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Detailed Project Report - Intelligent Transport

System & Ethanol Diesel - KSRTC, Mysore

Creating globally
competitive
technologies and
managerial solutions to
serve public road
transport industry

eGestalt Technologies Pvt Ltd


Bhosari, Pune – 411 026 730, 1st Floor, Behind BDA Complex,
Phone: +91 20 2712 5177 3rd Block, Koramangala – 5600034
www.cirtindia.com Phone: +91 80 25504285
www.eGestalt.com
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Detailed Project Report – Intelligent Transport System and ethanol Diesel

Project Team

Team Leader N. Ramasaamy, Faculty & Head - ITS


Team Members G. Subhashini, Associate Faculty
M.M. Pathak, Scientist
Support Consultants Sharath Hangal, Sekar R, Principal Consultants,
eGestalt Technologies Pvt Ltd

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Content index

Project Team..................................................................................................................................2
Content index ...............................................................................................................................3
Document History .........................................................................................................................8
Metadata.......................................................................................................................................9
Executive Summary....................................................................................................................10
B: Intelligent Transport System (ITS) & Environmental Project ............................. 15
B-1. Overview of the project .......................................................................................................... 15
B-2. About Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) ........................................ 16
B-3. Why Mysore City for the ITS project....................................................................................... 18
B-4. A backdrop of Mysore............................................................................................................. 20
B-4.1. General / Historical background......................................................................................... 20
B-4.2. Operational Characteristics of KSRTC in Mysore City...................................................... 22
B-4.3. Current Transport Scenario in Mysore................................................................................. 23
B-4.4. Stakeholder analysis............................................................................................................... 26
B-4.5. Existing urban transportation scenario and facilities available in the use of urban
transport – issues & challenges ............................................................................................ 28
B-4.6. User demand forecast........................................................................................................... 30
B-4.7. Integrated urban land use and transport planning ........................................................ 34
B-5. Worldwide experience of Real Time Passenger Information Systems............................ 42
B-5.1. International Literature survey of ITS studies and benefits .............................................. 42
B-5.2. Review of information services ............................................................................................ 44
B-5.3. Surveys and Experience ........................................................................................................ 45

C: Intelligent Transport System ................................................................................. 50


C-1. Solution framework................................................................................................................... 50
C-1.1. Use of AVL to Improve Public Transport Service, Operations and Management ..... 50
C-1.2. New scenario with the induction of technology.............................................................. 53
C-2. Technical specifications.......................................................................................................... 54
C-2.1. Mapping product availability and their technical features with the functional
requirements............................................................................................................................ 54
C-2.2. Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) & Tracking System ................................................... 54
C-2.3. Features of Proposed Solution (CCS).................................................................................. 58
C-2.4. Communication Sub-System................................................................................................ 61
C-2.5. Integration of ITS Components ............................................................................................ 63
C-2.6. Sample Reports ....................................................................................................................... 66
C-2.7. Scaling plans ........................................................................................................................... 67
C-3. Project Impact analysis ........................................................................................................... 67
C-3.1. Environmental Impacts.......................................................................................................... 67
C-3.2. Social Impacts......................................................................................................................... 68
C-3.3. Measures by KSRTC for providing more efficient and less polluting Public Transport:70

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C-3.4. Expected measurable outcomes of the project ............................................................. 70

D: Bio-Diesel ................................................................................................................ 74
D-1. Need of the Project.................................................................................................................. 74
D-1.1. Energy Efficiency & Climate Change Considerations .................................................... 74
D-2. Mysore City environmental Scenario.................................................................................... 76
D-3. Ethanol & Diesel Blends: An Overview.................................................................................. 77
D-3.1. Ethanol- Diesel Blends............................................................................................................ 78
D-3.2. Benefits ..................................................................................................................................... 78
D-3.3. Engine Efficiency / Performance......................................................................................... 79
D-3.4. Engine & Materials Compatibility ........................................................................................ 79
D-3.5. Fuel Properties ......................................................................................................................... 79
D-4. Studies using E-Diesel across the world ................................................................................ 80
D-5. Social, environmental & economical Benefits.................................................................... 80
D-5.1. Safety Aspects in Ethanol-Diesel Blends:............................................................................ 81
D-5.2. Environmental Impact Assessment ..................................................................................... 82
D-5.3. Emission Benefits...................................................................................................................... 82
D-6. Ethanol: Supply Scenario in India .......................................................................................... 83
D-7. Ethanol Diesel – Solution Framework .................................................................................... 85
D-7.1. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)....................................................................................................... 86
D-7.2. Functional Specification of Stores ....................................................................................... 86
D-7.3. Environment Management .................................................................................................. 87
D-8. Cost Estimates & Funding Plans ............................................................................................. 87
D-9. Fund Flow Pattern:.................................................................................................................... 88
D-10. Economic and Financial Analysis.......................................................................................... 89
D-11. Procurement Plan and implementation process............................................................... 92
D-12. Environment & Social Issues.................................................................................................... 93

E: Overall Project Economic & Financial analysis ................................................ 94


E-1. Summarized Fund Flow Statement for ITS & e-Diesel......................................................... 94
E-1.1. Fund Flow ................................................................................................................................. 94
E-2. Analysis Objectives................................................................................................................... 95
E-3. Framework of analysis.............................................................................................................. 95
E-3.1. Cost of the Project.................................................................................................................. 96
E-3.2. Benefits of the Project............................................................................................................ 97
E-3.3. EIRR & Scenario Analysis, and Conclusions on Project Viability .................................... 97
E-4. Data used and Assumptions in the EIRR Analysis ............................................................... 98
E-4.1. General Assumptions ............................................................................................................. 98
E-4.2. Data from KSRTC................................................................................................................... 102
E-4.3. Survey Data ........................................................................................................................... 103
E-5. Costs and Benefits of the Project ........................................................................................ 106
E-5.1. Capital Costs ......................................................................................................................... 106
E-5.2. Operating Costs.................................................................................................................... 107
E-5.3. Benefits Calculations............................................................................................................ 107
E-5.4. Advertisement Revenues .................................................................................................... 109

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E-5.5. Advertisements in Bus Stops and Bus Terminus ............................................................... 110


E-5.6. Total Benefits.......................................................................................................................... 111
E-6. Rate of Return for the Project .............................................................................................. 112
E-6.1. Over all Project Viability ...................................................................................................... 113
E-7. Non-quantifiable Benefits of ITS ........................................................................................... 114

F: Procurement Plan ............................................................................................... 117


F-1.2. ITS Implementation agency ............................................................................................... 117
F-1.3. Project Management Agency .......................................................................................... 117
F-1.4. Bio-Diesel supply ................................................................................................................... 118
F-1.5. Finalization of Contracts...................................................................................................... 119

G: Project implementation plan ............................................................................ 120


G-1.1. Internal management plan for ITS ............................................................................ 120
G-1.2. Project Implementation Unit (PIU) ............................................................................. 121
G-1.3. Project Management Agency (PMA) ...................................................................... 121
G-1.4. Project Deliverables Management........................................................................... 127
G-1.5. Project progress measurement and control ........................................................... 128
G-1.6. Project Implementation Vendor (PIV) ...................................................................... 129
G-1.7. Project Plan - Schedule, Milestone & Work Breakdown........................................ 130
G-1.8. Deliverables ................................................................................................................... 131

H: ITS Operational Plans .......................................................................................... 134


H-1.1. Service Metrics ...................................................................................................................... 134
H-1.2. Maintenance Plan................................................................................................................ 135

I: Notes on queries raised...................................................................................... 137


I-1.Intelligent Transport System ............................................................................................................. 137
I-1.1. Additional Comments from the Meeting on 16 December 2008 ............................... 141
I-2.Ethanol blended Diesel .................................................................................................................... 142

J: About CIRT, the consultants to KSRTC on the ITS and e-diesel project ...... 143
J-1.1. Brief Profile.............................................................................................................................. 143
J-1.2. Areas of specialization ........................................................................................................ 143

K: Annexes ................................................................................................................ 145


K-1. Annex -1 – Survey Questionnaire of CIRT (July 4, 2008)................................................... 145
K-2. Annex 2: Budgetary Costs (quote of HP vide Section E-3 of the DPR)........................ 146
K-2.1. Capital Costs ......................................................................................................................... 146
K-2.2. Operating Costs.................................................................................................................... 148
K-3. Annex -3 – Draft EOI for Project Management Agency ................................................. 149
K-4. Annex -4 - Draft Functional/Technical Specifications ..................................................... 149
K-5. Annex – 5 - Bio-Diesel Tender ............................................................................................... 149
K-6. Annex 6 – Ethanol Diesel systems ........................................................................................ 150

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List of Figures
Figure 1: Cultural capital of Karnataka - Mysore ............................................................................................. 20
Figure 2: Modal distribution of road users ........................................................................................................... 1
Figure 3: Population details - Mysore Dist 2001 census .................................................................................... 31
Figure 4: Mysore Road map ................................................................................................................................. 1
Figure 5: Mysore City Wards as of 2007 ............................................................................................................... 1
Figure 6: Mysore City Land use map 2011 .......................................................................................................... 1
Figure 7: ITS solution overview ............................................................................................................................ 50
Figure 8: Bus Stop after introduction of ITS ........................................................................................................ 53
Figure 10: Central Bus Terminal after introduction of ITS.................................................................................. 53
Figure 11: Regulated traffic after implementation of ITS................................................................................. 54
Figure 12: Logical components of ITS................................................................................................................ 56
Figure 13: ITS - Schematic model ....................................................................................................................... 58
Figure 14: Floor plan for Central Control Station - ITS Mysore............................................................................ 1
Figure 15: Display panel........................................................................................................................................ 1
Figure 16: Communication & Data Exchange ................................................................................................... 1
Figure 17: sub-system communication link ....................................................................................................... 64
Figure 18: Drop in PM emissions with the use of Ethanol ................................................................................. 75
Figure 19: Onsite tank to be installed at depots & computerized blending equipment ............................. 86
Figure 20 EIRR framework ................................................................................................................................... 96
Figure 21 Vehicular Population in Mysore....................................................................................................... 103
Figure 22 Sample Size in the CIRT Survey ........................................................................................................ 104
Figure 23: Target Population for Modal Shift................................................................................................... 105
Figure 24: Net benefits of the project.................................................................................................................. 1
Figure 25: PM - right sizing of project personnel ................................................................................................. 1
Figure 26: PMA appointment ............................................................................................................................... 1
Figure 27: Project preparation ............................................................................................................................. 1
Figure 28: PM - Core and facilitating processes................................................................................................. 1
Figure 29: Project Plan execution ........................................................................................................................ 1
Figure 30: PM measurement & control................................................................................................................ 1
Figure 31 : Assembled Cast Filler Neck with Flame Arrestor .......................................................................... 150
Figure 32 : Assembled Cast Filler Neck With Flame Arrestor.......................................................................... 150
Figure 33 : Assembled Rolled Filler Neck with Flame Arrestor ....................................................................... 151
Figure 34 : Assembled Rolled Filler Neck With Flame Arrestor....................................................................... 151

