh5ch bay qua phia rrur5c, Phlf071g S011 tti sai hai nguiri ky m5 duo} - ::K '[Ii] f.l fffi /f ~ [Ii] f.l ' ?Jj\ 1-:1. 2 ~ !
bin. Khong trung. Phlf071g S011 rti gi[in. tv minh duo) ngva rhea . Phu, d6ng chung nhi bfrt ai d6ng chung, di~c di nh~n hi!
bin nu)r ph5r rhi rrung ngay. Nhan d6 cung t,? ng6i t1-en ngva bim NgLJt]i cung m(Jt gicfng mil khong biit thlf071g nhau, cling qua Jifm
vi~c dijng bin/7. ctJng nhtJng c/wy~n thilnh b{li XUil nay. fa tv cho
thay! (Phan B<)i Chau: Vi~t Nam vong qucfc su).
ong Jil hila si m(Jr rhcfi (f6 Thfrc: Phuong Son ttl truyfn).
2. Cin Clr vao y nghla va nhi~m Vl,l, ta c6 thi chia lien tl.r lam
- __§_ ::K ' l.k z fl f3 ~ ~ ' ~ lJ ~ * f;t 111 M-:tJ
Tha phU, thuy chi tich gia bfrt h?u, t~c ph1,1 d<,1i chau da v6 lt,rc.
mfry lo<:J.i sau day: Nur5c chiia khong sau thi mang thuyEn J6n khong du stir:
Biiu thj m& quan h~ lien hqp: Dung n6i hai hay nhi~u be)
( 1) (Trang Til) .
ph~n cung li~t chung ra trong mC)t cau.
-i!::K·~zm~-t11·~@~~·~m~~
a) Biiu thi st,r cC)ng gop: W (dfr). & (c~p), ffij (nhi), __§_ (tha). Cii phil, thu chi vi tr<:J.ng da, ky s~c tham d;;1m, yen phi van
Y... (ht,rU) ... li~m.
b) Biiu thi st,r !t,ra chon: ~ (ho~c ), ;g: (nhtrQ'C ). ~0 (nhtr), Kia, mua thu ph6 bily hinh trf}ng, sic th~ thiim d{l117, kh6i toa
A ... ;!t (ky ... ky ). :j:!p (frc), M~ (ttrang) ... may thau (Au DU'O'Og Tu: Thu thanh phu ).
{2) Biiu rhj m6i quan h~ qua i[li:
151
150 roAN THli TLj HQC CHU HAN
TRAN VAN CHANH

m 41
i'J ~'
40 DIEU NGU
D
KHAU
~ -r~ iOJ 7§' 0 =t t~ ;j\ ~ ' ~ ~E} i'J ~' 0
Jj(
Nhat dong nJ' tQa ha bang. Thu tr! ti€;u can, h~ nhl dieu ngu'. Thuy
D ff Iff ff ~ o " ?± )'} ' Jt '@ $ o ~ {Er*.) , Jt
Khffu huu th§n hfi'u xi. Th§n t<;ti ngo<;ti, ky sac xich. Xi t<;ti n<)i, ky
'@ 8o~ it ftf D A'§ §Pi ftf D tf1o
~ ~, ,* B: ~f} o w'J *ff - tb , $: ~ 1~ ~,
trung ngLi, lai thon nhl. Dieu ti nhat d<)ng, cu can dac ngu.
o

sac b<;tch. Am thtfc tong kh£u nh?p, ngon ngu tong kh£u xuat. Tl) M(JJ
TU M(JJ D6ng til'~ r ( 12 net, 3 net): du·a tre- Trl t~ (9 net): C(im-Can
Thfin ~ (11 net): moi (ciing viit la !§., h()D )-XI~ (15 net): ~ (9 net): sdo, cdn tre, cdn cau-H~ ~ (19 net): hu()c, c()t-Nm ~E}
rang-Xich $ (7 net): mau do- Tong (tung) ftf (11 net): do, til- (15 net): m6i (c1i cau)-Dieu i'J (11 net): cau ca-Thon i§: (7 net):
Ngon § (7 net): n6i, loi n6i-Ngii' §Pi (14 net): n6i, loi n6i. nu/ft- Ti *ff ( 13 net): .w;i nho, w-D<)ng ib (11 net): cl()ng, chuyln
d()ng-Cif $: ( 17 net): cf/t, nhdc len-Diic 1~ ( 11 net): du(jc.
D!CH NGH[A Mifng
o
Mi?ng (m6m) c6 moi, c6 rang. Moi ngoai, mau do. Rang o D!CH NGHlA Ciiu ca
l!lll
trong, mau trcing. D6 an uong til (do) mi?ng vao, loi n6i nang til M()t dua tre ng6i hen song. TaY cdm cdn tre nh(), hu()c m6i cau
(do) mi?ng ra. eel. Con ca trong nu:ac cMp m6i. Day cau m6i !drz lay d()ng, nhdc
cdn tre len dU:(/C CQ.
NGUPHA.P
NGO PHAP
+ Cach dung chz1 1:£ (tong) + Cach di'tng chz1 - (nha't)
1:£(tong) la gioi til dung d€ chi dia di<im, thC1i gian, noi - (nha't) trong bai hQc tren Ia m<)t s6 tu dung nhu ph6 tu,
xuat phat cua d<)ng tac ho?c hanh vi, c6 th€ dich "do, til": thu'ong c6 nghla la "m<)t cai, m<)t lfrn, moi ]§n, lfrn thu nhat":
_ ~itftfDA. ' l=l §gftfD tB (Am thtfc tong khffu nh?p, _ i'J*ff -Jb ' $:~1~~, (Dieu ty nhiit d<)ng, cu can dac
ngon ngu tong khffu xuat) D6 Zm uong til mi?ng vao, loi n6i nang ngu') M6i !dn day cau lay d()ng, nhdc cdn tre len c1U:(/C ca.
til mi?ng ra. _ 1i 8 -IE. ' +
8 -ffi (Ngu nh?t nhiit phong, th?p nh?t
_ fjtff£~4-~¥** (Nga tong khu nien til de kinh) Ta til nhiit vu) Nam ngay m()t ldn gi6, mu:C!i ngay m()t ldn mu:a ( Lu(in
nam ngocii gia hi?t kinh do (B<;tch Cu Di: Ti ha himh). hoanh: Thj ung).
m m
152 TI~AN VAN CHANH TOAN THV Tl,l HQC CHV HAN 153

42 _~~fj(~tt.A~ (Ti~u khan thu gia tl nhan tru&ng) Ct.rOi


fa!j w1IDt tr6ng cay Jua mua thu con dai h011 than ngu&i (Luu Luan: Tay giao
MIEU D0THU van tinh thi ).

FEt tt fa!j I J\ , fa3 tt * I J\ 0 1IDt ~ fa3 , ~ A


Thti ti mieu ti~u, mieu ti khuytin titiu. Thif kien mieu, n~c huy~t
b~o.
- .&tt.~~~ (Luong tl dung my hi) Sv hitn dju t6t h011 tho
_ 11A~ ftt'Jtt!=f::l~~n!!l (Phi en nhan t(;lo thuy€n tl Trung
!=f::1 , fa3 /f §E A o fa3 ~ 7:. , ~ @. JJJ , Quoc canh co) Nguoi nuoc ngoai dong tau chile hrtn nguoi Trung
trung, mieu bat nang nh~p. Mieu kien khuytin, dang 6c dfnh, Qu{/c.
7\. /f §E J:. 0

khuytin bat nang thu'ong. - m


43
Tf) Mdl ~\ ~& ~
Thll' .@t (13 net): con chu(Jt- Tl tt (5 net): so sdnh, so voi-Mieu ~U~D~~
fa3 (16 net): con meo-Khuyin *(4 net): con Ch(5-Kien ~ (7
net): trong th(iv-N~c ~ ( 11 net): gi[{u kin-Huy~t A (5 net): 16, lj\ ~& ~ ' ~ ~ J.k 7~ , ~ ~ JJ' 1~ 0 ~
Titiu trl dttong, xuan thoi thuy tham, dong thoi thuy thitin. Luong
hang-I>inh dlnh JJJ (1 1 net): ch6 · cao nh([t, dlnh- ThtiO'ng
(thtiQ'ng) J:. (3 net): len (dung nhu d(}ng tit, dr;c Ia thuong).
fr: :r , *t ta
1± ~& !IF¥ , L-:,J. fffi ?& 1J' , L-:,J. 1X o
nuttl', t(;li trlb(;ln, didung capthuy,dichtl' daoy.

D[CH NGHlA Meo va c/u) Tl) Mdl


Chu(Jt so voi mea thi nho, mea so voi ch6 thi nh6. Chu9t trong Trl ~& (6 net): ao-Dtiong ~ (13 net): ao hinh vuong-Tham 7~
tha:\' meo, na/J vao trong hang, mea khong vao dU'(Jc. Mea trong (11 net): sau- Thiin 1~ (11 net): nang, qzn-Nii' !;J:: (3 net): nguoi
tha:,. cho. treo len n6c nha, ch6 kh6ng len dur;c. con gai-B~n !IF¥ (10 net): bo-Di J,) (5 net): dung (gioi tu)-Diing
fffi (11 net): thung gb tron-Cap ?l!J. (7 net): muc len-Chil' ff (8
NGU PHAP net) : cai chay-Dao tlf(l6 net): gia, d(lp bdng chay.
+ Chic tt ( tl ) trong ke't edit so sdnlz
Dung tt ( ti ). theo k~t du: chu ngli' (v~t duqc so s£mh) + tt ( D[CH NGHlA Ao nho
ti) + danh tl.r, ho~c ngli' danh tl.r (v~t lam chufrn di so s£mh) + hlnh (Trang) ao nho, mua xuan nuoc sau, mua dong nuoc cr;zn. C6
dung tl.r: . _ hai co gdi, i'J ben bo ao. Dung thung muc nuoc, dung chay d(lp do.
_ FEtttfa3;J,, fa3 tt-J\. 1j'(Thtl' tl mieu titiu, mieu tl khuy€'n
titiu) Chu9t so voi mea thi nho. mea so voi chc5 thi nh6 (Chu(Jt nhd NGU PHAP
h® mea, mea nho hrtn chd ). + Cach dzl.ng chz7 PJ (di)
155
154 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THL1 Tl/ HQC CH(/ HAN

t) (di) la gioi tu dung biiu th! phu'ong ti~n cua cl<)ng tac TU MOl
ho?c hanh vi, c6 thi d!ch la "H(y, dung, bang": c6 tl (5 I1et): xua, d(Ji xu·a- Binh A (7 net): db cua quan
_ .1.-~{ifj?Eu.k' .L-~.ftt31X (Di dung dip thuy, dl chll' clao y) dung, VrJ khi, khi giai-Qua X (4 net) : qua, kfch (111(Jt thu binh khi
Dung thung muc nuac, dung chay dljp do (muc nuac bdng thung,
thoi xua gii'J'ng nhu cdi kich mel d6.u bc7ng)-Mau f (5 net): mau,
dtJ.p do bdng chay).
gido (m()t tlni' hinh khi c1Lri xua)-Dao ]J (2 net) : dao (m()t thu binh
_ .l-~.=_F:f1Ez (Dfthu th6i chi) Dung tay ddy n6 (Bai 69).
khi gio'ng ciiY guam)-Kiem ~IJ (15 net) : cay gu·um-Cung I=] (3
_ .1.-~~i~~JJ[ (Di linh h~ mieu h?ng) Dung chuang bu()c
vao co?mea (Bai 83). net): cay cung (db binh khi dung cti bdn ten)-Ti~n ffij (15 net):
miii ten (di hdn cung)-D1;1ng !=H (5 net): dung-Thtio'ng ~ (14
m net): khiiu sung ( ciing d9c lc1 sang)-Bac !J~ (21 net): sung h'!n-
44 C~p 7Jz.. (4 net): de'n, dq_t de'n-Cong J)( (7 net): danh, ta'n cong-
..fr ""
"' 1iei Kien ~ ( 11 net): vii'ng b&n, cluJ l'ii'ng chdc.
BINH KHf
Vii khi
tl ~ A ~ , :ff x T , :ff 7J ~u ,
:ff i=J f,J o D[CH NGHlA
Vii khi thoi xua c6 qua, mau. dao, kie'm, cung, ten. Vii khi thoi
c6 thoi binh khi, huu qua rna u, huu clao kiem ' huu cung ti~n.
JLi ~ A ~ , ~ ffl ~ t!~ o §g & ~ , §g rx nay, ph&n nhi&u dung sung o'ng. C6 th i hdn dln nui xa, c6 thi
C?n thoi binh khi, cla dt,mg thttong bac. Nang c?p vi~n, nang c6ng danh ch6 vii'ng chdc.
~0
NGU PHAP
kien.
+ Cdch d1lng chiC~ (da)

r·~l,
~ ~ (da) trong bai hQC tren OU(_iC dung nhu' m<)t ph6 til Vdt
~
~1 8 nghia la "phfrn !On, phfin nhi~u" , cl?t trttoc cl<)ng til:
~- _ Jli!BA~ ' :§7m1:&;~~( Can thai binh khi, da dt,ll1g thttong
~8
---.--, ~~ ro~ bac) Binh khi thai nay, phdn nhi&u dung sung o'ng.
_#JUi£13:1@ :§7~7J,·I1 (Tfin hili dan cu da ti,lp thuy tinh) Dan
etC>

~
~
~--,,..
... ~ ~~
Qo

29
~14
~~

~ 26~ <::1:::>
u
cud hiin phdn nhi&u quen tinh J nuac (Bai 91).
m
45

18
-==-;~ 19
Z7

20---=*=" . =-
.:,2~1
IT 22 t'i ~
NGA TRUdNG HUYNH
£
156 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU n,f HQC CHU HAN 157

_ *9;DCiJ~ ? (Vi tri kha phil?) Chua bie't c6 du:c;c (hay)


:JJ( ~ 5t. tE filL ~ftf> ·' if- if- f!= ~ ' 7-.. * ~$ khong?
Nga tnriing huynh t?i tha huang, nien nien tac khach, cll'u vi quy
'7ii': 0 W
~'-
E2. ~ rh ,
-:f.X. JC::J ~
-"J'-
EB
~,
0
.JL
...
fHf: aLJ 0 """
~ s
~ _
11"
±;+ , 13El
:t'J IOJ
m
gia. Nga eli gia trung, tl1 huynh va dl. Ta thl1 nhat phong, van 46
£ 5: ~ 0 lj\
A?
~
A
~
huynh an phil. TIEU VIEN TRUNG

