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9/16/2010

Gases
• Jan Baptista Van Helmont
“chaos” – gas
Lecture 9
GASES

Gases Gases
• Composition of dry air Greenhouse Effect

• Loss of thermal equilibrium in


earth’s atmosphere
• Caused by increase in CO2
concentration
• CO2 & H2O does not absorb
visible light from the sun
• But readily absorbs IR from
the earth

Gases

Comparison of gases and the condensed states

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Some Properties of Gases Some Properties of Gases


• Gases can be compressed into smaller volumes • Colorless gases N2 and O2
(↑P, ↑ )
• Gases exert pressure on their surroundings; in • Colored gases green - Cl2
turn, pressure must be exerted to confine gases. red - Br2
• Gases expand without limits violet - I2
• Gases diffuse into one another, and so samples
of gas placed in the same container mix
completely. • Combustible CH4 and C3H8
• The amounts and properties of gases are
described in terms of pressure, temperature, • Unreactive Ne and He
volume occupied, and the number of molecules
present.

Pressure of Gases Pressure of Gases


• Evangelista Torricelli • Force per unit area
- “gases exert pressure”
1 atm = 760 mmHg
- designed a closed-end = 760 torr
barometer to measure = 101,325 Pa
gas pressure = 29.92 inHg
= 14.7 lb/in2
= 1.0132 bar

1Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1 kg/ m.s2

Pressure of Gases Temperature of Gases

• Average kinetic energy of the molecules


oC , oF, K (absolute T)

K = oC + 273.15
oF = 9/5(oC) + 32

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Volume of Gases Gas Laws


Space occupied by gas molecules
mL, L, cm3, dm3

Amount of Gases Relates

Pressure
Mole, mass, number of particles Volume
Amount of Particles
Temperature

BOYLE’S LAW
Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
– investigated P and V relationship of a gas

BOYLE’S LAW BOYLE’S LAW


• Statement: The volume of a gas is inversely
proportional to its pressure.
• Conditions: At constant T and n

• Relationship: P α 1/V
• Equation: PV = k

P1V1 = P2V2

STANDARD PRESSURE 760 torr

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BOYLE’S LAW BOYLE’S LAW

Example: The pressure of 10 L of a gas at 1 atm


is reduced to 700 torr. What is the final
volume?

Aneroid barometer
Ans 10.9 L

BOYLE’S LAW CHARLES’ LAW

CHARLES’ LAW CHARLES’ LAW


• Jacques Charles (1787)
• Statement: The volume of a gas is directly
proportional to its temperature.
• Conditions: At constant P and n
• Relationship: T α V
• Equation: T/V = k
T1 / V1 = T2 / V2

STANDARD TEMPERATURE 0o C
ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE 0K

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Coverage of the 2nd Exam CHARLES’ LAW

Example: 10 mL of a gas at 20oC is cooled


at constant pressure to 0oC. What
is the new volume?

Ans 9.32 mL

AVOGADRO’S LAW IDEAL GAS LAW


• Statement: The proportionality constant at a
• Amedeo Avogadro in 1811 given P,T and n for a particular gas
• Statement: Equal volumes of all gases contain is the same
the same number of molecules
• Conditions: At constant P and T • PV = k ; V/T=k ; V/n=k

• Relationship: n α V • Equation: PV = k
• Equation: n/V = k nT
PV = nkT
n1 / V1 = n2 / V2 PV = nRT

IDEAL GAS CONSTANT IDEAL GAS LAW

Example: What is the volume of 1 mole of a gas


R = ideal gas constant = 0.0821 L-atm / mol-K at standard conditions?
= 8.314 J / mol-K
= 62.4 L-torr / mol- k
= 1.987 cal / mol-K

Ans 22.4 L

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IDEAL GAS LAW IDEAL GAS LAW

Example: A gas occupies 10 L at standard • Example: A gas occupies 10 L at standard


conditions. What volume will it occupy conditions. What volume will it
at 700 torr and 20oC? occupy at 700 torr and 20oC?

Ans 11.7 L • Ans 11.7 L

MOLECULAR WEIGHT and


IDEAL GAS LAW
DENSITY
• One (1.00) mole of a gas occupies 27.0
• Example: A gas occupies 10 L at standard
conditions. What volume will it
liters, and its density is 1.41 g/L at a
occupy at 700 torr and 20oC? particular temperature and pressure. What
is its molecular weight? What is the
density of the gas at STP?

• Ans 11.7 L Ans. 38.1 g/mol , 1.7 g/L at STP