List of Tables
Table 1: Document History ................................................................................................................................... 8
Table 2: Document metadata............................................................................................................................. 9
Table 3 Summary of project costs - ITS & bio-Diesel......................................................................................... 13
Table 4: Activities and Roles in bus transport at Mysore.................................................................................. 23
Table 5: Ward Numbers & Corridors in Mysore ................................................................................................. 23
Table 6: Vehicular growth in Mysore ................................................................................................................. 24
Table 7: Average Trip length of vehicles........................................................................................................... 25
Table 8: Extent of willingness to shift to public transport.................................................................................. 25
Table 9: Major Roads in Mysore ......................................................................................................................... 28
Table 10: Percapita trip per day........................................................................................................................ 30
Table 11: Nature of trips ...................................................................................................................................... 30
Table 12: Operational performance of KSRTC during 2004-08 ....................................................................... 31
Table 13: User demand forecast - 2011 ............................................................................................................ 32
Table 14: Growth projection of vehicle population in Mysore by 2011 ......................................................... 32
Table 15: Land use pattern in Mysore ............................................................................................................... 34
Table 16: Feature index for commuters ............................................................................................................ 42

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Table 17: GSM/GPRS specifications................................................................................................................... 54


Table 18: GPS specifications .............................................................................................................................. 55
Table 19: Environmental specifications............................................................................................................. 55
Table 20: Servers and accessories ..................................................................................................................... 59
Table 21: Sample Daily report ............................................................................................................................ 66
Table 22: Sample Bus stops skipped report....................................................................................................... 66
Table 23: Daily speed violation report............................................................................................................... 66
Table 24: Daily Driver Duty Performance report............................................................................................... 66
Table 25: Daily out-shedding deviation report................................................................................................. 67
Table 26: Daily improper stopping report ......................................................................................................... 67
Table 27: Daily Missed Trips report ..................................................................................................................... 67
Table 28: Measurable outcomes for project evaluation................................................................................. 71
Table 29: Measures of effectiveness within each goal area .......................................................................... 72
Table 30: Comparative analysis of various parameters for CNG & e-Diesel................................................. 78
Table 31: Emission factors ................................................................................................................................... 83
Table 32: Deterioration factors ........................................................................................................................... 83
Table 33: Working emission inventory................................................................................................................ 83
Table 34: 1 - Assumptions for working out the EIRR .......................................................................................... 88
Table 35 Emissions load from Bus without the Project...................................................................................... 88
Table 36 Emissions Load from bus with the Ethanol mix .................................................................................. 88
Table 37 Accessories that are to be Placed on Vehicles ............................................................................... 88
Table 38: Schedule for financial contribution and sources for eDiesel.......................................................... 88
Table 39 Base Rolling Stock used for the EIRR................................................................................................... 89
Table 40 Cost of Diesel Without the Project...................................................................................................... 89
Table 41 Savings with the use of Bio Diesel....................................................................................................... 91
Table 42 Savings Due to Reductions in Pollution load..................................................................................... 92
Table 43 Capital and Capex Replacement..................................................................................................... 92
Table 44: Extent of World Bank grant ................................................................................................................ 94
Table 45: Capital flow for ITS and environmental project ............................................................................... 95
Table 46: Overview of capital and operating costs ........................................................................................ 98
Table 47 Overall Infrastructure at KSRTC relevant to the project ................................................................. 102
Table 48 Break-up of urban and Suburban Operating Data ....................................................................... 102
Table 49 Vehicular Population of Mysore ....................................................................................................... 103
Table 50 Survey Data - Mode of Transport of Non-Commuters in Mysore .................................................. 103
Table 51 Percentage of Two Wheelers who would be willing to shift .......................................................... 104
Table 52 Total target population for shifting to ITS bus .................................................................................. 105
Table 53 Assumed shift pattern of prospective target customers................................................................ 105
Table 54 - Number of Increased Buses, Bus stops and Bus Terminus in the 1, 2 & 3 year ........................... 106
Table 55: Capital and Capital Replacement costs for the Project (in Rs. Lakhs) ....................................... 106
Table 57: Revenues from Modal Shift 2 Wheelers in Rs. Lakhs....................................................................... 108
Table 58: Revenues from Modal Shift 3 Wheelers .......................................................................................... 108
Table 59: Revenues from Modal Shift 4 Wheelers .......................................................................................... 109
Table 61 Bus Capacity Split, Advertisement Rates and Actual Number of Buses ...................................... 109
Table 62 Capacity Utilization of Buses for advertisements ............................................................................ 110
Table 63: Revenue from In-Bus Advertisement (in Rs. Lakhs) ........................................................................ 110
Table 64 Advertisement Rates at Bus stops and Terminus............................................................................. 111
Table 65: Revenues from Advertisement in Bus Stop and Bus Terminus (in Rs. Lakhs) ................................ 111
Table 66: Total Benefits from the ITS project (in Rs. Lakhs)............................................................................. 111
Table 67: Net Benefits of the Project (in Rs. Lakhs)......................................................................................... 112
Table 68 EIRR and NPV of the project ............................................................................................................. 113
Table 69: Potential benefits from technology infusion................................................................................... 115
Table 70: 6-Q Framework.................................................................................................................................. 122
Table 71: Project Plan ....................................................................................................................................... 130

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Table 72: Project Plan - Gantt chart ................................................................................................................ 130


Table 73: Service Metrics .................................................................................................................................. 134
Table 74: Project Data ...................................................................................................................................... 137
Table 75: BoM - Central Station ....................................................................................................................... 146
Table 76: BoM - VMU & SW ............................................................................................................................... 147
Table 77: BoM - Display Units ............................................................................................................................ 147
Table 78: GIS specifications.............................................................................................................................. 147
Table 79: Depot infrastructure requirements .................................................................................................. 148
Table 80: Opex - Communication ................................................................................................................... 148
Table 81: Communication costs of data links at the central station ........................................................... 148
Table 82: Facilities management costs & AMC ............................................................................................. 148
Table 83: Maintenance of depot infrastructure costs ................................................................................... 149

Document History
Table 1: Document History
Date Version Description Authors
15-Jul-2008 1.0.0 ITS – Detailed Project Report Ramasaamy N, Subhashini G
CIRT
14-Dec-2008 2.0.0 ITS – Detailed Project Report Ramamurthy, KSRTC
Sharath Hangal, Sekar R, eGestalt Technologies
Pvt Ltd, Bangalore
Pathak, CIRT
02-Jan-09 3.0.0 ITS – Detailed Project Report Ramamurthy, KSRTC
Sharath Hangal, Sekar R, eGestalt Technologies
Pvt Ltd, Bangalore

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Metadata

Table 2: Document metadata

Title Detailed Project Report for implementing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)
and ethanol diesel– KSRTC, Mysore

Subject & DPR - Intelligent Transport System (ITS), Issues, options, challenges &
Keywords recommendations, project implementation Technical specifications and solution
mapping, Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL), Vehicle Mounted Unit, Passenger
Information System, GPS, Central Command Station, KSRTC, In-vehicle services,
display units, Technology roadmap and scaling plans, ethanol diesel, financial
analysis, project viability, budgets, capital and operational costs, Project
implementation plan, operational plans

Source KSRTC, CIRT, eGestalt

Description This document is a detailed Project Report for developing and implementing
Intelligent Transport System and ethanol diesel at Mysore.

Coverage Mysore region

Type Detailed Project Report

Relation RFP / procurement documents

Creator CIRT / eGestalt

Contributor KSRTC, eGestalt Technologies

Publisher CIRT

Rights Private until published by CIRT

Language English

Format MS word 2007

Date 2009-01-28

Identifier CIRT/ITS-eDiesel-Mysore/2009/4.0.0

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Executive Summary

Public transport should always be the hallmark of a good transportation system for a city,
especially for a city like Mysore, which is earmarked as the “Heritage City”, as it provides
good impetus to the tourist population. The role of public transport is vital, particularly to
reduce the use of personalized transport. The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation
(KSRTC) is the major inter-city and intra-city service provider in Mysore. KSRTC provides
services to about 179,000 commuters per day by city services and about 128,000 by mofussil
services.

This document is a Detailed Project Report that will facilitate KSRTC Management to take the
next steps in finalizing the Request for Proposal specifications covering the functional,
technical, operational specifications including detailed definition of various service level
metrics. This Detailed Project Report also covers the estimated cost of implementing the
system with scope for expansion as the number of buses, routes and commuters increases.

This project addresses two critical components:

a) Intelligent Transport system (ITS)

Building intelligence into the transport system brings in the convergence of


technologies providing a synergetic transformation in the commuter experience. ITS
provides benefits in terms of Reduce waiting time and uncertainty, Increase the
accessibility of the system, Increase the safety of users, Reduce the fuel consumption
and emissions, Reduce the operational costs, Improve traffic efficiency, Reduce traffic
congestion, Improve environmental quality and energy efficiency, Improve economic
productivity.
The proposed ITS project implementation will include core components such as:
Vehicle Tracking System, Real Time Passenger Information System and Central Control
Station. Core technologies include Geographical Positioning System (GPS), Electronic
Display Systems, and Information & Communication Technologies.

b) Ethanol blended diesel (e-diesel)

Ethanol blended diesel (e-diesel) is a cleaner burning alternative to regular diesel for
heavy-duty (HD) compression ignition (CI) engines used in buses. The introduction of
use of alternative fuel such as E-diesel for the fleet of Karnataka SRTC buses plying in
Mysore region would certainly result in fewer emissions. Use of renewable fuel
(Ethanol) will also help to reduce fossil energy consumption and achieve the energy
savings.
Intelligent Transport System

The Intelligent Transport System Project to be implemented at Mysore addresses the critical
issue of road congestion by offering state-of-art technologies and attractive, convenient,
comfortable, value added services to encourage the usage of bus services against individual
personal vehicles. Mysore has been chosen since it is a potent place given its historical
background, tourist activities, and a high growth rate in traffic density, medium city size
making the project affordable, and a projected 70% increase in the land use profile. Also,
Mysore city, with all the modern infrastructural amenities, offers several opportunities to

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the people to earn their livelihood thus attracting several people from other states for
employment thus increasing the population of the city manifold in the near future.

KSRTC currently operates about 4217 trips in Mysore through 282 schedules from 2 depots
on 185 routes with a fleet strength of 258 resulting in 1.79 lakh passenger trips per day with
a load factor of 72.8% and 5’55,475 effective kilometres per day. The modal split figures for
Mysore city indicate that the share of trips performed by public transport is only 13%, which
can still be increased, as the proportion of walk and two-wheeler trips is high.

Significant modal shift is needed to deliver national and international sustainable


development aims for a strong economy, an inclusive society and a clean environment. A
significant trend amongst many urban road users is a willingness to use the public transport
in the face of increasing traffic congestion and increasing ‘road-rage’ behaviour on the
roads. With the rising cost of fuel, many would shift to the public transport on cost
considerations. For some, time is of the essence and a modal shift will occur only if the new
mode offers time improvements, while for others it is mostly a matter of costs. KSRTC aims
to bring about this modal shift in the city of Mysore by improving the perceived image of
KSRTC services.

