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Exercise 7.

2 (Solutions)Page 341
MathCity.org Calculus and Analytic Geometry, MATHEMATICS 12
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Question # 1 = 196 + 49 + 81 = 326


Let A = (2,5), B ( −1,1) and C (2, −6) , find
Question # 3
(i) AB (ii) 2 AB − CB Find the magnitude of the vector v and write the
(iii) 2CB − 2CA direction cosines of v
Solution
(i) v = 2iˆ + 3 ˆj + 4 kˆ (ii) v = iˆ − ˆj − kˆ
Given A(2,5) , B ( −1,1) and C (2, −6)
(i) AB = ( −1 − 2)iˆ + (1 − 5) ˆj = −3iˆ − 4 ˆj (iii) v = 4iˆ − 5 ˆj.
Solution
(ii) From above AB = −3iˆ − 4 ˆj (i) v = 2iˆ + 3 ˆj + 4 kˆ

Also CB = (2 + 1)iˆ + ( −6 − 1) ˆj = 3iˆ − 7 ˆj ⇒ v =


2
(2) + (3) + (4)
2 2

Now = 4 + 9 + 16 = 29
( ) (
2 AB − CB = 2 −3iˆ − 4 ˆj − 3iˆ − 7 ˆj ) v 2iˆ + 3 ˆj + 4kˆ
Unit vector of v = vˆ = =
= −6iˆ − 8 ˆj − 3iˆ + 7 ˆj v 29
= −9iˆ − ˆj 2 ˆ 3 ˆ 4 ˆ
= i+ j+ k
(iii) Do yourself as above 29 29 29
Hence direction cosines of v are
Question # 2 2 3 4
, , .
Let u = iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ , v = 3iˆ − 2 ˆj + 2kˆ , 29 29 29
w = 5iˆ − ˆj + 3kˆ , Find the indicated vector or (ii) Do yourself as above.
number.
(iii) Do yourself as (i)
Solution
(i) u = iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ Question # 4
Find α , so that α iˆ + (α + 1) ˆj + 2 kˆ = 3
v = 3iˆ − 2 ˆj + 2kˆ
Solution
w = 5iˆ − ˆj + 3kˆ Since α iˆ + (α + 1) ˆj + 2 kˆ = 3
(
u + 2v + w = iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ + 2 3iˆ − 2 ˆj + 2kˆ ) ⇒ α 2 + (α + 1) + ( 2 ) = 3
2 2

(
+ 5iˆ − ˆj + 3kˆ )
⇒ α + α + 2α + 1 + 4 = 3
2 2

= iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ + 6iˆ − 4 ˆj + 4 kˆ + 5iˆ − ˆj + 3kˆ


On squaring both sides
= 12iˆ − 3 ˆj + 6 kˆ 2
2α + 2α + 5 = 9
⇒ 2α + 2α + 5 − 9 = 0
2
(ii) Do yourself
⇒ 2α + 2α − 4 = 0
2