Tl) MOl ;J\ ~ ~ , fij :rr !*l o :Jj( :rn- m ft ·till 1fli
£ filL Ti~u vien trung, mai hoa khai. Nga chiet Iuong chi, sap blnh
Huynh (5 net): anh-Tha
net): hlnf? que-NU~n if- (6 net): nam-CU'u 7-,. (3 net): !au- Vi (5
net) : chua-Cti ~ (8 net): iJ (d()ng tic)-Vo #V; (12 net): khong-Di
*
(5 net): khac-Htidng ~ftf, (13
~~~~_t o tfJi ~ :{t ~~ B~ ~A J!o
trung, tri an thl1<;1ng. Blnh trung hoa hl1ong, thai thai nh~p ti.

8 (3 net): thai, ngat- Ta M; ( 15 net) : vie't-Phong j;j (9 net):


phonf? hi dc5nf? kin, phong, bac (thu)-Phu ~ (7 net): khong (phd
rU MOI
tit).
Mai fij (11 net): cay mai, hoa mai-Chie't :j:Jf (7 net): be-Chi fi
(8 net): canh cay-Sap till (12
net): cdm vao-Binh tfli (10 net): cdi
binh, cai LQ-Tri ~ (13 net): diJt, di-An ~ (10 net): cai ban-
D!CH NGH[A Anh cd toi
Anh cd tcJi <1 tha huO'ng, nclm nam lam khach, /au chua v~ nha. Hudng ~ (9 net): mui thO'm .
Toi 6 trong nha, ngh! de'n anh khong ngat. Viit m(Jt hac thu, hoi
anh C(J binh yen hay khong. D[CH NGHlA Trong vztifn nho
Trang vu:on nho, hoa mai niJ. Toi be hai canh, cdm vao trong
NGU PHAP LQ, d(Jt tren ban. Mui thmn ( cua hoa) trong LQ luon luon dua vao
+ Cach dil.ng clu1 ~ (phil) mui.
~ (phil) la lo?i ph6 tu phil dinh-nghi van thu'ong d?t cuoi
diu d~ neu thac mac ho;:ic d~ hoi voi nghTa la "khang, hay NGU PHAP
khang": • Caclz di'tng ~ ~ ( thai thai )
~ ~ (thoi thoi) Ia ph6 tu chi S\f thu'ang xuyen, dung tru'OC
_~ ~ -!;J • F~=~ln;~:~ (Ta thl1 nhat phong, van huynh an
phii) Vi it m()t bac thu hoi anh c6 binh yen (hay) khong. dQng tu, voi nghTa "thu'ang, Juan, Juan luan":
_ lf~'Eif~? (Thl1ong ky chi phii?) Ne'm xem c6 ngon _ tfli~ :ft~ • ~~ A.4 (B'inh trung hoa huang, thifi thifi
(hay) kh6nf?? nh~p ty) Mui thO'm ( cua hoa) trong h; luon luon du:a vao mui.
158 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THUTI/ HQC CHU HAN 159

_ B~~~~ (Thdi thdi tnJ' thu) Thuitng vie't sdch (Sit ky: Tu
Mil TurJng Nhu li?t truy?n).
_ ~QJ r=j::1 ffi -fB- , - .:Ji: - *
(Ha trung luang chu, nhiit khu
nhiit lai) Hai con thuy~n trong song, mqt di mqt lr;zi.
_ -0/§ -;f-0 (Nhiit xuong nhiit hQa) Ke xuC!ng nguai h9a.
m
m
47
~QJ $ ~ -fit 48
HA TRUNG LVONG CHU ;J\ M
TIEU cAc
~QJ r=p ~ -fit , - .:Ji: - * o .:Ji: -fit 00, II~ ,
J\ M - F<3~ ' rz:g iii ~ $ OJ .1--) ~ *- ' OJ .[,)_
*
Ha trung luang chu, nhat khu nhat lai. Khu chu phong thu~n,
0
I

tffi ..t tt~ ~fl . ~ ~ o r:r -At 00, ~ , u Ti~u cac nhat gian, tu di~n giai song. Kha dl thau quang, kha dl
Jm @lo fX *M ..t• 1;J ~ iJ' t.ftjoii 9=J
nguy thuQng quai pham, ky hanh toe. Lai chu phong nghich, dT
~ t~~ 1J' . ~ rr o *i thong phong. Nga lai cac thu<;:lng, d()c tQa song ti~n. Lung trung
!ll!i3 -71'§_ , 1;1:;+ w m ~E. o
t11ong bat thuy, ky hanh hoan. r;:,Oj j!l,~ ;x:-'J "f)(. -r Or:J

anh vG, doi nga hqc ngu.


TU MOl
Chu -fit (6 net): chile thuyJn- Thu~n II~ (12 net): thuQ.n, xuoi - TU MOl
Nguy fm (10 net): CQt bu6m-Quai tt~ (II net): treo-Pham ~JL (6 Cac 00 (14 net): gdc, idu-Song $ (12 net): cita so?-Thau ~
net): Cdnh bu6m-Toc ~ (11 net): nhanh-Ngh!ch ~ (10 net): (11 net): tha'u qua, suo't qua-Thong;® (11 net): thong qua, suo't
nghjch, ngu'Q'c- Ttiong ~ (15 net): mdi cheo-Bat }~~ (15 net): cQ.y, qua-D()c 1;J (16 net): mqt mlnh-Lung ii (22 net): cdi h5ng-Anh
da~v-Hoan *i (15 net): chQ.m chr;zp. vii ~~~ (28 net, 29 net): con Vfl-Doi ft (14 net): xoay v~. huC!ng
vl
D[CH NGHlA Hai chie'c thuy~n tren song
Hai chie'c thuy~n tren song, mqt di mqt lr;zi. Thuy~n di gi6
D[CH NGHlA Gac n/zo
thuQ.n, tren cqt bu6m c6 treo cdnh bu6m, thuy~n di nhanh. Thuy~n
Mqt gian gdc nho, bon ben d~u c6 cita so'. C6 thi tha'u dnh
h;i gi6 nguQ'c, dung cheo da?y nuC!c, thuy~n eli chQ.m.
sang, c6 thi thong gi6. Toi de'n tren gdc, mqt mlnh ng6i truC!c cita
NGO PHAP s6. Con l'fl trong !6ng, huC!ng vJ toi h9c n6i.
+ Cach dz'tng - ... - ... ( nhat ... nhat. .. )
- ... - ... (nhat ... nhat) la m()t ct,~m pho tu dung d~ chi hai NGO PHAP
nguoi ho~c v~t cung thtfc hi~n nhG'ng hanh cl()ng song song tliong 0 OJ tJ (kha di) H1 trQ d()ng tu bi<iu thi kha nang, dich la
un g nh au, d'~c h 1'a " mqt.
~ .. mqt...
~ " h O?C
- "ng uri'
vi... k?e... " : "c6 th<i" :

J
160 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tlj HQC CHV HAN 161

_OJ J.-J_ ~ft , OJ J.-J_J.mOO, (Khii di thau quang, khii di thong (trong bai dung nhu ph6 tu)-Lang Jfr5 (13 net): chai nha~-Thi t~
phong) c; thi thong dnh sang, c6 thi thong gi6. ( 12 net): tr6n?,. nhin-Phu If. (10 net): nbi-Van ~ (12 net): may-
_ /GOJ J.-J_ /G15<: ( Bat khii di bat cuu ) Khong thi khong cuu Tan '/if!l:_ (12 net): tan ra.
(Td truyfn: Ai cong lf.:lc nien).
l)[CH NGHlA Trili sang
6 Jj- (d6i) la gidi tu, <ltt<;Jc dung nhtt chu ~ (huang) (xem Tr(fi u;n?, sdnf?, mt;lt trai m9c, trong nhcl sdnf? nfc. C6 nguai
bai 37), c6 th~ dich la "httdng v~, xoay v~, trttdc": dQY sdm, ng(Ji m(>t minh duc!i chdi nha, ng6'n?, len nhln triJi. Dam
_ ~~r:p~~l~ ' 1tfft*§£ (Lung trung anh va, doz nga hQc may n6'i de'n r!Ji di, mt;lt trai mau do len cao ddn. May tan trai
ngu) Con Vf'? t trong L6ng hu'Unf? vi toi h9c n6i. xanh.
_1ft~'§~=~ (Doz chung tuyen ng6n) N6i ro truuc m9i nguai.
NCO PHAP
~ 1lj (d()c) Ia ph6 tu lam tr~ng ngu, d~t tru'dc d()ng tu, vdi + Cach diing chic i$f (ti4$m)
nghTa la "rieng, m()t mlnh": iiff (ti4$m) Ia ph6 tu lam tr~ng ngu, c6 nghia "dfrn, dfrn
_ 1®~$§U (D~c tQ·a song ti~n) Ng6i m9t minh truuc crla dft n" , d~ t tntdc cl(mg tu:
~?

so. _ ~J B ~JT r%] (H6ng nh~t lifm cao) M(lt tu!i mclu dd len cao
_~~A ' j:~:f1:1®fr (Huu lao nhan, phu trtt<;Jng d~c hanh) d6n.
C6 Cf:l gia, chong ggy di m9t minh ( Bai 77 ). _ J(~~JT<iHThien khl lifm Hinh) Tie't tn!i dii lqnh ddn.

m w
49 50
7(
~
a:ao
~
-=fx
THIEN HIEU CAN CHI

7:. B~ B ili ' ~ r:f=l *-


SJJ o ~ A If!- ~ '
Thien hi~u nh?t xuat, that trung d~i minh. Huu nhan tao khdi,
EtJ G 01
Giap At Bfnh Dinh M~u
T IX c ~ * :f: ~ ~z+

1® J.I Jfr5 T ' {LP ti 7:. ~ o If. ~


d()c l?p lang h~, ngttong thi thien kh6ng. Phu van lai khu, h6ng
* : }; ' ~I T- o -=r It ]![ l) p JV:
Ky Canh Tan Nham Quy vi chi th?p
e tr * c:p
@ FX: ~ ~
can. Ty SLru Dfin Mao Thin Ty Ngq Mui Than D~u Twit H\ii vi
B ~JT rWIJo~ ~ 7( ~o
nh?t ti~m cao. Van tan thien thanh. z + .=. x o ~a + -=f z § o -TF.b + .=. x z
chi th~p nhi chi. Giap vi th~p can chi thu. Ty vi th~p nhi chi chi
TU MOl § o -=f 5t if§ @C. -E;- .L-) §c if. ' }=j ' B ' B~ -ill o
Hiiu B~ (15 net): sang sum, tdng sang-Tao If!- (6 net): sum thu. Can chi tu'(ing phoi h\iP di ky nien, nguy~t, nh~t, thai da.
TRAN vAN cHANH TOAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 163
162

(1(/u cua nnrai hai chi. Can 1·a chi ph/{i lu;p nhau (1i ghi niim,
TU M(JI thdng, ngay. gio.
Can -=f- (3 net) : thien can (Giap, lt, ... )-Chi 3Z:: C4 net): dia chi- m
At 6 (1 net) : can thu hai tronR nuio i thien can-Binh pg (5 net) : 51
can thu ba trong m!l(fi thien can-Dinh T (2 ne t) : can thu· tu trong
t 1~ :ff ~
muai thien can-M~u IX (5 net) : can thu niim trong muai thien TRACH HA U HUU VIEN
can-Ky c (3 net) : can thu sau trong mu·ai thien can-Canh ~ (7
net): can thu bch' trong muai th.ien can-Tan $ (7 net) : can thu 't 1~ ~ ~ ' :i: ti ~ tlJ 0
tlJ J: ?{£ ¥ ' tlJ
tam trong muai thierz can-Nham ::f (4 net): can thu chin trong Tr~lch h~u huu vien, ui~p th~ch vi Slin . Sdn thu'Qng true dlnh, son
nntai thien can-Quy ~ (9 net): can sau ch6t trong m!l(fi thien r: fl ~j o~$ ~$ ' 9*- 9*- ti 'f- fPJ 3Ji 9*- 0
~ tlJ '
ha chung thl;J . T1 tl, mu(>i mu()i hu~ thu d6ng du. Mu()i dang son,
can-Ty -=f- (3 net) : chi d6u trong mu(/i hai dia chi-SU'u n (4 net) :
chi thu hai trong muai hai dja chi-D:1n ~ ( 11 net): chi thu ba 5L ¥ _t ' ~ ~1¥ ~$
l~p dlnh thu'cjng, dao h6 ti lai.
* 0

trong muai hai dja chi-Mao (m~o) ~p (5 net): chi thu tu trong
muai hai dja chi-Thin /Ek (7 net): chi thu niim trong muai hai dia
TU M(JJ
8 q=. Tr~ch t (6 net): nha O'-Di¢p ~ (22 net): chbng chftt- True~
chi-TY. (3 net): chi thu sau trong muai hai dja chi-NgQ
net) : chi thu hay trong muai hai dja chi-Vj (mui)
thU: tam trong mu'(/i hai dja chi-Than cp
* (5 net) : chi
(5 net) : chi thu chin
(4
( 16 net): xay ccl't-Dlnh ¥ (9 net): cai nha nho, nha mat, dinh-
ThQ 1~1 ( 16 net): ccly-~ Tl (7 net): chi-Mu<)i 9*- (8 net): em gai-
trong muai hai dia chi-D~u @ (7 net): chi thu m.uai trong muai Hu~ ti (21 net): ddt-Du 3Ji (13 net): di choi-Dao ~ (14 net): xa,

hai dja chi-Tm1t F)( (6 net): chi thu muai mi)t trong muai hai dia tu xa -Ho 0¥ (8 net) : g9i to.
chi-HQ'i Y<, (6 net) : chi cuo'i cung trong muai hai dja chi-Thu §
D[CH NGH!A Sau nha co v1tiJn
(9 net): d6u-Ph6i @[. ( 10 net): ke't h(;!p, phl/i h(;!p-Ky ~c (10 net):
Sau nha cr5 1•U:an, ch{{t dd lam thdnh nui. Tren nui ctb dinh,
ghi chep. du'c'ti nui tu1ng cay. Chi chi, em em ddt tay nhau cung di ch(!i. Em
len rzui, dung tren dinh, tu xa gqi chi (1e'n.
D[CH NGH[A Thien can dja chi
Giap, lr. Birzh. f)inh, Ml)u, K.v. Canh, Tan, Nham, Qu.v g9i fa NG(/ PHAP
muai can. Tv, Silu, D6n, Mao, Thin, Ty, NgQ , Mui, Than, DQ_u, 0 ffi£ (vi) du'Qc dung nhu' tn.i tu, diit sau m(>t ket diu dong-
tan (d<)ng tu + tan nglt) ho~c m(>t ket cau chu-vi va dung truck
Tua't, H(ti gqi Ia mu(/i hai chi. Giap la d6u cua muai can. TV fa
m()t danh tu khac, co thti dich
. Ia "lam thanh" hoac . "thanh":
164 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THlf nJ HQC CHU HAN 165

_ !i:ti,ALlJ (Di~p thc;tch vi son) Clul't dd lam thanh nui. D!CH NGHlA Chuqt
_ ~1g,'r~.AaEB (Bien sa mac vi ILrcJng ai~n) Bie'n sa mr;Ic Con chu()t (c6) tai !on, duoi dai, mom nh(m. Rang dlt sdc, u5
thanh ru()ng t(ft. thi cdn d6 \'{J t. Thur!ng 6 trong hang, ngay 6'n dem ra. Da s(J'
6 ~ ( dao) Ia pho tu c6 nghTa "xa, tu xa", du<;Jc a~ t truck nguoi, dmg Sl/ meo h(J/1. Nuoi meo bdt chu()t, thi m{/i h9i v& chu()t
d(\ng tu a~ chi khoang each v€ kh6ng gian, thoi gian: c6 thi trdnh kh(Ji.
_ ~Off,($* (Dao bo tllai) Til xa g9i chi den.
NGU PHAP
_ ~tJL.:if-5.= (Dao chuc blnh an) ht xa xin chuc binh an.
0 ~ ( th~m) Ia ph6 tu a~ t truck hlnh dung tu a~ chi muc
_ ~5'l!. (Dao kien) Trang thc(v til xa. a(\ rat cao:
w _~If~ (Xi thqm nhu~ ) Rang rrlt .wic (nh9n).
_ ft*Z.A If~ (Nga gia chi nhan tlzqm a a) Nguoi nha toi
52 reb dong ( Ba i I 08 ).
E3
.fj)~

THU 6 'm' (thu'O'ng) Ia ph6 tu lam trang ngu, nghia la "thuong,


lu6n"' c6 th~ a~ t trudc d(\ng tu ho~c hlnh dung tu:
mr~ , If *, ~ ~ , ~ ~ o ~ g
Thli, nhT d<;ti, vi truong, chuy tiem. XI th~m nhu~, nang khiet v~t.
~ , f:it o~ !fJJJ o
_m 151\$ (ThttiJng cu huy~t trung) Thuong J trong hang.
_ )}Ir:f:lflti ' ;!t~m~ (Dlnh trung chung que, ky di~p
thttiJng li:IC) Trang san tr6ng que: ld n6 luon mau ll:IC (Bai 59).
m 15 1\ r:p , • ~f ~ A , 1t ~
1:k :& l±l o

ThLfC1ng CLT huy~t trung, tru phl,IC dc;t xuat. Ky uy nhan, vuu uy ~ ~_t ... :fL; (ky ... vliu) Ia m()t each thlic co ajnh, bi~u thj hai
~10 o ~ fEB rffi M~ , M~
mieu. Sue mieu b() thli, thli hai kha mien .
* OJ ~ o st;t vi~c phat sinh cung luc, hoc)c hai tlnh huang a6ng thai t6n tc;ti,
c6 th~ djch la "aa ... con ... han": ~f~A ' :;t~fEH (Ky uy nhan,
vztu uy mieu) Dii S(/ nguoi, conS(/ meo h(J/1.
Tl) M(JJ m
Chuy ~ ( 16 net) : cdi mo, cdi mom (loai v£;]t)-Tiem ~ (6 net):
53
nh9n d6u- Th~m If (9 net): rib (ph6 tu')-Nhu~ ~ ( 15 net): sdc, ffi,,
ben nh9n-Khie't o~ (18 net) : cdn (bdng rang)-Thliang m(11 NGV
net): nclng, thuang, luon (ph6 til)- Tru ~ (II net): han ngay-
Phi:Ic f:k (6 net): iln nci/J-D~ :& (8 net): ban dem-Ky ~f ( 11 net): ;J..h
f~
rh
'I
~
:N

, " 0
-
!==t -'-
7L Jj_
,'1-h m!l!
f~ lilT 0 1£"
,
s
n.. A !?-? ',fP
&'v ' {JJf
da- Vliu 1t (4 net): cang h(fl1 (ph6 tii)-Suc ~ (I 0 net): nuoi-H~i Trl trung dttong ngtt. Nhat nhi l~p trl b~n. Ngtt kien nhan anh, du
* (l () net) : SL! h~zi, di&u h9i (trdi voi l(J'i)-Mi~n 5£:, (7 net): trdnh A. 1J' ~ o 5t t~ &t , tJt 1J' illi o ~ ffi,, ~ ili ,
nh~p thuy a~. Nhi trl binh, dgu thuy di~n. Quiin ngu giai xua't,
kh(Ji. rhoat khoi.
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl,1 HQC CHO' HAN 167
166

~ ~ /['E, o m
. tranh thtfc bat dl.
54
TU MOl ~~ ~
"""' s
Duong ( 15 net): nuoi-Nhi (8 net): dtia he-Du (12 net): hoi lr)i- DOC THV
Di (8 net): dd.'·-Bfnh ( 15 net): hanh lcun b!ing br)t-D~u (7 net):
quang, nem- Tranh (8 net): tranh gicmh, tranh nhau, gianh nhau . ~ ~ A f~ o 7t g:_ El : rri V. * * 1PJ ? .n o~ ~

D/CH NGHiA ca
El : rr~ )( £l Z ffrJ ' *
Hqc sinh nh~ p hi~u. Tien sinh viet: Nhii'lai ha stf ? Hqc sinh
lit §J ~ .D o7t_ ± El :
viet: Pht,mg phl,l ma u chi m~nh, lai thll' d(>c thu'. Tien sinh viet:
Trang ao cr) nu/Ji ca. Mr)t dtia he dting ben ba ao. Ca thC(v n- ~ o A l' §J ~ , l' §g fJX. A .o 0
b6ng nguai, hoi l'(/o day nuoc. Dtia be cdm banh, nem xuo'ng mc;it Thi~n. Nhan bat d()c thu', bat nang thanh nhan.
mtoc. Nhilng con cd d~u hoi ra, tranh nhau an khong ngr!t.
TU MOl
NGO PHAP
Vie't El (7 net, be) EJ): n6i r!ing-Nhii' iV. (6 net, be) f ): mdy,
nguoi ( dC;Ii tit nhan xung ngoi thti hai)-Ha 1PJ (7 net, be) { ): gl
0 M (qu~n) Ia hlnh dung tu thu'ong d~t truck danh tu d~
bi~u thj so nhi~u, c6 th~ djch Ia "b~y" ho~c "nhii'ng":
(dC;Ii tit nghi Vlfn)-Phl)ng ~ (8 net, bQ *): \'ang chju-Chi z (4
net, be) ) lphi~t]): cua (trr; tit ke't Cti'u)-ME;nh (m~ng) ff[J (8 net,
- Mffi,~te (Quiin ngu' giai xuat) Nhilng con ca d~u brJi ra.
be) 0): 1ai sai khien, m~nh l?nh-Thtl' lit (6 net, bQ .il:J: nay, chrfn
_ Mffil¥J* (Qulin nh<:~n nam lai) Nhilng con nhC;Jn tit
nay.

-
phuong nam hay de'n ( Bai 29).
M~~-,'E~ '~nl'~ (Qulin nghT giai phan dau, chi
ttl' bat thoai) Nhilng con kiln d~u rang stic chien dc{u, den che't
khong lui ( Bai 65).

6 ~ (tranh) Ia ph6 tu lam tn~ng ngu, cl~t tru'oc dong tu,


voi nghTa "tranh nhau, dua nhau":
_ Mffi, ~te, ~~l'8CQu~n ngu giai xuat, tranh thttc
bat dT) Nhilng con ca d~u boi ra, tranh nhau an khong ngot.
_ ~B~~*~Ili~;f(Thi thai phu hao tranlz n~c tai) Luc d6
nhilng nha giau dua nhau gia'u cua (Han thu).
168
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THV Tl/ HOC CHO HAN 169

D[CH NGHiA HtJc ti)p § ): s~( hilu hie't-Chung *:.f (]) net, he) !fd: cuo'i cLlllt{, ro't CU(Jc.
H9c tn) I'(Jo tntong. Thd_v hoi r(Inf?,: "Tro den c6 1•i¢c Ri?". H9c - ~ I I\ . I

tro thua ninf?: "(Con) wing /¢nh ch{l m~ de'n day h9c". Thdv n6i
rdng: "T//t liim. Nguoi khonf? h9c tqp, khong thl thanh nguoi".

NCO PHAP
+ D{li tt'tnglzi viilz fOJ (ha)
fOJ (ha) co th~ lam djnh ngcr, d~t tnroc danh ttr, vdi nghla la
"gl, nao" , dung u~ hoi: D!CH NGH[A Clzimmuong
Loai chim /11U(Jng (khi) d6i bie't {in , (khi) khat bie't uo'ng. L(ll
_ i~*1PJ~ ? ( NhO' lai lza stf? ) Trr) de'n c6 vi¢c gi?
bie't lam td d~' trdnh Ki6 mua. Nhii'nf!. con k:'.· l(l hie't bdt churJc
_ 1PJ~1PJB~? ( Ha xu ha thai ? ) Noi nao luc mlo'! tie'nf!. nf?LtOi noi. Chi khong bie't d()C sach, nen sv hi~'u hie't cua
m chung r/It cu()c khong hdng nguoi.
55
~ W\ NGU PHAP
CAMTHU 0 )( (htfu) la pho ttr, c6 nghla "lai, lai them" :
tJi; FiXz Jlj , M 9m ~ , 1~ ~o ~ o 'X §g § ~ , U _ 'X_§g·,g ~ (H{tll nang doanh sao) L«i bie't lam td.
Cftm thu chi thuC)c, co tri thtfc, khat tri <lm. HtfU nang doanh sao, dl _ Jj(~.¥~11) o 11J=t3§7?ft0J' :X.1=f;J\~
(Thuy hO'u thanh
~ J$l ffi o1t ~ =tt ,
§g ~x A § o·It /f_ §g ~~ trqc. Tn;c gia da 6 v?t, h{lll hG'u ti~u trCmg) Nu6'c c6 trong, d~:~c.
tj _phong vG. Ky ky gia, nang hi~u nhan ngon. Duy bat nang dC)c Nu6'c d~:~c c6 nhi~u v(lt do btln. lr;Ii cd nhii'nf? con trung nho ( Bai
,
~ , 55( Jt: ~o ~ *~ 7f ~o A o
70).
thu', co ky tri thuc, chung bat nhu nhan .
6 z!l (chi thu()c) thu'ong d~t sau danh tu d~ chi chung v~
TU MOl "cac loai .. trong cung mC)t lo(,li:
_ fJi;wXZ~ (Cgm thu chi tlwf)c) Cdc loai c6m thu.
C~m fJi; (13 net, be) ~): loai chim-Thu(>c ~ (21 net, be) F):
- rm~=fjJHJXZ.Ji0 ' Yli:n~~$ (Nhi kim ngQC m6i thiet
lor;Ii, loai-Tri ~0 (8 net, be)~): bie't-Htfu 'X (2 net, be) 'X_): lr;Ii, lr;Ii
chi tlz uf)c, htfu san u' ky trung) Ma nhii'ng /oqi nhu vang, ng(,JC,
them-Doanh (dinh) ;g(l7 net, be)'}(): lam-Tj ~ (16 net, be) i_):
than, sdt lr;Ii sinh ra iJ trong d6 ( Bai 90).
trdnh di-Ky ~ (8 net, be) -}::.): /9 lung, di~u lr;I-Gia =tf (9 net, be)
_ ~1-UI~L%1.!.-):tm~,~~Z~ (Truong vong la dl b6 ngu ha chi
~): di~u. cdi, con (trt;J tif)-Hi~u ~ (10 net, be) ~ ): bdt chu6'c-Duy llzuf)c) Giang lur!i di bdt cdc /oai ca tom (Bai 115).
'It (11 net, be) ·1· ): chl (ph6 tit)-Tri thuc ~0 ~ (8 net, 19 net, be)
170 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 171

~'liE (duy) la ph6 tu, nghTa la "chf, chi c6":


_ ·1~ ~8Em=~ , ~5<: =13;~0~ , ¥t- /f~~DA (Duy bat nang dOc
Thai t* (II net, b(l 1 ): hcii-Uing ~ ( 12 net, bt) -H-): diy cl'u-
Thon tt (7 net, be) * ): X(Jm-Quang J.8i (14 net, b() ) ): r(Jng-
thLr, c6 ky tri th(tc, chung bat nhLt nhan) Chi khl5ng hie't d9c sdch, lfoc ¥;-; (9 net, be) * ): £7<5 chU'ng-M§u fiR (10 net, bO 133): m/fu (60
nen Sf/ hi(/ u bie't cua chung r(/t CU(Jc khlJng hc7n!i ngulti.
_ fj :ft ~~{g ' 'l'f:Bi~j~@ (Bach hoa linh l(,lc, duy cue cl()c
m
fr/(rlng \'UcJnR)- Yeu JJ1X ( 17 !let, b(l ).._ ): nu/i-Lan (15 net, be)
~ l: hang xdm-B:;m f'F- (7 net, b() { ): chung b~m-Hoa kiJ (6 net,
thinh) Cdc locli lwa khdc d~u lu!o r!:fng, chi rienfi cue Ia C(Jn tu(fi
b(l lj ): dd:v thuw1n-Thuy~n liJ'd (II net, b() -fit): chie'c thur2n.
t/J'r (Ba i 67).

1)/CH NGHiA Hai iitt


0 *1
(chung) la ph6 tu cl)t tnrdc cl(lng tu ho~c ngO' dOng tu, Hen C(lnh x6m nhi5, u5 m9t ao cl'u, rc)ng chang mulJi mftu. mlr'lc
vdi nghTa la "cut)i cC1ng, ket c~1c, r6t cu()c":
ao rli't trong.lu ndi tren m(it nude, hoiJc mau xanh, ho(ic mau dd.
_~X -A ~D 5~ ' ff,J. /f~DA (C6 ky tri thuc , clumg bat nhu Cr> gdi trong xdm, m(/i cdc IH!n lang gi~ng, dd\· chie'c thuy2n con,
nhan) Nen Sl/ hili'u bie't cua chunfi rf/t CUQC khl5ng being nguiJi. cung eli hdi ([u.
_ ~mJ./GriJ.l.-)J'eJ'i1) (Ng6 clumg bat kha dT kien Doan
c6ng) Cu//i cung tr)i khlJnfi tid R(ip du(lc Docln u)ng(Lieu T6n NCO PHAP
Nguyen: f)ocln Thai uy d(it Sf/ tr~mg).
TRQ TlJ _§}] ~
m
f. Trq tir:
56
-t"'
Pt~
~
~
Trc;i tli la lo~i tt! biiu thi tinh thai. v6n kh6ng c6 y nghla C'-:J
THAI LANG thi ma chi dung trQ' giup cho tlr ho~c ciiu di cho bi~t r6 them v~
tinh th~n, thai clO, phong each bao ham trong cau van ho~c leri n6i.
lj\ tt %' ' ~ ~ ~ ' Jj[ *i +
ffi!z ' ~ Thi dl}:
Ti~u thon bang, hO'u lang duong, quang udc th~p mau, duong _:li .-6-.hC ~!
7j' ~ ¥~ 0 ~ f!j 7j' iii ' ~ ~ ~ ~J 0 p I /' L / '- ·

thuy th~m thanh. Uing phu thuy di~n, ho~c thanh ho~c h6ng ._ Ng6 kim tu hi!
tt r::p -tJ: -r- , m
jlJX 1-* , !J\ xu ra ,
fPJ 11 t* Nay ta phlii chit! ( Thi tlwyit tlinngt?}.
Thon trung nO' ttl', yeu Ian b<;1n, hoa titiu thuy~n, d6ng vilng thai Trong Han van, trQ' tlr rfrt phong phu va da d~ng: vi~c Slr di,ll1g
~ 0
lang. cling rfrt phCrc t~p va t~ nhj, doi hoi ngueri dQc van, vi~t van phai trili
nhi~u kinh nghi~m m&i c6 thi hiiu va Slr dt,mg chung mOt each
TU Md! thu~n nha. Trong thl!c t~, vi~c phan djnh tic dl;lng C'-:J thi v&i nhling
172 TRAN vAN CHANH r o AN THU Tl,l HQC CHO' HAN 173

khia C<;lnh rfrt tinh vi cth nhling tt! thuoc lo<;~i nay Ia mot chuy~n nhi~m VI) t<;lO ra mot Sl! hoa hqp n~lO do V~ am thanh ch(r kh6ng CO y
kh6ng &. ngh1a tt! vi c~ thi.
2. Cac lo{li trd ll't: Nhling phat ngcr ttr thmrng dung trong cac sach c6 la: 15'2- (6 ).

Can cu vao tac dt,~ng ngQ- phap, ta c6 thi chia trq tt! ra Eun 3 a (vi~t), -z;: (vfm), i:fl" (y). ~ (quy~t), ~ (vien), ·11£ (duy).
~ (ng6n) ...
lo;;1i l&n:
Thi d1,1:
(1) Tn;r tir ng[J kh!-
a) Biiu thi hoan tfit: -ill ( da), *(hi), -L- (van) .. . - ~~ f&: r¥:i L.lJ ' ~ * lt
Tdc bi Nam Son, ngon thai ky quy~t.
~
b) Biiu thj keu goi: 3K (lai). -ill ( da). '15' (h~ ).. .
Len ntii Nam Son kia, (ta) hai rau quyit (Thi Kinh).
c) Biiu thj nghi vfin: f(h6), ~(tai), !f~(da), ~(dtr) ...
- ~~9J~ , 1'±1~Z ""f
e) Biiu thi dm than:* (h1), ~ (tai) .. .
Vien hG-u han tuy~n, t~i Tuin chi h~.
(2) Trq tir ng[J j:
C6 dong surfi J:;mh. (; fp Tufn nu6c V¢ (Thi Kinh).
a) Biiu thi h~n ch~:
£r (nh1), ffij 8 (nhi d1) ...
d) Biiu thi sin am (Sin fl.: d~m them, phl,l gop them):
b) Biiu thj xac djnh: -ill (da), * (h1), ~ (nhien), 1% (yen) ...
lt (ky). ~ (thi) ...
c) Biiu thj d~ thi (ngtrng ng~t di neu ra a do<;~n sau): 13 (gia),
Thi d1,1:
* (h1), -m 13 (da gia) ...
- 1t 00. ~ 15?:
d) Biiu thj so sanh ho~c ttrang ttrqng: ~ (nhien), ~0 -ill (nhtr
B~c phong kf ltrcmg.
da) ...
Ng9n gi6 bic mat me (Thi Kinh).
(3) Trq tir ng[J 5m:
3. Vi tri dia tr(l til:
N6i chung, lo<;~i nay thtreng dtrqc dung trong thi cava cac lo<;~i
van bi~n ngau khac. Cling c6 4 lo<;~i nho: La tu trq giup cho tu. cho cac bo ph~n cua ciiu, ho~c cho d
a) Biiu thi dinh d6n (cMm l~i): /~ (h~), 1% (yen) ... ciiu, trq tlr thtreng dt1ng sau tlr ho:;ic bo ph~n rna n6 trq giup.

b) Biiu thi thiem ti~p (dung lam ngcr v1 cho tu khac): - Trong tnr&ng hqp trq giup cho ttr ho~c cho mot bo ph~n cua
~ (nhien), m' (nh1). 1% (yen), :;fi (nhtrqc ), Sf- (h6 ) ... cau, trq tu thueng dt1ng sau tu ho:;ic bo pMn rna n6 trq giup.

c) Biiu thi khm phat. Thtreng chi thfiy trong cac sach c6 nhtr - Trong tmcmg hqp trq giup cho d ciiu. trq ttr c6 thi dt1ng a
Th1~ Thu: .. Ngt.r&i ta cling goi nhling trq tt! nay la phat ng[J tirhay dftu, agiG-a hay acu6i ciiu.
a
phat thanh tirvi n6 thtreng dung dftu ciiu (hay do~n cau) va chi c6 (I) Trq gitip cho m9t b9 ph4n ctla c5u:
174

- ~~ -ill , ~8 OJ W ~ gif EA~


TRAN VAN CHANH

-
roAN THLI Tl/ HQC CHU HAN

m
175

Tu d5, thuy kha dii ng6n Thi d1 hi.


57
Ch/ c6 anh Ttf m6i c6 the' cung ban bpc vt# Thi (Lupn ngtl) ~
(trq giup cho chu ngii) . HUYNH
- Jt ~¥ ~ tzo -ill ~ , mn -ill o ±. 11~ !lf! 1M z ±ill o JN 1& ~ K. o
Van tt! xfm nhudii.
Van [Lr lh4l FrY rang (Sii kj) (trq giup vi ngii). '*
Huynh, phi trung da. Sinh 11 ti thap chi oja. Phuc h~u hfru quang.
B~ Fs~ ' !it 1Jz ~ ~ _t ' f)!& ;'t F,(J
: -;:~:: f*
- ~ IIJ J I \ \

Bai nhien h<;1 vu.


T r-Ei
I. ~ ~ ~~
·r~·::};; *
Van gian, thuong kien thuy bien thao thli0ng, vi quang thi6m
~ !E •fnl if
thu'oc, khu lai v6 oinh, tU'c huynh quang da.
>t -& o
sdm s4p d6?mtfa (M.anh rt}J (trq giup cho trang ngii).
nJ M(JI
(2) TrQ' giup cho d cfiu:
Huynh ~ (16 net, b(> :E_): condom dc5m-Da -ill (3
net, b(> 0 ):
a) D~t &dftu cau (ngii thu trq tu): . l'QY (tr(/ tu)-l.J 15~ (8 net, b(> jj): iJ (giui tu)-Ti _Elf! (8 net, b(> +) :

- ·l'i + ~ -=- 4 ~ , 7\. W! 1t~ ~?f. tha]J-Tha'p 1M (13 net, be) ~ ): dm uut-Dia ±ill (6 net, b(> ±): a(ft.
khu v(fc-Phuc IN (13 net, bQ jj): bz,tng-Bien ~ (19 net, bQ }__ ):
Duy th~p hiiu tam nien xufm, d~i h(>i u M<;1nh Tan.
ho song- Thao ~ (I 0 net, b(> -++-): co- Vi f)!& (13 net, b(> 1 ): nh(;lf,
Mua xufin n.im thtf mwi ba, vua h9i cac chu h!Ju d M.anh Tfin
nho nhen- Thiim F,(J (I() net, bQ F~): (anh sang) nha]J nhay, la/J
( Thuc;ng thtlj.
lanh- Thu'oc ~ ( 19 net, b(> ')\J: la]J lanh-D inh ;E (8 net, b(> ,_.,_. ):
b) D~t & giiia cfw (ngii trung trq tu): yen li;ing, dung yen- Tuc E!D (7 net, b(> p ): chinh la.
- ~~f:k~
D!CH NGH[A Dom dom
Tu~ van thu hi
Dom d6m Ia con trung bie't hay. Sinh ra iJ nui tha/J va tfm uut.
Tn}i dii vao lhu (Ti truy~n). Sau bz,tng c6 cha't sdnfr Bubi to'i, thuong tren nhilng clam co ben
c) D~t & cu6i cftu (ngii m~t trq tu): bo nuuc, anh sang nh(,lf nhap nhay di lf,li kh6ng yen, ( d6) chinh Ia
cha't sang cua dom d6m vqy.
- DJ/f·I~W?
Kha bfrt th~n du? NG{J PHA.P
C6 rhe'kh6ng th4n tr9ng duvc u? (Sii ky). 0 -t!1 (da) Ht tr0 tu cuoi diu dung d6 dinh ngh1a ho~c d6
176 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU n,J HQC CHU HAN 177

bi~u thj ngG' khi xac djnh, c6 th~ djch Ia "v~y", ho~c kh6ng djch: u
song, ho(ic Ia\· gie'ng ( Bai 70).
_ !i/f • ]ff ~-t!1 (Huynh, phi trung dii) Dom d6m Ia con _ ~fltm15~±ili (S6 cam h;tc ti uja) Vai trdi cam wi xuo'ng da't
trung hilt bay. (Bai 73).
- ~~$ 1?:9~ •J:J.N~~w' ~~.L-j_oq~m (fat suat hG'u
1i
tu si, chan si phat thanh, phi dT kh<fu minh dii) De' c6 bon canh,
w
rung cdnh phdt ra tie'ng, khong phdi keu b!ing mi¢ng (Bai 58). 58
_ tiA WJ~~- hz: • NDf'~t'rmm (C6 nhan xung tue han
"'*
~6 m;t:
l:;-

TATSUAT
tam hG'u, tuc tung, true, mai dii) Ngui/i xua gQi ba nguifi bc;m khi
trifi !t:;mh, chinh La tung, true, mai vqy (Bai 75). t:k ~ • 1i ~ ~$ u,~ 15~ Mli T o ~ Fo~ 1L$ El : u-~ ~$
_ 1~~~-~ • OJ~~t-t!1 (SU' cac t~p nhat ngh~, kha vi Thud<!, hG'u tat suat minh u' tu'ong ha. D~ van ti viet: "Tat suat
D ;j\ ' q~ ~ ~ji -;k ·f6J -t!1? J o tz$ EJ : tr!E,~ ~$1i 1Z9
phap dii) Cho m6i nguifi h9c m9t ngh~, (vi¢c d6) dang lam khuon
khff u ti~u, minh thanh pha d<;ti, ha da '?". Tl viet: "Tat suat hG'u tu
mdu vt;ly (Bai 76).
~ •j)l{ ~ ~ ~ • ~ ~ 1-J_ D q~ -t!1 J o
_ rll5ctiBZ.ili?~ • OJUfJ¥1?:9}J-t!1(Co thj nh~t chi xuat m()t, si, chan si pha t thanh, phi dT khff u minh da ".
kha d) bi~n tu phu'dng dii) Vl the' nhin m{jt trifi mQC va /(in, CO thi
phan bi¢t du(Jc bo'n phuong (Bai 79). Tl) MCJI
_ llt?9: .§} Z~-t!1 (Thll' nhG' than chi a nh dii) D6 La bong cua
Tat suat ~ ~$ (17 net, b0 .9:0: con de'-D~ ~ (7 net, b() 9 ):
than nguifi em (Bai 80).
em trai-Viet El (4 net, b0El ): rting-Pha ~ji (14 net, b0 J[): kha,
_ 1ft~±ililll Z.§~-t!1 (Thll' giai dia vien chi chung dii) D6 hoi hr!i-Si ~ ( 10 net, b0 ~~): cdnh (loai chim)-Chan j:J.N (10 net,
d2u La b!ing chang v~ trdi da't trim ( Bai 84).
be) :f ): rung di)ng-Phat ~ ( 12 net, b0 9 "'- ): n6?i dqy, phdt ra-Phi
- ~tEJi5¥F!f~ztj! ' mH>*'§/f~~m (Tuy Cu' thanh bfrn ~~ (8 net, b0 ~~): chdng phai, khong phai.
chi canh, nhi tam vj thuong bat an l<;tc dii) Tuy song trong' cdnh
thanh bdn ma long chua tung chdng an 1•ui vqy ( Bai 113).

6 1t: (ti) Ia gidi tu dung d~ neu len b6 ngG' chi noi chon
ho~c thai gian:
_ ~15~ *~AAZ±ili (Sinh ti ti thap chi dja) Sinh ra ;; noi tha]J
l'(f (im uot.
D!CH NGHiA Con de'
_ ~'T15~#1i$ (TrG' zi blnh trung) Chaa (j trong binh (Bai 59).
Dem thu, c6 dl keu u
duoi bile tu/mg. Em Jrai hoi chj rling:
_ W::~Z.1J~ • ~Jf'X15~i"PJ • ~Jf'X15~# (Am thl!c chi thuy, "Mi¢ng con de' nhd, (the' mel) tieng keu kha ldn, tC;Ji sao the'?" Chi
ho~c thu zt ha, ho~c thu zi tinh) Nuoc dung cti an u6ng, hoijc la:v I'!
178 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 179

trd 1/ti rdng: "Con de' c6 bo'n cdnh, rung cdnhphdt ra tie'ng, (chu) TU MOl
kh6ng phai keu bling mi~ng". Que' fi (b() *): cav qul-LQC ~ (b() *): mau ll:f.C (mau do
xanh P6'i Pang htJp thanh)-D~m 1~ (b() ~ ): lqt, nhqt-Ngf) ~ (b()
}___): gijp gu-Ni:mg 1/1 (b() ~ ): nbng, dtjm (trdi v6'i d~vn)-Phac tl
NGU PHAP
o ~W (pha) la ph6 tu <l~t truck hlnh dung tu, co th~ dich
"kha, tudng do\ rat" :
(b() t ): ddnh khe-Ham '*
(b() xJ: d~u (ph6 tt.l)-A.i ~ (b0 ,~,):
yeu-Hoa :fO (b() 0): tr(Jn !6.n 1'6'i-Dtiong mf (b() *): cha't ngQt,
_ u.~~~M:k (Minh thanhphd d<:!i) Tilng keu khd l6'n. du(/ng-Tru ~r(b() ~): chua ca't-Tuy !Rff (b() 'ft): du (lien ti:t)-
_ $JT M~M~ (Tan van phd da) Tin tuc khd nhi~u. Lich Jf1 (b0 r): trdi qua-Nhi ffi] (b() ffi]): the' ma (lien tu)-Do 1~·
_ ~]:!7-,. (Pha ctl'u) Khd lau (tuong cUJ'i tau).
(b() 1 ): hiiy con, l'dn con-Li~t 7.!~ (b() , .. .): mqnh, nbng.

6 ~F (phi) ta pho tu phu ajnh, co nghla "kh6ng phai ta,


D!CH NGHlA Ctiy qui
ch~ng pha i Ia":
Trong san trbng que: fa n6 /uon mau ll:f.C. Mua thu no hoa,
_ tJN ~~~ ' JF 1-:.ZDU.~t!L
(Chan si phat thanh, phi dl
hoijc vang thdm, ho(ic l'ang nhqt. M6i khi g(ip con gi6 nhf, huang
khfiu minh da) Rung cdnh phdt ra tie'ng, ( chu) khong phdi keu
nbng dtjp vao mii.i, m9i nguiJi d~u yeu thich. Hoa rf.:lng, lfi~v cti
bling nzi~ng.
_ r~F~, , ~~O~,Z~? (Ttl' phi ngu, an tri ngu chi l<:1c?) tr¢n v6'i ctu·ong, chua trong l9, tuy lau ngay ma huang vdn con
Ong khong phdi Ia cd, lam sao biei dutJc ni~m vui ciia cd? (Trang nbng.
ttl: Thu thiiy).
NGU PHAP
w 0 w
(mfii) trong bai hQC tren OUQC dung nhu ph6 tu, voi
59 nghla "moi lfrn, moi khi", d~t truck d()ng tu (so sanh voi each
fi dung chu m6i ci de bai 62, 67 va 69):
QUE _ fjj~ft;!z@l ' 1/l~tl4 (M6i ng() vi phong, nung huang
phac ti) M6i khi gijp con gi6 nhf, huang nbng d()p vao mii.i.
]}! ~ fl fi ' ;!=t ~ '* *~ 0 fj( ffiJ l}fJ
Dlnh trung chLing que', ky di~p thuong ll,lc. Thu thai khai hoa,
:rr ' _ fB: ~'if e 1~ ~ ' £' Jt ~ ;l=t ~ (Ma u ke m6i dac thtfc, tat
nt'; nt'; '* ~ "'= 'Ell '!!Jir [;1';1 '111l 21'5: B"t tien hoan ky s6) Ga mr; m6i khi kieln dutJc thuc an, tru6'c hit ta't
.i0I f1~;. 1!\ ' r~
'7:(: -tr
!:'.)(. ?* ' .9)(, 'f:x. o fB: 'ffffi. s
ho~c tham , hoac dam hoang. Moi ng() vi phong, nung huang phac
g9i ga con (Bai 66).
z
4 ,A JC&. ~ o :tt ¥% , JfX J;J :to tm , ~J n~ fl=li r:? ,
ti, nhan ham ai chi. Hoa l<;lC, thu dl hoa duong, tru u blnh trung, 6 frt. (ham) Ia ph6 tu, nghla Ia "d~u":
1EtE ~rr 7-.. rm ~ 1~ r.u o _ A.roX~Z (Nhan hizm ai chi) M9i nguiJi d~u yeu thich n6.
tuy ljch ctl'u nhi hudng do li~t.
TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tlj HQC CHU HAN 179
178

trd lai rling: "Con de' c6 bo'n cdnh, rung cdnh phdt ra tie'ng, (chu) ruM6I
kh6ng phd i ke u bling mif ng ". Q ue' t! (bQ *): cdv que'-LQc *fl<. (b(> fTd: milU l~c (mau do
xanh vai vang hQ'p thanh)-D~m ¥~ (b<) { ): lc;zt, nhqt-NgC, ~ (bQ
NGO PHAP ]___): gi;ip gu-Nimg 1~ (b(> { ): n6ng, clqm (trdi vai dc;zm)-Phac m
0 ~~ (pha) Ia ph6 tu cH,it trvdc hlnh dung tu, co th~ dich (b(> 1 ): dcinh khe-Ham ~ (b(> j(J: d~u (ph6 tU')-Ai ~ (b<) {,,):
"kha, tVting do\ rat" : reu-Hoa ;fO (b(> D): tr(m ldn l'(Ji-Du'ong ~ (b<) *): chd't ngQt,
_ u,~ry£~~* (Minh thanh plui dl,li) Tie'ng keu kha fan. ctu(/ng- Tru ~T (b(> ~): chua ca't- Tuy SltE (b<) it): du (lien tU'J-
_ *JT M~~ ~ (Tan van pha da) Tin tuc khd nhi~u. Ljch Iff (b<) }): trdi qua-Nhi 7fij (b<) [fij): the' ma (lien tU')-Do 1f1·
_ ~~~ (Pha cuu) Khd ldu (tu®g do'i ldu).
(bQ 1 ): hiiy con, l•dn con-Li~t ?.~~ (bQ ""): mc;znh, n6ng.

6 ~F (phi) Ia ph6 tu phu d!nh, c6 nghia "khong phai Ia,


D!CH NGHiA Oiy qui
ch~ng phai Ia ":
Trang san tr6ng que: Ia m5 lu6n mau l~c. Mua thu nil hoa,
_ tffi ~~ry£ ' ~F .[..)DU.~ill (Chan sf phat thanh, phi di
hoi;ic vang thdm, hoi;i.c I'Gng nh(Jt. M6i khi gi;i.p C(}/1 gi6 nhf, huang
khftu minh da) Rung cdnh phdt ra tilng, ( chu) kh6ng phdi keu
n6ng c1qp viw miii, mQi nguifi d~u veu thich. Hoa r~ng, la~v eli
bdng mifng.
tr9n vai ctu·ifng, chua trong lQ, tu_v ldu ngay ma hu®g win con
_ r~FJP, '
~~DJP,L~? (Tu phi ngv, an tri ngv chi l?c?)
Ong khong phdi Ia cd, lam sao bier du(/c ni~m vui cua ca? (Trang n6ng .
til: Thu thuy).
NG O PHAP
m 0 fjj (m6i) trong bai hQc tren dV<;5c dung nhv ph6 tu, vdi
59 nghia "moi lftn, moi khi", d~t trVck d<)ng tu (so sanh vdi each
t! dun g chG' m6i ci de bai 62, 67 va 69):
QUE _ ~~f]\'J@l ' 1~~m4 (M6i ng<) vi phong, nung hvong
ph ac ti) M6i khi gi;i.p cun gi6 nhf, huang n6ng clqp vao miii.
&I $ f! t!, ~ ~ m *fl<. of:k 1B i7fJ 1t, _ iE:*l ~fll} ~ ' £'7t~~W (Mau ke m6i d~c thtfc, tat
£Yinh trung chung que', ky di~p thVong ll;lc. Thu thai khai hoa,
Q)G i* , QX: ¥JR. ~ o £J ~ ftJ m,
1114 ~
ho~c tham, ho?c d<;1m hoang. Moi ng(> vi phong, nung hVong phac
* ti e n hoan ky s6) Ga mf m6i khi kilm duQ'c thuc an, truc!c hit td't
g9 i ga con (Bai 66).
4 ,A Jt&. ~ Z o 1t m: ,Jf~ 1) ;fO ~ , ~r 15~ ttli $ ,
tj, nhan ham ai chi. Hoa l<;lC, thu di hoa dVong, trG' v blnh trung, 6 M. (ham) Ia ph6 tu, nghla Ht "d~u":
!Ett ~ :A rm~ 1~ r.u
o - A!9X.~Z (Nhan hiun ai chi) MQi nguifi d~u yeu thich m5.
tuy l!ch cliu nhi hVong do li~t.
180 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl/ HQC CH(/ HAN 181

_ ~~J;Jgl(:~ (Uio thieu ham t~p) Tctt eel gill tre ct~u lf:l t<lp. Tl) MOl
Liem ~· (bQ kk ): hue mclnh nu1nh bling tre, brJc rem; ttfm rem-
~ H (tuy) Ia lien tu bitiu thj nhLr(jng b(), djch Ia "du, cho each jj~ (b<) ~ ): ngan ro-TrO' 13.§. (b() ~ ): can tro, ngan lgi, chdn-
du, tuy": Hoi 17<. (b() )\J: tro- Triin ~ (b() ±>: hf:li b(im- Viem ~ (b<) }():
_ ~f:E~~iffi;g=1®?.~{ (Tuy ljch cli'u nhi hLrdng do li~t) Tuy /au m5ng-Nhi«%t ~(be) ,,. ,): mlng-Te m5c (b0 ++-) : che Ui/J di-Nghiem
ngay nul huang win con nrJng. ffi (b() 0): ng(ft, huo't-Han ~ (b() ,_.,_,.): lgnh, ret-Ngtj ~ (b<) /J\):
_ ~f£~1~~Z.t.l ' iffi{,'*~7f 37:~ -ti2 (Tuy cu thanh bdn ngtin lqi, cho'ng /gi-HQ p (bQ p): cU:a m9t ccinh, ctia ccii-Dii fti
chi canh, nhi tam vj thut'1ng bat an lac da) Tuy so'ng trong cdnh (b() }=t): ctia so?.
thanh bc1n ma long chua ti:lng chdng an 1•ui 1'(lY (Hcli 113).
D!CH NGHiA Bti:c rem
0 rffi (nhi) trong bai Ia lien tu utmg u0 bitiu thj y nghjch lai, Rue rem ctur;c dLing, cr5 thi ngcln trong ngoai, chdn tro bf;li.
Mua h« m5ng m!c, dung rem af che m('it trai. Mua dong lgnh
thuong c6 thti djch Ia "nhung, ma ":
bu//t, dung rem eli ngan girl. VI the' ctia ccii 1·a ctia so' d~u c6 thi
_ ~f:E~~iffiW1®?.U (Tuy ljch cli'u nhi hLrdng do li~t) Tuy 1/iu
dung rem.
ngtly mc'r hurJng vdn con ndng.
- 7f*'Jiffi[P] (Bat L(OC nhi c16ng) Kh/Jng h(/n ma nen. NGU PHAP
_ ~~iffi1'f ~ (V6 kh nlzi hG'u h<,ti) Kh6ng l(!i ma con c6 + Cdch di'tng lrfl tic z
(chi)
hgi. Z (chi) Ia m()t hu tu rat th6ng dt,mg cua Van ngon. ChG'
_ f:f~iJiffi~~- (HG'u ky danh nhi vt) ky thtfc) Cr5 danh z (chi) trong bai h<)C tren OUQC dung nhu tr<.;i tu uti noi ket chu
ma kh6ng c6 thi/C ( c6 tiing nhung khong cr5 mie'ng). ngG' voi vj ngG', thu tieu tinh d<)c l~p cua cau, bien ct,~m chu vj
thanh m()t thanh phfrn cua cau phl"tc. Thi dt,~:
m _ 1Jt Z FSJ=H ' OJ .1-)r~ VJJ~ , 13.§. M~ (Liem chi vi dt,~ng,
