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Chapter 4 Homework Solutions

4.1 (a) ( )
ΣFx = m ax = ( 6.0 kg) 2.0 m s2 = 12 N

ΣFx 12 N
(b) ax = = = 3.0 m s2
m 4.0 kg

 2000 lbs  4.448 N 


4.3 w = ( 2 tons)  = 2 × 104 N
 1 ton   1 lb 

 4.448 N 
4.5 The weight of the bag of sugar on Earth is w E = m gE = ( 5.00 lbs)  = 22.2 N . If
 1 lb 
gM is the free-fall acceleration on the surface of the Moon, the ratio of the weight of an
wM m gM g g 
object on the Moon to its weight when on Earth is = = M , so w M = w E  M  .
wE m gE gE  gE 
 1
Hence, the weight of the bag of sugar on the Moon is w M = ( 22.2 N )   = 3.71 N . On
 6
 gJ 
Jupiter, its weight would be w J = w E   = ( 22.2 N )( 2.64) = 58.7 N
 gE 

The mass is the same at all three locations, and is given by

w E ( 5.00 lb) ( 4.448 N lb)


m= = = 2.27 kg
gE 9.80 m s2

4.7 Summing the forces on the plane shown gives a = 2.0 m/s2

(
ΣFx = F − f = 10 N − f = ( 0.20 kg) 2.0 m s2 ) ur
F = 10 N
f

From which, f = 9.6 N

99
100 CHAPTER 4

4.11 (a) From the second law, the acceleration of the +y f = 1 800 N
boat is +x F = 2 000 N

ΣF 2000 N − 1800 N ur
a= = = 0.200 m s2 F
m 1000 kg
ur
(b) The distance moved is f

∆x = v0t+
1 2
2
1
( )
at = 0 + 0.200 m s2 (10.0 s) = 10.0 m
2
2

( )
(c) The final velocity is v = v0 + at= 0 + 0.200 m s2 (10.0 s) = 2.00 m s

4.13 Starting with v0y = 0 and falling 30 m to the ground, the velocity of the ball just before it
hits is

( )
v1 = − v02y + 2ay ∆y = − 0 + 2 −9.80 m s2 ( −30 m ) = −24 m s

On the rebound, the ball has vy = 0 after a displacement ∆y = +20 m . Its velocity as it
left the ground must have been

( )
v2 = + vy2 − 2ay ∆y = + 0 − 2 −9.80 m s2 ( 20 m ) = +20 m s

Thus, the average acceleration of the ball during the 2.0-ms contact with the ground was

v2 − v1 +20 m s− ( −24 m s)
aav = = = +2.2 × 104 m s2
∆t 2.0 × 10−3 s

The resultant force acting on the ball during this time interval must have been

( )
F = m a = ( 0.50 kg) +2.2 × 104 m s2 = +1.1× 104 N

r
or F = 1.1× 104 N upw ard
The Laws of Motion 101

4.15 Since the burglar is held in equilibrium, the tension in the y ur


T2
vertical cable equals the burglar’s weight of 600 N
ur
T1 37.0°
Now, consider the junction in the three cables: x

w = 600 N
ΣFy = 0 , giving T2 sin 37.0° − 600 N = 0

or T2 = 997 N in the inclined cable

Also, ΣFx = 0 which yields T2 cos37.0° − T1 = 0

or T1 = ( 997 N ) cos37.0° = 796 N in the horizontalcable

4.19 Free-body diagrams of the two blocks are shown ur ur


Tupper Tlower
at the right. Note that each block experiences a
downward gravitational force Fg = m g = 98.0 N .
Upper Block Lower Block
Also, each has the same upward acceleration as m = 10.00 kg m = 10.00 kg
the elevator, ay = +2.00 m s2
ur ur
Fg Fg
Applying Newton’s 2nd law to the lower block : ur
Tlower

ΣFy = m ay ⇒ Tlow er − Fg = m ay

or ( )
Tlow er = Fg + m ay = 98.0 N + (10.0 kg) +2.00 m s2 = 118 N

Then, applying the 2nd law to the upper block

ΣFy = m ay ⇒ Tupper − Tlow er − Fg = m ay

or ( )
Tupper = Tlow er + Fg + m ay = 118 N + 98.0 N + (10.0 kg) +2.00 m s2 = 236 N