(iii) ( )
3v + w = 3 3iˆ − 2 ˆj + 2 kˆ + 5iˆ − ˆj + 3kˆ
⇒ α +α − 2 = 0
2

= 9iˆ − 6 ˆj + 6 kˆ + 5iˆ − ˆj + 3kˆ


⇒ α + 2α − α − 2 = 0
2

= 14iˆ − 7 ˆj + 9 kˆ
⇒ α ( α + 2 ) − 1( α + 2 ) = 0
Now 3v + w =
2 2
(14) + ( −7) + (9)
2
⇒ (α + 2 )(α − 1) = 0
FSc-II / Ex- 7.2 - 2
⇒ α +2=0 or α −1 = 0 Question # 7
⇒ α = −2 or α =1 Find a vector whose
(i) Magnitude is 4 and is parallel to
Question # 5 a = 2iˆ − 3 ˆj + 6 kˆ
Find a unit vector in the direction of
(ii) Magnitude is 2 and is parallel to
v = iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ
a = −iˆ + ˆj + kˆ
Solution
Solution
Given v = iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ
Consider a = 2iˆ − 3 ˆj + 6 kˆ
2 2 2
v = (1) + (2) + ( −1) 2 2 2
a = (2) + ( −3) + (6)
= 1+ 4 +1 = 6
Now = 4 + 9 + 36 = 49 = 7
Now
v iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ
vˆ = = a 2iˆ − 3 ˆj + 6 kˆ
v 6 aˆ = =
a 7
1 ˆ 2 ˆ 1 ˆ
= i+ j− k 2ˆ 3 ˆ 6 ˆ
6 6 6 =
i− j+ k
7 7 7
Question # 6 Let b be a vector having magnitude 4
If a = 3iˆ − ˆj − 4 kˆ , b = −2iˆ − 4 ˆj − 3kˆ and i.e. b = 4
c = iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ . Find a unit vector parallel to Since b is parallel to a
3a − 2 b + 4 c . 2 3 6
1. therefore bˆ = aˆ = iˆ − ˆj + kˆ
Solution 7 7 7
Given a = 3iˆ − ˆj − 4 kˆ
Now
2 3 6 
b = b bˆ = 4  iˆ − ˆj + kˆ 
b = −2iˆ − 4 ˆj − 3kˆ 7 7 7 
8 12 ˆ 24 ˆ
c = iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ = iˆ − j+ k
7 7 7
Suppose that
d = 3a − 2 b + 4 c (ii) Do yourself.
(
⇒ d = 3 3iˆ − ˆj − 4 kˆ ) Question # 8
−2 ( −2iˆ − 4 ˆj − 3kˆ ) If u = 2iˆ + 3 ˆj + 4 kˆ , v = −iˆ + 3 ˆj − kˆ and
+4 ( iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ ) w = iˆ + 6 ˆj + zkˆ represent the sides of a triangle.
= 9iˆ − 3 ˆj − 12 kˆ + 4iˆ + 8 ˆj + 6 kˆ + 4iˆ + 8 ˆj − 4 kˆ Find the value of z .
Solution
= 17iˆ + 13 ˆj − 10 kˆ
Given u = 2iˆ + 3 ˆj + 4 kˆ
Now
2 2 2 v = −iˆ + 3 ˆj − kˆ
d = (17 ) + ( −13 ) + ( −10 )
w = iˆ + 6 ˆj + zkˆ
= 289 + 169 + 100 = 558 = 3 62
Now Since u , v and w are sides of triangle therefore
u+v =w
d 17iˆ + 13 ˆj − 10 kˆ
ˆ
d= = ⇒ 2iˆ + 3 ˆj + 4 kˆ − iˆ + 3 ˆj − kˆ = iˆ + 6 ˆj + zkˆ
d 3 62
⇒ iˆ + 6 ˆj + 3kˆ = iˆ + 6 ˆj + zkˆ
17 ˆ 13 ˆ 10 ˆ
= i+ j− k.
3 62 3 62 3 62 Equating coefficient of k̂ only, we have
3 = z i.e. z = 3

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FSc-II / Ex- 7.2 - 3
Question # 9 1 2 2
The position vectors of the points A, B, C and D = iˆ − ˆj + kˆ
3 3 3
are 2iˆ − ˆj + kˆ , 3iˆ + ˆj , 2iˆ + 4 ˆj − 2 kˆ and The two vectors of length 2 and parallel to v are
−iˆ − 2 ˆj + kˆ respectively. Show that AB is 2 vˆ and −2 vˆ .

