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Description & Overview−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Information: The CAD models will not be provided and have to be modeled!

airflow-gif-3.gif1000x800 206 KB

Wind Load Calculation is an overview of the force that blowing wind exerts on a tall object. A
number of factors that influence the actual wind load on a real building, include the surrounding
terrain, nearby structures, trees, and typical weather patterns for the area. Comparing wind load
calculations are most complicated . Calculations try to account for as many of these external
factors as possible, to the point where the wind load section in American Society for Civil
Engineer’s ASCE 7 standard, spans five chapters and over 100 pages.

Input Data−−−−−−−−−−−

Fig.1 Wind load calculation example structures

 A 10’ tall, 10’ wide cylinder.

 A cube with the same volume as cylinder A, oriented with a face normal (90°) to the wind
 Another cube with the same volume, but rotated 45° for a slightly more aerodynamic front.

Wind load equations are also given (see sources):

F = wind load (in N or lbf)
P = wind pressure (in Pa or psf)
A = projected area (in m2 or ft2)
Cd = drag coefficient (unitless)
V = wind speed

Kz = exposure coefficient
G = gust response factor
z = height of the midpoint of the object above the ground
h = height of the top of the object above the ground

qz = velocity pressure
G = gust effect factor (as defined in ASCE 7 §26.9)
Cf = force coefficient (as defined in ASCE 7 §29.5)
Kz = velocity pressure coefficient (as defined in ASCE 7 §29.3.1)
Kzt = topographic factor (as defined in ASCE 7 §26.8.2)
Kd = wind directionality factor (as defined in ASCE 7 §26.5)

The purpose of this project is to validate the results given in the pictures below and to use the
formulas given in the sources. The calculation methods shown can offer a very accurate
simulation of the ultimate wind load on a structure, but they do not offer a complete picture.
They cannot indicate where wind load might be concentrated on a complex structure, nor
simulate the resulting stresses and deflection of the structure. For a more complete
understanding of how a structure will react to high wind loads, an engineer can
use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) programs to
simulate the interaction of the wind and structure as a whole.

Pictures of some results−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Wind-loads-factors-e1470239762282.jpg769x399 29.9 KB

Fig.2 Wind load calculation factors for three different structures

Wind-loads-results.jpg768x447 25 KB

Fig.3 Three wind load calculation methods for three different structures
CFD-towers.jpg1041x300 80.8 KB

Fig.4 Static pressure on three different objects in a 110 mph wind

Key Words−−−−−−−−−−−
Computational fluid dynamics, CFD, Mathematical models, Wind Load, ASCE 7, Building Load,
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
Literature & Sources−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
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