From results of the stated preference survey conducted by the consultants, it was found
that almost 89% of the sample population was willing to shift to public transport provided
KSRTC operates reliable services through the introduction of ITS. This further translates to
17.66% of the two-wheeler users for transport shifting to the use of buses.

The requirements of various stakeholders have been factored into the study driving the
recommendations contained in this report.

The overall scope of the implementation will consist of design, development, testing,
installation, commissioning, training, operations, and management of facilities for a period
of three years by the winning bidder. This project is planned to cover 500 Buses, 80 Bus
Stops and 2 Bus Terminals having the components of Vehicle Tracking System, Central
Control Station, Passenger Information Management System, Communication Sub System,
Travel Demand Management, Incident and Emergency Management System, Operational and
Maintenance Specification and Fleet Management System.

ITS will cover core systems such as Vehicle Tracking System, Real Time Passenger
Information System and Central Control Station. Core technologies include Geographical
Positioning System (GPS), Electronic Display Systems, and Information & Communication
Technologies.

It is expected to recover the total project cost within a span of three years. Additional
revenue sources such as Advertising on the Bus body, inside the buses, Online Advertising,
Subscriptions have also been identified. The costs of the Project is Rs.19.13crores that
covers the capital costs and three years’ operating costs with a project contingency of 5%
Innovative Environment Project

Promoting clean environment with the usage of low emission buses for Public transport and
reducing the use of fossil fuels to achieve energy savings have gained utmost importance in
the recent years. The introduction of KSRTC buses operating on Diesel blended with ethanol

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fuel for Mysore (Innovative environmental project for Mysore City) would certainly be a vital
step towards this endeavour.

Green House Gas (GHG) emissions across the globe are increasing most rapidly in the
transportation sector. A major issue of global concern at present is the increasing
contribution of the transport sector to carbon dioxide (CO2)—the main greenhouse gas
(GHG) produced from the use of fossil fuels—and its consequences on global warming and
climate change. The use of Diesel blended with ethanol fuel would not only reduce GHG
(CO2) emissions but would also significantly reduce levels of other harmful pollutants
emitted by Diesel Buses.

The technical troubles observed during the initial years with regard to ethanol-diesel blends
can now be overcome by using a solubiliser for blends and flame arrestors in diesel tanks of
buses. The blending of Ethanol and Diesel by an electronic on-site blending equipment and
innovative additive technology is now possible. This creates a stable clear solution of
ethanol and diesel ready for use in diesel engines. The necessary infrastructure changes
such as installation of Ethanol storage tanks & Computerized Blending Equipments at Depots
at Mysore and fitment of Flame Arrestors for Diesel Tanks of Buses would require to be
carried out.

For reasons of fuel efficiency, emissions performance, and economics, a 7.7 vol% fuel
ethanol blend can be utilized for maximum benefits. The advantages of usage of Ethanol
diesel blends with solubiliser also include Enhanced lubricity, Added Cetane, Improved
corrosion resistance, excellent response and power, increased life of engine and other
components and increased life of engine oil. The development of bio fuels (Ethanol) is also
likely to have significant social impacts, including job creation (quality and permanence),
social responsibility and social equity, including issues such as wealth distribution to rural
communities. The rural poor in India who are mainly farmers involved with agricultural
production are likely to gain from the development of Ethanol fuel.

The Economic gains associated with the introduction of Ethanol-Diesel blends for buses
would also be significant. The total savings across fleet of Mysore / annum would be to the
tune Rs 27.10 million at current prices over a three year period with the total project cost
of Rs. 35.7 lakhs.

Project implementation

KSRTC has set up an apex level Programme Implementation Unit (PIU) to ensure the
overall progress of the project and to interface with the World Bank in submitting periodic
progress report. Vice-Chairman and Managing Director, KSRTC should nominate the
Chairman of the Committee. This committee needs to have Finance, Stores, Engineering,
Civil & Electrical and IT department representatives to ensure that decisions are taken in
consultation with the key departments, which would in turn be influenced by the new
system in the work processes.

To ensure professional management of the project it is recommended that the Project


management be outsourced to a professional agency identified by KSRTC (Project
Management Agency – PMA) in order to manage integration, scope, time, cost, quality,
human resources, communications, risk and procurement covering the key project phases of
initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing.

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A Project Evaluation Agency (PEA) selected as an external third party agency should
undertake pre-and post-implementation studies to monitor the impact of the project socio,
economic, environmental perspective as this project would be a good opportunity for
assessing the benefits of implementing an innovative project such as the ITS, a pioneering
kind to state.

In addition to the Project Management Agency (PMA) being set up, the Project
Implementation Vendor also needs to set up their own project monitoring mechanisms and
report to the Project Monitoring Agency for which the PMA should provide the necessary
templates.

Procurement

KSRTC will float tenders for global participation based on World Bank guidelines. The bid
process including the Functional, Technical, general instructions & commercial details and
the legal contracts have been detailed in the Request for Proposal (RFP). The tender
procurement norms furnished in the RFP are to be adopted for the selection of vendor for
implementation of the project and as well as Operations & Maintenance of the project.

Project Cost Summary

KSRTC plans to source funds from the MoUD, GoI under the GEF SUTP to implement ITS and
E-Diesel projects, in consistent with the GEF SUTP objectives. The total cost of the project
for the introduction of real time passenger information system and the use of e-diesel
(Ethanol-diesel blend) for Karnataka SRTC buses plying in Mysore is around Rs. 22.7 crores.
Of the total project cost, 35% is to be borne by GEF Funding and 52% is to be borne by the
Government of India. The State Government of Karnataka and Karnataka State Road
Transport Corporation are to equally bear the balance 13%.

The fund flow statement prepared accordingly stipulates that around 73% of the total
project cost is to be released during the first year, 9% in the second year and 18% in third
year. The summarised project cost for ITS and Innovative Environment Project for KSRTC,
Mysore is tabulated below:

From EIRR perspective there is an estimated 24% return in 15 years, 22% in 10 years and 18%
in six years.

Table 3 Summary of project costs - ITS & bio-Diesel


With
Contingency
Project Item Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total of 5%
ITS Procurement
Capital Costs 1,006.92 26.07 29.89 1,062.88
Operating Costs 249.74 252.85 256.46 759.05
Subtotal ITS Year wise 1,256.66 278.92 286.35 1,821.93 1913
Bio Fuel Procurement
Capital Costs 296.02 20.95 23.05 340.02
Operating costs 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total Costs Year wise 296.02 20.95 23.05 340.02 357
Total of Both Projects 2,161.95 2270

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Acknowledgement: CIRT & their support consultant eGestalt wish to thank KSRTC officials
who have furnished data for this report, and to a number of persons within CIRT and outside
who have helped in developing this Detailed Project Report.



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B: Intelligent Transport System (ITS) & Environmental


Project
B-1. Overview of the project

Public transport should always be the hallmark of a good transportation system for a city,
especially for a city like Mysore, which is earmarked as the “Heritage City”, as it provides
good impetus to the tourist population. The role of public transport is vital, particularly to
reduce the use of personalized transport. The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation
(KSRTC) is the major inter-city and intra-city service provider in Mysore. KSRTC provides
services to about 179,000 commuters per day by city services and about 128,000 by mofussil
services.

This project addresses two critical components:

a) Intelligent Transport system (ITS)

Building intelligence into the transport system brings in the convergence of


technologies providing a synergetic transformation in the commuter experience. ITS
provides benefits in terms of Reduce waiting time and uncertainty, Increase the
accessibility of the system, Increase the safety of users, Reduce the fuel consumption
and emissions, Reduce the operational costs, Improve traffic efficiency, Reduce traffic
congestion, Improve environmental quality and energy efficiency, Improve economic
productivity.

The ITS will encourage use of public transport and reduce the use of personal vehicles.
This significantly contributes to saving the environment from heavy vehicle pollution
and reducing congestion on city roads.

The number of sub-systems under ITS covers vehicle-to-vehicle communications,


collision avoidance and crash detection system, monitoring traffic and controlling
signal lights, electronic and speed limit signs, reversible lanes and other road safety
components. ITS technology framework includes wireless communication, sensing
technologies, inductive loop detection, video vehicle detection and electronic toll
collection. The possibilities are enormous, KSRTC proposes to lay the foundation by
implementing ITS to provide dynamic information of the bus routes, ETA/ETD, improve
efficiency in transport management, and lower the pollution levels.

The proposed ITS project implementation will include core components such as:
Vehicle Tracking System, Real Time Passenger Information System and Central Control
Station. Core technologies include Geographical Positioning System (GPS), Electronic
Display Systems, and Information & Communication Technologies.

b) Ethanol blended diesel (e-diesel)


Ethanol blended diesel (e-diesel) is a cleaner burning alternative to regular diesel for
heavy-duty (HD) compression ignition (CI) engines used in buses. The introduction of
use of alternative fuel such as E-diesel for the fleet of Karnataka SRTC buses plying in
Mysore region would certainly result in fewer emissions. Use of renewable fuel
(Ethanol) will also help to reduce fossil energy consumption and achieve the energy
savings.

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One of the most daunting problems faced by the cities in the country is that urban transport
failed to provide facilities thus increasing travel time and cost both for passenger and goods
traffic.

It is now well accepted that lack of adequate public transport offering comfort and
convenience, has resulted in steep increase in the ownership of private vehicles particularly
two wheelers with subsequent effects on pollution, both noise and air. In most cities two
wheelers comprise more than 70% of total motor vehicles.

KSRTC plans to source funds from the MoUD, GoI under the GEF SUTP to implement ITS
project, in consistent with the GFE SUTP objectives. As a first step, preparation of a Detailed
Project Report (DPR) on ITS for KSRTC Mysore limits its scope primarily to Passenger
Information System and including certain core components has been assigned to CIRT, Pune,
who will act as consultant to the project.

This document is a detailed Project Report (DPR) for implementing an Intelligent Transport
System and increased use of e-diesel (Ethanol-diesel blend) for Karnataka SRTC buses plying
in Mysore.

A Detailed Project Report will facilitate KSRTC Management to take the next steps of
developing the Request for Proposal specifications covering the functional, technical,
operational specifications including detailed definition of various service level metrics. This
DPR also covers the estimated cost of implementing the system with scope for expansion as
the number of buses, routes and commuters increases.

KSRTC proposes to implement the system through established bid process following the World
Bank guidelines for identification and deployment through a system integrator.

B-2. About Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC)

Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC), the implementing agency, was
established in August 1961 under the provisions of the Road Transport Corporation Act 1950
with the objective of providing “adequate, efficient, economic and properly coordinated road
transport services”. Three Corporations viz., BMTC, Bangalore from 15-08-1997, NWKRTC,
Hubli from 01-11-1997 and NEKRTC, Gulbarga from 01-10-2000 were formed out, on a
regional basis, with KSRTC doing operations covering Southern Karnataka and interstate
areas.