4.23 The forces on the bucket are the tension in the rope and the weight ur
( )
of the bucket, m g = ( 5.0 kg) 9.80 m s2 = 49 N . Choose the positive T

direction upward and use the second law:


ur
ΣFy = m ay a

(
T − 49 N = ( 5.0 kg) 3.0 m s2 ) ur
mg
T = 64 N
102 CHAPTER 4

4.25 (a) The average acceleration is given by

v − v0 5.00 m s− 20.0 m s
aav = = = −3.75 m s2
∆t 4.00 s

The average force is found from the second law as

( )
Fav = m aav = ( 2000 kg) −3.75 m s2 = − 7.50 × 103 N

(b) The distance traveled is:

 5.00 m s+ 20.0 m s
x = vav ( ∆t) =   ( 4.00 s) = 50.0 m
 2

4.26 Let m 1 = 10.0 kg , m 2 = 5.00 kg , and θ = 40.0° . ur


a
Applying the second law to each object gives
ur
ur ur T
n T
m 1a = m 1g − T (1) ur
a
m2 m1
q ur
and m 2a = T − m 2 g sin θ (2) m1g
ur
m2g

Adding these equations yields

 m − m 2 sin θ 
a=  1 g , or
 m 1 + m 2 

 10.0 kg − ( 5.00 kg) sin 40.0° 


a=  ( )
 9.80 m s = 4.43 m s
2 2

 15. 0 kg 

Then, Equation (1) yields

T = m 1 ( g − a) = (10.0 kg) ( 9.80 − 4.43) m s2  = 53.7 N


The Laws of Motion 103

4.27 (a) The resultant external force acting on this system having a total mass of 6.0 kg is
42 N directed horizontally toward the right. Thus, the acceleration produced is

ΣF 42 N
a= = = 7.0 m s2 horizontally to the right
m 6.0 kg

(b) Draw a free body diagram of the 3.0-kg block and apply Newton’s second law to
the horizontal forces acting on this block:

( )
ΣFx = m ax ⇒ 42 N − T = ( 3.0 kg) 7.0 m s2 , and therefore T = 21 N

(c) The force accelerating the 2.0-kg block is the force exerted on it by the 1.0-kg block.
Therefore, this force is given by:
r
( )
F = m a = ( 2.0 kg) 7.0 m s2 , or F = 14 N horizontally to the right

4.28 The acceleration of the mass down the incline is given by

1 2 1
at , or 0.80 m = 0 + a( 0.50 s)
2
∆x = v0t+
2 2

This gives a= 6.4 m s2

( )
Thus, the force down the incline is F = m a = ( 2.0 kg) 6.4 m s2 = 13 N

4.29 Choose the positive x axis to be up the incline.

Then,

ΣFx = m ax ⇒ T − (m g)sin18.5° = m ax

which gives

ax =
T
m
− g( sin18.5°) =
140 N
40.0 kg
( )
− 9.80 m s2 sin18.5° = 0.390 m s2

The velocity after moving 80.0 m up the incline is given by

( )
v= v02 + 2ax ( ∆x) = 0+2 0.390 m s2 ( 80.0 m ) = 7.90 m s
104 CHAPTER 4

4.31 Taking forward as the positive direction, the acceleration that the braking force gives the
train is

F −1.87 × 106 N
a= = = −0.358 m s2
m 5.22 × 106 kg

(a) The velocity of the train at t= 30.0 s is then

 km   0.447 m s
v = v0 + at=  90.0
 
h   1.61 km h 
(
+ −0.358 m s2 ( 30.0 s) = 14.2 m s)

(b) During this time, the displacement of the train is

 km   0.447 m s
∆x = v0t+ 21 at2 =  90.0
 
h   1.61 km h 
( 30.0 s) + 1
2 ( −0.358 m s ) ( 30.0 s)
2 2

or ∆x = 588 m

4.33
Trailer Car
300 kg 1000 kg
ur
Rcar ur
ur ur ur nc
T T F
ur ur ur ur q
nT wT nc wc ur
F

Choose the +x direction to be horizontal and forward with the +y vertical and upward.
The common acceleration of the car and trailer then has components of
ax = +2.15 m s2 and ay = 0 .