60
kha dT each n<)i ngo;,ti, tr<i h6i tran) Buc rem du(!c dung, c6 thl


LIEM
ngan trong ngoai. chdn tro bf;li (trong diu na.r, "liem chi l'i df;lng"
tro thanh thanh ph!m chu ngii).
- W.x fB:Z.~-1-~ ~ (DG' phu mau chi ai tlr YO di) Khong
~ z F.S m, OJ .L-J. ~~ v.J 71- , ~.§. tJ< ~ o ~ s~
khcic gl cha mf! thuang con ( Bai 66 ).
_ ~i~tJt 8 zte?9: ' OJ .l-)fJ¥1Z.9:1J-ti2 (Co thi nh~t chi xuat
Liem chi vi dt,~ng, kha dT each n<)i ngo<:J.i, tr() h6i tr~n. H<:J. thai
* ,m ~ • tJ ~ o ~ a s~ ~ ~
viem nhi~t, dt,~ng liem dT te nh~t. D6ng thc'1i nghiem han, dt,~ng
,m m<)t, kha di bi~n tu phuong da) VI thi nhln m(it trai nU?C va I(in,
cr5 thi phan bi~ t du(!c bo'n phurJng (Bel i 79 ).

• u ,
~ ~ o rl15( r~ .P , r11 , iii , -'E§- OJ o m• w
liem dT ngtf phong. Co mon, he), song, du, giai kha dt,mg liem.
-
182 183

~
TRAN VAN CHANH

61 ac hiw hb'?) Con hav con mijc do don, khong bie't lt;mh sao?
1X g
1
$-tf.~;fi ( D~ nien tlut(fng tri) Em trai tulfi con nho ( Bai
y
68).
JB: ~ M~ A. ~ , HJ B : u- ~ r6J ~ ¥ ~ ,~ @ 3f (h6) Ia trQ tu cuoi cau dung d~ ho i, thuong c6 th~ djch
Trang nhi tuong nh;1ip hQc, mau viet:"Nhi thu<._'in g truck don y, bat
:W ~ -¥ ? A z 1X ~~ ' !EJ ~ ~ fffi ~ ,~ B 7:. Ia "chang?, sao?, kh6ng?", ho~c d6i
khi kh6ng djch:
giac han h6? Nhan chi y phl)c, nhan han thlr nhi dj , kim nh?t thien
_ ~~ ~-* :;& '/f:W~-¥? (Nhi thuc;lng truoc dan y, bat
¥*, OJ~ 31<: 1X_.n ~ B: u-~if.n o ~ ~ ?xfffi t±l o giac hiw hb'?) Con hiiy con mijc do don , khong bitt lg_nh sao?
Iuong, kha djch giap y". Nhi viet: "N~c". To<,J.i dich y nhi xuat. _ t§.B : r,m9;o:1Jrt=D-¥? CT6 viet: Nhi tri phuong huang h6'?)
Ong n9i n6i: Chdu c6 bie't phuong hut'!ng khong ? (Bai 79).
TU MOl
Trang jfr (b() -H-): h9 Trang- Thu'Q'ng fSj (b() ~/ ): hay con- ~ !2SJ (nhan) Ia gioi tu c6 nghia "do, tuy theo":
Tru'oc ~ (b() -H-): mijc do-Dan (don)¥ (b() 0): dun, chie'c-Giac AZ.?x~~ , IE]~~fffi~ (Nhan chi y phl)c, nhiin han thlr nhi di)
:W (bQ ~): bie't, cdm thay-H6 -¥ (b() ) ): tr(f tu, dtjt cu(/i m9t ciiu Qu&n do ciia con nguifi do (tuy thea) lg_nh n6ng ma khdc nhau.
nghi van-Ph1;1c ~~ (bQ ~ ): qudn do-Nhan IE] (bQ 0): do, tuy theo- 0 ffij (nhi) Ia lien tu bi~u thj slf thua tiep, cho biet phuong
Thti ~ (b() B): ndng-Kim ~ (b() A): nay, hom nay -Lu'dng ~g thU'c, ly do cua d(mg t<'ic ho~c hanh vi, thu'ong c6 th~ djch la "rna ,
(bQ ~ ): mdt-Djch ~ (b() B): thay do'i-Giap 31<: (bQ -}IJ: hai LOp, r6i":
kep-N~c ~if (b() ~): vang-To:;.i ~ (b() L 12net): r6i, ben (ph6
_!El~*~-rm~ (Nhan han thlr nhi dj) Do (tuy thea) lg_nh
ru). n6ng ma khdc nhau.
_ ~~tx_ffi]t]j (To<,J.i djch y nhi xuat) Bfm thay do ma (rbi) di
ra.
D!CH NGHlA Chile ao
Be Trang sdp vao h9c. Mf n6i: "Con hay con mijc do don, - t~ ffij ~~z (Trich nhi chli thlfc chi) Hdi rbi na'u va an
khong hilt lr;mh sao? Qudn do cua con nguifi tuy thea lr,mh n6ng no (Bai 63).
ma khdc nhau. Hom nay trifi mat, con nen thay do kep". Be ddp: _ {t~~ffij ~ (Khuynh h6 nhi tuy) DfJc b&u ru(fu ma uo'ng
"Vang". Ben thay do ma di ra. say.

NCO PHAP 0 ~ (to~i) thuong duoc coi la ph6 tu dung d~ bi~u thj ket
0 [6j (thu'Q'ng) Ia ph6 tu, dich nghia "con, van con, hay con" : qua, c6 th~ dich "the r6i, do~n. ben":
_ ~rED~¥ 1X >/fit~-¥? (Nhi thzt(fng truoc dan y, bfrt - ~~:t(ffijt]j (To(li dich y nhi xuat) Ben thay do ma di ra.
- ~~B~±g:f{ (To(li an thai b6i du'ong) Ben thea thai ma
184

~ y()AN THli TV HQC CH U HAN 185

\'Un bbi nuoi duang (Bai 63).


_ -BjB~fi3~ • 5Ltfj~ • ll'lJ~~?liiU~UM6i van gian, huynh
m chieu <1~. a6ng (C)a on kh6a) M/Ji hu6'i tffi, anh vJy em lc;Ii, cung
nf,?(1i on he/ i ( !Jd i ()8 ).
62
~ 1ffl
SAI TAO a !f. (tao) Ia danh tu dung nhu ph6 tu lam tr~.tng ngu, cGng
m @. Z 9=' • ?f Wl B fl • +
1i fi5 A o ~)?: ffi 8 voi ng hTa Ia "sdm": £l8Ef!.~ (Moi nh~t tao khc1i) MJi ngay d(iy
Phong oc chi trung, 6 ue nh?t tfch, bat nghi cu nhan. Co moi nhat S(fm.
¥ ~ . £, m w 1ffl ±m 1ffl a~ , 7t
o L-:J 1J<: 7£1 z .~'i
tao khc1i, tat dt,mg tniu tao clja. Tao th<'1i, W~n dT thuy sai chi, tile @ £\(t at) Ia ph6 tu bi€u thj Slf tat nhien, djch nghTa "at, at
13< ~ /f :t~ 0
phai , at se, tat":
hoi trftn bat duong.
_ ~)l:fij El _If!-~ • ,£,R=l wtm±ill Co moi nh~t tao khc1i, tat
dt,mg tni u tao clia) VI the' m6i ngay dgy S(fm, phdi dung ch6'i quet
T£) MOl
m{it d(It.
Sai 7£1 (b() ? ):
rdy nuac- Tao 1ffl (bQ :J ): quet-Phong JJj (b<) _ -l]:r;t£l1~:ft, ·£~7t~~W (Mau ke moi clac tht.fc, tat
p): bubng-0 ?f (b() ? ): da, nhap nhua, bt/n thlu-Ue f~ (b() 51(): tien hmi n ky sc'\) Ga mt: mr3i khi kiem dU'(IC thUc an, tntrfc h{t t({t
nhap nhua- Tfch fl (b() ~): ch(ft chua, dbn l9i-Nghi :§: (b() ~): phai g9 i ga con ( Bai o6).
thlch nghi, thich hc;p- Tniu w
(be) rtJ ): cay chdi-Du'o'ng :m
(bQ :J ): dgy len, ca't len, bay len.
0 7t (tie n) Ia ph6 tu lam tr~ng ngu, c6 nghTa "truck, truoc
het" , cl i;i t tnJoc cl()ng tu:
D!CH NGHiA Ray mtuc quet dpn
_ fffi= 8~ • Jtl-J 1j<: 7~Z • ~lj;l)<~/f m(Tao thoi, tien dT
Trang nha, nhflng db do ba?n nu5i ngay m9t chat chua, khiJnf? thuy sa i chi, rae hoi tran bat duc1ng) Khi quit, truac he't ta:v nuac
hc;p vai nguoi iJ. VI the' mJi ngay d(IY sam, phdi dung ch6'i quit ray, th i f ro b~i khr'5ng hay len.
m(it da't. Khi quer, tntac he't la:v nur!c rdy, thi tro b~i khong bar _ BJ:r;t£J1~:ft • ,£,7t~~W (Mau ke moi dac thlfc, tat
len.
tien hoa n ky s6) Ga m~ m6i khi kiem duc;c thuc an, tntac he't ta't
phdi g9 i ga con ( Bai 66).
NGO PHAP
0 ffj (m6i) Ia cl~i tu bi€u thj Slf tn,Ic chi a€ chi tung cai m() t, 0 ~U (t:i c) Ia lien tu, thuong dich Ia "thl", c1€ bi€u thi ket
cl?t truck danh tu, c6 th€ djch Ia "moi, moi m()t, tUng, mQi" (so qua :
sanh voi chu ffj (moi] Ia ph6 tu c1 bai 59):
- :tffi= ~ ')tJ;J 1J<: 7£1z • ~ljt3(~/fr~(Tao thoi, tien dl
_ ffj 8 Ef!.~ (M6i nh?t tao khdi) M6i ngay dgy sam. thuy sa i chi , tile h6i tdn bat duc1ng) Khi quet, tru(/c he't ta:v nuac
186 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 187

rdy, thi tro bl-{i kh6nt? bay len. Du ~ (b() }__ ): vLf(Jt qua, vur;t hon.
_ ~ ~ Fo~ '!'l!J ~f ~ z(Kh<kh huu van, tdc c5'n dap chi)
Khdch cr) hoi thi kinh dln trd fiJi (Hili 82). DJCH NGHiA Trdng dt].u
_ L-J£#~~8PJ~' mfr!'l!J@#~~(DT linh M mieu h<:tng, Be Hoimt? tr6ng cay dQ.u trong vuiln. Chdng bao lau, (d(iu) ndv
mieu hanh tdc linh minh) Dung chuang huc}c vao cd' meo, meo eli nuim. (Be) mung !dm. Ben theo tlu!i mil vun bJi nuai du·iJng. Ml(v
thi chuang ke u ( Bai 83 ). thcing sau, (cay d(lu) no hoa, ke't trdi. (Be Hoang) hdi r6i mfu cln.
_ ·Jt i.Y ¥~ ~!J ::IF~ (Duy sa m(,lc tdc bat nhien) Chl c6 sa N6i rling: "f)6 Ia nhilng trai tai c6 clu(Jc nlu! stlc kh6 nhqc, nen
nu:~c thi khang nhu the' (Bai 92). (tai) cam thifv ngon h(Jn blnh thuilng ".
m
NCO PHAP

f!
63
D
0 z (chi) trong nhG'ng tnrong h<;1p sau day du'Qc dung nhu'
mot d<:li tu chi thi d~ thay the va chi' l<:li nhG'ng ngu'oi ho~c su' v~t
--'-L-

CHUNG DAU
da neu ra d truck (so sanh voi z
!chi] a bai 60), va thu'ong c6
th~ dich Ia "n6, c.16, c.1i~u do, di~u ay, cai ay ... ":
Ji ~ fj R II] r:j:J o *~•§It ~ o :l\ ~o~
Hoang nhi chung d~u vien trung. Vi ky, phat nha. D<:1i hi. To<:ti (
_ j[ii!jffi];W ~z Trich nhi chU' thtfc chi) Hdi r6i na'u va iin
tt ~ ±g: It 0 l5z J=j 1& ' 1m 1t *5 ~ 0 jiliij ffiJ 1t n6.
an thoi b6i du'ong. S6 nguy~t h?u, khai hoa ket giap. Trich nhi chU' _a ~t £J 1~~ , ~,7to~
~ Z. o B : qJ:t -i§- *1J ?JT 1~ 13 ' jlj5z Jt ot ~ ~
thtfc chi. Viet: "ThU' ng6 lao ltfc sd d5c gia, co giac vi my du
;!t ~ ;(5 ~m-::k ' ~1J 61Z
o (Mau ke moi dac thtfc, tat
tien hm1n ky s6. Nhu'QC ng0 mieu khuytin, t~n ltfc h<) chi) Gil m~
~ {i1Jo
m6i khi kie'm clu(Jc thtlc an, truac he't ta't g9i ga con. Ne'u gijp
thuong da ".
meo, ch6 thl he't stlc che chiJ cho con ( Bai 66) (trong cau nay, z
chi chllt? i va tha\' the' cho ky s6 ).
TU M(JJ
_7J'~ i~ 1~ o tii 13~ ?f tvJ ' :X.~ ;j\~ o ~ Z ·~ ¥3Z W]
D~u R (b<) _II): cay dQ.u, ht?t clQ.u-Ky ~ (b<) t, ): bao lau-Nha (Thuy hG'u thanh trQc. TrQc gia da 6 v?t, htfu hG'u titiu trung. Am
?f (bQ -++-): mdm cay-An ft (b<) :f ): can eli, cb;ta theo-B6i ±g: (b<) chi, di tri b~nh) Nu(Jc c6 trong, dl-(c. Nu(Jc d~:tc c6 nhi~u I'Qt do
±): la:v cla't vun cay-Sd l5z (b<) J ): ma:v,
vai-Ket t5
(b<) *): h6a b!ln, lc;~i c6 nhilng con trung nho. Uo'ng n6 vao, dJ sinh ra b?nh
thanh trdi, ke't thanh-Gia p ~ (b<) -++-): qua clQ.u- Trfch :tliiii (b<) t ): ( Bai 70).
hdi, be, ngdt lay-Chti ;W (be),,.,): na'u-Ngo -i§- (b<) 0): tai, ta-Lao z
- T ±. ~ ~ ' ft~ (Dinh sinh hG'u d~, th~m ai chi) T!'O
*(be) 1J): kh6 nh9c-Sd pfj- (b<) p): tr(J tit ke't ca'u (xem Ngil phap, Dinh c6 cltia em trai, tro ra't veu n6 (Bai 81 ).
bai 77)- Vj ot (be) D): vj (do /u(/i ne'rn bie't)-My ~ (be) $): ngon- ~~~A, ~~~__t~, 21±Tt1zJ.g:z<Nhi yeu
188
TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THLI n.J HOC CHU HAN 189

khach nh~p. thlnh khach thu'(_ing tQa, ky t<,J.i h<:t vj b6i chi) /Je mai }.__): twin /J-Pham fL (b(> Jl): n6i chung, pham (di to .v rffng
khach 1•ao. nu!i khach nf?bi ch/f tren, con minh thl d ch6 duoi tie/; qudt)-Ph6ng 1J'X. (b(> :R ): huang tha rd-H~ 8~1 (b(> 8 ): thonf? thd,
khach ( Bai 82) (trong diu nclv, z (chi) chi l~1i l'a thay the' cho
nhan h<'·
khachJ.
D!CH NGHiA Bay di?unhqt (bay ngay trong twin)
6 Jl:t ( (thU') Ia d<;1i tu chi thj, trong bai h9c tren c6 nghTa Bay di~u nhf)t Ia: chu nhi)t (nhf)t difu), thu hai (nguyft difu) ,
"d61a": Jltg*:1JrJT1~~(T/ulng61ao llfc sd dac gia)D6la thti ha (hoa di¢u), thU fL( (thuy di~u), thU nam (m()c difU), thtJ SUU
nhiinR thti toi c6 clu'(Jc nha sti·c kh6 nlu;c. (kim difu), thti bay (tho? difu), R9i Ia m9t twin. Pham g(ip ngay
w chil nh(lt, cdc truang h9c d~u dLt(JC nghl.

64 NGO PHAP
t fftl B + Cach dil.ng clu1 fL
(pham)
THAT DI$U NHAT fL (pham) Ia ph6 tu dung d~ bi~u thj slf t6ng quat, thuong
c6 th~ dich Ia "pham, pham Ia, he , dc;ti khai, n6i chung":
t Btl 8 1tf'El B Btl'El J=1 Btl•El ')( _ fl~ B~ZB '·~Hx~1Jj(B~(Pham ng(> nh~t di~u chi
That di~u nh~t gia, viet nh~t di~u, viet nguy~t di~u. viet hoa
Btl•El JJ<. Btl• El * fftl•El iz Btl• El ±
di~u, viet thuy di~u, viet m(>c di~u. viet kim di~u, viet th6 di~u,
B~·
nh?t, hQc hi~u giai ph6ng h<;l) Pham RQP ngay chii nh(it, cdc
tntilnR h9c d~u dur;c nghl.
_}L~ $.Ifn. ' ~/f~*J?. (Pham huu khi huyet, m~c bat
~z-~ofl ~ B B~z B·~ fX~ n!x ton than) Pham c6 cung dong mdu, khong ai La khong ton tr(mg
vi chi nhat chu. Pham ng(> nh~t di~u chi nh~t, h9c hi~u giai
ph6ng nguai than ( Ba i 106).
H~
ha.
o w
65
Tl] MCJ/
~ ~~
Di~u B~ (b0 8 ):
anh sang m(it tn!i (a day "tha't difu" chl m(it
trai, m(it trang va nam vl sao hda, thuy, m9c, kim, tho}M()c * NGHlDAU

(b(> *): cay g6 (a day la ten m()t himh tinh, tuc M()c tinh hay sao ~ @ J=\ $ , tt ftr I~ o - B , Ji . ~ ~
Mqc)-Kim iz (b(> iz): vimg (a day La ten mqt hanh tinh, tuc Kim NghT eli huy~t trung, tinh hieu dau. Nhat nh?t, hoang nghi hac
tinh hay sao Kim)- Th6 ± (b<) ±): cta't (a day La ten mqt hanh ~ /JX M rm tB o :§IJ ~!f! n~ !Y'~ iW , ~ ~
tinh, ttic Tluf tinh hay sao Tho)- Vj ~ (b(> § ): gQi la-Chu ~ (b(> nghT thanh qufrn nhi xuat. Li~t tr~n u' giai tien, cac cu nhat
191
TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THV Tl! HQC CHU HAN
190

15• ~ 3:. $z o U Pi~ll ~·~JE::f cac th~mh ph~n d6.


phu'ong, ngh1 vu'ong suat chi. Quan ngh1 giai phan dau; chi nr bat Thi dl}:
~ 0 - a! 1 -B- w-=r- rPJ W3 w
thoai. Hi!Ng6 dfr tu d6ng b~nh nhi!
Oif T6i v6i 6ng Jj hai nguiri d6ng b~nhf ( Phan B<)i Chau:
ru Mal Vier Nam vong qu6c sif).
Nghi ~ (bQ ,:R): con kie'n-Dau ~~~ (bQ !10, ) : danh nhau-Tinh '1:1
(bQ '!' ): tinh (ban ch(it cua nf?U(fi hoijc v(it)-Hie'u ~T (bQ 'f;r:): ham 2. Thfm tir c6 the':
thich-Hiic ~ (bQ ~): mcLU den-Li~t ~lj (bQ iJ ): bay ra, dim- Tr~n (1) Bi~u thi SlJ cam d<)ng, thli'011g x6t: at (y), OJ (hi), a& (ta) ...
~!![ (b0 ~ ): tr4n (hinh the' qudn d()i khi danh nhau)-Giai W~ (b9 (2) Bi~u thi dau d&n: O!, §!,0~, '1'~- ~~-§*(hi), Oi:O!(y hi),
~ ): bt!c th~m-Cu ~ (bQ t ): chie'm giu-Vu'dng 3:_ (bQ _:[): vua- 0,[%0-f (6 h6), -TO,& (vu ta) ...
Swl't $ (b9 :Q;): ddn, chl huy, cai qudn-Phan Jl (bQ --};:.): rang (3) Bi~u thi n6ng gii;tn:,~, 15'~, ~' (6), PtQ&(sfrt ta) ...
sac- Thoai ~ (b9 L): lui . (4) Bi~u thi kinh ng(,lc, hoai nghi: O-f (h6), Of (hu) ... •
(5) Bi~u thi tan t1:1ng: §!(hi,) 0,[%0-f (6 h6) ...
D[CH NGHlA Kiin ddnh nhau
Kie'n iJ trong hang, tinh thich danh nhau. M()t hom, kiln vang, (6) Bi~u thi oan hi;in ho~c ti~c nu6i: 0~ (hi), at (ho<,1ch) ...
kiln den h9p thanh dan eli ra. Dan tr4n iJ tru(Jc bt!c th~m, m6i dan (7) Bi~u thi ph an d6i: OOJ (ha) ...
chilm gia m()t phucYng. Vua kiln chl huy dan kiln. Nhung con kiln (8) Bi~u thi keu goi: Of (hu), a& (ta), §!(hi), : 6
: (tu) ...
d~u rang sac chiln da'u, dln che't khong lui. (9) Bi~u thi tan thanh (dung trong diu d6i dap): ~(nhien),
Oi (duy), ~ (ni_ic), fm(d6), lfu (du) ...
NGO PHAP
THAN Tlf ll_i ~
m
66
1. Thfm tir: £1:
~t
Than til cling la m9t lo<,1i tu bi~u thi tinh thai, dung d~ keu goi MAUKE
hay d~ b<)c 19 mQt tinh cam dQt ngQt phat ra tlr trong long.
Than tu v6n kh6ng c6 y nghia Cl:l th~, cling kh6ng c6 mQt SlJ
a ~t ~~ ~P . ~ a
M au ke phu noan, s6 nh~t th~mh
PX: m ~ a t±l 1:r .
o
s6. Tuy mau xuat h~mh, vj
*
lien M tac d1:1ng nao v~ mi_it ngfr phap d6i v&i cac thanh ph~n khac ~ ~ WI o fJ: ~t ~ 1~ ~ • 'JC, 7t a~ ;!t W o :g:
trong diu va thtremg dtrQ'C Slr d1:1ng dQC li;ip (v~ m~t ngfr phap) v&i thuong vien ly. Mau ke moi dac thl,l'c, tat tien hoan ky s6. Nhll'QC
roAN THV Tl,l HQC CHU HAN 193
TRAN VAN CHANH
192

~ Wi 7:. • ~ 1J ~~ z oW X -ffJ: z ~r 1w. ~ o chua ti!ng cr5 ai kh.6ng co be h~m matt! rninh. iam nen (Bai Ill).
ngQ mieu khuy~n, t{Jn h.fc h0 chi. Du phl,l m~u chi ai tit vo di.
@ !Ji!(dt1) Ia gioi til, co nghTa "voi", trong bai dung d~ neu
TU M(JJ H~n doi tU\5ng slj so sanh, dung nhu 15~ (u) Cau
cua
Ke ~t (b9 it): con ga-Phu Wf (bQ r ):
a/J trung-Noan ~D (b(l W. xffiz ~ r~ ~ (Dil phl,l mau chi ai tit v6 dD co th~ viet
p ): trung-S6 ~ (b0 'ft): chim con- Tuy j)j (b0 ~ ): di theo- l~i thanh 15~ XBZ ~ -Tfflr; ~ ho~c 1W; ~ 15~)(-ffJ:Z ~ -T,
Thu'ong '§ (b0 0): ti!ng, c6 ldn-Ly ~ (bQ it): rai, lia-Hoan ~ nghTa Ia: kh.ang kh.dc gi cha mr;: thu'(fng con.
(bQ 0): gQi-HQ ~~ (bQ ;5): che cha. w
67
D[CH NGHlA Gam~
~
Ga m~ a/J trung, 1·ai ngay thanh ga con. (Ga con) theo mf di cue
ra, chua tung rai xa. Ga mf m6i khi kie'm dur;c thuc an, tru(Jc he't
ta't g9i ga con. Niu g(i_Jj meo, ch6 thi hit sue che cha, kh6ng khdc
gi cha mf thuong con.
~
Vien
~ ~ • & f;k i7fJ 7t " ~
fi
trung chung cue, c~p thu khai hoa. Ky
¥JI\¥ ~D ** •
~D
bi~n nhu ty, nhu
!1\ 0 ~ §, ~ j'i' ~ 8 ' 9)( ;fj{i' ~ ~J 0 fi
NGOPHAP triio. Ky sac ho~c hoang, hoi;ic b~ch, ho~c gia, ho~c h6ng. Chung
0 ~ (tuy) Ia gioi til co nghTa "thea, di theo, cung theo": ~ ® §7 ° '11 f!ijg 9} ; f®_ ;ffi ~st ~% ' 8 7t ~
_ f\i -ffJ: tb ff (Tily m~u xuat hanh) Theo mf di ra. l o~i toi da. Tfnh n~i han; nghiem suong ky giang, bach hoa linh
_ ?~~-fitz-~ • f\i?_&:{f:~?/1E(Phiem thien chu chi n: ' 'l'i *1 ~ g 0
nhat di~p, IllY ba nhi~m khu luu) Thd lenh denh mqt chi& thuy~n l<,tc, duy cue UQC th!nh.
con, tuy (theo) song m(ic cho tr6i di hay a (Bai 115).
_ 'l) ~ §. ~ • i)i !!\ ¥U llt (Tam nhuQc phu van, IllY phong
dao thtt) Long nhu may n6?i, theo gi6 din day (Trfrn Thai tong:
Thi~n tong chi nam tl/).

6 7K l'fi (v! thu'ong) Ia ph6 til, dich nghTa "chua h~, chua
tung":
_ *li~~(Vi 1/utdng vien ly) Chua tung rai xa.
_ -§-A~ tit • 7K 1i 1W; ,El,Ej 1X ffiJ §g EJ JJX.13 (Ngo nhan xU'
the, vi tlllldng YO bang huu nhi nang tlf thanh gia) Chung ta a diJi
194 TRAN vAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 195

Tl) M6I
Bi~n ¥1Jl¥ (b<) J]J: canh hoa- Trao JT\ (b<) 11\): nu)nf.? chan lodi ~ ~l(ky) Ia ph6 tu dung bitiu thi su' vi~c da xay ra . thu'ong
ctim thu-Gia Mi (b(l $): mdu dd son-Lo~i ~ (bt) J:=["): loLii-N~i djch "da, r6i" : w~ ~~J~ (Nghiem su'ting ky giang) Suang lt;mh
jlijt \b0 ,t): chju duQ'c-Linh ~ (bQ ffi): heo r~ng-Th!nh ~ (b<) del roi xuffng.
illl.): cd nhi~u. tuai t({t. w
68
D[CH NGH!A Ctic
~~ ~
Tr011f.? 1'L(i/ntr6ng cue, din mua thu nd hoa. NhiinJ.? cdnh hoa
GIAO D~
cua n6 J.?if{nJ? nhu trJ, nhu mr5ng. Sdc hoa ho(lc wing, ho(ic trdnf.?,
hoijc dd , ho(ic hcJng. Chung loqi rdt nhiJu. Tinh cua cue chju
5I ~ ~~ ~ '~ if- r6J ffE ' H ~ ltx o HJ B~ Fr3~ '
cluQ'c lqnh ; khi su·ang da xu/{ng r6i thi trc7m hoa nri r~nf.? , chf cr5 Hu ynh d~ d<)c thu', c:l~ nien thL(t.i ng trT, hieu du hi. Moi van gian,
hoa cue Iii rihiJ? l'(In tf/t tuui. 5I tel ~ ' [P] ~ iEli §* 0 ~ ~ /f ~0 13 ' 5I {~\
huynh chieu c:l~, d6ng tQa on khoa. D~ huu bat tri gia, huynh tat
NGU PHAP
0 :& (c~p) Ia gidi tu, thu'ong dung d€ neu thoi gian th~(C
§T- ~ ~* f~ 0
!;,_ z ·~ # §I ~0 f}J
tu'on g vj giai thich. Cuu chi, d~ di~c ttf tri din hQc hT.
** 0

hi~n d(lng tac ho?c xay ra tlnh huong, c6 nghTa "c:len luc , den
khi": TU M6I
_ ~r:j:lfi*J ' JSH.kOO 1t (Vien trung ch{mg cue, cqp thu Giao ~~ (bQ ~ ): dqy db- Tri ffE (b<) :;f ): tre con-Chieu tel
(b(l
khai hoa) Trang vuon tr6ng cue, cle'n mua thu nJ hoa. 1 ): vdy lgi-On ¥Eli (b<) { ): nhdc lt;~i, on lt;~i, xem lt;~i-Kh6a ~* (b(l
_&*-,®: '~'58 (C(tp t~t dG, thuy dT) Din khi kh6i h?nh, §): hcli h()c-Ttfong §$ (b(l ~ ): ro rilng-V! ~ (b(l JT\): vi, cho
mdi thai ( Bili 81 ). (J.?irii tu)-Giai Wt (b<) f:I'3): Ri(inJ? cho ro-Thich t~ (b(l -*) : gidnJ.?
_ &i:f.f~:&, 'X..f~A.*( Cqp nien sao trudng, huu su cho ro-C§n f}j (b<) 1J ): nh9c /c)nf.? hit sue, cham, sieng nang-Hi
nh~p hQc) Din khi tu6'i hoi lrJn, lgi cho di h9c (Bdi 98). ~ (bQ *): tr(f tL't (Xem Ngii phdp if chtai).

6 fi (toi) la
ph6 tu thu'ong d?t tru'oc hlnh dung tu o€ chi J)[CH NGHlA D{ly em
muc c:l(l rat cao v~ tinh chat, c6 th€ djch Ia "rat, nha't, htin d": Anh, em h9c tQp. Em tuifi con nht'), thich chrJi clua. Mbi buifi
_ fl ~ ~ :g, (Chung lo<:ti tol da) Gio'nf.? /ocli rc1't nhi~u. t/h, an.h v6y em l~ti, cung ng6i on bai. Ne'u em c6 cli~u gi khonf.?
_ §I J;) ~ ®: ~ (Tt! dT vi tol hi~n) Tt! cho til gii)i han cd hi&'u, anh tc1't vi em J.?idi thfch rii rang. Lc1u ngay, em cunJ? It! hilt
(TranJ? til: Thien ht;~). cham hqc.
*
_ ®: (Tol c:l<:ti) Lan nhitt.
196 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 197

NGU ?HAP 0* (hi) Ia m(>t trQ tl! thuong dung cuoi cau d~ bi~u thj
0 ~ (gia) trong bai hQc tren du<}c dung nhu m<?t trQ tl! ngli khf kh~ ng djnh:
(xem bai 20) d~ neu len S\f gicl thiet : _7._Z.·~?F§~Dib*-*(Ctiuchi.d~di~c tlf tri dn
- 5fH~f1'~D :13 ' ££,~¥ a~ltf~ ( D~ hffu bat tri giii, huynh hQc hi) Ldu ngay, em cling fl/ biit cham hQc.
tat tLfong vj giiii thich) Ne'u (h~) em c6 di2u gl khong hilu, thi anh _ ft BX 1= ' WT 1= ~ * (Nga d1,1c nhan, tu nhan chi hi) Ta
tilt 1'1 em gidi thich ro rang (thi anh {(ft giai thich ro rang cho em). muo'n due nhan, thi due nhan din v4y (Lu4n ngil: Thu4t nhi).
Lo
_ ~·M.:E-J-:13 , WT1.%lf~Wf? ( vo quan ttl' gia, tu yen w
thu tu? ) Nlu mtO'c L(J khong c6 nguoi quan tii, thi nguui Ia\· dau
69
duc;c cai due quan ttl a:v? (Lu4n ngil).
/f {i~ ~
BATDAOONG
@ ~ (vD Ia gioi tu d~ neu len doi tt1\1ng thl,l nh~n 111Qt d(>ng
tac ho~c h~mh vi do chu ngu thlfc hi~n, co th~ dich Ia "vi, cho".
D6i tliQng th1,1 nh~n neu ra trong tan ngu cua ~ (vj) co th~ du<}c
/f ft~ ~ , ~* {JJ 1t A o ft~ *, .§t ~£ , fA ft: ·
Bat dao 6ng, tr(;lng ttf lao nhan. Dfiu d<:ti, than doan, tu truong,
neu r6 ho~c tlnh ltiQC: !!£ 3'to £f• § ' 0 ··~ :i:o _t '~ T £o
_ ~~/f~Dft' ££,~f~~ltt'~ (D~ huu bat tri giii, huynh phat ngoc. Nhl, m1,1c, khffu, tj giai toan. ThttQng khinh h<;1 trQng.
tat tuong vj giai thfch) Nlu (h~) em c6 di~u gi khong hiiu, th/ anh 1--~ -¥ tl z' IIi {t~ IIi ~ 0
DT thu th6i chi, tuy dao tuy khCii.
tii't l'i em gidi thich ro rang (thi anh tilt giai thich r6 rang cho em)
(trong cau nay, nen hi~u sau chu vj c6 chu df : huynh tat tuong vj
TlJ MCJI
df giai thich; so sanh voi diu thi dl,l duoi).
Dao {t~ (bQ 1 ): ngii xuo'ng- Tr~ng ~;\ (bQ ~ ): hinh dang- Ttf {JJ
_~~~(.])($(Vi d~ giang co slf) K2' chuy~n cho em nghe
(b(> 1 ): gio'ng nhu-Dftu ~;'[ (b9 J[): d&u (ph6n tren hlt cua than
(l'i em kl chuy~n) (Bai 81).
hinh)-Than .§t (bQ .§f): minh, than-Doan ~£ (bQ ~): ngdn-Phat
z
_ ~ :13 ~ 15~ [2] it ftlj , ~ fr A §~dt ~ (Boc gia tQa u tu
~ (bQ ~)): t6c-Ng6c 3t (bQ 5K): trl;li, h6i-Khinh '~ (bQ lj[): nh~­
d<:tt chi cu, vj hanh nhan ngu httu cuu) C6 ong th6v b6i ng6i ch6
ngii tu duong, m)i chuv~n h9a phuc cho nhilng nguoi qua lc;zi (Bai . TrQng £ (b9 liL): n¢ng-Thoi ti (bQ ;j= ): d(/v.
121 ).
D!CH NGH[A Con lijt dijt
~ z (chi) trong bai tren la m<?t ti\i tl! v6 nghla, chi c6 tac Con l4t d4t (ong khong do?) (c6) hlnh dang gio'ng nhuong gia.
D&u to, mlnh ngdn, rau dai, t6c trl;li. Tai, mdt, mi~ng, mlii d~u
d1,1ng ve mi:it ngu am: 7-..z ·~?F§~DfJJ* *<Ctl'u chi, d~
nguyen v~n. Phdn tren nh~, phdn du(Ji n(lng. Dung tay ddy n6, d6'
di~c ttf tri dn hQc hi) Lau ngay, em cling tlj bilt cham hQc.
r6i l{li d4y.
198 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU nJ HQC cHa HAN 199

NGUPHAP w
+ Ccich dt'uzg ~ ... ~ ... ( tuy ... tuy ... ) 71
c6 djnh dung d~ dien
~ ... ~ ( ttly... ttly... )la 111Qt each tht.Ic )'(
ta hai d()ng t<ic cling xay ra 111Qt lu'Qt, co th~ djch la "vua ... vua": HOA
- 1\j {f~ ~~ (Tzly uao tzly khoi) VU'a n~li xulJ'ng I'll([ dung
len. fi ~ Z .$ ,:;;r OJ - 8 1W; :)( o t~ W ·~ , ~I=
bat kha nhat nh~t vo
_ ~ ~5?: 1\j§[, (Ttly thuyet ttly ky)
w
VU'a n6i vU'a ghi. Duong sinh chi
:)( /f Sfl o ~ W
Slf,
* hoa. Dang du chuc, phi
'~F :)( /f ¥A o J( ~ Z 8 '
hoa bat minh. Ph~n du thai, phi hoa bat th~IC. Thien han chi nh~t,
70 r~ w 11! ~~J , x.
OJ ffl tJ ~ ~ o
thi h1 than lo trung, hlfu kha t(,l dT nglf han.
*
THUY
TU MCJI
~ ~ z Jj' ' ~ ~)( ;fj~ iiJI 'BJG ~)( h~ # 1j 1~
0
*
Am thlfc chi thuy, ho~c thu u ha, ho~c thu u tin h. Thuy huu thanh
Dang j]: (b<) )'(): ccii den-Thai* (b<) -H-): rau-Thl;lc ~A (b()
""): (rul'u) chfn-Thieu 1~ (b() :}(): c76't-Than W (b() j'(): than-Lo
rll o 1; 1:t ~ ?t to/J , -x1j !J\ no ~ ,~ ¥3z m z o ·)7! (b<) :}(): Ia /ua-T~ ffl (bQ -H-): trong c(iy vao, nhif vao.
trQC . Trqc gia ua 6 v~t, hlfu huu ti~u trung. Am chi, dj tri b~nh.
?J)( 7., "* ;ft m&' 1I m 1~ Jj<. o
Co phanh tra chti ph(,ln, nghi dt,~ng thanh thuy.
D[CH NGHiA Lila
Vi~c nuai s(J'n~ khan~ thi nu)t nga.v khang c6 lua. Den va duo'c
khan g c6 lila khong sdng. CO"m. va rau, ne'u khong c6 lila tht
TU MCJI
khang chin. Nhiing ngay trifi lfinh, d{/t than trong lo, IQi c6 thi
Tinh # (bQ =): cdi ~ie'ng- TrQc ill (bQ ? ): d~c. vtin-Di ~
nhif c16 ct2' ch(J'n~ dut;~c {finh.
(bQ 8 ): d~ dang- Tri i.!z: (b() "¥ ): dem l~1i, clua de'n, sinh ra-B~nh
ffi] (b<) .("): dau o'm-Phanh ;7., (b<) ""): mtu chin-Nghi 1I (b(),...,...)
NGU PHAP
nen.
+ Ccich dtlng ~F··· /f ... (phi. .. baL.)
~~=··· /f (phi...ba't) la m()t each tht.Ic co djnh g6m hai ph6
D[CH NGH!A Nzt(/c
tu phu djnhphi va bi{t, c6 th~ djch Ia "neu kh6ng ... th1 kh6ng ... ":
Nuoc dung trong an uo'ng, hoijc lc(v iJ song, hoijc la:v iJ gie'ng.
_ m&W* '~!=:)( /fJlA (Ph?n du thai, phi hoa bflt tht,~c) CO"m.
Nuoc c6 trong, d~c. Nuoc d~c c6 nhdu v<lt dr! ba?n, lfli c6 nhiln~
\'(l rau, ne'u khc)n~ c6 lila th/ khang chin.
con trung nho. Uong n6 vao, d~ sinh ra b~nh. VI the: dun tra, na'u
_ ~F Fo5 /f '@(Phi thu'ong bi{t phli) Niu khong buon bdn th£
CO"m., nen dung nLIOC trong.
201
200 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THV Tl,l HQC CHO' HAN

khong lam giau dur;c. NGU PHAP


_ .§:;~~7J<1</G ±.ds (Dan phi
thuy ht)a biit sinh ho<;lt)Dan 0 ~ (thOi) Ia ph6 ttf, vdi nghia"thuong, thu'ong xuyen":
ne'u khong c6 nuoc va /U'a thi khong sinh so'ng dur;c (Mgnh ttl: _~*A; (Tiz(Ji hqc nhan ng6n) Thuilng h9c tie'ng nguui.
TQn tam thur;ng). _ §~{S B~tt~m)'~~ (Thinh quan tlzdi lie quan ngoa1
khach) Xin anh thulJng nh('! de'n nguui khach ngodi quan ai (Sftm
m Tham: Helm Co'c quan ca to'ng Luu Blnh 51! su· Quan Tay) .
72
~.~ ll® @ ~, (ca'p) du'Qc dt111g nhu' ph6 tu Jam trang ngil', cl~t tru'dc
ANHVO
d()ng tu, nghia Ia "gap, v()i":
~- B.:!;: =
_ ~ffi ,'e, ~ 1i, (Mieu cii}J d(>n khu) Con meo \'(!i tro'n di.
E.g 1- !!!!13 ;11-'IS_ ' r'-1 Y,T fllt.lo ' 'T lli "
_ ~, }[ !fi ~ d:; (Ciip dien y cli~u tr!) V<)i mui th!iy thuo'c
0
_...,, ...L. y:,"'J lt\.B Q -c; iEL "1"3 q:c /\. 1=1

Gia thu'Qng anh vil, b<;tch mao h6ng chuy, thai hQc nhan ng6n.
~ ~ ~ U: iffi J: · $ J1\ ~?f tl z o ~.~ l1® (1iJu tri (Bcli 107).
m
• O'f EJ : u- *' *
Hil'u mieu duyen trl;l nhi thu'ong, ell' trao tu'ong qu?c chi. Anh vil
~ ~ .n o
kinh h6 viet: "Mieu lai, mieu lai". D6ng tll' van thanh xu chi.
~ -=f ~ 5f ~ :?t o
73
Z!± 43 ~E& +_ 0 IDiX • ~ -=f
-gl±:f ,l.!.l, JLE! A
THANH THVC DONG Tlf
Mieu cap d(>n khu.

TU MCJI
• m -t3 tf.i w: :A m, ~ m m11~ tm o - £
M<:ti cam gd clam khu6ng nh~p tht, s6 cam l~c 11 dta. Nhat cl6ng
Gia ~ (b(>*): cai gia (d<i gac d6)-Mao ~ (b(> ~ ): long -r 1± 1~ ~ z , ~, :tiSm tJ ~ • m m
ffi o •
(d<)ng VQt)-Duyen ~ (b(> *):men thea, noi theo-Tn) :ff. (b(> *):
cay c<)t cdi-Qui;ic tl (b(> :f ): v6 la~y-Xu ~ (b(> Jt:): chgy mau-
Chi :?t (b(> :?t): de'n, toi-DQn ~ (b(> }.___): len tro'n di.
H" =
tU' t<,ti h~u kie'n chi, cap th~p cam di hoan m~i cam giii. M<;ti cam
:'!3 El : £ -=f ~ • ' OJ ~ {g.n olf~ m ¥~ z
gi<i vie't: "D6ng tll' thanh thlfc, kha gia da". Thtl nh\ cam bao chi.
0

~ -=f /G ;y:_ 0

D!CH NGHlA Con v~t D6ng tll' bat 'thlJ.


Con Vfl tren cdi gid, ( c6) long trdng, mo do, thuung hQC tie'ng
nguui n6i. C6 con mea tr~o men len c<)t, gia m6ng djnh v6 ldy Vfl. TU MCJI
Vft sr; hiii keu to rdng: "Mea toi, mea toi". Chu be nghe tie'ng, Thanh thtfc ~ Jf (b(> §, be) ,_.,_.): thanh thQt, thQt tha-M~i ft
chr;Iy mau de'n. Mea v<?i tro'n di. (b(> ~): ban-Cam f13" (b() :;t:): cay cam, trai cam-Dam tf.i (b(> :f ):
vac tren vai, gdnh-Khuong g (b(> ~r~r): cdi gio tre-Th~p :J:Ei (b(>
202 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THV nJ HQC CHU HAN 203

1 ): nh(it /c/:,·-Gia ~ (b() 0 ): khen ng(fi-Bao ¥~ (b() ±): dap, trd Nha toi c6 vuifn, tr6nR khiip cdc log,i cay an trai. Vun xai ra't
/qi-Tht;l ~ (ht} X): nhqn Ia:\'. cham. Trang khodng m9t nam, (nhilng cay d6) trU(Jc sau (!tin
lur;t) no hoa. Hoa n,mg, ke't thanh trai, chi chit ddy cay. De'n khi
D/CH NGHi/ 1 cq_u be th«.t tha chin, hdi an, so wJi nhilng trdi mua iJ chr;, vj ngon han.
Ngur!i bun cam \'clC gi() di l'clO ch(!. Mli:v trcii cam rrfi xu//nf!.
(lctt . M()t c(iu he a phra sau tr/)ng thi(v. 1•(Ji nh<it cam de"trd ICJi NGO PHAP
nguifi han cam. Ngur!i ban cam noi: "C<Iu he th<lt tha, ddng 0 1,m {bien) (cling viet Ia ~) dlf<;fc dung nhlf ph6 til lam
khen". (Rr5i) /{{y hai tnii cam hcio dap lgi CQU he (d~' cam r!n). C(lU tr~ng ngu, vdi nghia Ia "kh~p, kh~p mii": 1,m f.i~~J (Bien
he kh/>nR nh<ln. chung qua th1.,1) Tr6ng khiip cdc log,i cay an trdi.

w 6 ffi (chu') Ia gidi til, dung nhu ~ (u' )d~ bi~u thj noi
chon: t1~§~$$t3 •Dt}L ffa¥=- ~ (Giiio mai clui thj trung gia,
74
vj vlfu tien my) So voi nhilng trdi ban iJ ch(l, vj ngon han.
~ ~
QUA VIEN m
~ * ~ ~ '
Ng6 gia huu vien, bien chung
1~ fj ~
l)Ua
f§J ±g:
0
~ ~ i}J
th1.,1. B6i ung th~m dn. Nhat
0
-
75
1X
TAM HUU
if- z Fs~ · 7t 1~ i7fJ 1t om· ~:6 ~ ~ , fk fk ijijfj
1t
nien chi gian, tien h~u lJU~i,
f§t 0
& ,~ ' mu
khai hoa. Hoa IQ.c, kct vi
ffiJ ~ z ' 'Sl ~ §~ m $ 13 'ot
lOy lOy man
&! M' ~ ~1 1*.1 1t , t~ t'J ]E ' o a5G Fo, :X
Dlnh ti~n mai th1.,1 khai hoa, tung, true tjnh m~u. Nhi van ph1.,1
thu. C~p thuc, trfch nhi thlfc chi, giao mai chlf thj trung gia, vi
j L_,_ ,(B'i: ~
...+ 7-::. o
E1 : 0" ;ffi ~ z '
~ 1111 ~J ~ ;fr!J ~ ·1PJ l) - :f3 ~
viet: "Su'ong tuyet chi thai, tha th1.,1 da kh6 l~c, ha dT tam gia d()c
vlfu tien my. .
:;§ ? J ) ( E1 : o-!t '11 ~ ffiJt ~ ' w
1111 ~ /f [P] 0 -25
Bhii ?" Ph1,1 viet: "Ky tinh giai n~i han, du tha th1.,1 bat d6ng. c6
TU Mdl A ffi ~ ~ :=- 1X , ~D fj} , t'J , ~ -ti1 J o
Qua ~ (b() *): trdi cay-Bien 1~ (b() khdp noi-Ung ~
1 ): nhan xung tue han tam huu, tuc tung, true, maida.
(b<) ±): vun x6i-Luy liiy fk ~ (b() *): chi chit-Man jjijfj (bQ ? ):
dch-Giao '~ (b<) .$:):so sdnh-Tien ffAf (bQ ~J: ngon. TU Md!
Hii'u 1ff... (bQ )(.): nguifi bt;zn- Tung t~ (bQ *): cay tung, cay
D!CH NGHiA Vu{ffz trai ciiy thong-Tinh ]E (bQ -): cung ngang nhau, d~u-M~u a
(b9 ....... ):
204 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THll n,f HQC CHa HAN 205

t(J't tuai- Tha f-ti1(b9 { ): khdc-Kho 1i!i" (b9 *): kh6 heo-Xdng ffij. cau d<i hoi: fPJ .1--J =. :t3~~? (Ha dl tam gdt O.ocphi't ?) TCJi sao ba
(b9 71(): g9i La. tor;~i diy de) rieng ICJi kh6ng nhu thi?
0 ~p (tt1c) Ia ph6 tu, c6 nghla "Ia, tuc Ia , chfnh la",cuoi
D!CH NGHlA Ba ngzldi b(m diu thu'ong c6 trc;1 tu {Q (da):
Truoc san, cay mai no hoa, cay tung, cay true d~u tuai t6't. Con il"AfR~ 9J -tJ.. ·~D1~ • tt • ffij{Q(C6 nhan xung tue han
hoi cha rdng: "(Trang) mua suang tuye't, nhilng cay khdc phdn tam huu, t1cc tung, true, mai da) Nguoi dtii xua gQi ba nguoi b(,m
nhdu heo rf:tng. Tr;~i sao ba lor;~i cay d6 rieng lr;~i kh6ng nhu the'?". khi tr(Ji lqnh, chfnh Ia tung, cue, mai vt;ly.
Cha trd loi rdng: "Tinh chung d~u chju dur;tc lr;~nh, kh6ng gi6ng
nhilng cay khdc. Nguoi doi xua gQi ba nguoi br;~n khi troi lr;~nh, m
chinh la tung, true, mai vt;ly". 76

NGOPHAP
~
CHUC NGHI~P
*
0 jft (tjnh)
fl • tt jft fY.. (Tung
t6't.
la ph6 tu, dich nghla "d~u,
true tjnh m~u) Cay tung, cay true d~u tuai
cung":
A ± n~ t!t · ~ ~ ~ * o ~ ~ ~ ~
Nhan sinh l1 the, duong huu chuc nghi~p. Huu vi n6ng gia, huu vi
• ff ~
I ~·ff~ ~ ~·~ ~ '§ ~~o§" ~~ ~
c6ng gia, huu vi thu'ong gia, huu vi quan l~i gia. Tlch E>~ng Vii
6 ftl!. (tha) la d~i tu bi<iu thi slf tha chi (chi cai khac),
nghla la "khac": f-tl1~I~1i!i"~ (Tha thl;l da kh6l~c) Nhilng cay
ff r- + A• f~:fr ~- ~·OJ~ ~t {Q o
hilu tu tam th~p nhan, su cac t?p nhat ngh~, kha vi phap da.
khdc phdn nhdu d~u heo rf:tng. ·
TU Md1
~ fOJ J;) (ha di) nghia la
gl, lam sao ":
"vl sao, vlle gl, t~i sao, sao l~i, la'y Chuc lfl (bQ If): chile vj (vifc lam v~ phbn minh)-Nghi~p
(b9 *): ngh~ lam an, c6ng vifc lam- The' t!t (b9 - ): doi-Dudng
*
_ fiiJ
J;) - f3~~ ? (Ha di tam gia O.oc phil?) Tr;~i sao ba lor;~i
(dang) ~ (b<) E8): nen, phdi-Cong I (b9 I): thr;t-Thudng ~
cay d6 rieng lr;~i kh6ng nhu the'?
(b() D): nf?u"/ti bu6n bdn-Quan '§ (bQ ,...>-,.): quan (nguifi lam vifc
_ fiiJ .1--}~ ~ ? (Ha di kich nha?) Vl sao ddnh con qur;~ ?( Bai
cho nha nU'(fc)-L~i ~ (b() 0). quan (quan lqi)-Tich §- (bQ E3 ):
119).
xua, ngay xua-D:} ng Vii ~~ ~ (bQ ~ , b9 ~): m()t turing J?idi doi
_ :fit16J .1--J ~~~¥~? (Nga ha di giai ng6 khat ?)Ta lam sao
D6nf? Hdn-Sli f~ (bQ { ): sai khie'n- T~ p ~ (b0 ~~): h9c tt;lp-
gidi dur;tc can khdt?(Bai 120).
Ngh~ ~ (b() -++-): tai nang, k_v nanJ?-Phap ~t (b9 { ): khuon mdu,
phep tdc, hdt chuoc.
0 ~ (phu) la ph6 tu bi<iu thi phu dinh- nghi va'n, d~t cu6i
206 TRAN vAN CHANH roAN THV Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 207

1)/CH NGH!A Clucc nghifp D[CH NGHlA Kinh trQng ngttm gic'i cd
NguiJi ta so'nf!. (f diJi, cdn phai c6 chuc nghi~p (ngh~ nghi?p). Tuye't bdt c1du ngilng, tren du·ang bun ldy tnm tn;t. C6 6ng gici
Cd nguiJi lam ru(}ng, c6 nf!.u/Ji lam th(Y, c6 nguiJi lam ngh~ bu6n cho'ng gt;ly di m(}t minh, lit chan ngii xua'ng deb. M(}t ct;lu be chqy
bdn, c6 nguii !elm quem lc;zi. Ngay xua D(ing Vu c6 ha ch~:~c nguiJi mau de'n do 6ng dt;ly. ( Khi lJng gia) dii dung d<1Y r6i, (ct;lu) f{(v
con, cho nu3i nguai hqc nu) t ngh~. (vifc d6) dang lam khu6n mdu khan /au chui do va gicl.,· cho /Jng. (C<1u) h()i noi l5ng dua lJnf!. u.
v(l y. vJ nha.
m
NGU PHAP
77 + Cach dt'tng chic pJT (sO')
ij~ ~
pfT (sd) du'QC de nha ngu phap hi~n nay xep vao Jo<:~i hu'
KINH LAO
tu, Ia tieng d~t truck uc}ng tu d~ chi dC)i tu'c_jng ciia hanh d()ng, va
§: 1JJ ~~ r:p ?~
J1. , m
o 1'f ~ A , 1* H: 1® cung VOi d{)ng tlt ay t<:~O thanh rnQt C'-:Jll1 danh tlt, CO th~ dich
Tuyet so chi,
19 trung ne ho<;tt. Huu lao nhan, phu tru'cJng d()c 1a "di~u rna, cai rna, ngu'<'fi rna ... ":
fr , ~ ~~ 1~ o -tm 1t lffi-r m :t* z
o ~~ ~ , lf~
_ Fo~=13.; pJT 13 ( van ky sli cu) Hdi noi mel l5ng a:v u.
rtJ 1~ hi: 1Z ,Hi o Fo~ =13.; f5JT 13 , j§ m~
can dai thuc y, IY, Van ky scJ cu, t6ng chi quy gia.
z o *
hanh, that tuc pho uja. Nhat dc'~ng tU' xu nhi phu chi. Ky khoi, thu
_ :& pJT 1m (Nhi sli van) Nhllng di~u ma tai ta nghe thc'(r.
_ § pJT ~ (Ml;lc sd kien) Nhllng ccii ma milt :a tr6ng tha\·.
_ $=ltf5JT11Wiffi :W.::!tPff~
(8o<:~t ky sli tang nhi du ky sli ai)
TU Mdl Doc;zt la:v cdi ma 6ng ta ghet va cho cdi ma lJng ta yeu (Chie'n
Ne ?~ (be) { ): da't bun-Ho~t m(bQ { ): tron tr(Jt-Phu j:J:2 (be) quo'c sdch).
1 ): vjn, cho'ng, nang dCJ-Tniqng f~ (be) 7f:): cay g(ly-That ~ w
(be) jJ: liJ, s6_v. sai !dm-Ph6 1~ (bQ { ): te, ngc'i xuo'ng-Can rtJ 78
(be) rtJ): cdi khiin-D~i {-\ (be) { ): thay the' cho- Thuc hi: (be) 1 ): ~~ ~ 7t ~
!au chui-Ly Hi (be) F): giay -Tong j§ (be) ~): di theo, dua di, U) NGQ TIEN SINH
ti~n bi~t.
~ 5-e, {j ~~ $ ' ~ 7t ~ 0 ¥0 ~5 {j t~ ' li \r
Du nhi hanh 19 trung, ngC) tien sinh. Cue cung hanh le, chinh l~p
~~~ o7t ~~ifu· ~~ ~ zo7t ~ff
19 bang. Tien sinh huu m~nh, nhi kinh thinh chi. Tien sinh huu
Fo~ ' :J... ~ ~ Z o {~ 7t ~ :j:;, ' ft- 1& fj 0
A
van, hlfu kinh dap chi. Sl tien sinh khu, nhien h~u hanh. Nhan
209
TOAN THV Tl.)' HQC CHO' HAN
208 TRAN VAN CHANH