KSRTC operates its services to all villages in the State, which have motorable roads. 92% of
the villages in monopoly area (6743 out of 7298) and 44% in non-monopoly area (5158 out of
11789) have been provided with transport facility by KSRTC. At present it has one corporate
office, 13 divisional offices, 62 depots, 114 bus stations, 2 bus bodybuilding workshops,1
printing press, 3 training Institutes and 1 hospital. It operates 6189 schedules with 6830
vehicles (including 103 hired private vehicles) covering 21.86 lakh Kms. and carries on an
average 24.5 lakh passengers daily. About 30,318 employees are working in the Corporation.

The ITS Project is proposed to be implemented at Mysore; the city located in the southern
part of Deccan Plateau is a potent place, given its historical background and a salubrious
climate for tourism. KSRTC services in Mysore cater to the population of the city which is
over 2.2 million.

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The total area of Mysore city as per MUDA is expected to increase from 9221 hectares (2001)
to 15,669 hectares by 2011, representing a significant increase of around 70%. It is observed
that the number of vehicles increased almost 25 times to 145,000 in 1996 from around 6,000
in 1970.

The network of roads and streets in Mysore follows a hub and spoke mechanism with arterial
roads originating from the centre of the city. Arterial roads start from the Palace area and
run radially leading to towns and cities outside. This arrangement also means that all
commercial activities converge to the centre of the city causing congestion.

It is estimated that about 5.7 lakh passenger trips are generated each day within the urban
limits, with home-based trips (to & fro) constituting nearly 50%, followed by home-to-work
which is 23.2% and home to educational institutions factoring 19.5%.

1. Vision of KSRTC

KSRTC proposes to improve its capability in managing the entire public transport system in
Mysore more efficiently, safely and be more Commuter and environmental friendly. This can
be achieved by introducing real time communication interlinked with buses, passengers (in-
vehicle, bus stations and bus-stands) and KSRTC Management by implementing intelligent
transport system.

The core objectives include:

a) Providing effective, safe, environmental and commuter friendly solutions to


the travelling public who use KSRTC buses.

b) Track and monitor the movement of buses on real time basis to enable
communication of the arrival timings of buses at the bus stops through state of
the art GPS/GPRS technologies.

c) Inform commuters about the bus routes and arrival timings of buses at the bus
stops/terminals through LED Display systems.

d) Effective management through a Decision Support system by collecting,


collating and storing information on real time basis about the transport system
and its effectiveness using communication technology.

e) Instant access to information related to bus schedules, ETA, ETD, annunciating


bust stop names, fare details, etc at bus stops, bus terminals and within the
buses and through SMS, Internet and IVRS.

f) Issuing of Passes Daily, Weekly, Monthly for commuters and examine e-purse
facilities through Smart Cards for introduction later
g) Facilitate timely management of Incidents/Accidents

h) Establish meaningful instant two-way interaction facility between Driver – and


central control station.
i) Obtaining on-line real time information on bus operations and management

j) Effective monitoring of break downs and the related information

k) Effective diversion of traffic in case of emergency


l) Monitoring accidents and the related aspects

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B-3. Why Mysore City for the ITS project

Worldwide there have been significant efforts in the development of efficient, transparent
and environmental friendly public Transport solutions resulting in growth of economies and
transport.

In India we are just beginning to understand the need for ITS solution and we do not have a
working model which can be used for case study. KSRTC initiative will be one of the first in
the country. Hence this project has been undertaken as a pilot project to become a model /
case study for other projects.

There are challenges in implementing an effective and Intelligent Transport System –

a) Sustainable transport is not just a case of increasing the infrastructure


available; it is also a question of maximizing the use of existing infrastructure
and of maximizing the efficiency and interoperability of all transport assets.
b) Implementing ITS solutions gets more and more complex based on the size of
the transport network to be addressed and the size of the city and intricacies
of traffic conditions. Changing the traditional ground transportation scheme to
a fully automated and intelligent transportation network is a substantial
upgrade of the scheme. Apparently the main problems that are hampering this
upgrading to materialize are not just technological limits, but cultural,
conceptual, social, emotional, political and economical hurdles. The bigger
the city the more complex this becomes.

c) The cost of implementing ITS solution is primarily related to the size of the
city. Hence a smaller city with a smaller fleet of public transport is ideal for a
pilot project.

Considering these challenges, Mysore city offers us the best option for the following reasons:

It is easier to evaluate a project of smaller size city due to lesser complexities in the
project parameters. Other cities like Bangalore are very large in size with a lot of
limitations and will require networking with many agencies which will render the project
unviable for the time being. The cost of implementing ITS project in Bangalore will be
substantially higher. It is assumed to be wiser to implement a project at Mysore and learn
lessons coming out of the project successfully implemented.
Mysore is a tourist centre and needs to be a model city to provide international standard
facilities for local public transport. This will improve the inflow of tourist and also give a
good image of our state.
The city is a medium sized city thereby making the investments to be made for pilot
project affordable. The city is experiencing a high rate of growth in traffic density.

The city located in the southern part of Deccan Plateau is potent place, given its
historical background and a salubrious climate. KSRTC services in Mysore cater to the
population of the city which is over 2.2 million.

It is estimated that about 5.7 Lakhs passenger trips are generated each day within the
urban limits, with home-based trips (to & fro) constituting nearly 50% , followed by
Home-to-work which is 23.2% and home to educational institutions factoring in 19.5%.

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It is observed that the number of vehicles increased almost 25 times to 145,000 in 1996
from around 6,000 in 1970.

The total area for Mysore city as per MUDA is expected to increase from 9221 hectares
(2001) to 15,669 hectares by 2011, representing a significant increase of around 70 %.
There is a lot of other concurrent projects being undertaken /proposed for Mysore city in
terms of road up-gradation, new road networks, ring roads etc which will necessitate new
Public Transport Support thereby increasing the Transport network and schedules.
The funds available for the project will match the project cost for implementation in a
city of the size and infrastructure availability such as Mysore.

Mysore as location for ITS implementation “Enhancing the glory of Mysore, and enabling
it to forge ahead as the cultural, tourism, educational, and wellness hub” is the vision of
Mysore. The Principal Secretary, Department of Industries and Commerce, has said that
Mysore is all set to witness rapid industrialization with the Government sanctioning 55
medium- and large-scale industries, which will create 60,000 jobs over the next few
years.

The Government of Karnataka is promoting Mysore as an alternative destination for the


Information Technology (IT) industry and developing it as a counter magnet city to
Bangalore. As a result the city has become a new haven for the IT and Information
Technology Enabled Services (ITeS) industry and is poised to play bigger role in the
economy of the city. This is apparent from the fact that the software exports from the
city grew at 26.8% to reach Rs.392 crores, in the year 2005-06. As the divisional
headquarters of Mysore Division and as the Railway Junction, railways are the other
major employer in Mysore.

The Government has cleared 55 industries under the single-window agency scheme for
Mysore. This envisages an investment of Rs. 9,462 crores.

With the State Government marketing Mysore as a potential destination for investment in
the manufacturing and services sector, the Karnataka Industrial Area Development Board
(KIADB) is in the process of acquiring 3,872 acres of land to open 1,000 industrial units in
and around Mysore.

Besides, the 154 acres of land being acquired for the airport at Mandakalli near here,
KIADB is also acquiring 257 acres of land for a textile park at Kadakola, 658 acres of land
at Hootagalli, 500 acres of land at Anchya, besides 1,500 acres of land at Thandya in
Nanjangud.

Improvements in infrastructure, like doubling of Railway tracks, completion of the four


lane State-highway, the Bangalore - Mysore Infrastructure Corridor (BMIC) between
Mysore and Bangalore, up gradation and expansion of the Mysore Airport will bring
significant growth to the economy of Mysore. The congestion in Bangalore, as well as its
proximity, is having a ‘push effect’ on IT/ITeS industry to Mysore. The city’s share in the
State GDP at 7.09% (1996-97), has exhibited a marginal increase over the figure of 6.63 %
(1980- 81). However, with the IT companies establishing their bases in Mysore in the
recent years, the city’s share in the state GDP is expected to improve. The population of
Mysore, which was around 8 Lakhs in 2000, is projected to touch 25 Lakh by 2030.

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Learning from the examples of other cities where traffic congestion has been a major
factor, Mysore proposes to build on these learning, while the economy is poised to grow
significantly, through proactive planning and providing state of the art infrastructure that
would attract citizens to adopt the public transport system as the first choice of travel,
helping to reduce the use of personal vehicles commuting to work, pleasure, social visit,
or for commerce.

B-4. A backdrop of Mysore

B-4.1. General / Historical background

Cultural capital of Karnataka, Mysore is a majestic, mysterious and mesmerising city. It has
inherited all Indian traditions with modernity. Mysore has a number of historical and heritage
buildings.

Figure 1: Cultural capital of Karnataka - Mysore

The earliest mention of Mysore can be traced back to the days of King Ashok, back in time
around 245 B.C. However, it is only from the 10th Century that a proper and consistent line of
history of Mysore can be traced. History of Mysore points out that it was in 1399 A.D that the
Yadu dynasty came to power in Mysore. From the year 1761 to 1799 Mysore was ruled by
Hyder Ali and his son Tippu Sultan. Mysore remained the second most important city till the
death of Tippu Sultan. As Mysore went under the control of the Britishers, they placed a
Prince Krishnaraja Wodeyar on the throne of Mysore and Mysore was once again made the
capital in the year 1881. The city started to grow from time to time. Chamarajendra
Wodeyar was the next king who ruled for 13 long years.

The civic administration of the city is managed by the Mysore City Corporation, which was
established as a municipality in 1888 and later converted into a corporation in 1977. The
corporation oversees the engineering works, health, sanitation, water supply, administration
and taxation in the city. It is headed by a mayor who is assisted by commissioners and council
members. The city is divided into 65 wards and the council members (Corporations) are
elected by the citizens of Mysore every five years. The council members in turn elect the
mayor.

The growth and expansion of the city is managed by the Mysore Urban Development Authority
(MUDA), which is headed by a commissioner. Its activities include developing new layouts and
roads, town planning and land acquisition. One of the major projects recently undertaken by
MUDA is the creation of an Outer Ring Road in Mysore, which is expected to ease traffic
congestion.

1. Location, Climate, physical setting, regional linkages

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Mysore city is geographically located between 12° 18'' 26 North Latitude and 76° 38' 59'' East
Longitude. It is located at an altitude of 2,427 feet. It encompasses an area of 6,268 sq. km.
It enjoys a pleasant climate, the temperature varying between 19º C and 30º C. The weather
of Mysore is pleasant throughout the year. As Mysore city is located in the tropics, it enjoys a
moderate climate.

Mysore city is located in the southern part of the Deccan Plateau. It is a beautiful land
bordered by luxuriant forests. It is located 140 Kms from the city of gardens, Bangalore.
Mysore is an important railway junction for the district. It is connected to Bangalore, which
lies to its northeast via Mandya, the rail junction at Hassan is situated to the northwest, and
Chamarajanagar via Nanjangud to the southeast. Infrastructure of Mysore comprises of a wide
gamut of civic amenities such as sanitation, solid waste management, water supply as well as
transport network. The governing authorities of Mysore are taking major initiatives to further
develop the state of infrastructural facilities in the city.

