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21 Ansichten21 Seitensizing and tolerance

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sizing and tolerance

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21 Ansichten21 Seitensizing and tolerance

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Choosing standard sizes and applying proper tolerances to dimensions are among

the important aspects in the design of mechanical systems. When two parts need to

fit together in order to perform a certain role in a mechanical system, the sizing and

tolerancing of such components becomes of prime importance.

The purpose of preferred numbers is to limit the number of choices available for

sizing parts or items. Though preferred numbers limit the number of choices, but at

the same time they cover a wide range of sizes with reasonable increments

between the different sizes.

When manufacturers use the preferred numbers for sizing their products, this

enhances the compatibility and interchangeability of the different types of parts or

items. With this, there are higher possibilities to find different types of parts or

items as readily available off-the-shelf components.

The Table gives the complete set of Preferred Sizes in millimeters (when a

choice can be made, use one of these sizes; however, not all parts or items are

available in all the sizes shown in the table):

Renard Numbers

Objects are often manufactured in a series of sizes of increasing magnitude. The

manufacturer must decide what those sizes should be. Renard numbers provide a

very limited number of choices that cover a wide range of sizes. The sizes provided

by the Renard numbers are not far apart such that the difference between any two

adjacent sizes is not very significant. Also, Renard numbers may be divided in

different series providing different levels of preference.

Which series provides more evenly distributed sizes?

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Renard series of numbers are defined as:

𝑥 𝑥 2 𝑥 3 𝑥 𝑥

𝑅𝑥 ; 𝑎, ( √10)𝑎, ( √10) 𝑎, ( √10) 𝑎, … .. , ( √10) 𝑎

where, 𝑥 = 5, 10, 20, 40

Thus, the different series are as follows:

- R5: 10, 16, 25, 40, 63, 100.

- R10: 10, 12.5, 16, 20, 25, 31.5, 40, 50, 63, 80, 100.

- R20: 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22.4, 25, 28, 31.5, 35.5, 40, 45, 50, 56,

63, 71, 80, 90, 100.

- R40: 10, 10.6, 11.2, 11.8, 12.5, 13.2, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21.2, 22.4,

23.6, 25, 26.5, 28, 30, 31.5, 33.5, 35.5, 37.5, 40, 42.5, 45, 47.5, 50, 53, 56,

60, 63, 67, 71, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100.

The Table gives the Renard (R-Series) Numbers (ISO 3)divided in different

choice preference levels:

In addition to the Renard Numbers, there is also the Rounded Renard (R'-

Series) Numbers (ISO 497):

- R′10: 10, 12.5, 16, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 80, 100.

- R′20: 10, 11, 12.5, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32,36, 40, 45, 50, 56, 63, 71,

80, 90, 100.

- R′40:10, 10.5, 11, 12, 12.5, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26,

28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 45, 48, 50, 53, 56, 60, 63, 67, 71, 75, 80, 85,

90, 95, 100.

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Dimensions and Tolerances

Tolerance is the maximum allowable variation in a dimension or in the size of a part.

more commonly as plus/minus tolerance values applied directly to

a dimension.

- The difference between the upper and lower limits of a

dimension is called the Tolerance Zone.

There are two ways for specifying plus/minus tolerance values for dimensions:

Bilateral tolerance: the variation in both directions from the basic size (the

basic size is the exact desired theoretical size).

Unilateral tolerance: the basic size is taken as one of the limits and the

variation is only in one direction.

Example: 40+0

−0.1 𝑜𝑟 40+0.1

−0

- Usually used for parts that fit inside each other (e.g., shaft & hole, key &

keyway)

Because parts cannot be manufactured to the exact geometry and

dimensions, so we specify the acceptable range of variation.

In general, the variations in dimensions of manufactured parts (the actual size)

occur at random (within the tolerance zone) and, usually, they follow a normal

distribution.

Traditional tolerances can be used for defining the size and location of features.

Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is a more advanced method for applying

tolerances that can be used for defining the geometric attributes of features (e.g.,

location, orientation, form).

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

The geometric tolerancing method is defined by the standard ASME Y14.5 and it is

used to state the maximum allowable variations in the form of a feature or its

position from the perfect geometry implied on the drawing.

The different types of geometric tolerances are defined using standard

Geometric Characteristic Symbols as shown in the table.

on drawings using a feature control

frame as shown in the figure.

tolerance is defined (multiple references can be used at the same

time) and it is identified on drawings using the symbol shown in the

figure.

The modifiers are used to specify the condition to which the tolerances are

applied. There are three modifiers that can be applied to the tolerance value:

- Maximum Material Condition (MMC) and its symbol is:

- Regardless of Feature Size (RFS) and it is the default, thus it has no symbol

- Least Material Condition (LMC) and its symbol is:

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Standard Tolerance Values

The values of tolerances to be assigned depend largely on the application.

Commercial products for instance does not require tight tolerances, while on the

contrast, for precision measuring tools, tight tolerances must be used.

In general, the value of the tolerance depend on

the dimension where smaller tolerances are

used for small dimensions and bigger tolerances

are used for big dimensions.

The tighter the tolerances, the higher the COST.

Thus, tight tolerances should not be specified

unless such tight tolerances are needed.

The international standard ISO 286 defines 20 different tolerance grades (01, 0, 1, 2,

...., 18) where the bigger the tolerance grade number, the bigger the tolerance is.

The figure shows the practical use of the International Tolerance Grades

(IT#):

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

The IT Grade number that can be obtained is related to the manufacturing

process used for making a part. The table shows the range of the IT grades

that can be obtained using the different manufacturing processes.

The Table gives the Total Tolerance values for IT Grades from IT1 to IT18:

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

It should be noted the tolerance values given in the table are the full

tolerance zone (full range), therefore the value should be divided by 2 when it

is written as a bilateral tolerance.

Example: Write the following dimensions with bilateral tolerances using

IT12: 6, 50, 150 mm

6 ± 0.06 , 50 ± 0.125 , 150 ± 0.2

It is a common practice to apply tolerances even to the non-toleranced dimensions.

The ISO standard (ISO 2768-1) defines general tolerance values divided in four

categories (fine, medium, coarse and very course) to be used for non-toleranced

dimensions on drawings where tolerances are dependent on the nominal sizes.

The tables below show the general tolerance values to be used for non-

toleranced dimensions.

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Tolerance Stack-up Analysis

When tolerances are applied to the dimensions

of individual features of a part (such as in chain

dimensioned parts), tolerances will stack-up

and the overall dimension of the part will be

influenced by all the individual tolerances.

The same tolerance stack-up effect also applies to assemblies where the size of an

assembly will be influenced by the tolerances applied to the dimensions of the

individual parts.

There are two methods used for tolerance stack-up analysis:

Worst Case Scenario Analysis: The upper and lower limits of the dimensions

are added (or subtracted when needed) algebraically to find the upper and

lower limits for the desired dimension.

𝑑 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ± 𝑡𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = (𝑑1 + 𝑑2 +. . . ) ± (𝑡1 + 𝑡2 +. . . )

For the example above that will be: x = 7.5 ± 0.15

- This method is not accurate, but it is easy and used more often.

random variable and its tolerance limits are taken as the ±3𝜎 limits (𝜎 is the

standard deviation). Then the variances (𝜎 2 ) of each of the dimensions are

added (or subtracted when needed) algebraically.

𝑑 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ± 𝑡𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = (𝑑1 + 𝑑2 +. . . ) ± 3√∑𝑛𝑖=1 𝜎𝑖 2

For the example above that will be:

±3𝜎1 = ±0.04 → 𝜎1 = 0.0133

±3𝜎2 = ±0.06 → 𝜎2 = 0.02

±3𝜎3 = ±0.05 → 𝜎3 = 0.0167

Thus, x = 7.5 ± 3√0.01332 + 0.022 + 0.01672 = 7.5 ± 0.088

- This method is more accurate, however it is not used that often.