.J;;e.
a
w::· 6:· ~r=o 7!!11
rfl}Rl'TR
0
m
giai xu'ng vi tri le. 79
1.J rPJ
PHlfdNG HUONG

1~ ~ tfi tl r% tl=\ r~ o tfi a : rr-I*J 3m tJ rP1


Thanh th~n tC) hu~ ton xuat m6n. T6 viet: "Nhl tri phu'dng hu'ong

T£1 MOl
~y ? 8 tl=\ ~~ * ' ?9: ~~ ® o ~ m'
h6? Nh~t xuat L( c.16ng, m<)t u' tay. Kim nhl hLf(1ng nh~t nhi hanh,
lol B 7ffi fr ,
Du' ~ (b<) A.): h9 Du-Cuc ~ (b(> :$): cui xuo'ng-Cung ~iJ (b0
.§r ): than thi, minh-L~ t~ (b0 t ): di~u l~ (each bay to ·'I kinh
~ 1?1 * 1.J o ~~ 1& 1?1 ® , k:i .f: H r¥J , 1I -=¥- 1?1 ~ t
thi vi c.16ng phu'(ing. Boi h? u vi tay, huu thu vi nam, ta thu vi b~c .
o

tr~mg)-Chinh 1E (b(> Jl::.): ngay thdng-L~p JL (b0 JI): dting-Dap Me t~ 8 z tl=\ i~ , OJ .L-~ fJ¥ [!] 1.J ill "
~ (b0 *A-): trd loi lt;Ii-Si {~ (b0 1 ):
chif, dQ'i-Nhien h~u ?!,; 1& Co thi nh~ t chi xu at m(>t, kha dl bi~n tu phu'dng da.
(b0 , ... , b0 :::f): r6i sau mai (xem Ngtl phdp duai). o
TU MOl
D!CH NGHiA Giila drtiJng g(ip thii'y Thanh thfin 1~ ~ (b(> {, b0 8 ): sang sr!m. hudi mai-T6 tfi
Be Du di gitla duong, gt;ip thdy, cui minh xuo'ng chao, (r6i) (b(l t ): ()ng nc)i, ong-Ton I;% (bQ r ):
ch.du goi being 6ng-Nh'i m
dang thdng ben duong. (Khi) thdy c6 (di~u gi) dt;Iy bdo, be cung (b(> :)(): mcly, nguoi ... (dt;Ii tu nh.an xung ng/)i thU' hai)-M()t ?9: (bQ
kinh nghe. (Khi) thdy c6 hoi (di~u gi), lt;Ii cung kinh trd loi. (Be) { ): chlm ma't, l(ln-Boi ~~ (b(> Jj ): /Ling-Bi~n fJ¥ (b0 *): ph.an
dQ'i thdy di, r6i mai di. M9i nguifi d~u khen fa bie't ll bi?t.

NGU PHAP D!CH NGHlA Plutdng lutong


+ Cach di'tng ~1& (nhien h~u) Scing sam, ong ddt chdu ra cua. Ong n6i: "Chdu c6 bie't
~1& (nhien h~u) Ia lien tu c6 nghla Ia "r6i sau, sau c.16, r6i ph~({fng hLMng khong? MQ.t trifi m9c hu"r!ng dtmg, /(in huang o o
moi, thl moi, r6i": tc/y. Nay chou huang v~ phia m(it troi ma di. (thl) d6 la huang
_ 1*7t ~:E. ' ?!,; 1&1=r (SI tien sinh khu, nlzien htJ_u hanh) cUJng. Sau tu·ng Ia huang tay, tay phdi la hur!ng nam, tav trdi !a
DQ'i thdy di, r6i mai eli. huang hdc. VI the', nhln m(it troi m9c l'a l(ln, cr5 thi phan bi?t
_ ?!,; 1& :J!J\ z ~ $ (Nizien htJ_u xuy chi phu trung) R6i mai clu~1c b/{n huang.
nilu no trong n6i ( Bai 103 ). m
roAN THV Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 211
210 TRAN vAN CHANH

80 f} -j( (d~i) Ia hlnh dung tu dung nhu ph6 tu lam trC;lng ngu,

A fil.?
JJ'v thu'(ing co th~ d~ch Ia "d, dit, Him, het sue":
NHAN ANH _ -j( '1'1 (D(li Cl,l) 5(! !dm.
_ r=(: ml
-j( t~t (Quan thll' d(li duy~t)B9n chuqt cd mung ( Bai
13JJ B ?± ::;( ~ fr
o 1M T , :€ ~ A Jbl .:it 83).
Minh nh~t t<:ti thien. Nhi hanh lan g h<:t , nhu'c_ic huu nhiln nhiep ky _ -j( ~ (D(li hoi,ic) Qua ngo l't!C ( Bai 96).
1& o 7::. ·1:1 , ~ 15 ~ ~$ o ~$ E1 : qJt i-17. ~ ~ ili o z
h~u. £)~i Cl,l, bon cao ky ti. Ti viet: "Thll' nhO' than chi anh da .
~ :R ...Sf (kho"i... h6?) Ia m()t each thU'c c6 d~nh g6m c6
i-17. fL ri! iW , ff B T , ~ ~ ~~ , :R ~ z ph6 tu nghi van :R (kh ci i) va tr~i tu -¥(he\) a cu6i ci:lu, dung d~
Nhu l~p dang tien, h~mh nh~t ha, giai hO'u anh, khdi vong chi
-¥ ? .n o 5-G n ·leg o bi<iu th~ Sl/ phan van, c6 th~ dich Ia "h<i...sao?" hoi,ic"le nao ... u'?":
h6?". Nhi nai ng() . _ :R~Z-¥? (KhiJi vong chi Jz6?)Le nao quen st! d6 u?
- ~ r 9:13 ' R OJ~~,~, Sf ? (Vi tll' nu gia, khiJi kha
TU M(JJ vong ky an ho'?) Nhiin[!. n[!.u&i him con ha c6 thi quen on cha mf
Nhl.iQ"c :i5 (b<) -++-): nhu, gio'ng nhu-Nhiep ]bl (b() ;'E): u5n duoc sao? (Bdi 98)
bucJc-C~ ·11 (be) 'I' ): S(1-Bon ~ (b() -};): chqv-Cao 15 (be) [1 ): m
bdo, ru5i cho bie't-Khdi :E_ (b<) _R): ha, le nao, sao lqi (xem Ngii
81
phap i! dudi)- Vong ~ (b<) ~l)): quen- NgQ 'IR: hiiu ro. ~~
ArDe
D[CH NGHlA Bong ngrtifi
M(it trai soi scing tren bdu trai. C(iu be di dur!i chai nhd, (th(/\)
hinh nhll cc5 11f?U'i1i rr5n hucJc phia sau. (C<Iu) s(f quci , chqy di hdo
T ~ ~~'!& ~zo- B'~*'I?A
Dinh sinh hO'u d~ , th~m ai chi. Nhat nh~t, d~ t~t, ng9a sang bat
'* /f
chj. Chj n6i: "Dc5 Ia bc5ng cua than ngu(!i em. ( Khi) em dung trLfdc §g ~o T B~j B~ ' •
±. ~ iW o ~ ~ ~ t5('*
den, eli duoi bong m(it troi, c1&u c(5 b6ng,le mlo (em) quen didu dr5 nang khdi. Dinh sinh hi! thai, triep t9a sang ti~n. Vi d~ giang c6
u?". C(iu be bim hiiu ra. ~ , o~ ~x HE , t~ ~* 1t \.c.~ o & ffi2 ~ , M3 8 o
S~(, xu'ong ca khuc, dT giai ky 111UQ!1. C~p t~t du, thuy dT.
NGU PHAP
0 :i5 (nhtiqc) la ph6 tu c6 nghTa "nhu', dL(c'ing nhu, gi6ng T(/ MCJI
nhu": 5-Gf::Y}]fBT' :i5~A!hli~1& (Nhi hanh lang h~, nlut(lc hO'u Dinh T: ht.J Dinh-Trie'p.: luon luon c1&u (tit biiu thj )' quyit djnh,
nhiln nhiep ky h~u) C(iu be eli duc!i chai nhci, du(/ng nhu(tha:Y) cr5 tlft nhien)-Xtiong 0~: hat, hat len-Ca ~)Z: hclt-Khuc HE: bai hat-Mu<)n
nguoi r6n bu6c phia sau. \.c.~ : hufm ba-Du @_: khoi b~nh, tanh b~nh-Thuy ~f:j: Nit c16u, nu'!i.
212 TRAN vAN CHANH TOAN THlf Tl/ HQC CHO HAN 213

D!CH NGHiA Yeu em nJ MOl


Tu) Dinh c6 (1L/a em trai, ra~t _veu (em). M(Jt hom, em cr) b¢nh, Nii'u m:
hQ Nilu-Phong §jj: hoi thLl//1~ Yeu ~: nu'!i-Ky G:
nlim r1 giuong. khong d(iy dut;Jc. Luc nhan r6i, tu) Dinh fw)n c1~u mtnh (dt;ti tu nhan XW1J<)-V! f:lz:: nw3i tlur-Cfin gf: kinh ca?n.
ngbi tru'r!c giuilng. ki chuy¢n cho em nghe, hdt nhilng bai ca, di
khw1y m3i bu(5n cua em. De'n khi em khoi b¢nh, mr!i th/Ji. D!CH NGHiA Tiip kluich
a
Be Nilu nhd. Cd nguoi khach hoi tlulm cha n6. Cha vita nufi

0.
NGU PHAP

(triep) clu<;jc dung nhu ph6 tu ,bi€u thi tinh tat nhien,
c6 th€ dich Ia "cGng van, van eli, Juan lu6n d~u, thl d~u" :
m: *
T ~B~l!B • ~ iW (Dinh sinh h~ thoi, trie'p t<_)a sang ti~n)
c1i ncJi khac. Be nu!i khcich vao, mili khach ngbi ch6 tren, con mlnh
rhl if duoi rie/J khach . Khach c6 hoi, rhi kinh cdn tra lili; (khi)
khach di, be ti2n ra c1e'n ngoai eLla. De'n khi cha v~. (be) dem
nhilng /(Ji khdch m)i trlnh l(,li voi cha.

Tro f)inh luc n3i, luon dJu ngbi trur!c giuung. NGU PHAP

6 ~{5 (thiiy) Ia ph6 tu, c6 nghTa "bat clfru, mdi": 0 ~ (thich) Ia ph6 ttt, c6 nghla "mdi, vua moi": )(~1-tQ
_ & f:R.Z! • ~{58 (C~p t~t dG, thzly dl) De'n khi khoi b¢nh, 1i (Pht,I thich tha vang) Cha vua mdi di noi khdc.
mr!i thr5i.
_ Jrr~~f;.k- B~ • ~{51~~ (Ljch xuan, ha, thu tam thoi, tluly 6 ttl! {tha) Ia d~i tu, dung clti chi "cai khac, nguoi khac, ncli
d~k tlic) Trai qua ba mua xu{m, ht;~. thu, mr!i clu'(Jc tMc ( /3(/i 103 ). kh<:'ic": )(3@1-tQ1i (Phu thich tha vang) Cha vua moi di noi khac.
m w
82 83
lEt s
~g: ~ 1:1-t .P.J;I.
BCH KHACH QUANTHV
m~ 7± * .1=r ~ §15 ~ )( o x ~ 1111 11 o
NCru nhi t<:ti gia, huu khach phong ky pht,I. Pht,I thich tha vang.
lEt
1:1-t
S If»:
.13.131. '71'<.
--'-
F\
,-+,
'I '
=~
iltt
'·.fFn
~
Qufin thl't tt,I huy~t trung, nghi ngl.f mieu chi sach. Nhat thl't tien
~
~IE
-7
tL
~
.YR.
0
-
S
.P.PI.
~H::
;!!!;

~ ~ ~ A • §! ~ c
...t ~ , :(f 'T f:lz: ~g: o z a: o-tJ ilii ~ rj . m m
1=r ~u ilii o.~ . .g jf
viet: "DT Jinh h~ mieu h~ng, mieu hanh t~c linh minh, ng6 boi
Nhi yeu khach nh~p, thlnh khach thu<;5ng tQa, ky t~i ha vj b6i chi.
~ 1=f Fo~ • ~IJ §i ~ z; ~ 1i • ~ ~ ~ F~
Khach huu van, U}c ciln dap chi; khach khu, nhi t6ng chi m6n
1~ £F- ~ z
flffi .n gf .mr~. ·1~ • 1w. /f *
~ o .:t
dac tao vi chi b(. Qufrn thlt d~i duy~t, v6 bat xung thi<$n. Chu
m
7} o & )( ~~ · tJ ~ ?JT § • 5 z x15'2 o
~~
otx:
.::!;L
B
EJ ·· o- 3tt
cti:
i;i:.
r:Ji::.
I' I
.VA
~~.;,.. ~
!l'lJ 7k
~IE
~lfl

'"
.=;:<. ? .D
B ·
0 ~
= .i!W-i'.A-
ngo~i. C~p pht,I quy, dT khach Sd ng6n, cao chi 11 phu. nghj gia viet: "Thuy nang dT Jinh h<$ mieu h~ng gia ?". Giai m~c
TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU TV HQC CHU HAN 215
214

~ ~ ~ ttt
o r~J5z 0" §a: ~~ D , z *l r:r z _ :E\"ND8~1~' gtfCiJ{i::Ei:t"? (Quan tuc bach tueh~u,
nhien nwc cam d6i. C6 viet: "Ngon chi phi gian, hanh chi duy tlu'ty kha d;;ti quan gid?) Nlu nha vua chit r6i, thi ui co thi thav
D Jl 0 cho l'ua? (Sif" h': Tieu Tuang qwJ'c the' gia).
gian".
~ ~ (m~c) Ia d~1i tu co th~ chi nguoi ho~c vat, thu'ong djch
TU MOl "khong ai, khong c6 gl": ~~*~~~it (Giai m~c nhien m{lc
T~ ~: nh6m h9p l(li-Sach m: ke' sach, ke' ho«ch-Tien ~: dm u6i) Tc{t cd a~u im l(lng khang con nao dam trcl lr1i.
bucJc tai-Linh ~%: cai chuang-H~_mg Jffi!: phdn sau ct/, gay-Ngo
g: tai, ta-Boi :11: phe, b9n ("Nga ba'i" fa chung ta)-Bj flffi: phong 0 *i (duy) co thti dLf(ic coi Ia moth~ tu, t<;~m djch Ia "Ia":
tntC!c, phong bj-Duy4%t 'I~: vui, df!p long- Thuy gtf: ai ( clqi tit nghi § Z~~ 9ffi. ' f=r Z *liN (Ng6n chi phi gian, hanh chi duy gian)
\'£l'n)-M~c ~}\: im LQ_ng, lcJng le-Gian 9ffi.: kh6 khan-Duy *fl: La. N6i khtmJ? khr5, li11n nu'li !a kh6.

D!CH NGHiA Bii'y chuqt


w
Bdy chu()t nh6m h9p trong hanJ?, ban ke' how:h ch/Ing meo. 84
M()t con chu()t tiln len n6i: "Dung chuang bu()c vao c6 meo, (hl) ±ill f~
meo di thi chuang keu, chung ta sum ph<>ng bj n6 cluc;c". B9n BJA cAu
chu()t cd mitng, khang con niw khang khen hay. Con lam chu t9a
cu()c h9p hoi: "Ai c6 the' dung chuanJ? bu()c vao ci/ meo? ". Tt!it cd -j§- 1~ ?JT 13 z
±ill liJ rm rn~ m,
r~J5z ~ tm ft o A
d~u im l(ing khang con nao dam tra fiJi. Vi the; n6i rdng: "N6i Ng6 sai s(i eli chi dja vien nhi lu'(Jc bi~n, c6 danh dja du. Nhan
khang kh6, lam mC!i La kh6 ". JI.~ wz I@·~'£ w $*me· 7t ~
l ~p cao scJn chi dien, vien vQng hai trung lai thuy~n, tien kien
NGO PHAP me ~
fffi , 1& me
~ o A 1i: ~ , me .§r
0 1m /f (vo ba't) Ia mot Cl;lill tu quen dung, c6 nghTa thuy~n nguy, h~u kien thuy~n than. Ky khu thai, thuy~n than
"kh6ng g1 kh6ng, kh6ng ai khong, khong cai nao kh6ng": 7t ~.x , me fffi 1& ?.X o ii ~ ±m ft :t- , ~o rtJ
fflii /f f¥1}~ (Vo biit xung thi~n) Khang con nao khang khen hay. ti en m(>t, thuy~n nguy h~u mot. Hoan du dja du gia, nhli huang

mt ...fp (thuy ... gia?) Ia mot ket cau g6m d<:ti tu nghi
*ffiJ 1'J ' 15 rtJ ::f ~ ' 7--. z'
I£\ @] 1]¥:
dong nhi hanh, phli<.ing hu'ong bat bien, ctl'u chi, tat h6i nguyen
van *_ gtf§g
@
(thuy) ket hQp voi trQ tu :t3 (gia) d~ hoi ai lam vi~c g1 :
i) ~% ~fs!jJ~ 13? (Tiu'ty nang dT linh h~ mieu hang
~ o 1ft ~ till liJ z mm
xu. ThU' giai dja \·ien chi chung da.
o

gid ?) Ai c6 thi dung chuang bu()c vao c6' meo?


TOAN THV TV HQC CHV HAN
217
216 TRAN vAN cHANH

c<ich thuc co ainh, trong u6 rJT (s0) la tn! tu ket cau ket h0p voi
danh tU (5 phia trtiOC Va UQI1g tU d phia SaU lam thanh m(>t Cl,lffi .

