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 Types (there are quite a few…)
o Artificial insemination (AI)
o Intra-uterine insemination (IUI)
o In-vitro fertilization (IVF)
o Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
o Gamete intra-fallopian transfer (GIFT)
o Zygote intra-fallopian transfer (ZIFT)
o Sub-endometrial embryo delivery (SEED)
o Cytoplasmic transfer
o Nuclear transfer
o Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)
o Germline Modification
o Ectogenesis

 Know:
o What do they do/why are they done?
o How are they performed?
o Function of fertility medications (oral Clomid and injectable hormones)

 Surrogacy
o What is it? Different types?
o Sperm/Egg donation (transfer)

Multi-fetal Pregnancy
 How common? Increasing or decreasing today and why?
 Types of multiples- monozygotic, dizygotic, trizygotic
 Risks of multi-fetal pregnancy
 Twins and family history/ethnicity/age
 Complications (What are they? Risks? Frequency? How to diagnose? Treatment?)
o Vanishing twin syndrome
o Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome
 Elective multi-fetal reduction
o What is it? When?
o Risks?

Pregnancy Basics:
 When does it occur?
 Definitions: embryo (5th week), fetus (about the size of a plum), quickening (12-
14weeks), gravid, para. Morning sickness happens in the 1st trimester. More than
half get morning sickness
 Hormones-which ones are involved and what are their roles?
 Placenta- what is its role?
 Trimesters
o What weeks of pregnancy are in which trimester?

o General fetal and maternal developments (physiological) in each trimester

o Major developmental indicators (ex. When can mom first feel baby kick?)
o Fetal size at start and end of each trimester (blueberry, lemon…)

Maternal Changes
 Basic changes that the mother experiences during pregnancy (Cardiac,
respiratory, GI, vaginal, etc…)

Prenatal Testing
 Types:
o Routine maternal blood testing
o GBS Vaginal-Rectal Test screening. If the pregnancy is ok
o Ultrasound
o Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
o First Trimester Combined Test
o Quadruple Screen (Quad)
o Integrated/Sequential Test diagnostic, detect the fetus
o Cell-free fetal DNA (cfDNA) most accurate test, but it doesn’t tell the
baby has down
o Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
o Amniocentesis special
o Fetal Blood Sampling (PUBS)
 Know:
o Screening vs. diagnostic
o What does it tell you? What is unique?
o When performed?
o Risks
o What choices do you have to follow-up with each test?
 Basic Definitions
o Spina Bifida
o Down Syndrome

Pregnancy Complications
 Rh sensitization
 Gestational Diabetes
 Placental Complications
 Hypertensive Disorders: Hypertension, Preeclampsia, Eclampsia
 Know:
o What’s the issue?
o What are the symptoms?
o How is it treated?
o What are risks/complications?
o How common is it?