parallel to CD . 1 2 2  2 4
2 vˆ = 2  iˆ − ˆj + kˆ  = iˆ − ˆj +

k
Solution 3 3 3  3 3 3
Position vector (p.v) of point A = 2iˆ − ˆj + kˆ 1 2 2  2
−2 vˆ = −2  iˆ − ˆj + kˆ  = − iˆ +
4 ˆj − 4 kˆ
3 3 3  3 3 3
p.v of point B = 3iˆ + ˆj
p.v. of point C = 2iˆ + 4 ˆj − 2kˆ (b) Given v = iˆ − 3 ˆj + 4 kˆ , w = aiˆ + 9 ˆj − 12 kˆ
p.v. of point D = −iˆ − 2 ˆj + kˆ Since v and w are parallel therefore there exists
λ ∈ ℝ such that
AB = p.v. of B − p.v. of A v =λw
= 3iˆ + ˆj − 2iˆ + ˆj − kˆ = iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ
(
⇒ iˆ − 3 ˆj + 4 kˆ = λ aiˆ + 9 ˆj − 12 kˆ )
CD = p.v. of D − p.v. of C
⇒ iˆ − 3 ˆj + 4 kˆ = aλ iˆ + 9λ ˆj − 12λ kˆ
= −iˆ − 2 ˆj + kˆ − 2iˆ − 4 ˆj + 2 kˆ
Comparing coefficients of iˆ , ĵ and k̂
= −3iˆ − 6 ˆj + 3kˆ
1 = aλ ... (i)
( )
= −3 iˆ + 2 ˆj − kˆ = −3AB −3 = 9λ ... (ii)
i.e. CD = λ AB where λ = −3 4 = −12λ ... (iii)

Hence AB and CD are parallel. 3 1


From (ii) λ = − ⇒ λ=−
Question # 10 9 3
We say that two vectors v and w in space are Putting in equation (i)
parallel if there is a scalar c such that v = cw .  1
1 = a  −  ⇒ − 3 = a i.e. a = −3
The vector point in the same direction if c > 0 and  3
the vectors point in the opposite direction if c < 0
(a) Find two vectors of length 2 parallel to (c) Consider v = iˆ − 2 ˆj + 3kˆ
the vector v = 2iˆ − 4 ˆj + 4 kˆ
2 2 2
v = (1) + ( −2) + (3)
(b) Find the constant a so that the vectors
v = iˆ − 3 ˆj + 4 kˆ and w = aiˆ + 9 ˆj − 12kˆ = 1 + 4 + 9 = 14
Now
are parallel.
(c) Find a vector of length 5 in the direction
v iˆ − 2 ˆj + 3kˆ
opposite that of v = iˆ − 2 ˆj + 3kˆ vˆ = =
(d) Find a and b so that the vectors v 14
3iˆ − ˆj + 4kˆ and aiˆ + b ˆj − 2kˆ are =
1 ˆ
i−
2 ˆ
j+
3 ˆ
k
parallel. 14 14 14
Solution Let a be a vector having magnitude 5 i.e.
(a) v = 2iˆ − 4 ˆj + 4 kˆ a =5
2 2 2 Since a is parallel to v but opposite in
v = ( 2) + ( −4 ) + ( 4 ) direction,
4 + 16 + 16 = 36 = 6
= therefore
1 ˆ 2 ˆ 3 ˆ
v 2iˆ − 4 ˆj + 4 kˆ aˆ = − vˆ = − i+ j− k
Now vˆ = = 14 14 14
v 6

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FSc-II / Ex- 7.2 - 4

Now a = a aˆ  3 1 2 
vˆ = ,− ,
 1 ˆ 2 ˆ 3 ˆ  14 14 14 
= 5 − i+ j− k
 14 14 14  Hence the direction cosines of v are
5 ˆ 10 ˆ 15 ˆ 3 1 2
=− i+ j− k. ,− , .
14 14 14 14 14 14