clinh ngG':
_ ~i~ pff 13 z .till (Ngo sai sl! cti chi uia) Dtft cua chung ta
i!.
_ ~~PJT~~ ;Z_ ,~ (Mong C6 sl! ky chi rna) Ngf!a cua nf?uoi
M/Jng Cd ciii.
- 1$ r FJT 13 z '£ (Trqng tlt sl! CL( chi that) Nha cua TrQng
tit r!.
Tl) Mdl
C:iu l:jt ,·tjt hinh cdu. qua du, dja cdu, qua dcl't-Sai f~: b<m 6 Sift (ltiQ'c) Ia ph6 tu lam trc,tng ngC(, u~t trtioc hlnh dung tu,
(di;it sau dc;i tu nhan xung nJ?oi thu nhttt di bifu thj so' nhi~u; co nghla Ia "h(ii, hcii chut, h(ii h(ii" : [!1]ffi]IDgm (Vien nhi ltt(fc
"NgtJ sai" la chung ta)-Vien ~: tron-LtiQ'c mg: hoi hoi-Bi~n m: bi<in ) Tron ma hai df!l.
df!p, df!t-Dien ~: dlnh nui-Hoan ~: cdi w)ng-Bie'n ~: thay {Mi.
biin ddi-H6i @]: tru ' '~-Nguyen !Jf:: luc dc1u. ban cldu, vo'n d!-Xu @ )t (tien) va 1& (h~U) O~U dung nhL(. ph6 tU lam tr<,tng
~: ch6. nai-Chung §~: hang chunf?. ngG', d~t trtioc u(>ng tu, co nghla Ia "trtidc, sau":
~~~~· ~~~~0~~~·~~7t~·~~~~
D[CH NGHlA Dja cdu (Tihz kien thuy~n nguy, hij.u kien thuy~n than. khu thai, Ky
Da't chung tau hinh tron va hoi df!t, vi the' gQi la dja du (trcii thuy~n than tien m(>t, thuy~n nguy hij.u m(>t) Truac tha:v c()t
da't). Nguoi ta dung tren dlnh nui cao, xa trong nhilng chie'c butJm thuyJn, sau tha\· than thuyJn. Khi thuy~n di, than thuyJn
thuvJn di tai trong bd'n. truac tha~v c()t hu6m thuyJn, sau tha:v chlm xu6ng truac, c()t bu6m thuyJn chim xuo'ng sew.
than thuyJn. Khi thuv&n di, than thuyJn chlm xuo'ng tru(fc, d)t
bu6m thuyJn chim xuo'ng sau. Nguoi di vt)ng quanh dja cdu, ne'u o :tm (nhu) Ia lien tu bi<iu thj gia thiet, djch la "neu":
huang vJ phia dtJrzg ma di, phuang huanf? khong thay ddi, thl ml)t 3m [l:l]~ ffi] f=f • 1J (ri] /f ~ • !;z Z • £'@] iJf: ~ (Nlut htidng
thai gian !au sau dt phdi tru lq_i ch6 ban ddu. Nhilrzg di&u d6 dJu dong nhi hanh, phticing htiong bat bien, cltu chi ' tat h6i nguyen
La bang chung vJ trdi d!lt hinh tran. xu) Niu huang vJ phia dong ma di, khtmJ? thay ddi phu:ong huang.
thi it !au sau ta't tri'J /q_i ch6 ban ddu.
NG(/ PHAP
0 pJT + d()ng tu + z + danh tu: c6 th<i dt1<;5c coi la m(>t m
218 TRAN VAN CHANH 219
roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHO' HAN

85 cao, gr;i la cao nguyen. Nai cr5 cat, da, kh<Jng o5 nuoc. gei ld so
~_i
mr;zc.
Lt)C

NCO PHAP
~_i till OJ U Ji5- A , *- :t- El ~1+1 , 1J\ :t- JJ]. 1L ® • Caclz dzlng f3 ... ill (gia ... da)
'* '
L!Jc dja kha JT eli nhan, d<;1i gia viet chau, tiEu gia co l~p hai
El ~ c - iHi fr 7j( ' - [@ ;@ ~~ 13 'El
trung, viet dao. Tam di~n t<;1i thuy, nhat di~n lien d~i I!Jc giJ, viet
* f3 ... 1:11
(gia ... da) c6 thE du'c;ic coila m()t each thuc co dinh,
thu'on g dung trong diu djnh nghTa, tam hiEu la "la ... v~y":
-=F ~ 0 L1.J ~ ~ D~ +till ' I J\ 13 El $. ' El M ' _+lffi: 13 ' tillz +±B 13
(Binh nguyen gia, dja chi blnh
ban dao. Scin, d()t kh(Ji Lf blnh dia, tiEu gia viet ph!J, viet khLru, than gia dii) Blnh nguyen lei l'ung da't ri)ng rai bling phdng (\'C).\').
~~ o §~ ili :A 13 , El :A L1.J o Jffi: +13 , till z _ ~~~13 ' ~-ill. (Kim minh gia, nha da) Nay con chim
lang. Nang xuat h6a gd, viet h6a son. Blnh nguyen giii, dia chi
+ ±a :t- m " ~ till
blnh than gia da.
~ rB':J 13 , rB':J a
o i0
Ky dja the cao gia, viet cao nguyen. Sa th~ch
'* :n keu lei con quq (Bai I 19).

z till ' ~ 7j( ~ 13 ' El ij; 1~ 0

w
chi dja, YO thLiy thao gia, viet sa ITI<:!C .

86
Tl] MCJI till im z Jj(
Chau HH: dai lf!C, C(Jn, biii song-Co JJ.l\: n1(Jt mlnh-Dao ~: cu D~A DI~N CHI THUY
lao, ddo-Ban -=F: nu)t mia-D()t ~: hc"ft' nhien, cl(Jt nw)t, xoi thung
("d(Jt khiJi" ld nh/J len)-Binh +: bling phdng-Phl) $ : g() dc'lt-
till im z Jj( ' )( 13 El i$ ' ~ /r_ El yij ® 0
7j(
Khu'u .M: g() d(l't cao- Than ±B: r(Jng riii bling phdng-Sa i0: hc;a Dia di~n chi thuy, dai giii viet dliong, ky thu viet hai. Hai thuy
cat-M~c 1~: h{ii cat. ril :A ~_i till , OJ 1-J ?a 7it 13 , til , # a ?a a
loan nh~p !1,1c dja, kha dT b~c chu gia, viet hai loan, di~c viet
D[CH NGHlA Diit lie'n · m * ~i zo _t , ~ 11£: till ~ 1J' 13 , a ~ a
D!it lidn nguiii c6 tid iJ duc;c, khoang !C!n g9i la chau, khodng cang. £)~i ]IJC chi thlit)ng, huu de dja tru' thuy gia, viet h6 viet
nho dang m(Jt mlnh t rong biln g9i la dao. Khodng ( cr)) ba mi;it iJ ?a o ~ !J\ :=f3 a ~\Q " rm: J-m ±m ® z 1J' a ii iPJ o

nui nude, m(3t m(it !idn vai clr;zi lf!c g9i Ia ban ctdo. NU.i nh6 len iJ b~c. Ky tiEu gia viet trl. Lu'U thong dja di~n chi thuy vi giang ha.

vung deft bling, nui nhi5 t?9i la d6i, g9i Ia go, cltJng. Nui c6 thi
1£ L1.J Fa~ t3 , a ~ irs~
o ~ El rB':1 ~ {tJi iM T ,~ rm
T~i sein gian gia, vi khe gian. Ky tlf cao xu khuynh ta nhi h<:l, dao
phun ra ltla, gr;i hi nui ltla.
Blnh nguyen hi 1•ung d({t r(Jng riii bling phdng. Nui c6 dia the'
~ z,
-tlo ~ ~ z
111 , ~ ~JJ 111 o a
vqng chi, nhu huy~n khong chi bo, thi vi b<)c bo.
220 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THLI TV HQC CHO' HAN 221

TU M(JJ
Tl) M(JJ
Duong ~$: biln Lon- Thu )J\.: hue duai (~ )]\ Ia "rhri de'n, duai *
Ngii d~i chau .li i1+1: nam chau lr!n-Ciiu hinh f3}0f~: vQ_t
hinh trim, hinh qud bong, hinh cdu-Dong ban du'$: -=Ff*: nil'a
nii'a ")-Loan tJl': nuac chdy vong, ch/J nur!c char V()ng vao d([r
("hdi loan" \'a ''fnh)-B~c ?8: (thuy~n) ghe hen, (thuy~n) dQ_u; cai hinh c6u phia dong, Dong ban c6u-A-te-a 2*-ffl2: Chau A (nay
h6-Cang m: cifa bdn, cdng-De fit: tha/J-Trti ~:cluJ nuac dr;ng, gQi lu A chau)-Au-la-ba liD\ a~: Chau Au (nay gQi La Au chau)-
A-phi IQ'i-gia ~ilJ ~ fiJ :fJO: Chau Phi (nay g(Ji Ia Phi clzau:j~ H+IJ-
vung nuac; nur!c dt;mg l~i-Khe i~: khe nlf(JC if dur!i nui-Gian fa~:
khe nlfac if giii'a hai nui-Khuynh M.: nghieng, cld-Ta ~~: (nuac) *
Uc-d~i IQ'i-a i~ f1J5}: Chau Uc, Chau Dc;1i Duang-The gi6'i
tit .Ji!.: hoan cdu, the' giai- Tay ban du ~ -=F f*: nil'a hinh cdu
ct6' xut/ng ph fa duai-Huy~n ~: treo len, chai vai giii'a chitng-BC)c
bo' iJ {j]: thcic nlfac. phia ray, Tay ban c6u-A-my- IQ'i-gia 2 ~ fiJ :fJO: Chau My (nay
g9i Ia My chiiu ~~1-/'IJ.
D/CH NGHlA N1tilc tre n m{it diit
Nur!c tren mijt da'r, khodng lrfn g9i Ia ch((Jng, thri de'n (nho han) D/CH NGHlA Niim chiiulan
gqi Ia hdi (biin). ChrJ nlf(JC biln chdy \'(J ng vao cU{r li~n. co rhl Dlit tron nhu hinh c6u (hinh qud bong). Naa trai da't v~ phia
d(w thuy~n dur;c gqi hi vjnh, cung g9i Ia cdng. Tren mijt dc;1i 1!!-c clang (Dong ban cdu) co bon chau, g9i la: Chau A, Chau Au, Chau
(da'r li~n), co ch6 da't tha/J d9ng nuac, g9i Ia h6, la bg.c. Ch6 nho Phi, Chau Uc. G9i do La the' giai cu. NU:a trcii da't ,.~ phia ray (Tay
g9i Ia tri ( ao). Dong nuoc luu thong tren mijt cta't la giang ha b£1n cdu) co m9t chau, Ia Chau My. G9i do Ia the' girJi mai.
(song). Dong nuoc (chdy) if trong nui Ia khe gidn (khe suo'i).
Dong nuac tit ch6 cao chdy dd xuong phia duoi, tu xa nhin no
giong nhu ta'm vdi treo giii'a khodng khong, do la thdc.
m
87

NGO DAI CHAU


.li * ~HI
.till Ill ~o f* Tf~ o '$: -=F f* ~ rzg ~HI , B :2. *-ffl2 ,

liD\ m~ ,pilJ ~ f'J no , r~ * f'J 2.


Dja vien nht1 du hlnh. D6ng ban du huu tu chau, viet: A-te-a,

Au-la-ba, A-phi-lQi-gia, Uc-d~i-IQi-a. Vj chi


o ~ zw
ClfU
tit w o ~
the gioi. Tay
-=F f* :ff - i1+1 ' B 2 ~ fiJ :fJD o ~ - z ;fff tit W o
ban du huu nhat chau viet: A-my-l(ji-gia. Vj chi tan the gioi.
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THlJ Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 223
222

NGO PHAP kha ru- th~p du.


cAuvAcACTHANHPHANc0AcAu Rio dan Tjnh Tdxucfng thtm nghenh don (Lf Sjnh). mirj vao
1DW1DB"llft5J- ngcJj ng,?ng mift. (Tj11h Tri) tuol" chimg bcfn mUV'j (Tttdng Phong:
1 . Cau Ia dan vj l&n nhfrt cua ng6n ngfr dung di di~n d!,lt m(>t Hofc Tj{u Ng9c truy~n).

y tron v~n . Lo(,li cftu kh6ng neu chu ngfr goi Ia cftu chu - vi kh6ng hoan
to an.
Thi dl}:
Nhfrng cau do m<)t nhom tu t!,lO thanh ngoai k~t du chu - vj
- ~ f~ ~t31J'2 ~ ~~ 71E ' ~ ~~ ¥5 z 3 ±.~ 81\ + ~ ~~ 4-11'2 goi la cau kh6ng chu - vi hay cau co cbu - vi khai quat. Tnrcmg
WT~
Ng6 sai ham Lr bfrt nang tlr, bilt nang ho(,lt chi kh6' ciinh di lt,Ic hqp nay chung ta thu&ng thfry trong thi ca ho;:ic & nhfrng cftu thanh
th~p hfru du nien u tu hi (Phan B(>i Chau: Thjen h6 Di hcJ) (Chung ngfr, tt,Ic ngfr.
t6j bj 175m vao c:inh scfng deY chir dd rY day d5 17011 sau mllV'j n5m Thi dl}:
nay r6j). - :fJR!Ml:it ~ · ~~til::~
2. Moi diu co hai thanh phfm chinh Ia cluJ ngtJ va vj ngtl: Da kh&i hoang oanh nhi. M!,lc giao chi thuqng d~.
Cau "Nga tri chi hi" (Ta bi~t di~u do r6i) ( n-ung dung), co "nga" Ia Du61 dum thjip co11 oa11h, dimg cho 116 h6r tre11 dmh (Cap
chu ngfr, "tri chi hi" Ia vi ngfr. Gia v~n: Y chau ca).
Co hai tmcmg hqp cau kh6ng co chu ngfr: -JI\EB/fmfJ~, *T/f~M
( 1) Hoan c:inh Cl} rhl cua Joi n6j (hay dot;Jn v5n) kh6ng dn Qua di~n bilt n<;1p ly, ly h!,l bfrt chinh quan.
neu n5 chu ngtl: Dj qua ruf)11g dua thi dimg xo gJily. dj dur5i c5y m~11 thi dimg
Thf dl}: sib 17017 (co'tin).
-/f~~§~? a: ~z Vi ngfr co khi chi g6m m(>t d(>ng tu. m(>t hlnh dung tu, co khi
Bfrt thuc hfru chu? Vi~t: hfru chi. l!,li co them m(>t ti11 11gil; m(>t thu9c 11gt1: B6 sung cho cac thanh
(Mc;mh TtJ ho1): - Kh6ng bjit c6 vj~c fy kh6ng? (Tuyen phfm trong cftu con co thi co dj11h 11gtJ: b6,11gil; trc;mg 11gt1: Tan ngfr,
v/f01zg) dap: Co (Mt;Jnh Trl). thu(>c ngfr, tr(,lng ngiJ, djnh ngiJ, b6' ngiJ Ia die thanh phfrn pht,I cua
diu. Ngoai ra, cftu con co thi co nhfrng thanh phfrn phlf khac nhu
(2) Chu ngif d3 neu ra 6 dot;Jn tren hoifc sfp dllf)r: neu ado:;m dur5i
dcJ11g vj 11glr. pht.fc chl11gil; h611gifv.v.
Thi dl}:
- ~§ 5 I ~~ t~ T ~~ tEl Jill , g A tt * · 4- OJ [9 + ti
Bao dan TinhTrl h<:1 b~ tuang nghenh. dien nh~p d6i toa. Nien
3. Tuy theo k~t du ngiJ phap va n(>i dung cfrn di~n d!,lt, cilu co
thi rfrt ngtin gon va cling co thi rfrt dai.
TOAN THll Tl,l HQC CHU HAN 225
224 TRAN VAN CHANH

- Cau dan Ia diu chi c6 m()t k~t du chu vt. Thf dl):

Thf dl):
-/9.Jimmtz
Nguy~n v~t ti~t chi!
- ft9(DZ.* Xin dimg tJlt 19 vi~c d6.' ( Yen Dan til).
Nga tri chi hi ( Trung dung) (Ta biit di€u d6 r61).
(4) Cfiu cam than: Dung d~ b()c I() Sl! xuc d()ng trong khi n6i
- Cau phfrc Ia cilu do nh&u cau dan (hay nhi~u k~t du chu-
ho~c vi~t.
vD hqp th~mh.
Thf dl):
Thf dl):
- ~JU~JE -TEl : Di
0 ! 1(~-T !
-1~1(T~lit* , ~tit~~JE*
Nhan Uyen tt1. Tu vi~t: Y! Thien tang dtr!
Su thien h~ vo nong phu, ct1 th~ giai ng~ tt1 hl.
Nhan Uyen chit. Kh6ng ttJ than: 6i. tr&i h[li ta.' (Lu~n ngfi).
Niu trong thien h[l kh6ng c6 ngwi film rur}ng thi m9i ngwi
se chit d6i (Trinh Ti~p: Phr;rm huy¢n tht! trung ky d¢ M("ic). m
4. Can Clr vao n()i dung va ml,IC dich di~n d~t, ta c6 th~ chia 88
E ~*
cftu lam 4 lo~i chinh:
( 1) Cfiu trdn thu~t: Dung d~ neu len m()t Sl! thl!c, m()t y ki~n.
*
NGO DA.I DUONG

Thf dl):
* tlJ z ...c n * ~HI z 7} ~ 1J'z rJT ~ J?x :1t * :13: 7t
o

- Fl tfj 15~
Nguy~t xu~t tr Dong San chi thtrQTig. ~$o §2 ~J+I
vi ngG dvong. Ttf
*
Ngu d<:ti chau chi ngo<:ti giai thuy chi sC1 tt,I. Ttfu ky d<:ti gia phan
~n ~ ~·~ "j;_ +- ~$o §
A chau dong chi My, huu Thai Blnh Duong. Ttf
Triing m9c d t1-en ntii Dong S011 (To Tht1c: Xich Rich phu).
!®\'~ ~~·~-}( l!!J ~$ c 2Z f¥J• ¥~ Z l!!J' ~
(2) Cfw nghi vfn: Dung d~ hoi ho~c neu len m()t v~n d~. A chi Nam, De chi Tay, Phi
Thf dl):
Z *'
Au, Phi chi My, huu D<:ti Tay Duong.
~ E~ f!t i$ o foj r¥.i ' ~ ~ t ' ~
chi Dong, huu AnD() Du<.ing. Ctfc Nam. ctfc Bac, huu nhi bang
= <;J<

- 7t±.M~iPJZ? ~$ 0

Tien sinh ttrang ha chi? duong.


Tien sinh djnh di dfiu? (M.anh til).
T(/ MOl
(3) Cfiu du kluln: Dung di neu len m()t yeu cftu, m()t m~nh
Sd tl,;l pff~: ch3 t~ lr;ri-TtfuJ?,t: uiY rheo (giai tu)-Thai Binh
l~nh, m()t Jeri d~ nghi hay thtrang ltrQTig, khuyen bao, mm moe.
226 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THV TlJ HQC CHU HAN 227

Duong -j::_ + ~$ : Thai Blnh Duong-D~i Tay Duong *[§~$: DC:li 3. D6n hj~u ( , ): Dung nhLr dfru ( . ), nhLrng d~c bi~t chi dung
T(h Duong- An De) Duong EP F:l ~$: ln D9 Duang-Nhi bang a nhGng do:;tn li~t ke (co sach gQi dfru nay la d~u hi~u, nhll' dfru
dtfo'ng =(~\ ~$: Hai hifn bang. ph5'y).
Chu thich: Co sach gQi ''d~u hi~u" va "d6n hi~u" !a "diim
D!CH NGHiA Niim biin l{Jn hi~u".

Ngoai niim chou lcfn d~u la nai t~ l(,li cua mMc. Theo nhilng 4. Phfin }Jj~u: Diiu chiim ph5'y ( ; ).
biin lcfn (nguui ta) chia ra lam niim d(,li duang. Tit phia Dong 5 M?Jo hj~u: Diiu hai chiim ( : ).
chfiu A din chdu My c6 Thai Blnh Duong. Tu chliu Au, chdu Phi 6. vin JJj~u: Diiu hoi ( ? ).
din chdu M.v c6 D(,li Toy Duong. Phia Nam chdu A, phia toy chdu 7 Than JJj~u: Diiu than ( ! ).
Uc coln D9 Du(Jng. Cung qtc v~ phia Nam va phia Bdc c6 hai 8. D3n JJj~u ( r J . li J ho~c { } ): Dung di dong khung
biin biinf?. bQ ph~n trich dfrn.
9. Quat JJj~u ( ( ) ho~c [ ]. ho~c - - ): Con gQi la
NGU PHAP "giap chu hi~u". tll'cmg dmmg v&i dfru ngo~c dcm.
10. Pha cinlt f1j¢u ( - ): Dung biiu thj Sl! chuyin d(>t ng(>t tll'
DAU cAu ~~~1-J5J)E
y nay sang y khac.
Cac sach c6 thll'ang kh6ng chfrm ciiu m(>t each r6 rang, n~u co
11. Ti'nh 1uvc f1j¢u ( ... ): Con gQi Ia "s~m ti~t hi~u", tll'ang
thi chi co dfru chiim va dfru khuyen, con gQi la "d~u" va "eli". dl.l'ang v&i dfru chiim ll1ng.
"D~u" la dfru chiim ngLI'ng hai cho ciiu sach , dung di ngftt 12. D;Jc danh JJj~u ( _ ): Con gQi Ja "tll' danh hi~u", dung di
tLI'ng do:;tn m(>t. hai chfr, tll'ang dll'cmg v&i dfru ph5'y (d~u hi~u); "Cu" g<;~ch dU'&i ten ngll'ai. ten dfrt v.v.
la dfru chiim dCrt nghia ciiu sach, dung di ng~t nhGng do<;~n tlr 3 chfr
13. Tru6c tr9ng lJj~u ( .. ): D~t ben phai chfr (n~u chfr in dQc)
tra len, tfrc Ja dfru khuyen, tll'cmg tv v&i dfru chiim ngay nay (eli
ho~c phia dU'&i chfr (n~u. chfr in ngang) a nhGng do<;~n d~c bi~t cftn
hi~u). DQC nhGng sach kh6ng bo ctiiu (gQi la"b:;tch thu'"), cac trQ' tlr
chu y.
dung riit nhi~u trong Van ng6n se giup chung ta phfrn nao bi~t dll'Q'C
14. Thlf danh JJj~u ( ~ ~ ~ ): Dung g<;~ch dLr&i ten sac h.
nhGng cho ngLI'ng ng~t cua tac gii
15. Am gj6i ( . ): D~t gilia nhGng iim ti~t trong m(>t tll' phien
Mai v~ sau, tll' nam 1919, ngll'ai ta da guy djnh 12 dfru m&i; ·.: nll'O'C
- ngoa1.
· · 1-rzJJJ-d lj: '>'-r::. I.J ~
~
am t1eng ¥ cv .r. L~e-nm
· ) (' ).
d~n nam 1949 l<;~i guy djnh them 3 dfru nfra, tilt ca h~ th6ng g6m 15
dfru. NhGng dfru nay thll'ang dll'Q'C cac nha in Slr dt,mg khi in l:;ti cac w
van ban c6, vi th~ cling cfrn gi&i thi~u sa lll'Q'C:
1. Cti hj~u: Diiu chfrm (.). 111
Ve
ten gQi va each dung cac dau ciiu . chung toi can eli chu yeu vao cu6n Hifjn d?i
2. DPu JJj~u: Diiu ph5'y (,). Him ngtJ(Thllang Vl! an thll quan . Biic Kinh . 1963): ngoai ra con tham khao them m(lt s6
a
sach 8ai Loan . Hong Kong .
228 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU nJ HQC CHU HAN 229

89 I . Chu ngfr va vi ngfr Ia hai th~mh phfm chinh cua cau.


$fj Chu ngfr dung d~ neu len st.,r v~t rna ngtr&i ta mu6n n6i d~n,
HO chi ngtr&i hay v~t lam chu mot hanh d(>ng hay m(>t tr<,lng thai.
Chu ngfr trii l&i diu hoi: Aj? Cai gi?
1Z:9 cm ~i ±ill , 1J( ~ Jt l=jJ o 1J\ tt El Hg •-T:. 13 El
Vi ngfr dung d~ n6i v~ chu ngfr, cho bi~t hanh d(>ng hay tr<,1ng
$fJ o$fj 7j( 1W ~ ' § flt OJ J;) fi *
Tu di~n h,IC d!a, thiiy tnr ky trung. Titiu giii viet trl, d~i giii viet
0
7j( l=jJ ~
h6. H6 thiiy tham quang, cJ.! chu kha dl vang lai. Thiiy trung huu
a
thfti cua Sl,l' V~t neu ra chu ngfr.
Vi trii l&i cau hoi: Lam gi? Bj (duvc) Jilm gi? Nlur thi niw?
f!?. '~~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ ' iffi 1fl EE Jt ff o (15;( m1 1~ Z La ni?. La cai gi?
ngu, ha, da lang, ngau, nhi quan di~n vuu ti~n. Co h6 tan chi
EB·~~ fi '!:& ~o Thf dl):
di~n, thu ho~ch h~ng phong. · - ·11€~-T:.~z~ , ~~xi*Z1~
Duy nga D<:1i Vi~t chi qu6c. tht.,rc vi van hi~n chi bang.
nJ M(JJ Nwc D;;i Vi~t tn. rlwc fa m9t nwc c6 viin hiin (Binh Ng6
H6 mJ: hb (nhu cdi ao nhLtng !an hrm)-Clf §: fan-Ha ~: con dpi cao) ("Duy nga D<,1i Vi~t chi qu6c" la chu ngfr, "tht.,rC vi van
tom-Ng~u ~: ng6 sen-Quan1-f: dan nuac tuai, tuai, rot vao-Ti~n hi~n chi bang" la vi ngfr).
ff: ti¢n, ti¢n l(fi-Tan ¥~: bo-Thu ho~ch ~~fi: thu ho{lch-H~ng 2. Chu ngfr c6 th~ dung chi st.,r v~t dong vai tro chu dong ho~c
tff: thuong-Phong ~: ct&y, thjnh, du'(fc mua.
bi d(>ng v&i nhfrng st.,r v~t neu ra & vi ngfr.

D!CH NGHlA HiJ Thi dl):


Da't !dn bo'n ben, nuac cl9ng l{li iJ ben trong, ch6 nho g9i la - Chu ngfr chu d(>ng:
ao, chb fan g9i fa hb. Nuac hb sau, rl)ng, thuy~n fan c6 thi eli lgi L,,~ p;fi :@: c ~
- 7F ff,tmQ-::N:J~\~
, rh "]j:;+Jm.tt
'11X.1ff.';
clu(fc. Trang nuac c6 cd, tom, nhdu cu a'u, ng6 sen, vi¢c dan nuac DLI'thtr&ng liim san vong tht.,rc, trung d<,1 phu chfrm.
vao tuai rul)ng lgi cang ti¢n hrm. VI the' rul)ng ben bo hb thu
Tn thur3ng t6i blfa quen iin, nib dem vo g6i (Tr~n Quoc
hogch thuong du'(JC mua.
Tuan: Hjch tur5ng si viin).
- Chu ngfr bi dong:
NG0PHAP
- flr:*-T~ ?Ixfitr~
CHU NGCJVA V! NGCJ V~thai tifvi Giang Sung s& b~i.
I. Chu ngU' va vi ngU' Thai tif nwc V~ bj Giang Sung danh b;;i (Han thti).
Chu ngfr c6 khi kh6ng chu d(>ng, cilng kh6ng bi d(>ng:
230 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl,l HQC CHCI HAN 231

- ~~W*! Thqt la mo'i h;i w5 cung.


Khfu tham hi!
Giifc dong qua! ( T:i lruy~n). NCO PHAP

w + Cach di'ing z
(chi) chlmfi cholz
z
(chi) doi khi dli<Jc dung nhli cl<_~.i tu chi tht dti chi v~ noi
90 chon, c6 nghia Ia "d d6, noi d6":
w - wZ.:*::ff3' ~' *~Z. ·~' wX ~ Z( Son chi d<,li gia,
SON thao, m<)c sinh chi, dm, thu eli chi) a
nhilng nui !Jn, c6 co cay
o
sffng do, chim muong n(fi d6. o
±mlm ~ w·~- ~ ~5L·~ A.~~~·
E>ia di~n huu son, ho~c nhat phong d<)c l~p, tung nh~p van te,
_ /MM ~W ffi] ;#, £ z(
Uyen thiim nhi ngli sinh chi ) V{tc c6

~ W1<: ru! t§ ~ , + lit 1' *B o w z * :ff3 ,


ho~c s6 phong tli(1ng lien, thien ly bat tuy~t. Son chi d<,1i gia,
sau thi ca mui sinh ra od6 (Sit ky H6a thlfc li¢t truy¢n tl/).
w
~ ,* ~ z , wx z rm
~ 13 o ~ , =r , t-t , ililz 91
~ ' Y... ;¥_ fj~ ~ '*
thao, m<)c sinh chi, dm thti eli chi. Nhi kim, ngQc, moi, thiet chi
0 IDJX 1W; ~ z f-lj ill 0
thu<)c, hlfu san li ky trung.Thanh v6 cung chi IQi da.
~=
f'S
HAl

Tl) MOl
re -n~ f:ttm _t z [g[§j £E!-
~ Jffi ' 1~ :€ ~.i z
Hai li dja du chi thli<Jng tu di~n qwin thong, phi nhli<.Jc h:~c chi
Phong ru!: cham nui, dinh nui, ng9n nui-Tung 3i: cao thilng ~ ~ *-1 tt1 °~ ;a f=¢ ~ ~5Z 1~ ' ~fr ~ ~
len-Tt ~~: khodng- Ttiong t§: cung nhau-Lien ~: li~n vui nhau- huu do~n tuc da. Ky c~n ng<,1n xu giao thitin, ti~m vien ti~m
Thien ly -=flit: ngan dc;im (duong)-Tuy~t if.§: edt dlit, dlit-Thao ~w o @l :JE ~&: s~-+- z. 1m ~o &l ,w ~ rm ra
tham. Phong djnh ba blnh chi thai, hai di~n nhli kinh nhi hai dti
~: co-NgQc =[: thu da qu.v, ng9c-Moi t_t: than da-Thitt ilil: sdt-
San ;¥_: sinh de, sinh ra-Cung ~: cung he't, cuo'i he't-Lqi f-lj: mo'i
~lj Qfl [2) ;If' ~ ~0 ~.i ±ill zw
fr ; fb 1m ~ ~
ufc ao d<)t bat d£ng nhli ll}c dja chi son co'c; d<)ng thlfc cac v~t
lr;i, lr;i ich.
J)\ *I ;£. ~ Fs~ o
D!CH NGHlA Nz'ti di~c t~p san ky gian.
Tren mc;it da't c6 nui, ho(ic m9t ng9n dung rieng m9t mlnh, cao t!ffl re a ~ :§;- ~ 1J' tl: , ~ t~ 1 J\ fit :tffi ~,
thdng vao trong may, hoc;ic ma:v ng9n tie]J li~n nhau ngan d4m Tiin hai dan eli da t~p thuy tinh, thliong tr<_~.o titiu chau b6 ngli
kh6ng dut. (0) nhilng nui !Un, (c6) co cay so'ng 0 d6, chim muong 9® , t* 1J' ~ , ~ ~ if1l! Hf Fs~ M! A w ~ JfX
6 n(fi d6. Nhilng loqi vang, ng9c, than, sdt lqi sinh ra trong t/6. ha, thai thuy tao, ho~c h~ th~ng yeu gian truy nMp hai ati thu
232 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THli Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 233

Ifffi mJ '~$ Et z Ji0 .1.-J. tW: ~ ;riJ o ~ ® ~ z A (phi) la ph6 tu phi.'!


d!nh, dung nhu' 1' (bat):
san ho, b~ng chau chi thuoc dT bac h~u lQi. Cai hai t§n chi nhan ~F;g=~j: z ~iir*:llli (Phi nlut(lc h,1c chi huu do~n tt;~c da) Khanf?
A t~ ® ill ~ ~ 15~ JJl x z t~ B3 o nhu cllit li~n c6 chb dut chb no'i.
ky th! hai da v6 d! 11 n6ng phu chi th! di~n.
6 ~ (giao) Ia ph6 tu lam tr<;tng ngu, d~t truck hlnh dung tu
TU M(JJ trong mot ket cau so sanh, c6 thti d!ch "kha , tu'ong doi, ... hon":
Qmin thong ]i :@: li~n suo't, thong li~n-Do~n tQc iff t,J: dut A Jl[f$~~1~ (Ky c~n ng~n xu giao thitin) Nai g6n ba cua m5
no'i-Xu ~: nai-Giao t~: khd, tuang c16'i- Thi~n 1~: nlJng, cr,m- thi cg_n han.
Ti~m if: ddn ddn-Djnh )E: yen-Ba ~,&: : s6ng-Ao [g): !om xuo'ng-
D()t~ : l6i len- T~p ~: nhdu, xen ke, ldn l9n- Tfin ~: k~, gdn, @ J! (cai) Ia lien tu dung d~ giiii thich nguyen nhan cua slf
ba-Dan cu' ..§:~:dan cu-T~p ~: quen-Tr~o f~: cheo-Tao /ffk: vi~c, d!ch la "bC1i vi":
rong-H~ ~: bul)c, CQ!- Th~ng ~: day- Truy M;: thong xuo'ng, tha ~ ® ~ ZAA1~ ®lli~~n~~ x
Z t~ B3 (Cai hai tgn
xu6ng-San h6 (san ho) ffffi m.J: san h6-B~ng chau ~f J)K: ngQc chi nhan ky th! hai da v6 d! 11 n6ng phu chi th! di~n) Boi vi nguai
trai-Bac tW:: r9ng, mo r9ng, lam cho r9ng-H~u lqi ~ fiJ: m6n lt;Ji oven biln ho xem biin khong khdc ngul-ti nang phu xem ru9ng.
Lan-Cai ~:hoi vi (xem Ngil phap o duai).
0 ~ ... ~-·· (ti~m ... ti~m ... ) Ia mot each thuc co d!nh c6
D!CH NGH[A Biin th<i d!ch Ia "cang ... cang ... " : iT ~~fr~m (Ti?m vi en ti?m tham)
Biin (J tren mijt dja cdu, bo'n mijt thong li~n nhau, kh6ng nhu Cang xa ba cang sau.
cta't ldn c6 chb dut no'i. Nai gdn ba cua n6 thi ct;~n han, cang xa
ba cang sau. Luc gi6 l(fng song yen, m(it biln nhu guang, ma day
m
biln thi l6i lorn chdng d~u nhau, gio'ng nhu hang nui tren l~:tc dja; 92
cdc loai d9ng v(1t, thl!c v(1t cilng sinh san ldn l9n trong d6. i::JJ i~
Dan cu o gdn biin, phdn nhi~u quen tinh o m,cac, thuang cheo SA MAC
thuy~n nho bdt cd tom, hdi rong biin, ho(ic bu9c day ngang lUrlg
thong xuo'ng day biin la~v cdc thu san h6, ngQc trai di thu nhi~u ±ill fj( z_t ' +-
@ ' 7J< ' ~ ~ w' tJJ] ' ±
D!a du chi tht1<;5ng, blnh nguyen, st111, thuy, giai huu sinh v~t,
m6n lt;Ji ian. Boi l'l nguoi o ven biin, xem biln kh6ng khac nguai
nang phu xem ru9ng. 'lit i::JJ ¥~ ~IJ 1' ~ o
duy sa m~c t~c bat nhien.
NG0PHAP i::JJ 1~ ~&i ~ ,. t:. ~ *ff5 li ~ -=f lit ; ±ill
Sa m~c buc vien quang d~i ho~c mien dng chi thien ly; d!a
0 ~FE (phi nhu'qc) nghTa la "kh6ng nhu'", trong d6 ~F'
234 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHO' HAN 235

z 1J' ]j[ o ~ Fr3~ ~ 11~ iX: ~ Po ~, A. & NCO PHAP


ph<:tP thtiy thao. Tni gian khl h~u viem nhi~t nhLf ph~n, nh~p d<:t
fl!J {i J:t (~ {)itl 0 _§_ X. '*'
~ Jim !1R ' :t~ 1j,' 0 fj;!t: (ctfc ky) duc;ic dung nhu ph6 tu lam tqng ngG', d~t
uk ctfc ky Him Ii~t. Tha htfu thuong khoi c1.,1 phong, quy~n sa· truck hlnh dung tu, c6 ngr.Ta la "het s(tc": fj(C{tc ky Him li~t)
~ ::s m ~ ~ ~~ .~t , m
fl!J t~ t~JJ. A i'if , ~
Hit sue lgnh leo.
hi~p th<:tch phi vu kh6ng te, s~u l(;lc Uic y~m mai nhan sue, mac
"6J ~ il o 35!: /f' i® 15~ !@ A o
kha dao d<')n. Co bat thfch u cu nhan. 6 _§_X (tha htfu) du~k di:mg nhLf lien tu, bi~u thj stf tang
tien, c6 th€ djch Ia "va l(;li, va l(;li, hon nG'a"
T£) MCJI _ax.'*'~ ill!@, (Thd h{tu thuong khoi c1.,1 phong) Vd lgi thuCinf?
ndi len nhi?ng trqn gi6 lo'c.
Sa m~c 10'1~: sa mgc-Buc vien : di¢n tfch, liinh th!f. drit dai-
Quang d~i JJi *: r9ng /O'n-Mien *m: keo dai-C~ng Ji: surJ't, chqy ~ ~ (s~u) Ia ph6 tu lam tr<,tng ngG' bi~u thi Stf xay ra d()t
diii din-Ph~p z: thiiu, khong c6- Khi h~u ~ 11~: khf hqu-Phftn ng<')t, d~ t truoc d()n:g tu, c6 th~ d!ch "chc;it, thlnh llnh, dOt ng()t":
~: thieu. clo't-Ctfc ky t~ }t: hit suc-L~m li~t (1* {)itl: lgnh .~tm ~IJtttt t!.A ~ C
·Squ l<,tc de y~m mai nhan sue) D9t ng9t rai
leo- Tha htfu _§_X.: vd lqi, va lgi, han ntla-CQ. phong !!\!~;@, : gi6 xwJ'ng thi chon vui 111guoi VQ sue VQI.
IO'c, gi6 hiio-Quyin t~: cuo'n di-Hi~p ~: tung, xo'c- Vii ~: mua-
Te' ~~ : Rii?a-S~u .~l: ehc;t, thinh llnh-Yim mai jij t!_: vui la/J-
w
93
Dao d()_n ~ ii: tro'n tranh. 00*
!IT
n

THU
D[CH NGH!A Sa m{lc
Tren mt;it dja cdu, da't b!ing, nui, nude d~u c6 sinh vQ_t, chl c6 ~;k ~ = fi , ;!t: !@ L1J !:f Fr3~ ~ , E1 !:f ~X
Thu hG'u nhj chung, ky cu scin da gian gia, viet da thu; ky vi nhan
; J:t a A
sa 1ngc thi khong nhu tht
Di¢n tich sa mgc r9ng Lan, hot;ic dai suo't din nghin dt;im; noi
pfT %Z :R ~' El * *
~ 0 ~ ti .~)II ' Q}
so hoan duong gia, viet gia sue. Gia sue tfnh tu~n, kha nhi~m
{f:

a~v thiiu m!cfc, co cay. Ban ngay khi hQ-u n6ng nhu do't, vao ban M
:h
-h , i:f±
JJ f/,
~
.P<
q ElF' ffi.-1"
IJD 0 :±:T nA .7L
I;>(! .!#., ,
~
.f...l:'.
P.lt:.
e;;
J;-;-0
A
/\.
~ 0
=
ctf!m thi hit sue lgnh leo. Va lgi thuong ndi len nhtlng trQ-n gi6 lao ltfc, cung thtfc phffm. Da thu hung b(;lo, nang vi nhan h<,ti.
LO'c, cuo'n cat xo'c da hay mua tren khong, niu c19t ng9t roi xuo'ng ~ j j ~ tii -<::_ ' ~ ;!t: ~ ' :r$G lf'X ;!t: J3Z> ~ ' ~ '
Nhien l(;lp gia b0 chi, thtfc ky nhuc, ho~c thu ky bl, mao, cot,
thi vui la/J nguoi va sue vqt, khong ai hay con vQ_t nao c6 thi tro'n
fiEI•.!-Ja~ m~-<::_ ffl o
tranh dli(fC. Cho nen (sa mgc) khong thich hc;p vai nguoi J. giac, d1 vi khl ph1.,1c chi dt,mg.
236 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THll Tl,l HQC CHU HAN 237

TU MCJI mQt d(?ng tu, hinh dung tu, s6 tu n~u chung dt.rQ'c dung nhtr danh tu:
Da !f: (t(Jng n9i ( "s(ffi dii" nghla la riing nui)-Ho~n nuoi w: - ftt9=t~~~
(sue vqt)-Tm1n .~JI!: thudn-Cung f~: cd/J cho, cung cd/J-Hung !7'2,: Ke Trung Tan thi ci.m.
hung dil, de (ciing vie't Ia ~)-B~o ~: dtitc;n, tan h~w. hung dc- Ke Trung Tin t.ra diin cdm (B:;1ch Ctr DD (danh tu).
L~p (li~p) jjt: .win thu. - ·=F~~ ft , fPJ (15( ?
Tl'r h<;1 nga, ha c6?
D!CH NGHlA Loai tlul Bic mimg t6i. JiJ vi sao?(QwJc ngil) (d<,li ttr).
Thu c6 hai gio'ng, giifng thu iJ noi nui riing g9i Ia dii thu; gio'ng
thu duc;c nguoi nu/Ji dU'(Jng gr;i Ia gia sue. Gia sue tinh thudn, c6
- ~D~~i¥l= _._

thl ehju dl:(ng dU'(/e Slf nhr;e sac, (va) cung ea/J thvc phdm. Dii thu Tri ti~n thoai t6n vong ...
hung dil, c6 thllam hQi nguoi. Nhung ngu(Ji di san bdt dii thu, an Biitauvc Je tJln thoii, t6n vong. .. (Trang TJ>; (d(?ng tu).
thft, hay la:y da, long, xuong, sung di dung lam vqt (htng, do qudn. - t)~~*
DI qua dtch chung.
NGOPHAP Liy it dinh nhiJu (Binh Ng6 df)i cia) (hinh dung tu).
TAN NGV~~ - ~~- ---
D<;lO sinh nhit. ..
1. Tan ngv
Df)o sinh ra mr)t... (Liio tif; (s6 tu).
D(?ng tu ngo:;1i d(?ng thtr&ng dt.rQ'c b6 tuc bai m(?t tan ngfr. Tan
2. Tan ngfr la mQt ngfr:
ngfr dung di chi d6i ttrQTig ct!a hanh d(?ng do d(?ng tu ngo:;1i d(?ng
neu ra. Tan ngfr tht.rCmg di sau d(?ng tu va tra l&i cau hoi: Ai?, Cii -~B::Z~:tf·B::?J\~Jt~
L<;lC dan chi /fJC gia, dan di~c l(,lC ky l<;lC.
gi?
Niu vui niJm vui ciia dan thi dan cilng vui niJm vui ciia minh
Thi dl}:
(M.anh TJ>;.
-~~)t±.pt~
3. Tan ngfr c6 thi la m(?t k~t du chu vt. Tmcmg hqp nay,
Huy~n An tien sinh thi thu. d(?ng tu trong cftu thoong la nhfrng d(?ng tu biiu thi Sl! nh~n thCrc, y
HuyJn An tien sinh thich sich (B:;1ch Ctr DD. chi, nguy~n VQng, nhtr ~D (tri), M (nghi), /j[ (nguy~n), J~t (ho:;1n) ...
II. Cau t~o cua tan ngv - l'~D:t:Z~~:¥
1. Tan ngfr tht.rCmg la danh tu, d<;1i tu. Tan ngfr cling c6 thi la Bftt tri !5o chi tu011g chi
Kh6ng hay tu6l gill sip din (Lu4n ngli').
TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THlf TV HQC CHO' HAN 239
238

- t21l!!JM:*:.:f.Z/f~gm-& Chua timg c6 vi~c d6 (Mpnh Tii).


Th~n c6 nghi d.ai vurmg chi bit mJng dt,mg d5. (2)Trong k~t du nghi viin c6 d~i tu lam tan ngfr:
Thdn vcfn ng& dpi vurmg kh6ng dung ki ctla thdn (Chiin qucfc - .:E. Sli: :tt'r ?
0 iJtf:._,y, •

s!Jch). Ngo thuykhi?


- t2m:*:xffl:~r=Ft2zifEl~-& Ta dcfi ai?(Lu4n ngt1).
Th~n nguy~n dpi vurmg v6 thinh qudn thdn chi turmg !Jc d5.
-7t~M~1PJZ?
Thdn mong dpi vurmg dimg nghe thea JOi huy bang J3n nhau Tien sinh tll'O'Ilg ha Ghi?
ctla b9n bJ t6i ( Chiin qucfc s!Jch). Tien sinh djnh di dau? (Mpnh Tii).
- /fJ~tAZ./fc~D (3) Tan ngfr d~t tnr&c dong tu qua each dung cua pfT (so'):
Biit ho~m nhfm chi bit kj tri. . ,
-
fa
" " '
.:E. It::.''"' J.H
t=J PII B"A.~
Kh6ng Jo ngu&i ta kh6ng biit minh (Lu4n ngt1).
Ngu: ng6 s& d1,1c da.
4. Mot dong tu c6 th~ c6 hai tfm ngfr (xem Ngfl phdp bai 30,
C!J Jil Joili ta mu6n fin (Mpnh Tii).
ml,IC 3 [2]c ):
(4) Tan ngfr d~t tru&c dong tu qua each dung cua: ~ (thi),
- 7:~B::mHtz~
~, 1f (tht,rC). WI (tu), 1.% (yen),* (lai), -:z:;;-(van); z (chi):
Thien sinh dfm nhi Uic chi quan.
.:E. ttr:: -7 .:±::..J... t::. 1 =
Tr&i sinh ra dan va tt;JO cho h9 m9t 6ng VU!l (Dt;Ji Vi~t sif - t=J :R/1 ,<__ 71' F.l 1::. I i5

Ng6 tulcln!Vi nang tin.


kj)("chi" va "quan" d~u la tan ngfr cua dong ttr "tac").
Ta chua the' tin vi~c fy (Lu4n ngtJJ
Ill. Vl tri cua tfm ngv -~A 13M~j@J~~fl~
Thong thtr&ng, tan ngfr d~t sau dong ttr. Nhung trong mot s6 Quan nhan gill tucmg h9althjh1,1 khu.
tnr&ng hqp sau day, tan ngfr thtr&ng d~t tnr&c dong tu: Ding quan nhan chj ccft tn} h9a cho dan.
( 1) Trong k~t du phu dtnh c6 d~i tu lam tfm ngfr: *:f$~FA1f~ , t1H~~1~
-
-fZWfi•ff/f.:g.W Qu.V thfln phi nhiinlthvcAhan, duy dticlthjly.
Nga thAng nhuc;rc, nhuc;rc biit ng6 thAng. Qu)· thdn kh6ng than v6i nguVi, chj than v6i dtic ( Ta truy~n:
Ta thifng ngUV'i, ngUV'i kh6ng thing ta (Trang Tii). Hi c6ng ngfl nien).

-*z:ff-& --TW:Wlf~ .-­


Vi chihfru da. Vu kinhltu/y ...
roAN THU Tl,l HQC CHO HAN
241
TRAN VAN CHANH
240

NU011g dva noi kinh d6 ( Thi Kinh: Df!i nha, C6ng ll111). truyfn).

-.~.Z*~ ' ~~~1R - ~~J;Jfl\ , &~/f~'fiJT'I'ti , 'l'i5[J~~1R


sa
Ngo thi~u co. c~p tnr&ng bfrt tinh ho. duyhuynh t~u thiy.
N ga chi dong thien, Tfn. Trinhlyenly.
Nha Chu ta d&i v~ phia dong, thea h9 Tin; h9 Trinh ( Ta · Ta m6 c6i tir nho, 1611 len kh6ng dur;rc thfy mift clw. chi nllVTlg
tl)Zl thea anh va chi dau (H~m Dil: Ti Th{lp nhi lang van).
truy~n: An c6ng ll!c nien).
T ~±I::# , fCH~;tx~ (6) Tfm ngfr d~t tnr&c d(>ng tl.r qua tac d(>ng cua gi&i tl.r .[;) (dl):
- " I',D,8 13 T/1"'/1'-=±:..
Bfit ni~m tich gia, y dU' llai /ky. - ~::fl-J1&A~
Chang kh6ng nghi din tinh XU'a mil gi{ln ta (Thi Kinh: B9i Nga bfrt eli h{lu nhfm me.
phong, c6c phong). Ta kh6ng me hope nguiri d&i sau (Thur,tng thu: Qu{Jn thich) (=
- ~ ~__t *' ftrmi-:z:.-1~ ?
HGu ho~mg thU'QTig d~. y thuylvanA.fmg ?
me h~u nhfm).
- ~-Tg~~J.-Jfr~
Ding thur;mg di to 1677. niw c6 ghet ai? (Thi Kinh: Tilu nha, Kim du thl tlfOTlg dl nhifthien.
Chinh nguy~t). Nay ta thif dem c!Jc nguui d&i doi (Thur..rng thu: Ban Canh) (=
(5) Tfm ngfr di;it tnr&c d(>ng tl.r qua each dung cua Oi tlfOTlg thien nhil').
z (duy ... chi), Ol ... ~ (duy ... thi): (7) Tfm ngil' d~t tru&c d(>ng tl.r qua tac d(>ng cua gi&i tl.r jj~(u)
-/f~~-.ZER·::fM~~z~·m~~~~ ho?c trQ tu ket d(u z (chi):
Bfit tri gia s~c chi gian nan, bit van tiiu dan chi lao, duy dam
- ru~~¥1fP , ~IJ::f~~m
h;tc thi tong. Nga u tir mfnh, t~c bfrt nang da.
Khong nghi d~n Sl,l' gian nan kho nhQC CUa vi~c cay dy, khong
Ta v6n kh6ng gioi v~ khoa an n6i (M.anh Tif: C6ng Ton Siiu
nghe bi~t noi kh6n kh6 cua nhan dan, chi bi~t ch~y theo nhfrng di~u
thur;mg) (= nga bit nang tl.r m~nh da).
ham me, khoai l~c (Thur;tng thu: V6 d{lt).
- ~~JJ&m~ , m~f3J)::fJffi8~
-)(-BJ:Ol~*.Z~ Dil thi~u bi d(>n, U' thOi svdo bfrt thong hiiu.
Ph1,1 m~u duyky t~t chiuu.
Dil thuif nho rft que mua din d9n. kh6ng hilu chut gi v~ thOi sv
Cha mt; chilo cho con dau 6m (Lu{ln ngiJ).
( H?m Dtf: Thur;mg Lj thi lang thU') (=do bfrt thong hiiu thai sl,l').
- ~~BZ~, t1E:tJ~tJl
(8) Tan ngfr c6 thi d~t tru&c d(>ng tl.r trong m(>t k~t du kh&ng
Trl.rquan chi 6, duyh,rc thjthi.
dinh thuang, khong cftn CO Sl,l' trung gian cua lllQt l0;;1i tlr d~C bi~t nao:
Mu6n trir dur;rc ke thu ciia vua, chi c6 the' c[ly vao stic mflllh (Ta
TRAN vAN CHANH TOAN THV Tl,l HQC CHO' HAN 243
242

- ~:K~~*/f§gtrfn ' il&&±'¥:? di§u c6 thltheo dur;rc (Hin thlf).


Uio phu ky qu6c gia bfrt nang tu5.t, cam c~p Vll'O'Tlg thfrt? - ,'Rj
s ' nlro::Et.L..t:.~
p"J\ /, §t:.JI~
Lfio phu day. ddt nu6c minh con kh6ng Jo nghi din. sao dim Dieu, ng6 tri kj nang phi.
nghi din vua ?(= bfrt nang tu5.t ky qu6c gia). Loai chim, ta biit n6 bift bay (StJ kjJ.
(9) Do ky thu~t h~mh van, nhfrt Ia trong thi ca, di cho ciic vfrn
hqp nhau, ngum ta dao tim ngfr ra tnr&c d()ng tl.r:
w
94
- ~Fo~~1± , PJ~~r ; :r\~:r\c , m;J \AJil
1'<:~
Phfrn v5.n phfrt Sl, v~t vong qufm tu, thfrc di thfrc di, v6 lieu nhan YTHljC
dai.
Niu (nhilng ke bit tai d6) kh6ng thuimg hoi han, xem xet. thi A z .§r R ,_L-J-1'<:51 z ,_L-:J_ ~ Jf z o 1X ~ 7f ;r:E,
Nhan chi than th~, dT y hQ chi, JT thtfc uu'ong chi. Y thtfc bat tuc,
nhan dan se khinh nhim, d6i gpt nha vua. (Nguvi) hZiy chin ch/nh /pi,
truit bo nhilng ke Jd16ng xting ding d6 di, dimg dl cho vuvng thir bi
nguy hpi vi ke lieu nhfin (Thi Kinh: Tieu nhfi, Tift nam son) (=vo aai
~D ~ '* ~ z ~ o ~ ~ Bi ~ ~ , ~ JE ~J
tuc hO'u dong noi chi ngu. Nhien qua noan qua bao, giai tuc tri
tiiu nhfm)m.
m o ~ ~ fl-* rm ~ t<: , :IE [P.J t-u rm ~ t41 , ~ u
b ~nh. Tuy khi h~u nhi dich y, dinh thai kha:c nhi thtfc v?t, ta:c
(10) Ngoai ra, tan ngfr con c6 thi neu tnr&c d()ng tl.r r6i duqc .§r G ~ !;i o
nh~c l;;ti trong do;;tn cau k~ ti~p b~ng nhfrng d;;ti tl.r nhu than th~ tu' an .
z (chi). ~(ky). ~(yen) ... , theo k~t du:
Tan ngu + (Chu ngfr) + D()ng tl.r + z
(Chi) (ho~c ~ky, TrJ MOl
~yen): D ong /*: lc;mh Ldm-N6 i ~: d6i Ldm-Ngu ~: /o Ldng-Qmi ~:
- ~*ill , ?IWJZA '*'*~z qua. !dm, vur;t hon-Noan Bi: (tm-Bao ~§: no-Khi h~u ~ fl-*: khi
Thi t4tda, Giang Nam chi nhan thuerng thu&ng hfru chi. hiju (tinh trc;mg cua khong kh[)-Khl'ic t-U:
thai gia-T{t ti! nhien E3 :
B1i1h d6. ngwi ddt Giang Nam thuimg hay mic (Han Du: Te' (ph6 ru).
Th(jp nhj lanf? van).
D[CH NGHlA Ao va t/u[c iin
- 1f':KZ ~ ' BJ.J.:tt'1% Than thl nguC!i ta, dunf? ao di che cho, dung thiic an di nuoi.
Cu6ng phu chi ng6n. minh chua tr;;tch yen. ( Khi) do va thiic an khong du, thi c6 n6i lo d6i ret. Nhung am
L&i n6i ctla ke ngu deft. b+lc minh chua bift Iva ch9n nhilng qua, no qua d~u c6 thl dua de'n b¢nh t(lf. (Ntu) tuy thea khi h(ju
121
ma thay d(/i do, djnh thai khdc mit an thiic an, thi than thl li!
Ojch doan nay. chung t6i c6 tham khao ban djch cua Couvreur (sdd ..tr.202). va tham
bao i; kien cua mot so nha chu giai co thll. nhll Vl10'ng Dan Chi , Chu Hi . Ouang Thl,l EJat.
nhierz yen lanh.
244 TRAN vAN cHANH roAN THV TV HQC CHU HAN 245

Thmthanh trung duy bat clru thien nhiin.


NCO PHAP Biy gi& trong thanh chl con c6 tam, chin ngan ngLr&i (H~u
Han thu).
TRANG

NGa~~
MPO
- ~if.f~:K-T , /f&llt
I. Tr:;m g ngii' Ng6 tiio tong phu tt!, bfrt c~p tht!.
Tr<;tng ngii la thanh phfm phl:l d?t d phia tntoc di them chi Niu ta s6m nghe J&i cha thi diiu din nOi nay (Quo'c ngil).
ti~t Cl;l thi cho ho:;tt d()ng ho~c tinh tr:;tng neu ra & d()ng tu, hinh 2. Trgng ngil chl noi chon:
dung tlr. kh6ng ki dQng tlr hay hinh dung tlr nay lam nhi~m Vl;l gi - :ft ~f¥jfj
trong diu. Nga d()c nam hanh.
Thi d1,1: M9t minh ta di vi nam (Thi Kinh: B9i phong, Kich co}
- =ft1W~z -~WP'lm~ll!~
Huy~n gi6i n9ih6' tai lu kh&i.
N ga thiim ai chi.
T6i rft yeu n6 (Tiit Ditu) ("thiim" b6 sung cho d()ng tu "ai") Trang huy~n. tai hQa vt CQP lien tiip xay ra (Tt hili kj).
- ~i'i@r'IL?
.... I ~y_A.,t~.i"T •
J.Trgng ngtJchiphurmg thtic himh d9ng:
Bfrt dJcfrp h6? - x1JJ~~-¥~
Ching v¢i Iifm sao? (M[Jnh Til) ("dl" b6' sung cho hinh dung Vuong b9t nhien bi~n h6 s~c.
tu "cfrp"). Nha vua d9t ng9t do] sic mift (M.anh Tti).
Tr<;tng ngii cling c6 thi b6' nghia cho s6 tu: 4. Trgng ngtJ chl mtic d¢, s6 lur;mg:
- rr~+i:t - ~~Dlltt~AA ~
Hanh co-th~p nien. Thimh tri tht! h~n nhan nhiin hiiu.
Di gdn muVi niim (Han thu). Th~t biit rling m& h~n iy ngu&i ngu&i dtu c6 (Nguyen
II. Cac loC;li tr~ng ngli Chfrn).

Can Clr vao y nghia, chuc nang, ta c6 thi chia tr(;lng ngii lam 7 5. Trgng ngtJ chi sv phil djnh:
lo:;ti chinh: - ~lBXffl:C • /fOJ1~-tt1
Tuy dl;lc v6 vong, bfrt kha d~c da.
1. Trgng ngtJchi th&i gian:
Du c6 mu6n kh6ng bj mit nur5c, ctlng kh6ng thl duvc (Sti
- ~±P.X$'11£;\:TL -T A
kf) .
TRAN vAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl/ HQC CHCI HAN 247
246

phdp bai 126, m~:~c III):


~=!;: *
6. Trt;zng ngil chl mt:tc dich, nguyen nhan:
6:-
Q~ J7;7!J .I. ~Jt. t<:.__
::r:: :f5( -7
' I ,'(ii'o
J;:A ~[2 )'B
,,e;; =fl)( ,~.:,, '
Is -t:A-

DT due bao oan, lu],ll thi nhi b{lc VQng,


;t:;; ~
/=;r JJ@ IIIJ '1-.:r
t:F.J
.=E.

Thinh vi d{li Vlldng sat chi


Xin Vl dt;zi vuong ma gie't ong ta (Sa kj: Truong Nhl Trdn Du La:v due bdo odn, cho nhidu ma mong it (Sit kv: Du hi?p fi?t
truy?n),
li?t truy?n).
7.Trt;zng ng{f chi sv nghi vfn: 5. Tr<:J,ng ngG' la danh tu hay ngG' Janh tu ket h<;lp voi
~j (dT) a€ chi phu'ong thuc h~mh d9ng ho~c doi xu:
-;li~~*~~~?
Uyen 11011g lt.r6ng til cham sinh thtr? - ~SB:~-ffi~fiR·ffi~fiR~*A~~·
Hai ch{f "uyen U011g" Jilm sao viit?(Au Duang Tu).
~ ?J5z:~J*A¥~z ; ~o1s~J~ ±~~ ~ ?J5z:~J~±¥1ilz ,
Di! Nhuqng vi~t: Thfm Sl! Ph;;tm Trong Hanh thj, Ph;;tm Trong
Ill. Cau tq.o cua tr~ng ngv Hanh thi di c!uJng nh5n ng9 thfm. thfm c6 dl chung nhfm bao chi;
Tri Ba dl qu6c sing9 thfm, thfrn c6 dl qu6c sl bao chi_
1. Tn;mg ngfr thuemg nhftt la m9t ph6 tlt-:
Dv Nhuvng n6i: T6i thea plu;ng sf/ h9 Ph:;m Tr9ng Himh. h9
- t~-§-%r6J:f:E/f?
Ph:;m Tr9ng Himh dem J6i Clf xu cua chung nhan mil d6i xu v6i t6i,
Thi ng6 thi~t thur;mg t~i phu?
nen t6i cling d:ip J:;i y thea J6i Clf xti cua c!uJng nhan: Tri B:i dem
Xem Ju6i ta van con d6 kh6ng? (Su kj).
J6i Clf xu cua bPc qu6c si mil d6i xu v6i t6i. nen t6i cling d:ip J:;i
2. Tr(;lng ngfr la danh tlt- dung nhtr ph6 ttr cti chi phuang thCrc thea J6i Clf xucua bPc qu6c si (C!nln qu6c s:ich).
hanh d9ng (xem Ngil phap bai 125): 6. Tr<;tng ngfr la m9t ket cau gioi-tan, c6 th€ d6 la mQt
- ~A.lrrm~ danh ttr, d;;ti tu ho~c ngfr danh ttr, k~t h<;rp v&i m9t gi&i ttr khac d
Thi nhfin l~p nhi d~. tru'oc ai chi th&i gian, nai ch6n ... Nhfrng gi&i ttr thu&ng dung la
Con heo dilng len nhu ngu&i mil keu (Tii truy~n: Trang cong 11\ (y), :(£ (t<;li), ~j (dT):
bat nien). -8 811\LlJ~
3. Tr<;1ng ngu la d9ng tu dung nhu' ph6 tu (xem Ngil phap B;;tch nMt ysan t~n-
bai 126): M!ft troi chim thea nui (VtrO'ng Chi Hoan; Dang Qudn Tuoc
u~JJf~ , ~ 1~~ lau).
Pha Quang quan, sinh dac Quang.
Danh tan quan cua Quang va bdt so'ng dur;Jc Quang (Han
-~1±7:.HI~tf=r
Du tf)i Dt;~i Ch5u bile hanh. •
thu: Ly Quang truy?n).
4. Tr(;lng ngu la hlnh dung tu dung nhu' ph6 tu (xem Ngil
Ta tir D:;i Ch5u di vt huring bifc (Ttr Kh6ng D6 ),
roAN THV n,l HQC CHU HAN
249
TRAN VAN CHANH
248
lien tl.r rm (nhi) di chi phurmg tht!c cua hanh dong. dong tac:
-#d-J*=O~~*
- /fMrm~
Du di vj thai ho~tn gia.
Ta tra , ,~ nha vao giiJ Mui ( Vien Mai: Tl mu(}i van). Bftt ky nhi ngo.
Khong h~n mil gifp.
7. Tr~ng ngfr la d(fi tl.r. hinh dung tl.r, s6 tl.r dung nhu ph6 tl.r
(xem Nga phdp d cac bai 125, 126). Ngoai ra, tr<;tng ngfr c6 thi la
- /f~rm't~
Bftt h~m nhi l~t.
ph6 tl.r, dong tl.r k~t hqp v&i mot trq tl.r lam ngfr vi cho chtmg di chi
Khong /+Jnh mil run (Trang Tif).
phtr011g tht!c cua hanh dong, dong tac. Nhfrng trq tl.r thtrong dung
cho tnimg hqp nay la ~(nhien) . .s:f(h6), fi'(nhl), ~(nhuqc), 9. Tr;;tng ngfr c6 thi chi la mot danh tl.r, d~t C1 dfru diu :

~(yen): - tJJ' £-~~


- ~gft~ ~H*~&ni, ~~~* SO', c6ng true dai.
Hiiu ng;;t gia m6ng du~ t~p lti. m{iu m{iu nhien lai. Ban dbu c6ng xay dai (Ta truy~n).
C6 m9t ngtr&i d6i d9i tay ao che mift. Jfp vip trong doi giily 10. Tr;;tng ngfr c6 thi la mot ngfr va thucmg la ngfr c6 danh tl.r
JiYdiYdi t6i (Ll kj). thai gian lam trung tam, d~t a dfiu diu:
--=t-~~$~rm~t - gB~ Al-J?9: ' ~ 8 1J'1~~
Tu Lo suit nhinhi d6i. Tich thOi nhftn dl mot, kim nh{itthuy do han.
Tif L9 br)p ch9p trd J&i (Lu{in ngii). Ngily Xtra ngwi da mit, hom nay nt.r6c v3n con i{lnh (L;;tc Tan
- ~~M.A Ytr011g : Djch thuy to'ng hi~t ).
T;ch nhivo nhftn. - 17Lltz~ , ~~1£?
Vifng ]ifng khong m9t bong ngwi (Van khe JuJu nghj). Phtr011g thu chi thm, Nghieu an t;;ti?
r.F.J-j:::;- ~ .;.!;§lj7.c-++- 1. :p:;: Dang Juc biy giO; vua nghieu Cf dau? (Han Phi Tti).
- ~ ' F3 A§. " 7C ::t5 /'... ,'iffl
Qu6c hfru d;;to de d9t nhUQ'C nh~p yen.
Khi nu6c c6 d+Jo (duvc yen on). thi chqt di vilo (D+Ji D6i Jl:
m
95
Tang Tifchi ngon). "" H
~ "'
- f~~ 1±1 ~513 KHIC()
San yen xufrt th~.
Ddm dia rD'i /~ (Thi Kinh: Tie'u nhii. D+Ji dong). )\ J5 :¥ ~' ~' ~' ~' ,€> ~ $ ~ ~o'l'ft
Nhan ell' that trung, §'m, thlfc, ngQa, khCJi, giai nhu khi Cl;l. Duy
8. Tr~ng ngfr la ngfr dong tl.r hay ngfr hinh dung tl.r k~t hqp v&i
251
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THV Tl)' HQC CHO' HAN
250

!K A~~,~{,- JJ'Jt ~ 8, ~n>t /f ~ 0 Gift ngu&i bffng g{ly va bffng dao, c6 gi khac nhau kh6ng ?

tu'Qng nhan t(;lo khi, lao tam ltfc, phi thai nh~t, ky th~mh ba't di. (Mc;mh Ttl').
m~z A , ~ 9;o ~ t~ o 7f or f:f ~ fE~ 1~ mo 2. Bo'ngtJchj no'i clufn:
Dl;lng khi chi nhan, u'ng tri ai tich, ba't kha nhi~my huy thu'ong da.
- 7tH~l5f-7(±tl2Z.Fa,
Phi tuemg h6 thien dia chi gian.
TU MOl
Nhu ~: cdn dung-Duy '1'1£.: nhLtng ma (lien tit) -Tti(fng [K :
Btzy Jur;m khfip trong clufn tnYi dft (Chifn qu6c sich).
nguili th(!-T~o ~: chi ra, lam ra-Phi Jt: hao phi, hao to'n-u'ng - im3f-?Ioo
~: nen, cdn phdi (tr(f d9ng tu)-Tich 'I'~: tile (khong niJ bo)-Y ~ : Du h6 giang hili.
y (di~u suy nghT trong long)-Huy fE§i:: phd hu-Thtidng f~: tffn ht;~-i. L9i cho'i tJin song bien (Chifn qu6c sich).
3. Bff ngil chf thai gian :
D[CH NGHiA D6 dz'tng - ~±zt4 ~u15~~
Nguili ta o trong nha, uo'ng, an, nlim, dl)y, d~u cdn din d6 Tien si chi khoa sang u Tuy.
dung. NhLtng nguili th(f chi tt;~-o d6 dung. nhqc long sue, phi nga y Khoa thi tie'n Sl bdt ctdu c6 vao clili Tuy ( Le tri~u ljch khoa
giil, Sf! lam nen cua hq kh6ng dl Nguili dung d6 vl)t nen bie't
tie'n s! d~ danh bi ky ).
thuang tile, khong du(!C tuy y gay hu ht;~-i vl)y.
4. Bff ngil chl muc dq:
-s~ .:Em!£
NGO PHAP
~? - Chieu vuong b~nh th{j..m.
BO NGUfff]~
Vua Chieu ''uang bfnh nr;lng ldm (Sa ky: So the' gia).
I. Bo ngu 5. Bff ngil chl mf!C dicb:
B6 ngfr la thanh ph~n phl;l d~t sau d<)ng tu ho~c hlnh dung
- ~A 1x7Kl-J:f)Z~
tu d~ b6 sung y ngh!a, cho bi~t t'inh h'inh, ket qua, s6 lu'<;jng cua sa nhfm ph<_lt T6ng di Cllv Trjnh.
d<)ng tac tien hanh ho~c muc dQ cua tinh cha't, tr(;lng thai .
Sd-dinh T6ng de'ctiv Trinh (Tii. rruy~n).
II Cac loQi bo ngu 6. Bfi ngil chl kit qua:
1. Bo'ngtJchj phuung thtir: hanh dc)ng ho!fc d6i xif: - =t~~ti
NgQC bien vi th{LCh.
- ~~Al:J~WJJ, ~l-J~3f-? Ngqc biin thanh dd (Lul)n hoanh: L~y ht;~-i).
Sat nhfm di dinh dtJ nh{ln, hfru d! di h6?
TI~AN VAN CHANH TOAN THLI Tl/ HQC CHCI HAN 253
252