Bangalore is the nearest airport of Mysore. Mandakalli is the proposed place where the
airport with two runways is to be built in Mysore. As per the government declaration, the
airport of Mysore will start functioning by the year 2009. The road infrastructure of Mysore is
quite developed and links the place with Bangalore. Since Bangalore is one of the popular and
easily reachable cities of India one can conveniently reach Mysore. The frequency of buses
that ply from Bangalore to Mysore is quite good and tourists can also enjoy the scenic
pleasures of the surroundings while taking a bus ride.

The railway infrastructure of Mysore provides regular train services from Bangalore to the
place and vice versa. The closest airport to Mysore is in Bangalore which is at a distance of
around 140 km. In recent times Mysore has been transformed into a pioneer of wireless
communication technology through the Wi-Fi system. Today, not only tourists but also IT
professionals visit Mysore in large numbers. The advent of Wi-Fi in Mysore has literally
transformed the city into one of the advanced IT zones of the world. As a result of the Wi-Fi
revolution in Mysore, the city gained a complete infrastructure of wireless communication
system. A company called WiFi Net installed three towers in Mysore city with a total
investment of 60 Lakhs. This in turn led to the activation of the wireless process in Mysore.
Ever since the Wi-Fi technology came into Mysore various corporate organizations and
individuals are opting for its facilities. There is no denying the fact that Wi-Fi in Mysore has
provided a major boost to the complete IT industry of Karnataka as a whole.

2. Demographic and socio economic profile:

The total population of Mysore is about 2.28 million. There are people from various cultural
backgrounds gathering in the city due to the recent development of flourishing IT industry.
Thus the population of Mysore is a combination of traditional locals and modern tech savvy
youth gathering here for work from different corners of India. Most commonly, the people of
Mysore speak both Kannada and English. Tamil and Hindi are the other two popular languages
in Mysore.

The Population of Mysore city comprises of 7.8 lakh urbanites. One of the prominent cities of
Karnataka, Mysore is a burgeoning industrial center and tourism hub of South India. Mysore
has a total male population of 399,904 and female population of 385,896 as per the census
data of 2001. The gender ratio of Mysore is 965 females per 1000 males. The urban

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population of Mysore comprises of mostly literates who are engaged in important government
and private commercial establishments and administrative offices.

The population density of Mysore is 6223.55 persons per square kilometre. The literacy rate
of the city is 82.8%, which is much higher than the state's average of 67%. Nineteen percent
of the population in Mysore live below the poverty line and 8.95% of the population live in
slums. Though 35.7% of the population living in urban areas of Karnataka are workers, only
33.3% of the population in Mysore city belong to the working class. People belonging to
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled tribes contribute to 15.1% of the population.

Mysore city is with all the modern infrastructural amenities, and it offers several
opportunities to the people to earn their livelihood. The city of Mysore is sub divided into
Mysore South and Mysore North for the convenience of administration. Being an important
industrial centre of the state of Karnataka, Mysore attracts several people from other states
for employment thus increasing the population of the city.

3. Growth, economy, spatial structure and trends

Traditionally, Mysore has been home to industries such as weaving, sandalwood carving,
bronze work and production of lime and salt. The planned industrial growth of the city was
first envisaged in the Mysore economic conference, held in 1911. This led to the
establishment of industries such as the Mysore Sandalwood Oil Factory in 1917 and the Sri
Krishnarajendra Mills in 1920.

In a survey conducted by Business Today in 2001, the business arm of India Today, Mysore was
ranked as the 5th best city in India for business. Mysore has emerged as the hub of tourism
industry in Karnataka, attracting about 2.5 million tourists in 2006. For the industrial
development of the city, the Karnataka Industrial Areas Development Board (KIADB) has
established four industrial areas in and around Mysore, located in Belagola, Belawadi, Hebbal
(Electronic City) and Hootagalli areas. The major industries in Mysore include BEML, J. K.
Tyres, Wipro, Falcon Tyres, L & T and Infosys.

Since 2003, information technology companies have been creating bases in Mysore, with the
city contributing Rs. 760 crores (US$190 million) to Karnataka's Rs. 48,700 crores
($12.175 billion) IT exports in the financial year 2006–2007. Infosys has established one of the
largest technical training centres in the world and Wipro has established its Global Service
Management Center (GSMC) at Mysore. Non-IT related services have been outsourced from
other countries to companies in Mysore.

B-4.2. Operational Characteristics of KSRTC in Mysore City

As on 31st March 2008, KSRTC operated 237 schedules under the city services with a fleet
strength of 258. The city services were running with a load factor of 72.8% and 555,475
effective kilometres per day.

1. Bus Network Density

KSRTC operates about 4217 trips through 282 schedules from 2 depots on 185 routes making
around 1.79 lakh passenger trips per day. The total number of bus stops in the city is about
484. The average revenue per passenger is about Rs. 8.20 through a fare of 34.76 paise per

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kilometre and an average distance of 8.38 kilometres per passenger. The average waiting at
the bus stops is found to be around 15 minutes.

2. Activities involved and role of agencies in Bus Transport in Mysore

The main activities involved in transport management and the role of various agencies is
presented in the table below:

Table 4: Activities and Roles in bus transport at Mysore


Mysore CHESCOM,
Roles MCC MUDA PWD KSRTC
Police KUWSDS
Transport Planning 
Road Construction   
Road Maintenance   
Traffic Enforcement 
Traffic Devices – Signs, Signals, etc.  
Parking 
Road Safety  
Bus Operations, including route planning 
Utilities 

3. Ward-wise Population Details

The entire city of Mysore has been sub-divided into 65 Municipal Wards for the purpose of
municipal functions. According to the 2001 Census, a population of 757,379 resides in the 65
wards of Mysore city under the Municipal Corporation limits. The DPR for BRTS in Mysore City
prepared by RITES in 2008 identifies four important corridors for public transport services.
Two corridors cut across the city in the North-South direction and two in the East-West
direction. These four corridors pass through 38 wards of the 65 wards in the city catering to
around 57.56% of the total population. A list of the wards that the individual corridors cater
to is given below.

Table 5: Ward Numbers & Corridors in Mysore


Corridor Ward Numbers
C1 56, 57, 58, 63, 62, 64, 65, 1, 2, 36, 19, 20, 23, 24
C2 12, 11, 5, 4, 1, 36, 37, 41, 42, 44, 45, 35
C3 22, 24, 23, 20, 19, 36, 2, 1, 64, 37, 41, 51, 61, 52, 54, 53
C4 45, 46, 44, 42, 41, 37, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

B-4.3. Current Transport Scenario in Mysore

Mysore City road traffic is heterogeneous in character. It is a mixture of fast moving motor
traffic and extremely slow traffic such as animal drawn vehicles. Motor traffic consists of
mainly cars, light vans, light commercial vehicles, jeeps, different kinds of mopeds, scooters
and motor cycles, different kinds of commercial vehicles, buses, auto rickshaws etc. In
addition to these, there are a considerable percentage of cycles plying on the city roads.
Pedestrian traffic is found to be very heavy in the CBD areas of the city due to high
commercial activities and tourist movement. The wide variety of traffic units with their
great disparity of size and speed creates a number of problems viz., delay, congestion,
accidents and areas of conflict.

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Due to the mixing up of different classes of vehicles, the journey speed is considerably
reduced and the capacity of the roads is adversely affected and severe congestion has been
found to be occurring
frequently in the CBD
area. Constant
stoppages,
acceleration and
deceleration and
movement in low
gears increase
operational costs and
wear and tear of
vehicles. The
conflict, confusion
and irritation caused
by mixed traffic also
results in accidents.
The number of motor
vehicles has
increased by about 25 times in the Mysore City between 1970 and 1996. The road carrying
capacity in older parts of the city however has remained the same while the quantum of
traffic has increased significantly.

The total number of vehicles, which was about 6000 in 1970, increased to 1.45 lakhs in 1996
and the current vehicle population is 3.55 lakhs. The number of vehicles registered in Mysore
up to 30.11.2006 is 3.55 lakhs of which 2.86 lakhs is 2-wheelers constituting 80.56% of the
total vehicle population. Based on the vehicle growth during the last few years, it is observed
that the vehicle growth in Mysore city is about 8 to 9% p.a.

Table 6: Vehicular growth in Mysore


Types of vehicles 1986 1989 1996 2006

4-wheeler 4,829 57 17 11,291 3,2431


2-wheeler 45,125 68,060 1283,36 28,6079
Truck 2,145 2310 3,712 5,937
Bus 1021 1318 1,955 2,693
Total 53,120 77,405 1442,94 355,014

It may be observed that 22% of trips are performed by two-wheelers followed by 33% by walk.
IPT and Cycles too have considerable share as nearly 14% and 17% of the trips are performed
by these modes respectively. The share of trips performed by public transport is 13%, which
can still be increased, as the portion of walk and two-wheeler trips is high.

1. Average Trip Length

Trip pattern of the urban area residents reveals a considerable proportion 33% of the overall
trips made within study area to be walk trips. Average trip length works out to be 3.36 km.
per capita trip rate. The average trip length of individual modes of transport is given in the
following table.

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Figure 2: Modal distribution of road users


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Table 7: Average Trip length of vehicles


Average Trip
Mode
Length(km)
2 Wheeler 3.7
Car 6
Bus 4.5
Cycle & Other 1.9
Walk 0.7

2. Modal Shift

Significant modal shift is needed to deliver national and international sustainable


development aims for a strong economy, an inclusive society and a clean environment.

A modal shift occurs when one mode has a comparative advantage in a similar market over
the other. Comparative advantages can take various forms, such as costs, capacity, time,
flexibility and reliability.

A significant trend amongst many urban road users is a willingness to use the public transport
in the face of increasing traffic congestion and increasing ‘road-rage’ behaviour on the roads.
With the spiralling crude prices in the international market and the rising cost of fuel, many
would shift to the public transport on cost considerations. For some, time is of the essence
and a modal shift will occur only if the new mode offers time improvements, while for others
it is mostly a matter of costs.

KSRTC aims to bring about this modal shift in the city of Mysore by improving the perceived
image of KSRTC services. The current project aims to improve the reliability of KSRTC city
services through effective Travel Demand Management measures and Emergency Management
System and reduction in the waiting time of its passengers.

Therefore given the critical success factors of availability, reliability, accessibility, security,
low costs and comfort (acceptance), the increase in the use of public transport is definite to
occur. ITS with its state-of-art technology and convergence of different technologies such as
the network, GPS, display systems and Information systems will contribute to meeting the
critical success factors in the Intelligent Transport system.

3. Stated Preference Survey

The consultants conducted a survey on the 04th July 2008 to assess the impact and predict
the modal shift to public transport system after the introduction of Real Time Passenger
Information Systems through Intelligent Transportation Systems. The survey format is given in
Annex 1.