(ii) v = 6iˆ − 2 ˆj + kˆ
(d) Suppose that v = 3iˆ − ˆj + 4 kˆ and
w = a iˆ + b ˆj − 2 kˆ v = (6) 2 + (−2) 2 + (1) 2
= 36 + 4 + 1 = 41
∵ v and w are parallel
∴ there exists λ ∈ ℝ such that Let v̂ be unit vector along v . Then
v = λw v 6iˆ − 2 ˆj + kˆ
ˆv = =
(
⇒ 3iˆ − ˆj + 4 kˆ = λ a iˆ + b ˆj − 2 kˆ ) v 41
⇒ 3iˆ − ˆj + 4 kˆ = aλ iˆ + bλ ˆj − 2λ kˆ 6 ˆ 2 ˆ 1 ˆ
= i− j+ k
Comparing coefficients of iˆ , ĵ and k̂ 41 41 41
3 = aλ ... (i)  6 −2 1 
vˆ =
 41 , 41 , 41 
−1 = bλ ... (ii)
4 = −2λ ... (iii) Hence the direction cosines of v are
From equation (iii) 6 −2 1
, , .
4 41 41 41
− = λ ⇒ λ = −2
2
Putting value of λ in equation (i) (iii) P = ( 2,1,5 ) , Q = (1,3,1)
3 PQ = (1 − 2 ) iˆ + ( 3 − 1) ˆj + (1 − 5 ) kˆ
3 = a ( −2) ⇒ a=−
2 = −iˆ + 2 ˆj − 4kˆ
Putting value of λ in equation (ii)
PQ = (−1) 2 + (2) 2 + (−4) 2
1
−1 = b ( −2) ⇒ b= = 1 + 4 + 16 = 21
2
Let v̂ be unit vector along PQ . Then
Question # 11
Find the direction cosines for the given vector: PQ −iˆ + 2 ˆj − 4kˆ
vˆ = =
(i) v = 3iˆ − ˆj + 2 kˆ (ii) v = 6iˆ − 2 ˆj + kˆ PQ 21
(iii) PQ , where P = ( 2,1,5 ) and Q = (1,3,1) . −1 ˆ 2
= i+ ˆj − 4 kˆ
Solution 21 21 21
(i) v = 3iˆ − ˆj + 2 kˆ  −1 2 −4 
vˆ =
v = (3) 2 + (−1) 2 + (2) 2
 21 , 21 , 21 
= 9 +1+ 4 = 14 Hence the direction cosines of PQ are
Let v̂ be unit vector along v . Then −1 2 −4
, , .
v 3iˆ − ˆj + 2kˆ 21 21 21
vˆ = =
v 14 Question # 12
Which of the following triples can be the direction
3 ˆ 1 ˆ 2 ˆ
= i− j+ k angles of a single vector:
14 14 14 (i) 45 , 45 , 60 (ii) 30 , 45 , 60
(iii) 45 , 60 , 60
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FSc-II / Ex- 7.2 - 5

(iii) 30 , 60 , 60 will be direction angles of the


Solution vectors if
(i)
cos 2 45 + cos 2 60 + cos 2 60 = 1
45 , 45 , 60 will be direction angles of the
L.H.S = cos 2 45 + cos 2 60 + cos 2 60
vectors if 2 2 2
cos 2 45 + cos 2 45 + cos 2 60 = 1  1  1 1
=  +  + 
L.H.S = cos 2 45 + cos 2 45 + cos 2 60  2  2 2
2 2 2 1 1 1
 1   1  1 = + + = 1 = R.H.S
=  +  +  2 4 4
 2   2  2 Therefore given angles are direction angles.
1 1 1 5
= + + = ≠ R.H.S
2 2 4 4
Therefore given angles are not direction angles. Error Analyst
M. Mahad Khaliq
Superior College Jauharabad
(ii) 30 , 45 , 60 will be direction angles of the
vectors if Saqib Aleem
Punjab College of Sciences
cos 2 30 + cos 2 45 + cos 2 60 = 1
L.H.S = cos 2 30 + cos 2 45 + cos 2 60 Muhammad Tayyab Riaz (2009-10)
Pakistan International School Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia.
2
 3   1 2  1 2
=   +  2  +  2  Awais (2009-10)
 2  Punjab College, Lahore.

3 1 1 3
= + + = ≠ R.H.S Salman Ali (2009-2010)
4 2 4 2 Superior College Multan.
Therefore given angles are not direction angles.
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Book: Exercise 7.2, page 341


Calculus and Analytic Geometry
Mathematic 12
Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore.
Edition: August 2003.

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