- ~~~Jj(~ fJ]pt,l£ Lila s(J hiii ldm ( Bai 97) (thay vl/u qtc hiii thl qtc la tr<;1ng ngil').
Yen tuong c6ng hc,t Li~u thimh. w
Tuifng nuifc Yen danh ht;z thcmh Ldu (Sa Icy : LJ Tr9ng Lien
96
Trau Duong li?t truy?n).
&l
7. Bd ngil chi xu huifng: KINH
-!f~lft_t7(
Da ke phi thu(lng thien. 5l ii &J! iW • Yl &l l=f:l ff - A o ~
Nhi l~p kinh ti~n, kien kinh trung huu nhat nhan . Huang chi tieu,
z *·
Ga ri:tng bay len trai (Nht;zc phu thi: Til luu mii ca tit).
8. BJ ngil chi so' [U(!ng: 1&: 1.0 * o m t) =F • 1~ 1.0 m t) =F o ii &J! 1& • ~ u
bi di~c tieu. Chieu dT thu, bi di~c chieu dT thu. L~p kinh h~u, Hie
-frm+if-
H~mh cd thqp nien (Han thu).
/f' 1~ ~ o * , ~ ;t: .L-:J, E B o B El : r A /f'

Di gdn muai nam.


bat ph1,1c kien . D<;1i ho~c, t§'u dT cao mau. Mau viet: "Nhan bat
§g E3 Yl ;!t oo • i!i5c ~ t) &l w~ z
o &J!
nang tlf kien ky di~n, c6 duong dT kinh chieu chi. Kinh trung chi
'* z
Ill. Vi tri cua bo ngU'
A • ND dx. ~ -tQ o
B6 ngfr dfrng sau d<)ng ttr, hinh dung ttr (xem cac thi d1,1 da nhan, tuc nhil' anh da".
d~n). Rieng m<)t s6 ph6 tu lam trc,tng ngfr dung truoc va b6 nghia
cho d<)ng til, hinh dung tu thi thtr&ng c6 th~ chuy~n thanh b6 ngil' TU M6I
b~ng each d~t sau d<)ng til hay hinh dung ttr d6 : Kinh £J!: cai guang-Bi f~: n6, ong ay, nguai kia (dt;zi tit nhan
- ~~~ xung ngoi tha ba)-Ho~c ~: ngiJ Vl/C, nghi ngiJ.
Qufmmjth~.
Anh d~p Jim (Chiin qucfc sach: TJ sach) (thay vl qzwn thljm D!CH NGHiA Cai gtidng
Daa tre dang truoc guong, trong thay trong guong c6 m9t
my thl thljm la trc,tng ngil') .
~~~€J l-1..1 ',tf-;1M~
nguai. Huong vi phia nguai d6 cuai, thi nguai d6 ding cuai. Vdy
- llm,,.,J-U{'J.n-iN:.1:'i-
tay, thi nguC!i d6 cilng vdy tay. (Niu) dang sau guong, thi khong
Du ngtr xufrt du thung dung. trong thay nila. (Daa tre) qua ngiJ vl/c, chCJ-Y di n6i chuy?n d6 viii
Ca dura choi thong tha (Trang Tu: Thu thiiy) (thay vl thung mf. M? trd lai rling : "Nguai ta khong the' tl/ trong thay mi;it minh
dung xzwt du thl thung dung la trc,tng ngil' ). du(Jc, vi the' c&n phdi dung guong soi. Nguai trong guong, chinh Ia
-®!~~ bong cua con da~v ".
Lu hai elfc.
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THV Tl,f HQC CHa HAN 255
254

Thl'r phi thin chi sif niing tri da.


NGOPHAP
D6 ch:ing phiii Jil diJu t6i c6 the' biit dl.JQ'c (Chiin qu6c sach)
THUQC NGVJM~ (ngfr).
I. Thuqc ngli m
Thu()c ngfr la m()t lo~i b6 ngfr d~c bi~t chi dung b6 sung y 97
nghia cho m()t d6ng d()ng tu hay cho m()t d()ng tu n()i d()ng kh6ng ~~}jt
hoan toan (xem Ngil phdp bai 30). Thu()c ngfr (tll'01lg tl! attribut LV NGQ HO
trong ti~ng Phap) c6 nhi~m VIJ n6i r6 v~ chu ngfr thong qua m()t
ct6ng d()ng tu hay qua m()t d()ng tu n()i d()ng kh6ng hoan to~m .
~ ~ msz , m ~A ~ z. ,m ~ iEI ~ o .~ E1 % 1~ gt ,
Thi dl): Lu' m6ng h6 bl, qugn thu uy chi, v6 cam c~n gia. Lu tlf' hi dac ke',
- ~Jb~3~ ~ 1~ -tiL ffiJ s~ te rr ,.L-J ~ m!A o - a, ~ mm o tJ ~
thai thai xuat hanh, dl uy qugn thu. Nhat nh~t, ng() h6. H6 di vi
Thfm /thi I TrU011g Dl)'C Dlfc da.
T6i JiJ TrU011g Dvc Dtic (Tam qu6c chi). IPJ ~ -ti1 ' :§lyt rmW o ~ ~ taj '
wt * o.~ ' ~ Bz rm ~
d6ng lo~i da, tlf'u nhi du du . Lu hiii clf'c, d~i minh, khi bl nhi d()n,
'
- Nhfrng ct6ng d()ng tu thuUng dung la: ~ (vi), ~ (thi),
l!zm ::f ~ ,~, 0
~ (v6), 3-1= (phi),~ (hfru), 1® (do) (xem Ngil phdp bai 30). s6 ly bat cam tuc.
- Nhfrng d()ng tu n()i d()ng kh6ng hoan toan thucmg dung la:
~(vi), 8 (vi~t) (xem Ngil phdp bai 30) . TU Mdl
Lu ~: con LU'a-H6 }jt: con cQp, con hd-Mong ~: khodc, d9i-
II. Cau t~o cua thuqc ngli
Uy ~: ra oai-Hai~: kinh SQ"-Khf ~: bo di , nem di-Tuc ,~, :thai,
Thu()c ngfr la danh tu, d~i tu, ho~c m()t ngfr:
nghl.
- -=f:J-1=~, ' ~~O~,Z.~?
Tl'r phi ngu, an tri ngtr chi l~c? D[CH NGH[A Lila gijp cQp
Qng kh6ng phai Jii ca, sao bift dl.JQ'C niJm vui cua ca? (Trang Con lr.la d9i da CQp, cdc thu khdc diu sQ' n6, kh6ng con new
tif:Thu thuy)(danh tu). dam din gdn. LU'a tf:{ mr.lng rling ke' hog,ch nhu the' Ia duc;c liim,
thuang di ra ngoai cti ra oai voi nhilng con thu khdc. M9t hom,
-T~*?
- ( LU'a) gijp CQp. CQp cho la d6ng log,i, din ci:tng choi voi n6. LU'a SQ'
Tl'r vi thuy ?
hiii !tim, keu Lon, nem bo ti{m da ma chg,y tro'n, (xa din) may dijm
6ng Jil ai? (Lu[w ngtJ) (d~i tu).
khong dam dr.lng.
- ut:J-I=~zr!f§g~om
256 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THlf Tl,l HQC CHO' HAN 257

NGO PHAP b~nh. khdm-Tri {i:]: chiia b~nh-Sao ~': kha. chut it.

0 ~ (vo) la d<;li tu, c6 nghia "khong ai, khong v~t gl": D!CH NGH[A On cha m~
1W; f&Jlilt (Vo dm c~n gia) Kh6ng con niw dam de'n gdn. N~uc!i ta luc nu'li sinh ra, d6i khong bie't f1! cho an, ret kh6ng
biit It! m(lc do. Cham~ cho bu nuim I'd am li/J trong long. Khi c6
6 Jli (c~n) v6n la hlnh dung tu, nhung trong bai l<;li du'Qc b~nh , thl miJi tluiy thur'/c khdm chiia. Din khi tu6?i hoi !On, lqi cho

dung nhu' d<)ng tu voi nghia "de'n gftn": ~ f&Jlilt (Vo dm c{jn di h~Jc. Cha mf kh6 nh(Jc l'flt vd nha the~ Nhilng ke Ia con, hd c6
gia) Kh6ng con niw dam de'n gdn. thi quen cJn cha mf du(fc sao?

NGO PHAP
~EJ (tQ') laph6 tu d€ chi "tl! mlnh" : ~EJ :g 1~ ~t (Lu t{t hi
d~k ke') Lila tl/ mitng rling ke' hogch -nhu the' Ia du(Jc !tim.
D!NH NGO' ~~
m I. D !nh ngli
98 Dinh ngfr Ia thanh phfrn ph1,1 cua cftu dung b6 sung y nghia
m .~,
cho danh tt! (ho~c cho dong tt!. hinh dung tt!. s6 tt! dung nhu danh
THAN AN tt!) v~ m~t tinh chih, hinh tn;mg. s6 luqng, phU'OTig vi v.v.
A :fJJ ~ ~ , M /f §g E1 ~ , ~ /f §g E11R o)( -BJ:
II. Cac loc,1i d!nh ngli
Nhan so sinh thai, co ba't nang tlf tlf, han ba't nang tlf y. Ph1.,1 m~u
:JL om z , ·~ :t§ z o :ff ~ , ~IJ g B W {E:J o & 4 Can Clr vao y nghia va nhi~m VI,!, ta co thi ki 5 lo:;ti dinh ngfr
nhu b<) chi, hoai bao chi. Huu t~t, tac dien y ch~n tri. C~p nien chinh: 1. Dinh ngfr chi tinh chfrt. hinh tr:;tng; 2. chi s& thuoc; 3. chi
ffi *' 'X. 1~ A * o ~ ~ ?If ~D lit o ~ -=f ~ 13 '
sao tru'ong, hlfu su nh~p hQC. Ky lao kh6 nhu' thu. Vi nl' nu gia,
s6 ltrQ'ng; 4. dung chi thi: 5. dung di hoi.
Thi dtj:
:R OJ :0 ~ .~, .sf ?
khoi kha vong ky an h6? - *~~.~
Gia phu /Lr011g ma.
TU MCJI Trang nhil c6 nhi~u ngva [(!L l i-iuili Nam tll? (chi tinh chfrt).
Than m: cha m?-An .~,: cJn TQ' ~: cho an (khi dung nhu d(}ng
- rl!tt~J~ , ~ r¥J :if
tit thi d9c La "tl!")- Y1RmtJc do (khi dung nhu d(}ng tit thi d9c La
Do trt.rOng ki~u, chi Nam Binh.
, y' ") - B Q n~ ' H oa1
' • 'lo!:9! B - t.¢;-J D• ~;t:
~ffi: mom- 1-K: om vao ong- ao J~: om- 1en .)(.!!:::
A A ' / ' A A

Qua cay du dili. din nui Nam Binh (Ton Gia Kim) (chi hinh
miJi ru(Jc- Y !fi: thdy thu6'c-Chfi'n W: tham xet, chJn dodn, chdn tr:;tng).
TRAN vAN CHANH TOAN THli Tl)' HOC CHU HAN 259
258

-ilrA-T~?IJt:fiJT~!l rrJ MCJI


V¢ thai tu vi Giang Sung sa
b<;ti. TtiQ'ng *:
con l'oi-Trang ~±: lcJn, nu:~nh me. CLtong trdng-
Thai tif nwc V¢ bi Giang Sung danh bpi (Han thti) (chi sa Ki~n '(§!: mgnh me, khoe mt;7nh-H~u ~: dLiy-Nha ;f: ngcl \'Oi-

thu<)c). Than f$: duiJi ra -Ha'p D,&: hut \'ao-N~p *~: thu l'do-Quy~n t~:
cu/{n l(li.
- ~ fl~if:)'}+:h)f~
Tfrn hftu t<;ti ngo<;ti th~p cifu nien hi.
D!CH NGHlA Con voi
Tfn hfw ]lfU vong (f ngoai d5 mu&i chin niim r6i ( Td truy¢n)
Con l'Oi (C15) thc/n thllr!n vel mgnh, do b~n chdc 1•a dcly. Mi¢ng
(chi s6 Iuong). c6 hoi nga, nh/) ro ngocli moi. Miii (\'('Ji) nc5 r{/t dai, c6 th~' hut
{!)({!)(~t±:&!;:/~
-
'"'""'' 1JA. Ia J5 mtoc, thu viw mi~ng mel u(fng. Lqi bie't cu/fn lf(v (1(3 an, gio'ng nhu
Du du blthuong h~ ... nguoi ta dung toy.
Thiim rhdm rrOi xanh kia ... ( Chinh phi! nglim khuc) (dung chi
thi). NGU PHAP
- il-tfPJ!if-1:!1? BONG V! NGO' IPJ f}L~
Thu ha thanh da?
D6 JiJ {Jing gi(Au Duong Tu: Thu thanh phu) (dung d~ hoi). I. D6ng vj ngii hay th?nh phin cling lo;;Ji Ia nhiing thanh phftn
d~t song song ho~c lien ti~p nhau. cung giii m<)t nhi~m Vl,l trong
m ciiu, nhLr cung lam ChU ngiJ, Cung Jam Vj ngiJ. b6 ngiJ V.V.
99 Tfrt cii cac thanh phftn trong diu d~u c6 th~ c6 d6ng vj ngii.