It is very interesting to note that from the stated preference survey conducted by the
consultants, it has been found that almost 89% of the sample population is willing to shift to
public transport provided KSRTC operates reliable services through the introduction of ITS.

Table 8: Extent of willingness to shift to public transport


Sample Willingness
Mode of Transport % Share
size to shift
Cars 160 150 93.75
3 Wheeler 110 110 100.00

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Sample Willingness
Mode of Transport % Share
size to shift
2 Wheeler 1290 1160 89.92
Cycle 300 240 80.00
Total 1860 1660 -
% of Total Sample 1000 89.25 -

Though this is the perceived opinion of the general public, the proportion of people actually
shifting to public transport could be much lesser in reality. On having focus group discussion
with the experts in the public transport domain it was concluded that the modal shift would
be to the tune of 30% for cars, 50% for 3 wheelers, 10% for cycles and 70% for 2 wheelers.

This actually translates to 24.4% of the users of other modes of transport shifting to the
use of buses. At a conservative year on year growth of 10%, this could reach 35% in the
next five years.

B-4.4. Stakeholder analysis

An Intelligent Transport System must meet the different needs of stakeholders to increase
their patronage towards the public transport system. The system must meet the essential
criteria such as: (a) Availability; (b) Accessibility; (c) Assessment; and (d) Acceptance to
assure KSRTC the acceptance of ITS system by different stakeholders.

The key stakeholders are the travelling public, the operative staff of KSRTC involved in
efficiently running the buses as per schedule with well maintained buses and meeting the
quality of international standards, the management of KSRTC and various eco-system partners
such as suppliers of various resources and components required for efficient running of the
KSRTC services, insurance companies, environmentalists and other transport users in the city
as two-wheeler / four wheeler users etc.

Amongst the citizens, special provisions must be made for the physically challenged, senior
persons, women and children who may have difficulties in accessing the services of KSRTC
easily.

The range of interventions to meet the stakeholders’ expectations could cover:

Redesigning bus stops on-line display of bus arrivals

Creation of suitable infrastructure at bus stops and bus stations for on-line real-time
passenger information system.

Fitment of onward electronic devices in the bus to support GPS and GPRS/GSM systems.

Special seat allocation for old-aged, physically challenged, women and children and
prioritizing their entry into and Exit from the buses before others.

Instant access to real time update of the status of the bus schedules.

Electronic ticket sale machine and fare collection system.


Analytical data (both video and text based) for the top management to support effective
management of the services of KSRTC.

Real time communication with the drivers for incident / emergency management.

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Schedule and bus stop announcements through visual displays and voice based.
1. Travelers at the bus stops / stations
Information availability on Bus routes (Bus Numbers: Starting – Destination Point – enroute
stops), Schedule of the buses – ETA / ETD, Seat availability, approximate travel time in at
least two languages – English and Kannada , point to point bus fares, types of buses – AC /
Non-AC / Non-stop routes etc; accessibility to such information should be both visual and
audio enabled.

Redesigning bus stops for easy boarding at the bus stops (such as elevated bus stops,
where the floor of the bus stand is at the same level as the entrance to the bus).
2. In-vehicle services for Passengers
In-vehicle announcements through visual displays and audio system regarding next bus
stop arrival and other related information.

Special seat allocation for old-aged, physically challenged, women and children and
prioritizing their entry into and exit from the buses before others.
3. Vehicle Drivers
Two-way communication system between the driver and central control station for
emergency /incident management.

Passenger announcement system inside the bus.


Vehicle Information System to keep the drivers informed of the quality of various
components and timely servicing / repairs of the vehicle components.
4. Operational Managers
Facilitate operation managers to manage the entire fleet operations more efficiently
through on-line remote access to vehicle positions, speed, breakdown, accident/
incident, etc

Preparation of standard reports and charts to support all level of management in decision
making.
Two-way communication facility for instant contact with drivers in case of emergency
incident /accident management/ diversions / traffic jams and warning of any traffic
violations in real-time.
Instant access to information such as: missed trips, late trips on different routes, break
downs and its duration, vehicles offline, accidents – types, impact, losses etc, route-wise
stop times for different trips at bus stops, average speed point to point, travel time
analysis, improper stops at bus stops, driver behavior, deviation in routes, speed
violations, at different locations and at different points of time
5. KSTRC Management
Analytical data (video, text and numerical data) for the top management to support
effective management of the services of KSRTC

Cater to requirements of dynamic and context based specific reports graphs and charts
and other standard Management Information System reports to give a snapshot view to
the KSRTC management on daily, monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and yearly performance.
6. Eco-system partners

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Recorded / immediate access to information on various incidents and accidents to


process insurance claims on buses / passengers; keeping track of the extent of pollution
caused by KSRTC buses and initiate action on progressively bringing in less polluting fuel
into the system; encouragement of two wheelers and car users to start using the public
transport system to bring down traffic congestion and to keep the environment green and
healthy

B-4.5. Existing urban transportation scenario and facilities available in


the use of urban transport – issues & challenges
a) Existing Scenario

The road pattern in Mysore is a combination of radial and grid pattern with arterial roads
originating from the city centre. The Palace is the focal point from where the roads run
radially leading to outer areas of the city. State Highways 17, 33, 86 & 88 pass through the
city.

(1) SH-17 connects Mysore to Bangalore


(2) SH-33 to Manantavady
(3) SH-86 to Bangalore via Kanakapura
(4) SH-88 to Bantwal

In addition to these, the city has a number of arterial roads (within the jurisdiction of Mysore
City Corporation (MCC), Mysore Urban Development Authority (MUDA) and Public Works
Department (PWD)).

The main radial roads, which originate from the Palace, are Hunsur Road, KRS Road,
Bangalore Road, Mahadevapura Road, Bannur Road, Ooty Road, H.D. Kote Road and Bogadi
Road. The other major roads in Mysore include:

Table 9: Major Roads in Mysore

M.G. Road Dhanvantari Road Mirza Road

Vani Vilas Road Ramanuja Road Radhakrishna Avenue

Jhansi Rani Lakshmi Bai Road Sayyaji Rao Road Seshadri Iyer Road
(JLB)

Chamaraja Double Road Ashoka Road Ramavilas Road

Devaraja Urs Road New Sayyaji Rao Road Adichunchanagiri Road

Kantharaja Urs Road Irwin Road Sawday Road

Lokaranjan Mahal Road Karanki Tank Bund Road Lalith Mahal Road

Maharana Pratap Simhaji Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Road Chamundi Hill Road
Road

T. Narasipura Road Race Course Road Madhavachari Road

Vinoba Road A.V. Road

In addition to the above roads, Outer Ring Road (ORR) on the periphery of the city has been
constructed by MUDA. At present, 42 Kms of the ORR has been completed and the balance
length of road connecting Bannur Road to H.D.Kote Road is yet to be taken up.

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Details about the existing features of some of the important roads are highlighted in the
subsequent paragraphs:

b) Hunsur Road

This is one of the major radial roads located on the North-West side of the city. The road is
mainly undivided carriageway. The carriageway width varies from 7m at intersection of ORR
to 9m at CFTRI. The land use is mainly commercial with some stretches being residential. The
terrain is mostly flat and at some location, it is rolling. There are no service roads along this
stretch. Footpaths are not available. Hunsur road intersects ORR near Vijayanagar area,
which is at present four lane divided carriageway. The road from intersection of ORR extends
up to CFTRI campus near Jaladarshini. Along this entire stretch, there are two major
junctions’ viz., Paduvarahalli Junction and Hunsur Road – Temple Road Junction. Near
Paduvarahalli Junction, Manasagangotri campus is located Kukkarahalli Tank.

c) Bannur Road

Bannur Road is one of the main arterial roads of Mysore city which is an undivided
carriageway. The carriageway width varies from 4.5 m to 9.3 m. The land use is mainly
commercial. Bannur Road intersects ORR near Alanahalli layout. Beyond ORR towards Bannur
side, Vidya Vikas Engineering College is located. Towards the city from intersection of ORR
and Bannur Road, Teresian College is located near Siddartha Layout. Beyond Siddartha
Layout, T. Narasipura Road extends up to Nazarbad Circle and reaches Hardinge Circle via
Nazarbad Road. The carriageway width between T. Narasipura Road and Nazarbad Road
varies between 5.5m and 9m. Karanji Tank is located near Siddartha Layout adjacent to T.
Narasipura Road. Footpath is unpaved. From the intersection with ORR, there is one major
junction viz., Nazarbad Circle; Nazarbad to Hardinge Circle, the road is one way.

d) K R S Road

This is an arterial cum radial road of Mysore city which connects the city to KRS dam. The
road is two lane undivided carriageway, with varying carriageway width. The land use is a
combination of residential and government offices/buildings. The road is not characterized
with the presence of footpath. KRS Road intersects ORR near Meatball. The existing road
width is proposed to be widened to 30m. The road intersects the railway line (going towards
Arasikere at grade.

e) Bangalore Road

This is an important radial road of Mysore city attracting heavy traffic, both personalized,
buses a well as HTVs. The road is two lane undivided carriageway.

Footpath is partly paved and partly unpaved. The land use is semi commercial and partly
residential. The New Bangalore – Mysore Road insects the old Bangalore – Mysore road near
old check post junction, from where there is the deviation of Bangalore road. Beyond old
check post junction, the road towards the city is characterized by the presence of two
junctions, viz., Millennium circle and Tippu circle.

f) Mahadevapura Road

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The road is a main arterial road, which is four lane-divided carriageways. Footpath is about
1m and is unpaved. The land use along the road is either residential or commercial on one
side while on other side, it is open space / Agricultural land. The road intersects ORR near
Sathgally II stage. Along this road, near K.N. Pura, Udayagiri Circle exists. The road is
proposed to be widened to 30m.

This road connects Mysore city to the famous pilgrimage Town centre of Nanjangud. The road
is a two lane undivided carriageway. The land use is residential up to city limits and beyond
that, it is open and agricultural land.

Footpath is unpaved and width of footpath is only 0.9m. On one side of the road, beyond JSS
College, Sri Ganapathi Sachidananda Ashram is located, which attracts tourist population.
The road is undivided two-lane. The land use around this road is either residential or
commercial.

The road runs almost parallel to the Mysore – Chamarajanagar meter gauge railway line up to
certain distance and near Nachanahalli Palya the railway line passes over the road.

CSTRI campus is located near Srirampuram village on the outskirts of the city and close to
ORR.