The stack-up of tolerances in the dimensions of parts can be avoided by using

baseline dimensions instead of chain dimensions.

effect on the gap or interference in

assemblies since the gap or interference

values are usually small by nature.

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

When several parts are assembled, the gap (or interference) depends on both

the dimensions and tolerances of the individual parts.

Consider the shown assembly:

𝐺𝑎𝑝 = 𝑎 − 𝑏 + 𝑐 − 𝑑 + 𝑒 − 𝑓

Using 𝑥 for ( → ) and 𝑦 for ( ← ) we can write;

𝑤 = (𝑥1 + 𝑥2 + ⋯ ) − (𝑦1 + 𝑦2 + ⋯ )

𝑤 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 − ∑ 𝑦𝑗

- The largest gap 𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥 occurs when the 𝑥 values are the largest possible &

the 𝑦 values are the smallest possible.

If we call the bilateral tolerance as “ 𝑡 ” we get,

𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∑(𝑥𝑖 + 𝑡𝑖 ) − ∑(𝑦𝑗 − 𝑡𝑗 ) = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 − ∑ 𝑦𝑗 + ∑𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑡

- The smallest gap 𝑤𝑚𝑖𝑛 occurs when the 𝑥 values are the smallest possible &

the 𝑦 values are the largest possible.

𝑤𝑚𝑖𝑛 = ∑(𝑥𝑖 − 𝑡𝑖 ) − ∑(𝑦𝑗 + 𝑡𝑗 ) = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 − ∑ 𝑦𝑗 − ∑𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑡

worst case scenario analysis, then give the size of the

gap using bilateral tolerance.

𝑎 = 500 ± 1 𝑚𝑚

𝑏 = 350 ± 0.7 𝑚𝑚

𝑐 = 120 ± 0.1 𝑚𝑚

Solution:

𝑤 = 30 ± 1.8 𝑚𝑚

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Limits & Fits

The fit is the degree of tightness or looseness between two mating parts to perform

a definite function, while the limits are the two extreme permissible sizes of a

dimension between which actual size of dimension is contained.

When a shaft or pin needs to be inserted into a hole, the type of fit is decided based

on the intended application.

- For example if the shaft and the hole are to form a pin-joint or a journal

bearing , then the hole needs to be slightly bigger than the shaft to allow the

shaft to rotate inside the hole (clearance is needed).

- Another example when the shaft is inserted into a rolling-contact bearing, the

shaft needs to be slightly bigger than the hole of the inner-ring in order to

prevent any slipping between the shaft and the inner-ring of the bearing

(interference is needed).

Since tolerances are always present, fits are divided in three types:

Clearance fit: It occurs when two toleranced mating parts will always leave a

space or clearance when assembled.

Interference fit: It occurs when two toleranced mating parts will always

interfere when assembled.

Transition fit: It occurs when two toleranced mating parts will sometimes be

an interference fit and sometimes be a clearance fit when assembled.

Important Terms

- Nominal size: a dimension used to describe the general size (the size we

use in speaking of an element).

- Basic size: the theoretical size used as a starting point for the application

of tolerances (the exact desired theoretical size).

- Actual size: the measured size of the finished part after machining.

Limits and fits are standardized according to the international standard (ISO 286)

where there are two different systems that can be used for obtaining any desired

type of fit:

Hole Basis System: The hole size is kept constant and the size of the shaft is

varied.

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Shaft Basis System: The shaft size is kept constant and the size of the hole is

varied.

is more commonly used.

The figure shows the shaft and hole configurations for hole basis system under

a clearance type of fit where the terms used for defining the fit are illustrated

graphically.

- Capital letters refer to the hole and lower case letters refer to the shaft.

- The Basic size (or nominal size) is the size to which limits are assigned and it

is the same for both members of the fit.

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

The table lists the specific types of Preferred Fits for both hole and shaft basis

systems.