*
TV<}NG 2. N6i chung. c6 bao nhieu lo<;J.i th~mh phftn trong diu Ia c6
bfty nhieu lo<;ti d6ng vj ngii. Dooi day, ta chi xem m<)t s6 tm&ng hQ'P
* , 1m ~± rm
1§! , BZ. ~ rm
~o o ~ m ?F ,
Ttt<;Jng, th€ tning nhi ki~n, bl kien nhi h~u. Khffu huu lttong nha,
thucmg thfry:
(1) D6ng cinl ngir:
f$ /:B !§- )7} o Jt • ~ :& , §g D,& 7j( , *~ ~~
than xua't thfrn ngo~i. Ky tj th~m trttong, nang hftp thuy, n~p 11 - -T~~ , ~=rg , .f±J.~ , 0®1Wt*
o rm
~ o x.z §g t~ Ifx ~ t~J , ~o A z TiT LQ, Tiing Tich, Nhitm HUv, Cong Tay Hoa thi t<;>a.
khffu nhi fi'm chi. Htju nang quy€n thu thtjc v~t, nhu' nhan chi Tif L9. Tiing Tich. Nhitm Htlv. C6ng Tliy Ho,? ng6i hdu
m
ct\,mg rhu.
* o (Lu~n ngif).
(2} DcJng vi ngii:
261
roAN THU Tl,f HQC CHU HAN
TRAN VAN CHANH
260
Phia nam bien Tay, nO'i bin Luv Sa, sau Xich Thtly, truric
-~-=f?lili·~?f~
Hfc Thtly. c6 m<)t nui 1611 (S071 h3i kinh: D:;i hoang tay kinh). .
Quan tu tm d{lo, bit t.n1 bftn.
Ngt.r&i qulin tifchi' Jo cho d;w 1;'. kh6ng Jo ngheo ( LuQ.n ngtl). m
(3) D6ng tlin ngtJ: 100
- tL -=f ~ -T* , 18-=f ~*
THUCTV
KhcSng tu ki~n Tii Tang, Bfi til:
Kh6ng tJ tiip Tif Tang. Bfi ui (Tiwyit uyen). tlJ ~ j&,1i. A~ 1iiz•g9: m tlJ ro:* ~
(4) D6ng dinh ngii:
- ~~ ~ ~~)Cff:\:IJXWLZ.~* , fiiJ~~ ~z.~~ , ?f{,'Z Ml _t EJ : u-r ~ jN m,
1:r A .lt *
Son huu lang, l<;lp nhan mu'U b9 chi, thiet tinh son h<;l. D<;li thu
.n o ~
tuong thu<;ng viet: "H<:1 hii'u lang t!nh, h~mh nhan chi b9". HG'u
tJJ , rm f:;J x -r .L-:J. ~ -=r ~ iJ z ill m
Nghieu, Thuin, Vil, Thang, Van, V6, Thimh, Khang chi t~.
~ ~ * 1§- , ~~ ~ z. , m ~# , * * m Ky
Qlf-
bat thuc tl,f gia, ng9 xuc chi, dQa t!nh, d<;li h6 du vi~n.
o ~% w,
xuat,
ha ky ii dan chi tham. uu dan chi thi~t. nhi dai thien h:;1 di quan tu. A 1~ Mil _t ::f: ~ z o JJ fA EJ : r .:g. ki5 ~
tn.rOng gia chi d:;1o da. nhan chi tuong thu<;ng tl,f cao chi. Nai than viet: "Ng6 diu thuc
Theri Gic vua Nghieu. Thufn. Vil. Tlwng. V5n. V6, Thimh. ::f=•:ft ¥ ll"t ~?.no
Klwng sao mil yeu dan. Jo dan th{un thiit. vii Jfy d:;o ctltz ngt.r&i tl;l', khdi chi thll' tai?".
quan til: b/ic truung gi3 mil a6i dZii v6i dan nhu v~iy? (To Thli'c:
Hinh thurmg trung h{w chi chi Ju~in). rU M(JJ
Lang jN: ch6 s6i-Mu'u ~: lo li~u, muu tinh- Thie't g9:: dijt ra-
(5} D6ng tlw<)c ngii: Tinh m: ho: cc;tm, bdy (dijt ra di san thu)-Xuc ~: gidm len-Cftu
- 15 Affi~~ -17.. , RDtt:t'Jtat!L -s:R: xin, mong moi-Vi~n Ji: giup do-Than fA: tho than-Cifu ki]:
c6 nhan xung tu~ h~tn tam hli'u. tuc tung, true, maida. ne'u (lien tt1)-Tai ~: trc; tit cuo'i diu (biiu thi phdn va'n).
Ngt.r&i ra n6i ba ngt.r&i b:;m trong miw l:;nh chinh Jil tung. true
vii mai (Tan qu6c van). D!CH NGHlA Biit clzz1
(Trang) nui c6 ch6 s6i. Nguoi di san bay muu bdt n6, dijt bdy
(6) D6ng tr:;ng ngii:
z
- g§ t~ r¥i , ?rrUY z ~l , wuJ<: z 1& , ~ 1J<: z iW , ~ achtoi chan nui. Vie't chil!On tren tuong rling: "Phia duoi c6 bdy
ch6 s6i, nguoi eli duong hiiy ditng buoc". C6 nguoi khong bie't
:*tl.J chtl, liJ gidm len bdy, roi xuo'ng ho: keu !On xin cau giup. ( Khi
Tay hili chi nam, Lt.rU Sa chi tan, Xich Thtly chi hPu, Hie
nguoi cl6) dii ra khoi r6i, nguoi ta tro vao nhtlng chtl vie't tren
Thtly chi titn, hliu d;;ti san.
TRAN vAN CHANH roAN THU n,l HQC CHU HAN 263
262

tuang ma bdo cho bie't. (Nguifi d6) ben than rling: "Nlu ta bit t ~ M. 7\. ;J, , ~ /f' *'* A t) § i~f o - _§_ @ ¥ ,
Quoc v6 d~i ti€u, m~c bat luy~n binh di tlf v~. Nhat dan d!ch chi,
chil, thi Le nao de'n nbi nay u?". · l-L! _fr ~!!1 --'7 0 # 6· :7.17 _fr , # 6· n;t,: ..fi:. , # 6• e:
1--W / " "73': t(__ ~ J;;;tJ ~ / " ~ m WJ"' ,.,. " ~~ /Ji7JJ ~~
xuat binh ngtf chi. Ho~c vi bo binh, ho~c vi phao binh, ho~c vi rna
NGU PHAP _rr_ , # 6· I _rr_ , # ~ ;t;<« ~ _rr_ , ..1::1::: ch- 1, 1 ~!!1
, " !7<J J;;-;fJ / " ~ ~ !f93 ~ ./'- E3 1JI Y..A ~
binh, ho~c vi c6ng binh, ho~c vi truy trQng binh, giai so di nglf
0 J!; (nai) 1a lie n tu, c6 th€ d!ch "ben, moi" : @ {Q o
_ J!; ftEJ ... (Niii than vie't. ..) Ben than rling .. . d!ch da .
_*m , ,
)(m~~ ?¥7GJ!J*~~~~cvi ky, phl;l b~nh
thuyen du, Ly nhi niii tl;IC ky hQc nghi~p) Khong bao Lliu, b?nh TU MOl
cua cha khoi hdn, be Ly ben (moi) tie'p t~c vi?c h9c cua n6 (Bai Quo'c ~: nuoc-M~c ~: dc;zi tit, if day djch La "khong nuoc
107). nao"-Luyf$n r'*:
tQ-p Luy?n-Vc$ mr:
giil gin-Dan _§_: butfi som
_ ~1~~ o Je.I\Jt$~7J':ff' nl:iX~Z.CNha khat th~m . (- _§_ : m9t som, m9t khi)-Djch @ : qulin thu- Truy f~: xe cho cl6
kie'n vi~n trung huu thuy h6, niii dl;lc ft'm chi) Con quc;z khat nuoc ("truy trQng binh" La linh trong coi v~ qulin nhu, vQ_n tdi).
!tim. Trang thliy trong san c6 cdi nQ_m d«ng nuoc, bim djnh uong
(Bai 120). D[CH NGH[A Qulin linh
Nuoc khong ki LOn hay nho, khong nuoc nao khong Luy?n tQ_p
6 1r1j (c§'u) la lien tu bi€u thi gia thie't, djch 1a "ne'u" : qulin linh eli fl! v?. M9t khi qulin cljch de'n, dem qulin linh ra
~lij~ :::f: ' .E.¥ll:t~? (Ng6 cilu thuc tlf, khoi chi thll' tai?) Ne'u chong Cl/. HoQ.c La b9 binh, hoQ.c La phdo binh, hoQ.c La kY. binh
ta bie't chil thi Le nao de'n nJi nAy u?. (mii binh), hoQ.c Ia cong binh, hoQ.c La truy trQng binh (qulin vQ_n
tdi, Linh tdi), cl~u La nhilng thrl qulin eli chong c« qulin thu.
@ li-·· ~ Ckhdi... tai?) 1a mot each thuc co dinh t~o thanh
~
cau h'
p an van, ~' co, th e-:1 d"~c h 1'a "h,a ... .u:,
A 1- ' ... li.,
e nao ? sao 1~1.
. .. ?"
. : NGU PHA.P
~lij~ :::f: , .E.¥ll:t~? (Ng6 cft'u thuc tlf, khlti chi thlr tai?) Ne'u
ta bie't chil thi Le nao cle'n nbi nAy u?. 0 1m (vo) du'<;jc dung nhuM. ~ffil (v6 lu~n) 1a mot gioi tu, c6
th€ d!ch la "bat eli, bat k€, bat 1u~n, bat ky, kh6ng k€, kh6ng
m phan bi~t..." : ~M- -j(;J, (Quae vo d~i ti€u) Nuoc khong ki LOn
hay nho.
101
_fr
/ ...
BINH 6 ~ ::f (m~c bat) la cl;Jm tu quen dung, c6 nghia "kh6ng
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THV Tl/ HQC CHO HAN 265
264

cai nao kh6ng, kh6ng g1 kh6ng, kh6ng ai kh6ng":~M, */j\, rUMOI


~7f*'*AtJ§ 1lr(Qu6c v6 cl<;1i ti~u, nzlJc bflt luy~n binh di tt,r v~) Bi~n buc ~~:con dai-Hong 1~: ddnh nhau, (1m 1-Thiing ij~:
Nuac khong ki ian hay nho, khong nuac nao khong luyfn t~p khu[[t phl!c du(Jc, thiinR-Co ~: w'J'n La (ph6 tu')- Vi ky* ~ : chua
quan linh di t¥ Vf. bao !au, chdnR bao !au- T()c ~*: h(J, loai-Nghi ~.jt: him hr;1c-Xich
f-f::: du6'i ra.
~ - ..§. (nha't dan) Ia ph6 tu bi~u th! gia thiet, d!ch Ia "m9t
khi" : - g ~ ¥_ (Nhiit dan a!ch chi) M<?t khi quan djch den. D!CH NGHlA Con ddi
Chim va mulJng ddnh nhau, con dC!i thur'tng trung l~p ((1U'ng
0 p!f .[;) (sd di) la c1,1m tu quen dung, c6 th~ dich la "cai giLi'a). ( Khi) chim thdng. thi dai hay vao dam chim, m5i rling: "Toi
c6 hai cdnh, w5'n Ia /()(/i chim ". ( Khi) mulJng thanE?. thi dai cht;y
dung a~":
\'ao dan muong, m5i r!ing: "Toi cr5 bffn ch(/n, w5'n Iii loai mur5ng".
_ ~p!f .[;)~~ill (Giai siidingt,t d!ch da)D~u La nhilng tha
Chang bao lau hai loai nghi hoa, (tha:v) dai if hen, hen cun& nhau
_* • •
binh dung di cho'ng quan thu.
~ p!f 1-j_ 7C M ~ill (M~, m<;1ch, sii di sung co gia
da) Gr;w, Lua mi La nhilng tha dung dian cho khoi c16i v~y (Bai
rur3ng duo?i dai.
m
114). 103
w ~
ME
102
~~
BIEN BUC
~ x fl f§·-=f. 1:E iJJ ~ 0 ~ ~·~>f.*=­
Nang phu chung d<_to, thu tlic din lao. Ljch xuan, h<;1, thu tam
s .ffil ~-\! l"ii"' m!5
s ritE
R* ~
§lj rh
~ • 9i3 1~ ~ o X.. Ai I! :t>. ~ • Ai 8 :t>. flf •
~ ~ :r.m
J...
J1. ff.; 'I

*
,'fffj / ' ' 1;ffil
0 ,'fffj fJ'jj ' /'
thoi, thuy dac tlic. Ht,ru d1,1ng lung khU' xac, d1,1ng cuu khU' khang,
Di~u du thli ho'ng, bi~n buc thuong trung l~p. Di~u thang, tac
~~mA .~ UoEJ:r~lf~ ~·~.~
9t tJX: a c ?*.. r~ t!J\ z ~ 9=J • ~ ~ w. ·
thuy th~mh b<;1ch m~. Nhien h~u xuy chi phu trung, ho~c vi ph<_tn,
bi~n buc phi nh~p ai~u qu~n. Viet: "Ng6 huu Iuong dt,rc, c6 ai~u ~ ~ ~5 :It -i3 ~ ~0 :!t /f ~ -ill
111 .n o i.X ~ ' J=!lj ~ ~ 7t A ik r=f o El : r ~ lf
0 0

ho~c vi chuc. Tht,rc gia au'cing tri ky bilt dj da.

12}1 5E • ~ mill .n
tu tlic, c6 thu
o * .=
da". Thu thang, Hk bi~n buc ta':u nh~p thli qugn. Viet: "Ng6 huu
~ ~ ~ii *o · ~ ~ 1± 1~~ • ~
da ". V! ky, nh! t9c nghi hoa, bi~n buc t<;1i tdc, to<;1i TUMOI
;tt f-f:: z 0
D<;to f@: lua ne/J huong-Tuc ~: !u)t lua-Lung U: co'i xay-Xac
c<)ng xich chi. ~: w3 cang-Cilu 8: cdi dfi &iii gt;o-Khang ff: cdm-Xuy t!X
266 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THli Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 267

nllu chin-Phil -*:: cai n6i-Chuc i]f~: chao. J:in lopn. d6 uy qu~n Nam H:ii JiJ Trit;u DiJ no? binh dLinh Jfy
c:ic qu/in qu6c ( Le Ttlc :An nam chi Juvc).
D/CH NGH!A G(lo
2. l:inngiJ trung g1~1:
Nrwui nang phu tr6ng lua ne/J humzg, tay chan chlim lam. Trdi
;r,G- p,' n=1 .om; tf- 0 {:¥;:.
qua ba mila xucln, ht;~, thu, nuJi dU'(!c th(Jc. L~1i dung dfi xay lot;~i - lp'f<. J t:J-LQ.Ja~~;t_. , tt

bo v6, dung co'i gia lot;~i b() cam di, nuJi thanh gt;~o trdng. Sau d(5 L<?c Tl;lc c6 nhm;rng ky huynh Nghi.
nuJi nctu gqo trong n6i, hoijc lam c(fm, ho(ic him chao. NgU'(Ji cln L9c T1,1c c6 nhuimg ng6i cho anh JiJ Nghi (Khim di11h Vit;t sii
nen bie't riing nhilng vi¢c c1c5 Ia kh/Jng dl cliing. thong gicim curing m~:~c. quyin nhctl).
3. Bo 'ng[i lrung gia:
NGU PHA.P
~ill.1t/ '~=£I:.$
- ~) ,,_ :X.'Efi:S/, "'J3'
TRUNG GIA NGCr ~1JD~'a
Thu&ng dil' ky plw Xa ng6n binh Slf.
1. Danh tu (hoi;ic d:;1i tu) c6 th~ cung m<?t danh tu khac cung Thur3ng cu11g clw JiJ Xa bimlu~n vi~c bi17h (Sif kj).
lam InQt l0:;1i thanh phfm. ca hai cung chi mQt Sl! v~t, nhung danh tlr
4. Thuc)c ngiJ trung gia:
sau l:;1i c6 nhi~m Vl;J n6i r6 v~ 51! v~t neu ra & danh tu tnr&c. Ta gQi
danh tu sau Ia thanh phfrn trung gia (li;ip them), hay tnJng gia ngiJ - W:'x@;t~ ~~r~~
(apposi ttif) . Luang ph!J tl'rc S& tu&ng Hf/ng Yen.
Trung gia ngfr lu6n lu6n Ia danh tu di;ic hfru (xem Ngil phap Cha cun Luung 1/z turing 11u6c Sif (ten) Hp11g Ye11 (Su kv ).
bai 3, do<:In 3 11 ]). w
- ~*t§~~:L}~ti 104
Kim thtra tll'6ng Ky Chll011g C6ngthi th:;1ch.
·~
Nay thira turing Ky ChU071g C6ng thich de loili eta (B:;1ch Cu DIEU
Di) ("Ky Chuang C6ng" va "thua tu&ng" cung chi m<?t nguai).
S
.~
*lJ
ft..- ,
-7
tL
ii!rt!J
fl2 '
/.p
li1Hl
/1-
.=L.
::+=.
-G
+lr ,L..t=_
'nx. /l'1 ~
lk rEJ
-(J/J
0 .>...<...
I:JIJ
R± 'e:i:' """"
/lX R ~
2. N6i chung, diu c6 bao nhieu lo:;1i thanh phfrn th'i cilng c6
Ditiu lo<;1i chi thti , bien sinh mao vG. Ti~n chi vi du'c, co nang cao
bfry nhieu lo:;1i trung gia ngfr. Ta thu&ng thfry nhfrng tnr&ng hQ'P sau 1ft o ~ ~.J.: Ff3~ ~ E~ , §~ i!ff. ilk ?j( 9=t ~ ·~ 1J( z
d5.y: phi. Ky chi gian huu phoc, nang du vtnh thuy trung gia, vj chi thuy
I. Chu ngiJ trung gia:
.~ 0 .~ ~ ~ ~ ~ z fif ' ftJ Jt 0 1W; ~ '~j(: z
clitiu. Ditiu lo<;1i chi chuy, vi kien ng<:1nh chi giac chat. V6 xi, co
- ~~L , f¥j$}g,1ft~1#z :&: ~J ;If 0~ 0 ~ ~ & =§ :g 9=t ~ ffij fm 1ti '
Tfrn lo:;1n. Nam Hili uy Da kich tinh chi. thlfc v~t bat tude . Ky cot c~p mao quan trung kh6ng nhi v6 tuy,
268 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THll Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 269

rlJj(: ~- ~~ iffi
~ ~ o ~}\ ~ §E! 1: , .~ ~IJ ~D 105
c6 chat khinh nhi thi~n phi . Thu giai thai sinh, dieu de noan 11~ J}
~ o ·lif .% ~D , £, Wf z
iffi 1~ 5X: W o TUTHAN
sinh. Duy dieu noan, tat phu chi nhi h~u thanh s6.
A ti~ fL :§t , £, 7t 11~ .§t o t~ W tJ *'* ·11 1:r o
TU MCJI Nhan dl;lc l~p than, ta't tien tu than. Due dl;lc dT luy~n tinh h<~mh.
Chi ~~: chan va fay , chi-Ch) Wll: ng(J/1 chan-Ph6c W-*: mang ~ w t) ~ ~ ~ 0 1m ~ J-j_ ~± .§} 1m 0 - f3
chan (mie'ng da m'J'i li&n cdc ng(5n chan nla locli \'ft , ngr5ng ... )- Tri dl;lc dT qm1ng kien thuc. The dl;lc dT tning than the. Tam gia
Vinh ?7}:.: hoi trong nu6'c-Ng~nh fif: cung-Cha't ffi[: \'(;'if chii't, ch(ft- /G OJ ffiR: - 0

Ttioc o~: nhai (h!ing nlng)-Quan ~: t/ng tron- Tuy fj: tiiy (mqt ba't kha khuyet nha't.
chcft h5ng trong x uang)-Thai §E!: cdi thai.
TU MCJI
D/CH NGHiA Chim Tu 11~: sU'a-Duc 1,~: due, due hg.nh-Dvc W: dg.y d6, giao df:lc-
Than thi ciia locli chim , m(JC long khdp ch6. Cdc chi trLf(Jc Ia Tri ~: tri, tri khon-Khuyet flj~: thiiu.
cdnh, nen cr5 thi hay cao. Khodng giila cdc ngdn cMin cua chung
c6 mang chan, nhilng loai hie't lwi l()i trong nur!c, g(Ji hi chim
D[CHNGHiA Si'ta minh
nu6'c. M6 ciia loc/i chim Ia ch(Jt sung cling. (Vl) khang c6 rang,
Nguoi ta muon ltJ_p than, tru6'c hit phdi sU'a mlnh. Due df:lc di
nen iin cdc v¢11 khong nhai. Xu·ong \'a /fng l/5ng ciia chung rr5ng iJ
luyfn tinh nit. Tri df:lc di miJ rqng kien thuc. Thi df:lc di lam cho
Riila va khong cc5 tiiy, nen ( c6) cha't nhf l'a hay gioi. Lolli thu d~u
than thi dur;c khoe mg.nh. Ba di~u ay khong thi thiiu mqt dur;c.
sinh being thai, loai chim thi sinh hling trung. Nhung trung chim,
cdn phai a}J, r6i sau m6'i thanh chim con.
NG0PHAP
NCO PHAP
PHVC CHi NGU 7l :fl§ BR
0 ~ (thi~n) Ia tfnh tu dung nhti ph6 tu lam trang ngu, d~t I. Pht1c chi ngli
truck dong tu, c6 nghTa "kheo, gi()i": ~~ (Thifn phi) Bay gioi.
Phtrc chi ngfr hay thiwh ngtJ My l:;Ji dung di chi l(,li mot Sl! v~t
@ fffi 1& (nhi h~u) Ia lien tu c6 nghTa Ia "r6i sau moi, r6i da neu ra a tnroc nhflm ml,IC dich nhfrn m(,lnh ho~C b6 sung y nghia
moi": ·lif.%~ D' £,~rlfZ.iffi1&5X:W (Duy dieu noan, tat phu chi cho mot thanh phlin nao do trong cau.
nhi hij.u thanh s6) Nhunf!, trung chim t/it phdi a/J, r6i sau m6'i Phtrc chi ngfr va thanh phlin dtrQ'C no b6 sung cung chi mot Sl!
thimh chim con. V~t Va cung CO Chung mot chtrc Vl;l ngfr phap.
rn
270 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THV Tl/ HQC CHCI HAN 271

II.Cau tc;to cua phll'c chi ngli giii, d! vi S& trung uy. ·'
Trong cau H£m van, c6 nhi~u phuong thfrc t<,10 nen ph(rc chi Han Tin vJ tCii kinh do. cho g9i ngu&i thiiu nien Jilm nhf!c
ngfr. minh. (nguoi lru6c kia) r[mg bit minh chui du6i hang. cho Jilm chtic
Scr rrung tiy (Sif kf).
1. Chi l<,1i b5ng m(>t d<,1i tu phfrc xtmg, nhtr § (tl!), Jr (than) ...
- g~~A]j[~~±± , OJ 1-:.tf.%,~ Tm~:tt
- ~I.!!rFo~Z.
Thinh ich ky xa ky tr£mg Sl. khii di vi rue ht;J phi! dvc gia
Tfm vuong than vfin chi.
Xin cho them nhtlng rrfing si xa ky, (nluJng rrting si) c6 the?
Vua Tdn W minh di hoi ngu&i d6 (Chiin qucfc sach).
tiip gitip cho ttic ht;J (Sif kY ).
2. Chi l<.1i b5ng m(>t tu chi thi: ~ (thi),
llt (thu) ...
- :K OJ tJJ,~ JJ)t , it w
JtJ5 , ut , JJ *mz ?JT 1\% ~
w
Phu kha d!l<,lC th~mh, nan dfr ll! thuy, thii; nai chung th(r chis& 106
vi nhi fL~
CVU TQC
C6 thlcung vui khi thimh cong, nhU11g kh6 c6 thlcung Jo JUc
ban ddu, ctii d6, chinh fa th6i clwng cua phin dong ngu&i dOi (Han ~ , ~ , tEl , )( , a ~ , ¥ -r 't* , ~ , -y;; , ~ ~ fL
thu). Cao, tang, t6, ph1,1, ky than, chi ttl', ton, tang, huy~n, thi vi ctl'u
3. Chi l<,1i b5ng d<,1i tu phfrc di~p ~ (gia) d?t sau b(> ph~n phfrc 15~ 0 ~5 tii El • tii '~ t-% El ~ t-% 0 fL 1'f $. Ill
chi : t(>c. Thuy t6 viet ti t6, vien ton viet nhi ton. Pham huu khi huyet
~ /f~ l~o
- ?£1~~fi~?JTL:[Z]+~AA~ m~c bat ton than.
L<,1i d~c t~n thtr&ng ky s& vong tti thPp vt;~n h9c gia.
Ke it;Ji duvc dJn buddy du nhtlng cai bj mit JiJ bcfn chf!C V{ln TU MCJI
h9c (H~m DG). Cii'u t()c fL~: chin h9-Cao ~: ong so-T~ ng ~: ong co'-T6
- 1-tlYJ\*, 1~WJm~~' /fOJ/m~ tii: ong n9i-Thiiy t6 ~5 tfl: 6ng td ddu tien, thuy td-Tj t6 4 tii:
Tha ti~u cu, phi son thong dt;~o giii, bfrt kha thiing ng6n. 6ng t6? ddu tien, ti t6'-Nhi tOn ~ H~: chdu xa dai, nhi t6n-Khi
vJ nhtlng lt;~ch nho, (nhtlng ft;~ch) mer duang ben nui thi huyet $.Itn.: dong mau, khi hu_w?'t- Ton~: t6n tr9ng.
khong thlklxiit (Sif kf: Ngu de' ban kj).
D[CH NGHiA Clzin lzf)
-f~¥~,Beaz.~~,%~~T~,~l\%~~
Jff-1 Ong sa, 6ng ca: 6ng nt)i, cha, ban than mlnh, de'n con, chdu,
Tin chi qu6c, tri~u nht,~c ky chi thi~u nien, Jjnh xuift kh6a ht;J chdt, chit, d6 Ia chin h9. Ong thiiy t6' g9i La tj t6', chau xa dai gQi
TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THU Tl,1 HQC CHU HAN 273
272

Ia nhl ton.Pham c6 cung dong mdu, khong ai Ia khc)ng ton tr9ng Sftm h6. ngCJ d;;to nhfrt dl quan chi.
nguifi than. S:im o'i. dpo ra do m(jr Je mj th6ng su6r Jufr dr ch rLu{in ngif).
w
NGU PHAP
107
HO NGO'u¥~ :zt::
-:r- :;!?'·
-:r- +
LY HIEU TV
Ho ngli
1.
H6 ngli', thtr&ng Ia danh tt!. dung keu ten di goi hol:lc di:in do . *Ly ~ '/1 ¥ -1': 0
!1£ ~ fj~ ~P.f; t~
nhi tinh chi hi cu. Ttfu ht}c u' hLfc!ng hi¢u, xw1t tat do, phiin tat
' tB £\
[X £\ -A- '
H6 ngli' dCmg dQC l~p v&i cac thanh phfm khac trong cftu, co thi di:it ;;r;:; 0 ::Et /v' ·r;:l:; 'i1f , ~ ~=! till .& , JD'
.@3 7,[ lEl: ~fEI .j.f_, ,
lHJ _.. . ._ ./"-... 1P:~ 7L :J~ g._~ oJI-!J 10
adflu diu hoi:ic cu6i cau.
/1"1"9 -j- l-..!:!::
---:j--

Thi dLJ:
di~n.
~ *Ky i~ ~
Ly nhi chuyet hqc, cap dicn y uieu trj ,
phl1 benh u6c,
• 8 & '/if f± )( f~IJ o m• )( ~
tflm thu'c du phc, nh~t d~t duy t<:~i ph~t trifc . Vj
* ky,
- ~i£! ~S~AzJ~~~X:-¥7
Phu Sai.' Nhi vong V i~t nhan chi sat nhi ph1,1 h6? ii:
thuyen du,
1flff ' ~ 52- l'J *~ ::13; ~
Ly nhi nai tl]c ky hqc
* 0

nghi~p.
phu bt;nh

P/u) Sai .' nguui d:i quen nguiri nu&c Vi~t giir cha nguui r6i
Tl) Md!
sao ?( T:i rruyfn).
Chi ¥ : r(tt-Ttfu J1It di de'n-Htio'ng hi~u ~Ef,t~: tntc'ing lang-
II. Cau t~o cua ho ngli Phan [X: tn! ,·t-Di~n [Hj: trinh difn (dung nhud(Jng ILI')-B~nh (p3:
I. Dung ten rieng hoi:ic ten chfrc v~,~, dja vi di goi (xem l;;ti thi dau (JJn, hf nh ho~111-Doc ~: n(lng, 1r(1m 1r(mg-Chuye't jtlJ: l'f.:l ng
d1,1 tren): l't-Di~u tri ~mJ d:;: trf hfnh, ditu trf- T§m ~: nJ?ti-Cau Hl dtu- Vi
- rtM~ ' TII'XR~ ' *
ky m: chLfa hao !au, kh6ng ban lilu-Thuyen du iff~: hit
hfnh , k/u)i h~nh, h~nh khdi-HQc nghi~p ~ "*: .''?( nghifp h(JC \'(tn,
Nhii tu!H<:t thu Iy!
Nily rhffng be con. xu6ng Jfy gi!Jycho ra.' (Sifkj). l'ifc h(JC.

2. Dung ill (da), -Sf (h6) di:it sau ten goi: I)[CH NGHiA Dri."a con c6 hie'u h(J Ly
- ~~ill ' $!= ~pff & ill Be L_v tfnh rt/t hie'u thao. fJe/1 h(JC (J trllifng Icing, {1i tttt phai thlla,
Tu diL phi nhl sa c~p da. ,.2 ta't phdi trinh. Cha nr5 dau n(lng. he L_v nghf hec l'r)i nu!i thdy
thut/c ditu trf, b() cd dn ngu. ngity {1em chl (1 ben cha. Cluing bao /{iu,
Nily anh TU: d6 Jj ditu anh kh6ng the' dpt din duvc (Lu{ln
bfnh cua cha khvi hdn. be L_v hen tie/J lf.:IC \'ifc h(JC cua minh.
ngif).
-
.L>- <Jr. =~* l , f-EB--7
~"j' i§-:1.§.-y_.A~ ~
w
274 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THV Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 275

108 ngay ": )( B 1±\JH~Pd:i (Phi.} nh~t xu at ngoc,ti kinh thlfong) Cha
* 1}1
GIA DINH DOAN TV
Ill ~ m6i ngcly di ra ngoai bu6n ban.

6 Ill (vi) la cl()ng tu dung nhu ph6 tu lam tr9-ng ngu, d?t
ft *z A & ~ o Bl ~ 1}1 rffi! $ o* B t:Jj
Nga gia chi nhan th~m cla. Mau ly gia olnh t6a SLL Phi.} nh?t xuat
x u·udc <l()ng tu, c6 nghia Ia "vay quanh": [I] ~~iT (Vi tqa clang
h<;1) Ng6i vay quanh dudi den.
7} *~ ~ o :tt W ~ 97K ~ ~ Fr:1~ 1i t~ ~f
ngo<;ti kinh thLfong. Nga dG' o~ mu<)i cldng thftn gian vang hi~u dj w
*; & B~ rm •
w~ lll ~ ~ T o Bl lJ ~~ MJ • )(
nghi~p; c?p van nhi quy, vi tqa <lang h<;t.Mau stf phLmg nh~n, phi.}
109

b
~ rll51:
niang CO
*
Slf"
. ,
;{§. ff !7: ~
d.c hG'u an lac
. chi
I~\
tam.
z DE
·i~ ~X
CA

R 1'fJ roJ OJ ff~o - i.J-- W f6J OJ fio


TU MOl Nhat xfch bo thlfc;5ng kha phung. Nhat ailu tuc thlfc;5ng kha thung.
Doan[l]: tqp h(!p lq~i, tl! t(ip ("docln tl!" lei sum hqp)-Ly fll[: lo £ ~ Po -=¥- 1'E o 5i. /f §~ tEl ~ ? ~ $
fffi!:
li~u, xil' f.v (d5ng 1·i~c)-Toa
''l!n \'Qt-Kinh thtio'ng *~~:huon
ban, kinh doanh-D~ng ~: h(m, Iii, cdc (tr(f til hi2'u zhi sf/ nhi&u)- 5t '& - *
Huynh d~ nhlf thu tuc. Khdi bat nang tuong dung? D~ cung
fD o ~ f'F R ~ ~ ±f8J o ~ 7( T
huynh huu nhat gia hoa. M9-c tac d~u phu nhl}c oa. Vi thien h<;1
Di ~f: h9c, tqp ("di nghifp" fa h9c tqp)-St! ~: !elm, lo lifu-
Phung ff~: may, khliu-Nh~n *IJJ: xo kim, khau vci.
1& t!t ;;~ o& 0

h~u the tu ta.

TU MOl
D/CH NGHiA Gia dinh sum h(Jp
D~ '!'$: kfnh nhu&ng arzh, kinh thu(in (1'Ji nguoi !Jn han minh)-
Ngu(Ji nha toi rtr't dtmg. M~ lo cdc 1'ifc vl!n I'Qt trong nha. Cha
Thung fi: giii (gq~o)-Dung ~:dung thu, tha thu-Cung $: cung
m6i ngay di ra ngoai huon hcin. Toi cung cdc em trai em gcii scing
kinh-HG'u 1;i_: than cii, h()a thuqn-Phu ~: cai n6i, cai cho-Oa ±f8J:
sJm de'n truC!ng fa h(JC tqp; de'n chidu nu!i I'd, ngcJi \'elY quanh
du'Ji den. Mr; lo may vci, cha k2' chuy~n xua; nuJi ngu(fi ct&u cd cai n6i-Ttita ;;~Q&: than tho.
h)ng an 1·ui.
D[CH NGHiA Bai ca v~ d~
NGU PHAP Ml)t thuoc wli con C(J thi may du(Jc. Ml)t cUtu th6c con c6 thi
giii duC!c.
. Anh em nhu taY. chan. Ha khong tid dung thu cho nhau
dU(Jc u? Em kinh, anh thuqn, ml)t nha hod h(Jp. ChJ lam cho dqu
0 B (nh~t) Ia danh tu dung nhu ph6 tu, vdi nghia"moi
276 TRAN VAN CHANH
roAN THV Tl,f HQC CHO' HAN 277

n6i thft. Dl cho thien h~1 l1(/i sau ta than.


. _u:l't-Ki~m ~: R6m cd, co cd-Tie't thao ~Pi*: .w giii Rln khi tie't.
·rie't thdo-Thu ~: cudi-Phu the~~: ch(1nJ< l'(t-Hu'ong Ian ~Ef, ~S:
NGU PHAP
hclng x(5m Icing gi~ng- Tan my ~~ ~: khen ng(ti. co ng(Ji.

0 ~ (thu'<jng) la ph() tu lam trang ngu, dich nghia "et)n,


ma Ct)Jl": - R .:tfJ f<';j OJ~~ 0 -4 (Nhat mJ:::. OJ fi D!CH NGHiA Cu'di hoi
xich b6 tlut(lng kha pb.tmg. Nhat dil u tile tlut(lng kha thung) M()f Ngu(fi con gdi h(J H(Jng dunf? nu;w xt/u nul dLi'c (thi) hi~n. Qud
thu(Jc 1·di cr)n ('()tid mar l1Lf{tc. M(Jt d{{u th()c cc)n co thl gia du'(fC. ha muoi (tu6'i) khl5ng chju U(v ch6ng. C() chclnf? hq Truong lei
ngu'(/i u5 phd'm h~mh tift during thai. h9c r()ng nhi~u tcli, g(Jm cd
6 ~ (m~c) la ph() tu biEu thi S~( cam chi ho~c ngan dn, tie't tluio, nghe (1·i~c i(r) mcl curJi ndng 1'2. \l(t chcJng kfnh yeu
dich "cho, dung" : ~ 1'F _rrJ~i:~ ±f.!D. (M{lc tac d~u phti nhl;Jc oa) nhou. Hclng xdm ldng gi~ng d~u khen ng(fi h(J.
---. :- . . - .

CluJ him cho d<lu m1i thft.


m
110
~~
GIA THU

~I frr ~5(~ rmt~ ~o ~- /f ~ P%\o +


Hong nu n:t mao xu nhi due hi~n . Qua tam th~p bat khting gia.
1f ~.& ~ 13 · ~ &- s~ 11 ± ·tw ~ ~ =t · ~
Huu Tn.fling sinh giJ, vi dtfong thai giai sl, bac hqc c.1a tai, kiem
1f ~7J 1* . rm nn ~ z o~ ~ tt t§ ~ ti':z o ~Er,
huu tiet thao, van nhi thu chi. Phu the th~m tlfcing ai kinh. Hucmg
*'
; ii'P7 .l:"l::
E3 '0~ :='E
ii" ~
4:E;.
,"'fl
0 NG(J PHAP
Ian giai tan my yen . • • Cach diing ~ (yen)
~ (yen) Ia d<:ti tu dung dE chi ngtfoi hay v~t ua neu ra d
TU MOl tntoc, giong each dung cua z (chi), co thE dich la "no, hQ, di~u
H6ng ~T hq H6ng-Nfi tii' frr: con gdi-Xu ~: xii'u-DU'c 1,~: d6 ... ": ~fif,~~~~~~ (Hlf(jng Ian giai tan my yhz) X6m gi~ng
d{lo l1Ll"c-Hi~n ~: cd tdi dLi'c, c6 du·c hqnh, hi8n-Gia 1,@: Iii\' d8u khen ngr;i hq I'Qy.
ch6ng- Truong ~K hq Truong-Giai si 1! ±: ngudi c6 phdm h~mh m
279
TOAN THLI Tl,l HQC CHU HAN
TRAN VAN CHANH
278
NGO PHAP
111
t~ 17.. 1i .,~ 0 ~ (nhien) Ia lien tu bi~u thj slf chuyEn y nghjch l<;li,
TRACH HUU NGHI THAN dich "song, nhung": ~:X. ft?fDJ/ft~ (Nhiert giao huu bat kha
bat th~n) Song l'ifc ke't giao l'ffi bc;m k/u)ng thl khong cdn th(ln.
~ A ~ ill '* -g M- Ym o.. rm §~ E! DX. 13 o

Ng6 nhan xU' the, vj thuong v6 bang huu nhi nang tlf thanh giii. 6 ~155( (th! co) Ia Cl,lffi tu quen dung d~ chi ket qua,
~ x 8.. /f DJ /f 'I'~ a ~ §Pi -r:. : u-ur ~ 13 thu'ong djeh Ia "vi v~y, VI the, VI le d6, cho nen":
Nhien giao huu bat kha bftt th~n. Ng~n ngu van: "C~n m~c giii ~~~iit~~;X (Tizj c{/ nghi tr~ch ich huu) VI v(ly, nen ch9n bgn
~ ' ili: ~ 13 BJ.J J 0 r5 A ~ § : D" w ~ )\ 5 c6 ich.
hik, c~n dang gia minh". C6 nhan huu ng6n: "Oil thi~n nhan ell'
~o A 2: M Z '¥ a W /f ~ A 5 ~o A ff® fi.lil,
m
nhu' nh~p chi Ian chi that. Du ba't thi~n nhan cu' nhu' nh~p b~w ngu 112
ZUJ o ~~di~ 1I t~ ~ /Y..o ~ m
PHONG OC
chi tu". Thj co nghi tr~ch ich huu.

TU MCJI
i3
.~ *
.L-.1:::.
flt:.
!<If: ill
:7fC 0
~
DD-l'
llfA
.L-.1:::.
flt:.
+
Di~u nang true sao, thli nang doanh qu~t. Nhan duong tht1<;1ng cfl
•K•):.
'§;
!Tg
ftB
0 "
p, fiS
I-
_L. P

82;:. ~ t3 DD-l' :HI!: 1£ ~M /$,


Tr:;.ch t~: cht;m- Th~n·i~: cfln th(ln, th(ln tr(mg-Ngo nhan.g )\: ' ~0
ill
'T ':'R }p * ' !:if-~
E2. ill E2.
}p
?'<>
ftB ' ), .~
0
WA '"' ·" A.8 l(X.
"
/\.. E3
chung ta-Xii' the'~ ill : xit the', do'i xif vi?c doi, so'ng (J dai-Ng:;.n thai , h~ ell' sao, dong ell' qu~t, du di~u thu v6 dj. Dai h~u nhan, tri
ngu~§pj: ngc;m ngil, t~c ngi1-M~c ~: mJ!c (ell vie't)-Chi lanzM:
co chi va co !an ( hai thli co thmn)-Bao ff@: cd uap, cd mdm- Tu
~ 8 t~
thuc nMt tang, kien true
, ~ m 8 r5 , 15~~ ~ ~
nh~t xao, u th\ huu cao duong, huu sung
¥: , ~ *
U: qudn hang. tt·~ ~ ~ ~±~Z '8 ~·Pol t~ ~ r*'
I~ di~n, dieu Iuong hQa dong,
D!CH NGHlA ChQn htJ.n nen thij.n trQng
!au, huu nguy nga trang
~ ~ *' 1l rm
kim bich huy hoang nhi ph(mg 6c ch1 che d~i bj.
chi cung
m~z *IJ *
1Fm o
. Chung ta so'ng iJ dai chua tung c6 ai khong c6 be bc,m ma tJ!
m!nh lam nen. Song vi?c ke't giao vai bc;zn khong thl khong dln
TU MOl
th(ln. Ngc;zn ngil c6 cau: "Gdn mJ!c th! den, gdn den th! sang".
Qu~t @: han,R-Diii j:5: cte'n (xem Ngfl phdp iJ duC!i)-Xao :r-'5:
Nguai xua c6 n6i: "Cung iJ vai nguai to't nhu vao nha co chi co
kheo teo-Sung ~~: cao-Nguy nga ~~: cao nga't, c16 si), nguy
ian. Cung iJ vai nguai khong to't nhu vao qudn cd mdm ". VI v(ly
nga-L~ ~: dfp-Cung di~n '§ ~: cung di?n-Dieu p.,jjt: chc;zm
nen ch(Jn bc;zn c6 ich.
280 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THV nJ HQC CHU HAN 281

khdc-Lrldng t~: xa, rdm, keo (nha)-Dong tt: C(lt cdi, tr~ c()t- 113
~@i
Bich ~: miw hie'c-Huy hoang 1$1~: ch6i l(Ji, n;tc u!, l(inf? lc~y-Bi
MAOOC
flffi: ctd.r ctu.