(a) The net force on the car is horizontal and given by

( ΣFx )car = F − T = m carax = (1000 kg) ( 2.15 m )


s2 = 2.15 × 103 N forw ard

(b) The net force on the trailer is also horizontal and given by

( ΣFx )trailer = +T = m trailerax = ( 300 kg) ( 2.15 m )


s2 = 645 N forw ard

(c) Consider the free-body diagrams of the car and trailer. The only horizontal force
acting on the trailer is T = 645 N forw ard , and this is exerted on the trailer by the
car. Newton’s third law then states that the force the trailer exerts on the car is
645 N tow ard the rear
The Laws of Motion 105

(d) The road exerts two forces on the car. These are F and nc shown in the free-body
diagram of the car.

From part (a), F = T + 2.15 × 103 N = + 2.80 × 103 N

( )
Also, ΣFy
car
= nc − w c = m caray = 0 , so nc = w c = m carg = 9.80 × 103 N

The resultant force exerted on the car by the road is then

( 2.80 × 10 N ) + ( 9.80 × 10 N )
2 2
R car = F2 + nc2 = 3 3
= 1.02 × 104 N

n 
at θ = tan −1  c  = tan −1 ( 3.51) = 74.1° above the horizontal and forward. Newton’s
 F
third law then states that the resultant force exerted on the road by the car is
1.02 × 104 N at74.1° below the horizontaland rearw ard

4.34 First, consider the 3.00-kg rising mass. ur ur


The forces on it are the tension, T, and T T
its weight, 29.4 N. With the upward
+ Rising Falling
direction as positive, the second law Mass Mass
becomes
m1 = 3.00 kg + m2 = 5.00 kg

T − 29.4 N = ( 3.00 kg) a (1)

w1 = 29.4 N w2 = 49.0 N
The forces on the falling 5.00-kg mass
are its weight and T, and its
acceleration has the same magnitude as
that of the rising mass. Choosing the
positive direction down for this mass,
gives
49 N − T = ( 5.00 kg) a (2)

Equations (1) and (2) can be solved simultaneously to give

(a) the tension as T = 36.8 N

(b) and the acceleration as a = 2.45 m s2

(c) Consider the 3.00-kg mass. We have

∆y = v0yt+
1 2
2
1
( )
ayt = 0 + 2.45 m s2 (1.00 s) = 1.23 m
2
2
106 CHAPTER 4

4.35 When the block is on the verge of moving, the static friction force has a magnitude
fs = ( fs) m ax = µ sn .

Since equilibrium still exists and the applied force is 75 N, we have

ΣFx = 75 N − fs = 0 or ( fs) m ax = 75 N

In this case, the normal force is just the weight of the crate, or n = m g . Thus, the
coefficient of static friction is

( f)
s m ax ( f)
s m ax 75 N
µs = = = = 0.38
n mg ( )
( 20 kg) 9.80 m s2
After motion exists, the friction force is that of kinetic friction, fk = µ kn

Since the crate moves with constant velocity when the applied force is 60 N, we find that
ΣFx = 60 N − fk = 0 or fk = 60 N . Therefore, the coefficient of kinetic friction is

fk f 60 N
µk = = k = = 0.31
n m g ( 20 kg) 9.80 m s2 ( )

4.37 (a) Since the crate has constant velocity, ax = ay = 0 .