Once the type of fit is decided according to the intended use, the fit is

described by the basic size and the ISO fit symbol.

Example: A joint with basic size of 40 mm having a Hole Basis Sliding fit

The fit can be identified as: 40 H7/g6

where,

The hole 40 H 7

International tolerance

The shaft 40 g 6 grade number (IT#)

It should be clear that for the Hole Basis system, the fundamental deviation

is applied to the shaft dimension only.

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

The table gives the Fundamental Deviations for Shafts (to be used for the

hole basis system):

For the Hole Basis system, the maximum and minimum diameters for the hole

and shaft are found as follows:

Shaft:

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

where,

𝐷 : basic size of the hole same value

𝑑 : basic size of the shaft

found from the table according to

𝛿𝐹 : fundamental deviation the fundamental deviation letter

∆𝐷: tolerance grade for the hole

found from the table

∆𝑑: tolerance grade for the shaft according to the IT#

Example: Find the shaft and hole dimensions for a sliding fit (Hole Basis system)

with 25mm basic size then specify the dimensions of both members using unilateral

tolerance.

Solution:

ISO symbol: 25 H7/g6

Hole: 25 H 7 𝐷 = 25

IT 7 ∆𝐷 = 0.021

𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐷 + ∆𝐷 = 25.021 𝑚𝑚

𝐷𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝐷 = 25 𝑚𝑚

Shaft: 25 g 6 𝑑 = 25

IT 6 ∆𝑑 = 0.013

g 𝛿𝐹 = −0.007

Sliding fit: g

𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑑 + 𝛿𝐹 − ∆𝑑 = 25 + (−0.007) − 0.013 = 24.98 𝑚𝑚

Hole: 25+0.021

−0 𝑚𝑚

Shaft: 24.993+0

−0.013 𝑚𝑚

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Alternatively, instead of using the equations, the limit values of the shaft and

hole dimensions for different types of fits and different basic sizes can be

obtained directly from tables.

An example of such tables is given below where it gives the hole and shaft

sizes for the Preferred Hole Basis Clearance Fits (for basic sizes from 7 to 19

mm divided in three preference levels: F, S & T):

Example: Find the shaft and hole dimensions for a close running fit (Hole Basis

system) with 10 mm basic size and specify the dimensions using unilateral tolerance.

Find the answer using the equations given earlier then compare the results with

that given in the table above.

Solution: Hole: 10+0.022

−0 𝑚𝑚 Shaft: 9.987+0

−0.015 𝑚𝑚

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Surface Finish

The development of high speed machines has resulted in increasing the loads and

speeds of moving parts. Such highly loaded surfaces running at high speeds require

accurate control of surface quality in order to minimize friction and wear. Designers

are responsible for specifying a surface that will give the maximum performance

and surface life at the lowest cost. The required surface finish can be specified

based on past experience with similar parts, on field service data, or on engineering

tests. Generally speaking, the ideal finish is the roughest one that will do the job

satisfactorily.

The two main reasons for surface finish control are:

Friction Reduction: When a film of lubricant must be maintained between

two moving parts (such as in bearings, gears, etc.), the surface irregularities

must be small enough so they will not penetrate the oil film under the most

severe operating conditions.

Wear Control: Surface finish is also important to the wear service of certain

parts that are subject to dry friction, such as dies, clutches, brakes, etc.

Also, surface finish must be controlled for the purpose of increasing the fatigue

strength of highly stressed members which are subjected to load reversals (i.e.,

fatigue loading). A smooth surface eliminates the sharp irregularities which are the

greatest potential source of fatigue cracks.

In some cases, a slightly rough surface finish is required. When boundary lubrication

condition exist, or when two extremely hard surfaces running together, a slightly

roughened surface will usually assist in lubrication. Also, most new moving parts do

not attain a condition of complete lubrication as a result of imperfect geometry,

running clearances, and thermal distortions. Therefore, the surfaces must wear in

by a process of actual removal of metal.

