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# 9/16/2010

Gases
• Jan Baptista Van Helmont
“chaos” – gas
Lecture 9
GASES

Gases Gases
• Composition of dry air Greenhouse Effect

## • Loss of thermal equilibrium in

earth’s atmosphere
• Caused by increase in CO2
concentration
• CO2 & H2O does not absorb
visible light from the sun
• But readily absorbs IR from
the earth

Gases

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## Some Properties of Gases Some Properties of Gases

• Gases can be compressed into smaller volumes • Colorless gases N2 and O2
(↑P, ↑ )
• Gases exert pressure on their surroundings; in • Colored gases green - Cl2
turn, pressure must be exerted to confine gases. red - Br2
• Gases expand without limits violet - I2
• Gases diffuse into one another, and so samples
of gas placed in the same container mix
completely. • Combustible CH4 and C3H8
• The amounts and properties of gases are
described in terms of pressure, temperature, • Unreactive Ne and He
volume occupied, and the number of molecules
present.

## Pressure of Gases Pressure of Gases

• Evangelista Torricelli • Force per unit area
- “gases exert pressure”
1 atm = 760 mmHg
- designed a closed-end = 760 torr
barometer to measure = 101,325 Pa
gas pressure = 29.92 inHg
= 14.7 lb/in2
= 1.0132 bar

## • Average kinetic energy of the molecules

oC , oF, K (absolute T)

K = oC + 273.15
oF = 9/5(oC) + 32

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## Volume of Gases Gas Laws

Space occupied by gas molecules
mL, L, cm3, dm3

## Amount of Gases Relates

Pressure
Mole, mass, number of particles Volume
Amount of Particles
Temperature

BOYLE’S LAW
Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
– investigated P and V relationship of a gas

## BOYLE’S LAW BOYLE’S LAW

• Statement: The volume of a gas is inversely
proportional to its pressure.
• Conditions: At constant T and n

• Relationship: P α 1/V
• Equation: PV = k

P1V1 = P2V2

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## Example: The pressure of 10 L of a gas at 1 atm

is reduced to 700 torr. What is the final
volume?

Aneroid barometer
Ans 10.9 L

## CHARLES’ LAW CHARLES’ LAW

• Jacques Charles (1787)
• Statement: The volume of a gas is directly
proportional to its temperature.
• Conditions: At constant P and n
• Relationship: T α V
• Equation: T/V = k
T1 / V1 = T2 / V2

STANDARD TEMPERATURE 0o C
ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE 0K

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## Example: 10 mL of a gas at 20oC is cooled

at constant pressure to 0oC. What
is the new volume?

Ans 9.32 mL

## AVOGADRO’S LAW IDEAL GAS LAW

• Statement: The proportionality constant at a
• Amedeo Avogadro in 1811 given P,T and n for a particular gas
• Statement: Equal volumes of all gases contain is the same
the same number of molecules
• Conditions: At constant P and T • PV = k ; V/T=k ; V/n=k

• Relationship: n α V • Equation: PV = k
• Equation: n/V = k nT
PV = nkT
n1 / V1 = n2 / V2 PV = nRT

## Example: What is the volume of 1 mole of a gas

R = ideal gas constant = 0.0821 L-atm / mol-K at standard conditions?
= 8.314 J / mol-K
= 62.4 L-torr / mol- k
= 1.987 cal / mol-K

Ans 22.4 L

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## Example: A gas occupies 10 L at standard • Example: A gas occupies 10 L at standard

conditions. What volume will it occupy conditions. What volume will it
at 700 torr and 20oC? occupy at 700 torr and 20oC?

## MOLECULAR WEIGHT and

IDEAL GAS LAW
DENSITY
• One (1.00) mole of a gas occupies 27.0
• Example: A gas occupies 10 L at standard
conditions. What volume will it
liters, and its density is 1.41 g/L at a
occupy at 700 torr and 20oC? particular temperature and pressure. What
is its molecular weight? What is the
density of the gas at STP?