Applying Newton’s second law:
ΣFx = F cos20.0° − fk = m ax = 0 , or fk = ( 300 N ) cos20.0° = 282 N
and ΣFy = n − F sin 20.0° − w = 0 , or
n = ( 300 N ) sin 20.0° + 1000 N = 1.10 × 103 N
f 282 N
The coefficient of friction is then µ k = k = = 0.256
n 1.10 × 103 N

(b) In this case, ΣFy = n + F sin 20.0° − w = 0

so n = w − F sin 20.0° = 897 N

The friction force now becomes fk = µ kn = ( 0.256)( 897 N ) = 230 N

w
Therefore, ΣFx = F cos20.0° − fk = m ax =   ax and the acceleration is
 g

a=
( F cos20.0° − f ) g = ( 300 N ) cos20.0° − 230 N  ( 9.80 m
k
s2 )= 0.509 m s2
w 1000 N
The Laws of Motion 107

4.45 The acceleration of the system is found from ur


a

1 2 1 ur ur ur
at , or 1.00 m = 0 + a(1.20 s) n = –m1g T
2
∆y = v0yt+
2 2 ur ur
f m1 ur m2 a
ur T ur
m1g m 2g
which gives a= 1.39 m s2

Using the free body diagram of m 2 , the second law gives

( 5.00 kg) ( 9.80 m ) (


s2 − T = ( 5.00 kg) 1.39 m s2 )
or T = 42.1 N

Then applying the second law to the horizontal motion of m 1

( )
42.1 N − f = (10.0 kg) 1.39 m s2 , or f= 28.2 N

f 28.2 N
Since n = m 1g = 98.0 N , we have µ k = = = 0.287
n 98.0 N

1 2 1 2( ∆x) 2( 2.00 m )
4.47 (a) ∆x = v0 t+ ax t = 0 + ax t2 gives: ax = = 2 = 1.
78 m s2
2 2 t2 (1.50 s)
(b) Considering forces parallel to the incline, the second +y
law yields
ur
n m kn
f k=
(
ΣFx = ( 29.4 N ) sin 30.0° − fk = ( 3.00 kg) 1.78 m s 2
)
or fk = 9.37 N +x
30.0°
Perpendicular to the plane, we have equilibrium, so
30.0° w = mg = 29.4 N

ΣFy = n − ( 29.4 N ) cos30.0° = 0 , or n = 25.5 N

fk 9.37 N
Then, µk = = = 0.368
n 25.5 N

(c) From part (b) above, fk = 9.37 N

(d) Finally, v2 = v02 + 2ax ( ∆x) gives

( )
v = v02 + 2ax ( ∆x) = 0 + 2 1.78 m s2 ( 2.00 m ) = 2.67 m s
108 CHAPTER 4

4.49 First, taking downward as positive, apply +x


ur
the second law to the 12.0 kg block: T ur
n ur
ΣFy = 118 N − T = (12.0 kg) a (1) T
12.0 kg 7.00 kg
+y
For the 7.00 kg block, we have ur
f
37.0°
n = ( 68.6 N ) cos37.0° = 54.8 N , and w = 118 N
w = 68.6 N
f = µ kn = ( 0.250)( 54.8 N ) = 13.7 N

Taking up the incline as the positive direction and applying the second law to the 7.00
kg block gives ΣFx = T − f − ( 68.6 N )sin 37.0° = ( 7.00 kg) a, or

T = 13.7 N + 41.3 N + ( 7.00 kg) a (2)

Solving Equations (1) and (2) simultaneously yields a = 3.30 m s2 .

4.57 On the level surface, the normal force exerted on the sled by the ice equals the total
weight, or n = 600 N. Thus, the friction force is

f = µ kn = ( 0.050)( 600 N ) = 30 N

Hence, the second law yields ΣFx = − f = m ax , or

ax = = =
(
− f − f − ( 30 N ) 9.80 m s
2
)
= − 0.49 m s2
m w g 600 N

The distance the sled travels on the level surface before coming to rest is

vx2 − v02x 0 − ( 7.0 m s)


2

∆x = = = 50 m
2ax (2 − 0.49 m s2 )
The Laws of Motion 109

4.58 (a) For the suspended block, ΣFy = T − 50.0 N = 0 , so the tension in the rope is
T = 50.0 N . Then, considering the horizontal forces on the 100-N block, we find