Surface finish, also known as surface texture, has three components: lay, surface

roughness, and waviness, as shown in the figure.

Lay: It is the direction of the predominant surface pattern and it is usually

determined by the production method used.

Surface Roughness: (commonly shortened to roughness) It is a measure of the

finely spaced surface irregularities.

Waviness: It is the measure of surface irregularities with a spacing greater

than that of surface roughness. These usually occur due to warping,

vibrations, or deflection during machining.

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Surface roughness can be quantitatively measured using a device called

Profilometer. A roughness parameter is used to give a numerical representation of

the surface roughness. There are many different roughness parameters in use, but

𝑅𝑎 is by far the most commonly used. Other common parameters include 𝑅𝑞 , 𝑅𝑧

and 𝑅𝑠𝑘 .

The 𝑅𝑎 roughness parameter is the arithmetic average of the absolute values of the

deviations of surface height readings from the surface roughness mean line. The 𝑅𝑎

is given in micrometers and it is mathematically defined as:

𝑖=1

1

𝑅𝑎 = ∑|𝑦𝑖 |

𝑛

𝑛

Roughness Grade Numbers (N1, ... N12)

were alternatively used instead of the

roughness 𝑅𝑎 values. However, these

roughness grade numbers are no

longer used in the recent ISO

standards.

The table shows the 𝑅𝑎 values

corresponding to the roughness

grade numbers (for reference

purposes) and the corresponding

old Finish Marks symbols (also not

being used anymore).

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Surface Finish Symbols

Requirements for surface texture are indicated in technical drawings by several

variants of standard graphical symbols (ISO 1302), each having its own significant

meaning.

The simplest form of the surface finish symbols used in technical drawings is

shown in the figure (the symbol may be omitted on views of parts when the finish

quality of a surface is not important).

position or it can be rotated 90⁰ CCW if

needed (never at an angle or upside down)

such that it can be read from the bottom

side or the right side. The symbol is

generally placed directly on the surface.

An extension line or a leader can be used

for placing the symbol when needed, as

seen in the figure.

Symbol (it has an additional horizontal line similar to the square root symbol) can

be used. When the complete graphical symbol is used, additional

complementary surface requirements may be indicated on the symbol and they

are positioned as shown in the figure.

The complementary requirements that are shown at each position are as follows:

- Position a - Single surface texture requirement

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

Indicate the surface texture parameter designation, the numerical limit value

and the transmission band or sampling length.

Example 1: 0.0025-0.8/Ra 3.2 (transmission band and sampling length are

indicated)

Example 2: 0.8/Ra 3.2 (only sampling length is indicated)

- Position a and b - Two or more surface texture requirements

Indicate the first surface texture requirement at position “a” and indicate the

second surface texture requirement at position “b”.

- Position c - Manufacturing method

Indicate the manufacturing method, treatment, coatings or other

requirements for the manufacturing process etc. to produce the surface (for

example, turned, ground, plated).

- Position d - Surface lay and orientation

Indicate the symbol of the required surface lay and the orientation, if any, of

the surface lay, as shown in the figure:

Indicate the required machining allowance, if any, as a numerical value given

in millimeters.

When the same surface texture is required on all surfaces around a part outline,

a circle shall be added to the complete graphical symbol as shown in the figure.

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

An example of a surface finish symbol showing a complete set of complementary

requirements is shown in the figure.

The surface finish is highly dependent on the manufacturing process being used

to produce the surface of a part as shown by the chart.

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

The surface finish 𝑅𝑎 value to be specified depends on the intended application.

For instance, when stresses applied to a part are not that high and the

appearance of the surface is not important, 𝑅𝑎 value of 6.3 micrometers will be

acceptable. However, when the surface of a component is subjected to stress

concentration, a smoother surface finish (𝑅𝑎 value of 0.8 micrometers) will be

necessary.

The table provides some guidance on specifying the appropriate 𝑅𝑎 values for

surfaces according to the intended application.

MENG 204 - Mechanical Drawing Lecture Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi

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