B-4.6. User demand forecast

A survey by Transport Operation Planning and Informatics Centre, Bangalore has the following
findings on Mysore city travel characteristics:

a) The vehicular and passenger traffic volumes are very heavy on the following
roads during peak hours:
(1) Visweswaraya circle in Sayyaji Road
(2) Corporation Circle in Sayyaji Road
(3) Srinivasa Circle in Mananthody Road

b) About 25% of households have no vehicles, 28% cycles, 48% have two wheelers
and cars are limited to 4%.
c) The mobility of household members increased with the ownership of motorized
vehicles. The household trip rates increased to 9.4 per day among the
households which have all the three modes of transport.
d) The per capita trip per day
Table 10: Percapita trip per day
Age group (yrs) Up to 15 15-24 24-58 Above 58
Males 1.53 1.66 1.87 0.87
Females 1.48 0.81 0.36 0.09

e) It is estimated that about 5.7 Lakh passenger trips are generated each day
within urban limits.

f) Nature of trips:
Table 11: Nature of trips
Home to work 23.2%
Home to Educational institutions 19.5%
Home to Shopping 2%

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Home based trips – to & fro 49.9%


Non-home based trips 5.4%

g) Survey indicates that 21.72% of intercity trips are conducted by motorized two
wheelers followed by 16.42% by cycle and other slow vehicle owners and
12.72% by bus. Intercity passenger trips indicate nearly two thirds of travellers
on a work trip, while tourist and recreation trips constitute 12%. Nearly 36,
000 tourists travel in and out of the city each day.

Figure 3: Population details - Mysore Dist 2001 census

KSRTC has conducted various kinds of study and surveys to determine the demand for existing
facilities and forecast the likely demand in future. The table below illustrates the operational
performance of KSRTC in Mysore City during 2004-08.

Table 12: Operational performance of KSRTC during 2004-08


Sl No Factors 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Upto %
Jun-08 increase
1 Schedules 211 216 232 237 249 18.01
2 Fleet held 219 223 254 258 278 26.94
3 Effective Kilometers/Day 51643 52687 53974 55475 69327 34.24
4 Load Factor(%) 69.1 69.5 70.4 72.8 81 17.22
5 Traffic Revenue (In lakhs) 8.13 8.45 9.14 9.56 14.94 83.76
6 Total Cost (In lakhs) 9.7 9.92 10.2 10.55 13.3 37.11
7 Margin on Gross Revenue (In -1.37 -1.27 -0.21 0.7 11.3 -924.82
lakhs)
8 EPKM on Traffic Revenue (In 1586.6 1603.8 1693.4 1723.3 2155 35.83
Ps)
9 EPKM on Gross Revenue (In Ps) 1625.6 1634.2 1850.9 2027.9 2201.2 35.41
10 CPKM (In Ps) 1878.3 1882.3 1890 1901.1 1918.4 2.13

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Sl No Factors 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Upto %


Jun-08 increase
11 Average Carrying Capacity 63 63 63 63 63 0.00
12 Average Seating Capacity 43 43 43 43 43 0.00

The table below illustrates the data as on 2008 and the likely demand in 2011:

Table 13: User demand forecast - 2011


Existing- Future- Assumptions/
User Demand Particulars
2008 2011 Comments
Land Use(in Hectares) 9,221 15,670
Total Land Area 128.42 km²
Current Population of Mysore city 9.63 Based on growth rate of 20.5% observed
(In Lakhs) 9.13 lakhs lakhs during 1991 to 2001
City Depot / Terminals 2 3
Bus Schedules 237 267 Based on trend observed during 2004-08
data
Distance Operated per Day (In Km) 55,475 62,595 Assuming similar vehicle utilization
observed in 2007-08
Total Trips Per Day 4,217 4,751 Trip per day is 17.71 times the Bus
schedules in 2008 data. Same is applied
to 2011
No. of passengers carried per day 179,000 361,260 Based on estimated passenger
kilometers in 2011 and passenger lead at
par with 2007-08 i.e. 8.38 kms
Based on annual growth rate observed
Average Load Factor (%) 72.8 76.8 during 2004-08 i.e. 1.78%
Number of Bus Stops 484 521 Growth rate 2001-2008 2.5 per annum
Number of Bus Depots 2 3 Around 100 buses/depot

Statistics on vehicular growth

The time series data from 1986 to 2006 for Mysore city on various categories of vehicle is
given in the Table below:

Table 14: Growth projection of vehicle population in Mysore by 2011


% of Increase
Composi Expected
in Vehicle Average
Type of tion of population
1986 1989 1996 2006 Population growth
vehicles Vehicles of vehicles
between per year
- 2006 in 2011
1996-2006
4-wheeler 4,829 5,717 11,291 32,431 9.85% 187.23 19 77,392

2-wheeler 2,602 8,219 128,336 286,079 86.92% 122.91 12 504,169

Truck 866 1,161 3,712 5,937 1.80% 59.94 6 7,945


Bus 499 651 955 2,693 0.82% 181.99 18 6,161
Total 10,782 15,748 146,290 329,146 99.39% 125.00 12 595,667

An approximate estimate of the likely number of vehicles in 2011 has been calculated in the
above table on the basis of the incremental average growth for different categories of
vehicles between 1996 & 2006.

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Based on this calculation, the total vehicles plying on the roads of Mysore is around six lakhs.
However this figure may be controlled by improving public transport system and attracting
private vehicle users to embrace public transport.

Future plans for Roads

Road and related infrastructure (including storm water drainage) include the following
components:

Artery Roads, Rings Roads and other important roads,


Foot-paths,

Street lighting,

Traffic management, including signaling.

A feasibility study would be conducted on MRTS, Metro, and extension of chord surface rail
for commuters travelling within the city. The study would also include feasibility of providing
MRTS/Metro along the alignment of Peripheral road, outer ring road and radial roads. MCC/
MUDA have identified corridors for road improvement along with related infrastructure.
These corridors and the remaining roads would be improved in coordination with other utility
operators to provide comfortable pedestrian and vehicular movement. The proposed
activities include the following:

Completion and expansion of ring road in phases:

Completing the two lanes, expansion to four lanes, and more


As the City grows in the Vision horizon, more outer rings may need to be developed

Strengthening/ improvement of the roads including resurfacing

Maintaining the roads and related infrastructure to prescribed standards


Construction and/or widening of road bridges/ culverts etc

Construction and maintenance of radial roads & inner ring road

Construction and maintenance of footpaths


Construction and maintenance of storm water drains

Maintenance (erection of streetlights as required) of street lights to prescribed


specifications
Junction improvements and installation of road markings and signage Provision of vehicle
parking facilities at bus stand and railway station and provision for auto stands etc.

MCC/ MUDA would endeavor to:


Select the road stretches for prioritization on a clear basis, and focus on a life-cycle
maintenance, rather than mere expansion/ repair;

Cause minimum delay or inconvenience to users of the road facility;


Ensure that all roads are maintained to the prescribed standards;

Ensure that drains, lane marking, street lighting, and signage are maintained at
prescribed standards;

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While most of the financing of the capital and recurring expenses are proposed to be met
out of city or government agency budgets and grants, the activities would be
implemented, where feasible, with private sector participation. The modes of
implementation could be in various formats, but would focus on asset maintenance over
the life-cycle.

B-4.7. Integrated urban land use and transport planning


1. Mysore City Urban Land Use

The total area for Mysore city as per MUDA has shown an increase to 9221 hectares in 2001
from 7569 hectares in 1995, representing a growth of 22%. As per MUDA, the total area is
further expected to increase to 15669 hectares by 2011, representing a significant increase of
around 70 % over the total area in 2001. The city’s growth in the recent years has been
skewed towards southern Mysore i.e the industrial areas located in Nanjangud. MUDA/ private
developers have developed new layouts in the areas of Vijayanagar and J.P. Nagar. Besides,
the residential layouts, private developers also have lined up an array of proposals to develop
malls, convention centres and golf course. MUDA has also proposed to develop few
residential layouts in the north east part of Mysore towards Bannur / T.Narsipura like Shastri
Nagar. The following table illustrates the land use pattern of Mysore city from 1995 to 2011:

Table 15: Land use pattern in Mysore

Category 1995 2001 2011


Area in % Area Area in % Area Area in % Area
Hectares Hectares Hectares
Residential 3,057.30 40.4 2,849.91 39.9 6,097.87 43.45
Commercial 182.23 2.41 215.95 3.02 344.07 2.45
Industrial 1,021.01 13.4 962.61 13.48 1855.05 13.22
Parks & Open Spaces 415.77 5.49 981.7 13.74 1055.05 7.52
Public & Semi-public 856.45 11.32 639.69 8.96 1,180.78 8.41
Traffic & Transportation 1,530.73 20.22 1,150.27 16.1 2,380.56 16.96
Public Utility 285.34 3.73 36.48 0.51 43.35 0.31
Water Sheet 182.68 2.41 143.99 2.02 178.95 1.27
Agricultural 285.34 3.73 162.33 2.27 898.99 6.41
Nehru Loka 2,078.14 1,634.82 -
Total 7,568.77 100 9,221.07 100 15,669.49 100

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Figure 4: Mysore Road map

The total area demarcated for parks, open spaces and Nehru Loka (green spaces) is expected
to decrease marginally to 2690 hectares (2011) as per the proposed land use pattern for the
year 2011. Currently, this is around 3060 hectares (2001). The area allocated to Nehru Loka
is expected to help preserve the green spaces around the Chamundi Hills area. The total area
demarcated for residential purpose is expected to increase as new residential layouts are
coming up. The residential area is estimated to be 6098 hectares in the proposed land use
pattern for 2011. This would represent an increase of almost 114% over the area of 2850
hectares in the land use
pattern for 2001.

The percentage of land for


agricultural purpose is also
expected to increase from
2.27% (162 hectares) in
2001 to 6.41% (899
hectares) in 2011.
However, the percentage
of area for commercial,
industrial and
traffic/transportation
purpose has not varied
over the three periods, as
illustrated in the land use
table above. Figure 5: Mysore City Wards as of 2007

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2. Transport Planning integrating land use

Figure 6: Mysore City Land use map 2011

a) Introduction

There is a need to clearly define transportation policy for a city, especially one which has
been showing tremendous increase in its population as well as vehicle growth. The
conventional way of dealing with transportation problems will have to be dispensed and a
comprehensive policy is required to frame a vision. The catastrophic failures of transport
policies on many fronts have led the cities to revolutionalise their current positions and adopt
radically new policies.

This re-orientation in thinking has not gained momentum in India while the same is being duly
advocated abroad by traffic and transportation planners, with spectacular results. Hence,
there is a need to formulate “TRANSPORTATION POLICY” for Mysore to ensure an effective
and efficient transportation system in the city.

b) Need

Over the next few years, Mysore city which has been a centre of tourist attraction is likely to
develop into a major IT hub of the State. With such growth and development of the city,
Mysoreans should be able to enjoy a good quality of life. Towards this end, the city should be
planned and the challenges and problems faces the city should be met with utmost care.
Although, some measures have been initiated by MUDA with the construction of Outer Ring
Road (ORR) in the city, there is a need to provide more road infrastructure facilities. The
time is now ripe for planners to become visionaries. The ideas or proposals should not be
brushed aside as invalid or impractical. There will be many obstacles and difficulties - fiscal,
political and practical but instead of excuses, the planners need to face reality and become

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more solution centred. This may lead to making decisions which may not be acceptable
initially.