ΣFx = T − fs = 0 , or fs = T = 50.0 N

(b) If the system is on the verge of slipping, fs = ( fs) m ax = µ sn . Therefore,

fs 50.0 N
the required coefficient of friction is µ s = = = 0.500
n 100 N

(c) If µ k = 0.250 , then the friction force acting on the 100-N block is

fk = µ kn = ( 0.250)(100 N ) = 25.0 N

Since the system is to move with constant velocity, the net horizontal force on the
100-N block must be zero, or ΣFx = T − fk = T − 25.0 N = 0 . The required tension in
the rope is T = 25.0 N . Now, considering the forces acting on the suspended block
when it moves with constant velocity, ΣFy = T − w = 0 , giving the required weight of
this block as w = T = 25.0 N

(b) The time required for the first sled to return to the bottom of the incline is the same
as the time needed to go up, that is, t= 0.890 s. In this time, the second sled must
travel down the entire 10.0 m length of the incline. The needed initial velocity is
1
found from ∆s= v0t+ at2 as
2

v0 =
∆s at −10.0 m
− = −
( )
−5.62 m s2 ( 0.890 s)
= −8.74 m s
t 2 0.890 s 2

or 8.74 m s dow n the incline


110 CHAPTER 4

4.62 Let m 1 = 5.00 kg,m 2 = 4.00 kg,and m 3 = 3.00 kg . Let T1 be the tension in the string
between m 1 and m 2 , and T2 the tension in the string between m 2 and m 3 .

(a) We may apply Newton’s second law to each of the masses.

for m1: m 1a = T1 − m 1g (1)

for m 2 : m 2a = T2 + m 2 g − T1 (2)

for m 3 : m 3a = m 3 g − T2 (3)

Adding these equations yields ( m 1 + m 2 + m 3 ) a = ( − m 1 + m 2 + m 3 ) g , so

 −m 1 + m 2 + m 3   2.00 kg 
a= 
 m1 + m2 + m3   g=  
 12.0 kg 
( )
9.80 m s2 = 1.63 m s2

( )
(b) From Equation (1), T1 = m 1 ( a + g) = ( 5.00 kg) 11.4 m s2 = 57.2 N , and

( )
from Equation (3), T2 = m 3 ( g − a) = ( 3.00 kg) 8.17 m s2 = 24.5 N
The Laws of Motion 111

4.65 Figure 1 is a free-body diagram for the system


consisting of both blocks. The friction forces are
f1 = µ kn1 = µ k ( m 1g) and f2 = µ k ( m 2 g) . For this
system, the tension in the connecting rope is an
internal force and is not included in second
law calculations. The second law gives
ΣFx = 50 N − f1 − f2 = ( m 1 + m 2 ) a , which reduces to

50 N
a= − µk g (1)
m1 + m2

Figure 2 gives a free-body diagram of m 1 alone. For ur


a
this system, the tension is an external force and
must be included in the second law. We find: ur
n1 ur
ΣFx = T − f1 = m 1a, or m1 T
ur
T = m 1 ( a + µk g) (2) m1g

Figure 2
(a) If the surface is frictionless, µk = 0 . Then, Equation (1) gives

50 N 50 N
a= − 0= = 1.7 m s2
m1 + m2 30 kg

(
and Equation (2) yields T = (10 kg) 1.7 m s2 + 0 = 17 N )
(b) If µ k = 0.10 , Equation (1) gives the acceleration as

a=
50 N
30 kg
( )
− ( 0.10) 9.80 m s2 = 0.69 m s2

while Equation (2) gives the tension as

( )
T = (10 kg)  0.69 m s2 + ( 0.10) 9.80 m s2  = 17 N
112 CHAPTER 4

4.66 Before he enters the water, the diver is in free-fall with an acceleration of 9.80 m s2
downward. Taking downward as the positive direction, his velocity when he reaches the
water is given by

( )
v = v02 + 2a( ∆y) = 0 + 2 9.80 m s2 (10.0 m ) = 14.0 m s

His average acceleration during the 2.00 s after he enters the water is

v − v0 0 − (14.0 m s)
aav = = = − 7.00 m s2
t 2.00 s

Continuing to take downward as the positive direction, the average upward force by the
water is found as ΣFy = Fav + m g = m aav ,or

( )
Fav = m ( aav − g) = ( 70.0 kg)  −7.00 m s2 − 9.80 m s2  = − 1.18 × 103 N

or Fav = 1.18 × 103 N upw ard