D/CH NGHiA Nlzi1 ciia


III
LU
T
,.
:t=;
T I!£
"Fl - ·1t: ~
!=;=! • .......
-++-
~ * .o...L- ·= ~;fe
1'1± -tf- ~lj ' I j\ '{tf<:
'>l!rt: Y.'*'-

S(in h<;t huu nhftl mao 6c; hoa vicn trang ky ti~n, ti~u khe nhieu
!/, thu hie't diw hang. Loai ngu'i'ri l'i1o thai
Chim hie't him
+t 1& o - Wr 1£ llt Fs~ , fJ A ~~ ~ tt 5F. z
thU"(fng Crj', mua hq tf !/, mua dong if hang, curzg chim t/zu khong ky h~u. Nhat lac l<;ti thi.i' gian, linh nhan d6n khdi Him tuy~n chi
khdc (khlJnf? khdc l'rfi loai chim thu). Kip de'n ngu'(/i d(/i sau, sv ~ o ~ z
_:t A ~ §if ? JJ - ~ f~ -ill o ~fE ~
ni~m. Oc chi chl'1 nhan thj thuy? Nai nhat han nho da. Tuy elf
hi2'u bie't ngay m(Jt them, l'ifC xay dl/11?, rzgav m(}t kheo, dodd m/ti
e<5 nha cao, cd idu /c!n. cd cung di~n nguy nga trdnf? 1~. keo chgm
c()t l'e, l'(zng bie'c ch(5i l(Ji l'a s~r che' tcic nha nl'a r{{t Ia d6y du.
11!f ~ z
±ft ' ffij I~\ *
~ /f 'ti ~ -ill 0
thanh bfrn chi dnh, nhi tam vj thu<'ing bat an l<;tc da.

NGO PHAP TU M(Jf


Trang tl±: trong di~'m, trong trf-Nhi~u M'i: \'(J/1f? quanh-L~c {g::
0 ~ (dai) Ia gioi tu, c6 nghla "den, den khi, ~jp khi " d l(}i, dirnJ? l~1i-Don ~~: li2n, ngay I<IP tU"c-Chu nhan .I. A: ngar'ri
:itl1~A . .. (Diii h~u nhan ... ) Kip cte'n ngur'ri dai sou ... chu-Han nho ~ f~: nha nho ngheo, h9c trv ngheo.

6 ~ ~ (rl thD Ia lien tu bi~u thi m6i quan h~ d v~ thai D/CH NGHiA Nha trallh
Dudi chrln nui cd m9t mcii nhcl tranh; l'u'On hoa trang tri phfa
gian ian nhan qua, thuong c6 th~ djch "sau clo , do clo, ttl' cl6, do
tru'dc, sut/i nhd l'rmg quanh phia sou. M()t khi (hrng lqi d mri ncly,
v~y, vi v~y ... ":
thi khie'n ngur!i ta li~n nghi din cht/n lam tuy2n. Ngu(/i chu cuo
nha a\" Ia ai? f)d fa m9t nha nho ngheo. ( Ngu'(fl d(J) fU\' S(J'ng
:itl1~A · ~~8±~ , 7t~8f5 ·11'?-~ ~~¥:, ~*t&c Dai Mu tron g cdnh ngheo thanh b~tch nul /c}nf.? clnra tL'rng chdng an 1•ui
nhan, trf thuc nh~t tang, kien true nh~t xao, ,, thi huu cao clu'ong,
vt;ly.
huu sung !au) Kip de'rz nguai dr!i sau, Sl/ hifu bie't ngay m()t them,
kie'n true ngay m()t kheo, dodd mdi cd nha cao, cr5 Lc1u Mn. NGO PHAP
_ ~ Bjj fj~ ~fl.~ 1[ ~ ffl)Oj (De Minh 1t thj I~ p De N ghi vi
KET CAU LIEN DQNG
tt!) Cho nen De'Minh lt;lp De' Nghi lam nguai nlfi doi (Bai 122).
I. K~t du lien d<)ng dung di biiu d~t nhling hanh d<)ng ho~c
w d<)ng tac xay ra d6ng thai ho~c n6i ti~p nhau. K~t du lien d<)ng
TRAN vAN cHANH TOAN THV Tl,l HQC CHO' HAN 283
282

thu&ng dm;rc t;;to nen do hai. ba d9ng til di;it lien ti~p nhau. - t~1t § rmt~z
Dti011g kj ml}c nhi thj chi.
Thi dl}:
DII071g mft ma nhin (Le kj).
- Wf*0freil31~$tj[*~~·tg0
T~ Ttrong cong sCr Bi:mh Sinh tuy l?Jp sat L6 Hoan cong.
- iu~IJtJ.r~:rm* . 1t"&~rm~$
Dao t~c phi thdo nhi tQa, khuynh h6 nhi tuy.
Tt Tti071g c6ng sai Bimh Sinh cho L3 Hoim c6ng ucfng rur;u Vtb din nD'i thi v;zch co ma ng6i, dcfc bfw ma tha h6 say
say rbi 16i ra va giit di (Sif kj). (Li~u Ton Nguyen: Thuy tac Tay Son yen du ky).
2. K~t du lien d9ng thuang dung di chi ml;lc dich: 5. D9ng til tm&c v&i tan ngfr cua n6 chi phtrong thfrc, each
-
.~..f-,./ft~'::li
{~/I"' s Q ' • ti~n hanh cua Slf vi~c neu ra C5 d9ng til sau: d9ng til sau chi nwc
Nhfr laj tinh ngo. dich cua h~mh d9ng neu ra & d9ng til tnr&c. Doi khi gifra hai d9ng til
Ch:iu din thiim ta (Han Dtf: Tl Thgp nhj lang van) (= d~n di con CO gi&i tlr j__j_ (dl) di biiu thj ffil;IC dich mQt each fO rang han,
tham). theo k~t diu sau:

-:gf9~WJ · tg011Fo,Z Chu ngfr + d<?ng til+ tan ngfr (+ .[;) d'i) + d9ng til+ tan ngfr.
Quan Trong hfru b~nh. Hoan cong vfing vfn chi. Thi dl}:
Quan Tivng dau, Hoim c6ng din thiim (LZi thi XuJin thu). - ~ :r + ~x , 00 orfi ft.IB~~-
.A4:-...l/'-JD" . ,. . -...PIIJ~/1-....

3. Hai d9ng til trong k~t du lien d9ng thuang ducrc n6i ket s& vuong d;;ti nQ, hung Slf t~p T~n.

b~ng lien til ffiJ (nhi): Vua Su cd gj[m, dem binh dfmh up Tim (Chiin qucfc s:ich).

- Jtrm~ · ~rm~w - *-±'£,~A.t:Jr)C*


Giac nhikh&i, khm nhi qui. D;;ti vuang tftt khm binh/ dif cong T6ng.
T/nh r6i dung len. dting len rbi mJ vt nh'a (Li~u Ton Nguyen; D;zi vuvng tft phdi khui binh de' d{mh Tcfng (Chiin qu6c
Thuy u1c Tay Son yen du k:y). sach).
- ~rmrmH z · w
Quan van nhj h&n chi. 114
Nha vua nghe n6i va khen 6ng fy Jj ngwi hitn (Han Phi til). 7,, ~~
PHANHNHAM
4. D9ng til tm&c v&i tan ngfr cua n6 dung di biiu thj phuong
thtrc cua hanh d9ng neu ra & d9ng tlr sau: (d9ng til+ tan ngfr +
(nhi) + d9ng til):
rm B"- A #; ~ Z rfo • * •~ •
R ?JT 1-J 1t M13 ill a
Ng6 nhan thuong thtfc chi ph~m: me, m~ch, <l~u sd d1 sung co gia da.
284 TOAN THV Tl,l HQC CHU HAN 285
TRAN VAN CHANH

f!:?. ' ~ ' iif,l ' lMi pfT .L-) f~ 8!


Ngtf, nhuc, s<1, 16a sd dl ta thi~n
-=!;L
B
J-h
L.!:.
0
z ~!
d.,

gia da. Phanh nham chi phap


:Sf
H NGU PHAP

KET CAU D~ H~ HAY KIEM NGO THUC


f/~ t 11J ffi1 ~ ' ~ Z ' 9JG .ux J.fi: Z • ~ !N ):'}' Z o
nhan v~t nhi dj , ho<;ic chl'f chi, ho~c chung chi, ho~c tien sao chi. 1. K~t du d~ h~ (d~ wt:
theo th(r u,r. h~ 1*: quan h~), con gQi
ffit QrJU ~ R mz ~ ¥~ W3 '
~~ t1J ~ ff ~ ot 1'3 ' la kit cfu kiem ngtJ hay kiem ngtJ tluir:, duqc t~o nen do m(>t do~n
Thuc phftm bat llf<1ng t6i di trf b~nh, c6 v~t chi huu ac vi giii, ciiu rna tan ngii CUa 00 Vlra lam chu ngii cho 111Qt do~n cau k~ ti~p
;=;1~
::=e.)<, ;::::]
L..; I~rN' ,§lr
,x., B;:<. ' .J;:-1::.
FJ /A-;:
I' pr
~J ~
.P< 0
m ±'=" ' i--1:\1 '
11!A '*
Jt!;', ' ='
i}iJ:
di biiu thi nh[mg hanh d(>ng ho~c d(>ng tac dien ra trong m(>t qua
ho~c dl hl'• b<:ti giii, giai bat kha thtfc. Khudng, ticu, th6ng, toan,
:;!t ot $ ¥-* •~ ffit Z • ~ ;':E 1~ ~ • ~ OJ ~ t~ trinh lien tl,IC VU ch~t che:
ky vj tan l;;tt, da thtfc chi, di~c tuc thlfting than, bat kha bat th~n (Chu ngii) + d(>ng tl.r + tan ngii + dong tl.r (ho~c ngfr d(>ng tl.r).
-.it -.it
{Q o Chu ngfr D(>ng tl.r
da .
Trong k~t du d~ h~. d(>ng tl.r th(r nhfrt thtr&ng la nh[mg d(>ng
tl.r ngo~i d(>ng kh6ng hoan toan. biiu thi st,r sai khi~n, phong t~ng.
TlJ MOl
giup d&, m~nh danh, t6n t~i (ho~c hi~n hfru), nhtr 1~ (su), fJ (linh).
Phanh nh§m Y, ~f: nc!'u nu(/ng, n{{u cln-Ph§'m Ql::lo: d(1 df dung-
~j (phong), .§}] (trq), ~(vi). 5J}t(hi~u). 6[J (m~nh). :fif (hfru), .L-) (di) ...
Sung co Jt wl
h51 d~t. (/n cho kh(Ji cldi-Sd iFJt rau-Loa ll),iJl: qud
- ~I 1~ 1~ 13 Fo~ lillmX: f6
ciia locli du·a-Ta f_j:_: phf:i giup-Thit;n ijg: hila an-Chting :!fi::
T~ vmJng su su gia vfn Tri~u Uy H~u.
chu)1g, hdjJ- Tien ,!')~: rdn, chien-Sao ):'};: .t{io-Hu b:;li Jt% ~5(: hdng,
Vua Tt sai su gia sang thfim Tri¢u Uy H.fiu ( Chiin quae
hu tht/i, lht/i rila-Khuong if: cii gung- Tieu f~: h~tl lieu- Thong
s5ch).
~: hclnh-Toan FJf,: 1iJi-Tan $: cay-L~t ¥*:cay him, cay.
Nai phongT6 Tftn vi V6 An quan.
D!CH NGH[A Ni{u lin Ben phong cho T6 Tin Jilm Vo An qufin ( Chiin qu6c s5ch).
chung ta thuiing cln nhu g(w, ILia ml, d(tu, hi nhilng tht1 de'
f)(j - ~ .§}J~Jj(:~
an cho khoi d(Ji. Cci, 1hjt, rau, dua lit d~' phf:i 1•clo hila an. Phep T~ trQ'Sa c6ngTftn.
nctu cln lu_\' nu5n md khdc, hoijc n{{u, hoijc hajJ, hoijc chien, xdo.
T~ giup 56 d5nh Tin ( Chiin qu6c s5ch).
f)(j an khtmg llfl rt{t d& g{iy ra h?nh t(tt, cho nen nu)n gl c6 mui
hoi, ho~lc cW hu tht/i diu chdng nen lin. Gung, lieu, hdnh, tdi, vj - 9wA~~EJ~w
(cua chung) cay xe. cln nhiiu ciing dii lam h~ti de'n than mlnh, Ph1,1 nhiin vj gi5 vi!tquy.
k/u)ng 1h8' kh/Jng cdn lhqn I'Qy. Ngwi dim ba g9i vi¢c di Jfy ch6ng la qui ( C6ng DUV77g
truy¢n).
286 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THV Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 287

- rnA ~L-JJI~!J\A rU MCJI


Thi nhan giai diDoanh vi ti~u nhan. Thien~ : nho (ciing dr;c fa biin)-Nhi~m f-f: nuj.c cho-Trieu
Ngu&i cf chq d§u cho Doanh JiJ tie'u nhan ( SJ kj). ~: buo?i sang, bu6'i s6'm-I>am /!: cdi ddm- Tr~ch 1,: vung bun
2. K~t du lien d9ngva k~t du d~ h~ c6 th~ k~t hqp thanh m<?t ldy, ddm ldy, chlim- Vong Ia *~a: ht6'i (di bdt chim ho(ic bdt
k~t du pht!c t~p: cd)-MQ ~: bu6'i chiJu-Ap t:&: hung li(v, hong- Thti sti6'ng ~~:
d~ chju, khoan khodi.
- ~I 1~~f$~M~~1J:m
s& Vll'011g Slr Xuan Than Quan tuong binh ct!u Tri~u.
D!CH NGHlA Tlui vui dta ong dtinh cti
Vua Scf sai Xuan Than Quan dem binh ctiu Tii~u ( Chiin qucfc
Thd lenh denh mqt chie'c thuydn con, tuy song m(ic cho troi di
s5ch).
hay iJ. S6'm dgo girla vung ddm ldy, giiing ht6'i ct2' bdt cdc loai cd
(Cii cau Ia m9t k~t du d~ h~, trong d6 do~n cau "tl.J'O'ng binh tom; chidu ,.J noi khoi song xa xoi, cdm cdn cau ma ng6i dc;i cd
ct!u Tri~u" I~i Ia m9t k~t du lien d9ng, xem bai 113 ). rang. M6i khi vao luc rdnh rang, ho(ic hong gio mat tren song,
m ho(ic xem trclng to trong may ma long ong gia ddnh cd cilng vi do
ma khoan khodi. Danh l(Ji chua tung lam kinh dqng de'n mqng
115
1£ /~ xsx lanh, ma mr;i vi?c the' gian ci1ng dJu xem nhu may n6'i. ThQ.t Ia
"" ::g;g * con ngu&i nhan nhcl't tren d&i (nay) vQ.y.
NGVONGLAC

?~ ~ -Jit z -
~ fu1 ?&: ff ,13:. WI o ~ i!ff. NCO PHAP
Phiem thien chu chi nhat di~p, tuy ba nhi~m khu h.ru. Trieu du
il 1' z Fs~ , 5~ a tz :tm t!2, ~~ z ~ ; ~
*~
- ?

CAU TINH LUQ'C THANH PHAN


' ~

*
dam tr<;J.ch chi gian, tn.tong vong Ia dT bQ (b6) ngu ha chi thu9c; mQ
A. t~ ?&: 7~ ~ , t~ ~j ~ rm 1~ r!ff. tf#. £:J 15~ r~j
nh?p yen ba tham xu, trl dieu can nhi tQa dai du ngu. Moi t1 nhan
o
Nhu ta da bi~t, cau c6 2 thanh phfrn chinh Ia cluJ ngif va vj
ngif.. va con c6 thi c6 mQt s6 thanh phfrn ph1,1 khac. Trong Van
ng6n, nhi~u khi vi ly do ti~t ki~m ho~c tu tl.r, ngu&i ta kh6ng neu
H~ z B~ ~ t:& 1~ 1$1. M: ?I J: ' ~ W'l B)j
h<;! chi thai ho~c ap thanh phong t1 giang thu'Qng, ho~c quan minh ho~c giiim b&t mQt thanh phfrn nao d6 trong cau, d6 la tnr&ng hqp
fj 15~ ~ Fs~ , rm t!2, :X ,C., t~ # ~ z ~ ~ o cua cau ti'nh lur;rc thimh phJn.

~ tiJ *
nguy~t t1 van gian, nhi ngu phil tam hoai di~c vi chi thu suong.
~ It H· ~ rm tit
Danh IQi vj ding kinh hao m9ng, nhi the gian stf stf di~c d~ng
Fs~ ~ ~ # ~
I. TlNH LUQ'C CHU NGO'
1. Chu ngfr da neu & do~n tren, xu6ng do~n dl.l'&i c6 thi duQ'c
1Jt15~ tf ~ " ~ ~ tit Fs~ ~ z
iflj A o- m tinh ltrQ'c:
thj t1 phu van. Chan thj the gian chid~ nhat nhan nhan da .
- ~A~~ ' ~A&z · ( ) ~ ' ( > ~ffiH{f z
288 TRAN VAN CHANH TOAN THL1 Tl,f HQC CHV HAN 289

Sa nhiin vi thl;l'c. Ngo nhiin c~p chi. ( ) Bon, ( ) thl;l'C cfrp!


nhi tong chi.
Phim Kho5i hoi: 5v vi¢c h6m nay nhu thi niw? Luong d5p:
Qufin ciJa 5if sth sopn tht1c 5n. qufin Ng6 du6; kip. (Qufin 56) gfp Jim.' ( 5tf kj) (= Kim nh~t chi svth~m dp ).
bo chpy. (qufin Ng6) din 5n nluJng tht1c dfi d9n sin rJi ruvr thea
II. TiNH LUQ'C f)()NG TU lAM V! NGV
( Ta truy¢n: Djnh c6ng tli nien) (= 56 nhfin bon, Ng6 nhfin thl!c nhi
tong chi). 1. N~u do:;1n ciiu tren da c6 dong tt1 r6i thi a do:;1n ti~p theo, c6
Doi khi chi c6 mot phfm cua chu ngfr bj tinh IU'Q'C: th~ IU'Q'c b&t dong tt!:
-*~·~~-~Z-·~( ) •nZ- -R~~Z~·~~·~~n'~~· ( )~*~
D<;li do. b£t qua tam qu6c chi nh£t. trung ( ), ngu chi Pham chu hftu chi tang, dj tinh, lam u ngo:;1i; d6ng tinh. ( )
nh£t... u tong mieu.
(Thea chi de} ciJa c5c lien vuong), kinh d6 ciJa nu6c chu hdu Thea phep, khi .vua chu hdu mfr. niu thuc}c h9 ngo!Ji thi than
J6n kh6ng the'rc}ng quti mc}t phdn ba kinh d6 ciJa thien ttl; (k_,inh d6 kh6c if ngoili d6ng: niu Jil nguiri trong h9 thi (than kh6c) if t6n
ciJa) nu6c v&a. kh6ng the'qu5 mc}t phdn n5m ... ( Ta truy¢n: An c6ng nulu ( Ta truy¢n: TU'071g c6ng th~p nhj nien) (= lfim u tong mi~u).
nguyen nien) (tinh ltrqc chfr "do"). - -A fJ-, £,~tx§iP~, 1~~~~rmf~z , c ) ~
:;r~~rmc:~z
2. Tuong tl! tru&ng hqp tren. khi dung dong tt1 B (vi~t), Van
Tam nhiin hanh, t£t hfru ngii su yen. Trpch ky thi~n gia nhi
ngon r£t thu&ng tinh Iuqc chu ngfr:
tong chi, ( ) ky b£t thi~n gia nhi cai chi.
-~~~B:·A~~~#?~~~B:~AUM Trang ba nguoi cung di ifr c6 mc}t nguiri c6 the' JiJm thdy ta
WJJ , ~ .1--J~-¥? ( )B : ~.1--:JJ~~ill
duvc. C6 the' ch9n nhilng diJu uft ciJa nguiri d6 mil thea, nhilng
LU'OTig Hu~ vmmg vi~t: Qua nhiin nguy~n an tht!a giao?
diJu kh6ng t6t m!J sth do]· ( Lu~n ngtJ : Thu~t nh1) (tinh Iuqc chfr
M:;1nh Tt! d6i vi~t: Sat nhiin dl dlnh dfr nMn. hfru dl dj h6?.
''tr:;1ch").
( ) vi~t: Vo dl dj da.
LU'071g Hu¢ vU'071g n6i: Qua nhfin xin an tfim nghe thea /oi -~~~m&rm!3c )~ti
Vi khach tri ph:;1n nhi tl! ( ) Ie holic.
dpy baa. M.anh Ttf thl171: Gift nguiri bing g~y v6i bing dao, c6 gi
kh5c nhau kh6ng? (Vua) n6i: Kh6ng kh5c gi d (M_anh Ttl: LU'071g Lam com cho kh5ch fm can minh thi iin rau le rau hofc (Ho!Ji
Hu¢ VU'071g thur;mg). Nam ttf:' Thuyit Jfim) (= tl! trj Ie holic).

3. Hoan canh cua ciiu van cho phep bo b&t chu ngfr: 2. C6 khi dong tlr slip neu ra a do<;ln sau, do<;!n tn.r&c tinh ]trQ'C:

- ~H~B : ~B Z~fPJfto? El:B : ~~ - ~~ 13 ~ c ) rm~Jtn~ A , ~IJ~?'tffi*


Phan Khoai vi~t: Kim nh~t chi Sl! ha nhu? LU'OTig vi~t: tMm Cung tl! h~u ( ) nhi b<;!C tr5ch tr nhiin, tiic vi~n oan hi.
roAN THV Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 291
TRAN vAN cHANH
290

Vi~t: "V6 dl di da". ( ) "DI nh~n dfr chinh. hfru dl di h6?"


Niu w tr5ch minh nhi8u va tr5ch ngwi it, thi minh dU'C!C a,in
M:;wh TLr tr:i J&i: ''Giit ngwi biing g{ly v6i bffng daa. c6 gi
(Lu{ln ngii: V~ Linh c6ng) (= Cung tl! h~u tr5ch. .. ).
kh:ic nhau kh6ng ?'~ Vua n6i: "Kh6ng kh:ic gi c:i". (M;;wh tJ n6i)
3. C6 thi tinh !LfQ'C d. d(lng tl.r cung tftn ngfr cua n6:
"Giit ngwi bffng dtJO v6i bJng chinh tJj. c6 gi kh,ic nhau kh6ng"
-~M·W~~~~~Z·~~( ) <
(M;;wh TJ :LUV77g Hu~ vUV11g thur;mg).
) < ) ~z
Da van, tr<;1ch ky thi~n gia nhi tong chi: da ki~n Ill. TlNH LVQC TAN NGV
) ( )( ) nhi chi chi. I . Do<;1n cflu tren da c6 tan ngfr. do<;1n cflu du&i c6 thi tinh
Nghe nhi8u. c.h9n di8u tift ma thea: thfy nhi8u. (ch9n di8u
iuqc tan ngfr d6:
tdt) mil ghi nh6 (Lu{ln ngii: Thu/)t nln) (tinh luqc "tr<;1ch ky thi~n
- •~~m~~ : ~~~~?~a :~~u~-~
gia"). ~31\:ff < ) 1.%, A.:E:iiiJ~ill
-~~-ili~f=~~~·¥~~·~~00~·¥ Canh c6ng vin u An Ttl-: Tri qu6c ha ho<;1n? D6i vi~t: Ho<;1n
11~ w ' ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ~ ~~ ~& phu xa thu. Phu qu6c di~c hfru ( ) yen. nhan chu til hfru thi da.
Ti~n tu&ng qufm xuit tai thien nhi bach du chi 6 Vien ,ly, C:inh c6ng hoi An T(r: Vi~c tri nu6c nen Ia gi? An TJ dflp:
tram thu b6I6: chi Hfiu San. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) bach du dp. Nen Ia b911 b8 t6i gian d. Trang nu6c cilng c6 b9n d6, chfnh Ia
Ti8n tu6ng qulin ra klu3i bien gi6i h071 m9t ngan hai tdim nhilng ke dang 6 xung quanh nha vua v\n TJ Xulin thu) (di~c hfru
d;fm, din 6 Vien. chem ddu va bJr scfng qulin gi/ic: din Hdu 5071.
xfi thJyen).
(chem vii bift) dur;rc h071 m(Jt trlim d/w gi;ic (Hfw tlnr : Hung N6
2. Khi tan ngfr cua d(lng tl.r tm&c Vlra Ia chu ngfr cua d(lng tl.r
truy~n) (= Tr:lm thu b6?J0bach du dp).
neu ra a sau thl tan ngfr d6 c6 thi tlnh ilfQ'C. Tmcmg hqp nay thuemg
iiJJ:lH~H$.l)J~lt , 31\:ff < ) < ) .L-Jt:
- thiy xuit hi~n trong nhfrng cflu c6 dung cac d(lng tl.r biiu thi Sl! sai
c6 hfru diic thfin dl hung. di~c hfru ( ) ( ) dl vong.
khi~n. nhtr fee (su), '% (iinh). ~ (khiin ):
Vi v~iy, c6 khi dur;rc thdn (hi~n xudng de' xem xet) Jj tJi~u
- ~ A lf ~ ' /f ~t TD th1 , ~ fee ( ) ~liJL!t D 15'2 ~ :1J
cluing cua hU77g thjnh: c6 khi Ia tJi~u cluing cua suy vang ( T:i ) h6 ky khfru
Qua nhan hfru d~, bftt nang hoa hi~p. nhi Slr (
truy~n) (= dfc thdn dl vong).
Lf tCr phtrang.
4. Tinh llfQ'C d(lng tl.r El (vi~t) a vi ngfr, trong m(lt do<;ln ct6i Qu:i nhlin c6 ngwi em. kh6ng the' sdng chung hoa thu/)n,
tho<;1i: kinin n6 ph:ii di kiim ffn 6 bdn phUV11g (T:i truy~n: A~ c6ng th/)p
-~~~El:~A~fiW~·lf~~~?~~~~ nhft nien) (dangle phai vik "nhi su chih6 ky khfru ... ")
< ) .L-J~Wi&, lf.L-J~~?
M<;1nh Ttl- d6i vi~t: "Sat nhfm dl dlnh dfr nh~n. hfru dl di h6?". 3. Tan ngfr a tm&c gi&i tl.r i) (di).1J~ (tr) c6 thi tinh ltrqc:
292
TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU Tl/ HQC CHU HAN
293
- A1¥f4--ti2. ' ~OJ ( ) ~) 8 *~
Ky sue nguu da, tl! ( ) dT b;;tch m~ ph;;tn. . v. TINH LLJQC D!NH NGCJ
Anh ta nuoi trdu. cho (triiu) an bifng com g{lo tnfng (theo La Dinh ngii, tht.rCmg la danh tu. n~u da neu ra & do;;tn tnr&c thi
Thlic Ttrong, Van ngon fur tv, tr.l92) (= tl! chi dT b;;tch m~ ph;;tn). do;;tn sau c6 thi tinh ltrqc:
-*~~~. ~~H~c
Gia bfrn vo thtr, de giii (
)1i~M~z*rmWz
) tr tang thtr chi gia nhi quan chi.
- ~18§ffi-T~PJ® · itA tE c
Tfrn Ba Str vu ha tay, Ngt,Iy nhfm t<;ti (
) *
) dong.
Vi nha khong c6 sach nen mur;m (sach) Cf cdc nha c6 sach ma Tin Ba dong quiin Cf phia tiiy song. quiin Ng11y Cf phia dong song
d9c (La Thuc Tuong, sdd.) (= giii thlftr tang thtr chi gia ... ). ( Ta truyfn: Van cong th{ip tam nien) (= t;;ti ha dong).

IV. TfNH LUQC TR~NG NGO' m.


Tinh ltrqc tr~ng ngii sau nh+6G'ng gioi tu nht1 : WCdii); 116
6• ( . ) /f..!, ( '
J;;-;!; V! , 1J.J: tong :
) t~ ~ t§ 71
vAT LOAI TVONG TAN
- ~~~~V~f\R ___ ga • ~f:£7~* • W ( ) ~gfk
Trau Ky tu bat xlch ... Dan nh~t. khich tong ngo;;ti lai, dtJ ~~ ~~ ;fj~ ~:t ' - ~jt ~~~ s
if §fJ 1:Y ' $',.\ tlfl
) tQa dam. Thi~n minh t1 thl;l, nhat dtiong lang phan ty ti~n hflllh, dl,lc b6
Triiu Ky thiin dai tim tlw6c... M9t buo1 sang. c6 ngurH khach
~~ ffiJ ~ o w 1ti ii=¥J ;fj~ A 1& • Y.. tiX o~ ~i ~~~
thi~n nhi thtfc. Hoang ttioc tu t1 ky h<\1. u, hlfu dl,lc tnic duong lang
tir ngoai di vao. cung Ky n6i chuyfn ( Cinln qu6c sach: T~ sach)
(dtf chitQa dam).
mu ~ ~~ o w 1ti ~ 1± 1~ ~ · /f ~o ~ 5~ 1ti

- ftJE · *m c
Nga ti:r, h;;tnh vj (
) ''ii
) chuyin d;;tt.
t? dT qua phuc. Hoang tuoc chi t?i d~c thlfc, bat tri huu d9-n tuoc
Z A Y.. fu! A 1& o fffi 5~ 1ti :t3 1~ E1 ~. : t~
chi nhan hlfu tuy ky h<\iu. Nhi d9-n tuoc gia phl,lc tlf tu: Thj cuong
iJta

Ta sfp chit, xin vita mil chuyln d_at i?Ji (theo La Thlic Ttrong,
~ B~ • A fi!T /f 1!! m· ?5L ~F m~ ¥5 z 1Wf
sdd., tr.l91) (thay vi n6i, h<;mh vj "nga" chuy~n cl<,1 t).
-A~~a·~~W~#·~( )~~~
*
lang nht1<;5c, nhan Sd bat ling vi, huang phi vj sinh h09- t chi nhu
fffi i]$ ~ - f/7 z~ D[J :t3 .s:¥- ?
du nhi ct1ong do9-t nhat v?t chi sinh m~nh gia h.6?.
Bat linh thfrt mau, tfi'm thl!C dfr pht,I c()ng, tong ( ) tht,I qu6c
van. T(/ MCJJ

Len tim tuo1 thi m~ mJt, tir d6 s6ng v6i cha. thea cha h9c Tan 91: gie't hc,~i-Du'ong lang~~~~: con b9 nglfa-Pha'n S: gio
qu6c van (theo La Thuc TtrOTig, sdd .. tr.191) (thay vi n6i: tong len-Hoang tuck ~1ti: chim hoang yen-Tu f;;j. rlnh mo-Trac 0~:
"phl,l" tht,I qu6c van). rna'- TC;t #f: dlfa wlo, cqng vao, nho vao-Qua phuc ~~:no b~ng-
294 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THU nJ HQC CHU HAN 295

Huo'ng {.R,: huo'ng chi (xem Nga phap iJ duoi) . !TX rtJ * ,* ±;u, ~ x.
:¥ ut - ?!3'!. o ?Jc
han hu'dng vinh , uc,ti kh6 i van chuang chi thu nhat tiet. Huo ng
fl.!"" ~,.... illiH: ~"' " +r D x.~ ~ ~ f-
D[CH NGHlA Loai vijt gie't h{li ldn nhau
13.
.~
..32'..
-tt-
ey"'
of
J\ ~
mt!t
:~;* a 8-r .e: A )( '1 '8 .E§_
-7
t<'._ ""o
ui<iu l(>ng ca thanh di~p ham tuy thai hlju nhu' hoi hQa chi di€m
Con ve keu tren cay, m9t con b9 ng«a giue1ng dmg bo to i, 1d>
il'~ ::!3:: 13 E1 0 .E..
/, 113J w 1IJ=1
n7i.. ..ut.,.J.
;fj ){){ "*
t;t; ff:ti E!.
5.R IIIJ '~
;:+;:; I' **
7J".; UJ[
I~ '~*
f, .. ,
muon bdt con verna an. Chim hoang yen rlnh iJ sau n6, lc;zi muon
xuyet ky gi an. Ngo sai cloi tu' thang dnh nhi bat cam khai nhien
md b9 ng«a di nhil d6 no h{!-ng. Chim hoang yen cham chu vao s«
dut;tc an, chdng biit rling c6 nguili bdn chim se lc;zi thea sau n6.
B: u-~ ~ z OJ ~5~ 0' if- tJL oA /f OJ *-
viet: ·'Xuan dnh chi kha ai do thieu nien da. Nhan bat kha co
R6i nguili bdn chim se lc;zi tl! nghi: c(iy mc;znh hie/J yiu La di~u rna
~ llt ~ ~ ffij OJ* ~ llt 0' if- f-? .n °
nguili ta khong nen lam, huang chi khong phdi vi nhu cdu cua dili phl;l thu xuan dnh nhi kha co phl;l thu thieu nien h6?".
song rna cuiJng doc;zt sinh mfnh cua m9t v(it u?.

T£) MCJI
NGU PHAP
+
Cach di'tng ?:5(, (huo'ng) Phu I~ I; [g : l(mJ? ldy-Nimg lie 1/J ~~ : d(im da, ngao ngc;zt-
i.R. (huang) la lien tu bi€u thi mai quan h~ tang tien, dich Thien mien ~ *IB: um tum, r(im rgp-Han han htiong vinh
nghia la "huang chi, huang gl, huang nua", thu'ong dung pha i J0\!0\ rtJ 5R: phai ph(Ji nteln len, ph6n l'inh thjnh vut;tng-D~i kho'i
hQp vdi trQ tu f (h6) ho~c ~ (tai) a cuai diu : -};_~: tc;zo l'Qt, con tqo-Van chtiong )C~ : van chue!ng-Tie't ?!3'!.:
't~5~~§~, Afitr /f~J!~, ¥ z
5t ?~~~¥§ ~sttrm5~!ff- ~ tilt ra-L()ng :ff: ch(fi RiiJn, dua-Tuy M: say, say sua-Thai ~~ : ve-
±1\*TR 13-f-? ( Thi cuong lang nhu'Qc, nhan sa
bat ung vi, huong A• h
H QI Qa U>-£ - h hA · I D•A? A't I'I'If-~-~ A
~~ EEl: l 'e tran , Qt 19a- 1em xuye lf.;o~~ : to l 'e, to
A -

phi vi sinh ho~t chi nhu du nhi cu'ong do~t nhat v~t chi sinh diim them-Tti ~~: nciY (xem Ngf1 phdp a duoi)-Ba't ca'm /f ~ : ba't
m~nh gia h6 ?) C(iy mc;znh hiip yiu La ddu rna nguili ta khong
giac, khong ngan dut;tc, khong khoi-Khai nhien ffi.H~: xuc d9ng ,
nen lam, huang chi khong phdi vi nhu cdu cua dili so'ng rna cuiJng
doc;zt sinh m¢nh cua mQt v(it u ? cam khai, bui ngui-Kha ai OJ~: dang yeu-Co phl) * ~ : ph/!-,
phi! long, phi! phclng.
m
117 D!CH NGHlA Ciinh xtu1n
~ ~ Phong cdnh tuy thili ma bie'n ddi , nhung phong cdnh ngay xuan
XUANCANH ra't Ia lQng ldv. Hoa thorn ngao ng(,lt, co m9c um tum r(im rQp, cay
co'i me!n man dam tu(fi, van chue!ng cua Con Tc;zo din day phat tilt
00. ~ [)i ~ rm ~ ~··l'i ~ B 00. ~ ~ cd ra. Huo'ng nila, chim dua giqng hot, buom ng(im ve say sua lc;zi
Phong ciinh tuy thai nhi bien dich, duy xuan nh~t phong ciinh tai nhu ve tranh to dil m them vao d6. Chung ta truifc cdnh df!p a~v
~ ~ ~
vi phu 1~.
o 1t z 1/J ~~ , ~ z ~ *~B ,w * z !TX
Hoa chi nung tic, thao chi thien mien, thl;l m<)c chi han
ma khong kho i xu c d9n g bdo rling: "Cdnh xuan dang yeu nhu tudi
Ire vqy. NguiJi ta kh()ng th€ ph{!- phang cdnh xuan nay, ma lc;zi c6
296 TRAN VAN CHANH roAN THV Tl/ HQC CHU HAN 297

thi ph~ phang tudi tre nay dur;c sao?". 3iF tm rm ~ ,


~* £ r~~ ifj o
xuyen sap nhi qua, tr(!.ng canh nhfm thich.
NCO PHA.P
TU MOl
0 f!i (tu') Ia d9-i tu chi thi, nghia Ia "n~y, ay": ~~ /]9j~ (T1t Hu'o'ng thon ;2~H:huanR than, nang than. than que- Thien thu
thang canh) Cdnh dfp ndy. 7(.@g: thu thien nhien-A.ng nhien ~~ :dgt dao-Hon fff:budi ta'i,
(luc) hoang han-Cao lang r'i'D AA :cao sang-Khf tu'Q'ng ~~ :cdnh
6 /f ~ (bfft cffrn) Ia ph6 tu, djch "kh6ng khoi, kh6ng th<i tur;ng, quang cdnh- Thanh rninh rllf13J3 :sanR trong-Ba chung
khong, bat giac" : rm
/f~1tH~ B ... (Nhi bat cam khai nhien }lff.i:gieo gio'ng-B~t fl;t :nha