Planners and decision makers of the city must ensure that the public do not spend hours in
traffic snarls. It is necessary to preserve the heritage, culture, history and landmarks of the
city. The science of traffic and transportation underlies social, economic and environmental
issues concerning every citizen. The vision for the city is directly related to the issue of
mobility and the manner in which it is addressed.

c) Problem Identification

The most visible problems Mysore faces are:

(1) Congestion, with ever increasing commuting times and delay


(2) Degraded air quality which threatens the health of citizens
(3) Lack of proper parking facilities
(4) Lack of proper pedestrian facilities to ensure safety of pedestrians

This has happened due to the lack of efficient public transport system in the city. The
increase in vehicle population has also given rise to high accident rate in the city. It is thus
clearly evident that the ever increasing number of vehicles not only accelerates pollution but
also leads to increased frustration and traffic violations by the road users.

d) Framework for Solution

For urban areas to be able to support the required level of economic activity, facilities must
be provided for easy and sustainable flow of goods and people. Unfortunately, such a flow of
goods and people has been facing several problems, most prominent among them being:

(1) Billions of man hours lost with people struck in traffic. The primary reason
for this being the explosive growth of vehicular traffic coupled with
limitation on road space availability.
(2) Cost of travel has increased considerably. This is largely because of the
use of non-motorized vehicles like cycles and walking has become
extremely risky as these modes have to share the same ROW with
motorized vehicles.
(3) Travel in city has become risky with more accidents.
(4) Rapid motor vehicle growth has led to severe air pollution, adversely
affecting the health of people and quality of life.

Unless the above problems are tackled in the right earnest, poor mobility can become a
major dampener to the economic growth and deteriorate the quality of life. Thus, a policy is
needed to deal with this rapidly growing problem and also offer a clear direction and
framework for future action.

Thus, the vision of the Transportation Policy should be able to make the city liveable and
enable them to become the “ENGINES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH” allowing our cities to evolve
into an urban form that is best suited for the unique geography and support the main social
and economic activities that take place in the city.

e) Objectives of Transport Policy

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The objective of transport policy is to ensure safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable
and sustainable access for the growing number of city residents to jobs, education,
recreation and other needs within the city. This is to be achieved by:

(1) Incorporating urban transportation as an important parameter at the


planning stage
(2) Encouraging integrated land use and transport planning so that travel
distances are minimized.
(3) Bringing about an equitable allocation of road space with people and
vehicles, as its main focus
(4) Investing in transport systems that encourage greater use of public
transport and non-motorized vehicles rather than personalized motor
vehicles
(5) Establishing regulatory mechanism to allow a level playing field for all
operators of transport services
(6) Introducing Intelligent Transport System for traffic management and
increasing effectiveness of regulatory and enforcement mechanisms
(7) Addressing concern for road safety and reducing pollution levels through
changes in travelling practices, better enforcement, stricter norms,
technological improvements etc.
(8) Promoting use of cleaner technologies
(9) Associating private sector in activities where their strengths can be
tapped beneficially

Thus, the responsibility for management of urban areas and urban transport rests with the
State Government. The transport policies to be formulated being compliant with the National
Urban Transport Policy (NUTP).

f) Realizing Policy Objectives

The objectives of the transport policy should be achieved through multi-pronged approach.
This can be achieved by:

(1) Integrating land use and transport planning


(2) Equitable allocation of road space
(3) Priority to use of public transport
(4) Priority to non-motorized transport
(5) Discouraging use of personalized motor vehicles
(6) Providing parking facilities
(7) Providing facilities for freight traffic
(8) Coordinating planning and management of city transport
(9) Using cleaner technologies
(10) Innovative financing mechanism using land as a resource
(11) Association of private sector
(12) Creating public awareness and co-operation
g) Integrating Land use and Transport Planning

The transport system of the city depends on population, area, urban form, topography,
economic activities, income levels, growth constraints etc. Transport planning is intrinsically
linked to land use planning and both need to be developed together to serve the entire
population and minimize travel needs. Due attention need to be paid to channel the future

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growth of the city around pre-planned network rather than developing a transport system
after uncontrolled growth. Hence, transport plans should enable the city to take an urban
form that best suits the geographical constraints of its location. It is therefore imperative to
promote development of integrated land use transport plans. Thus, MUDA in association with
MCC and other transport authorities should set up a “TRANSPORT AUTHORITY”, which would
exclusively look after the transport requirements of the city. The authority shall develop the
land use and transport planning parameters.

To this effect, assistance up to 50% would be provided by the central government. Hence, the
city should be encouraged to identify potential corridors for future development and then
establish a transport system that would encourage growth around itself. Radial corridors
emerging from the city and extending up to 20 – 30 Km count be reserved for future
development. To this effect, MUDA has initiated action by constructing Outer Ring Road
(ORR) on the periphery of Mysore city, which is about 6 Km (avg.) from the city centre. In the
next few years, the areas around ORR would develop and transport authorities can plan to
provide services to these areas. It is however very essential for MUDA to ensure that these
areas are protected from encroachment by putting up physical barriers.

Central Government provides partial financial support for traffic and transport studies in such
cities. Mysore can utilize the facilities under this scheme of central government so that broad
based studies could be undertaken to integrate transport planning with land use planning,
keeping projected populations in mind.

h) Commercial Developments

The city has been witnessing a spate of commercial developments. This has resulted in
generation of high volume of traffic, especially during peak hours. Access from and to these
commercial establishments is creating traffic snarls with impact on other traffic. It is
important that the local administration viz., MCC & MUDA take an active role while
sanctioning construction of commercial establishments.

i) Traffic Demand Management Measures

It is a known fact that with the growth in economy people tend to become more affluent
resulting in an increase in ownership of personalized vehicles. To cope with the increase in
personalized vehicle, efforts should be made by the concerned local administration to
improve the road infrastructure facility. This is the general tendency witnessed in almost all
cities in India and Mysore is no exception to this rule. The growth in the vehicular population
outstrips the advantage from the improved infrastructure. Hence, it is very essential and
critical to limit the number of vehicles on roads. The only prerogative to achieve this is to
improve the public transport system thereby attracting more people to use the services.

j) Parking

Land is a valuable asset in urban areas. Parking lots occupy large portion of such land. Hence,
such land should be recognized in determining the principles for allocation of parking space.
As the number of vehicles in the city explode, the demand for parking lots increases resulting
in utilisation of available spaces meant for other road users as well as creating a demand for
all available open spaces to be turned into parking lots. This trend has already begun in most
of the cities in our country.

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There is an urgent need to formulate policy for parking. Rather than having a reactive
parking policy which constantly changes with ever increasing number of vehicles, the policy
should aim at reduction in the need for parking.

k) Formulation of Parking Policy

The following guidelines are recommended for creating a comprehensive parking policy for
Mysore City.

(1) Limit availability of parking space and levy high parking fee in order to
curb the use of personalized vehicles.
(2) Preference in allocation of parking space for public transport vehicles
(3) Introduction of graded scale of parking fee that covers the economic cost
of land used in such parking lots; this would help in persuading people to
use public transport to reach city centres and restrict the use of
personalized vehicles to city centres
(4) Multi-level parking complexes should be made mandatory in city centres
that have high-rise commercial complexes.
(5) Parking complexes should come up with PPP so as to limit the impact on
public budget.
(6) Parking complexes should also go in for electronic metering so that there
is better realization of parking fee.
(7) Provisions should be made by appropriate legislation to prevent use of
ROW on road systems for parking purposes.

When large share of trips are met by public transport system, the IPT modes become
important to fill the gaps left by public transport. No space is earmarked for parking of these
modes resulting in parking of these vehicles on roads creating major obstruction to traffic.
Hence, necessary measures should be taken to ensure that sufficient space is allocated to the
IPT mode, especially at railway stations and bus terminals.

l) Freight Traffic

With the city’s expansion and population growth, substantial amount of freight traffic would
be generated. The timely and smooth movement of freight is crucial for the economic
activities undertaken by the residents of the city. With limited road capacity available, it is
essential that passenger and freight traffic are so staggered to make optimum use of
transport infrastructure. Thus the off-peak passenger travel time can be used for freight
movement. The entry of HTV should be banned during daytime. Already a truck terminal has
been constructed on Ooty Road near RMC yard. On completion of the ORR, arrangements
should be made to construct more terminals along the ORR so that the entry of freight traffic
to the city can be minimised.

3. Modal Shift to more efficient and less polluting forms of Public


Transport
a) Priority to Public Transport Services

Public transport generally occupies less road space and causes less pollution per passenger-
km than personalized vehicles. Public transport is a more sustainable form of transport.
Hence, local authorities should promote investments in public transport and make its use
more attractive than personalized vehicles. Towards this end, the central government also

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encourages each city with a population of more than 4 million to plan for Mass Transit System
that would best suit the city requirements in the next 20 to 30 years.

b) Technologies for Public Transport

There is a wide spectrum of public transport technologies. High capacity, high cost
technologies like metro systems and low capacity bus systems running on shared ROW are the
two extreme options available as of now. Within these two extremes, there is a range of
intermediate possibilities like buses on dedicated ROW, elevated sky bus, monorail, Electrical
Trolley buses etc.

Improvement to existing bus system in the city is achieved by:

(1) Improving / enhancing the current fleet. This means more buses and
better-maintained buses, well-maintained bus terminals.
(2) Providing better training and management to staff so as to improve their
ability and morale
(3) Introducing hierarchical system, which consists of buses with different
levels like express buses, peak hour service buses (akin to the system
prevailing in Bangalore), limited stops buses.
(4) The improvement to bus fleet will improve commute time, comfort and
reliability for current users. This will reduce the pollution risk to
commuters and non-commuters. Hence, these measures must be
undertaken immediately.

c) Use of Cleaner Technology

Petroleum based fuels are the most commonly used products for vehicular traffic. New Delhi
has adopted CNG while some other cities have also switched over to CNG. However, the
pollution level at Mysore has still not reached alarming proportion. “Prevention is better than
cure” is the famous adage and the same principle can be applied to Mysore in the current
scenario.

Rather than taking action after sufficient damage is done to the environment, it is always
better to take preventive measures before the situation goes out of control. Towards this
effect, cleaner technologies need to be encouraged so that the problem of vehicular
pollution can be more effectively tackled. Thus, the public transport system in Mysore should
be augmented in the right earnest so that the usage of personalized vehicles can be
minimized.

4. Provision and encouragement of non-motorized transport


a) Priority to Non-Motorized Transport

Non-motorized transport has lost its importance due to the increasing sprawl and rising
income levels. It is seen that the share of bicycles on an average in Mysore is about 11%
(average) of the total volume of traffic. Longer trip lengths and sharing of a common ROW
with motorized vehicles have made the usage of bicycles more risky and difficult. However,
the non-motorized vehicles are environment friendly and have to be given their due share in
the transport system of Mysore city

b) Discourage use of Personalized Vehicles

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The measures to be taken to discourage use of personalized vehicles should go hand in hand
with the measures that seek to encourage use of public transport. Towards this end, the
State Government / MCC / MUDA should encourage people to use public transport or non-
motorized transport (for shorter trip lengths) and limit the use of personalized vehicles.

This could be achieved by:

(1) Providing efficient and effective public transport services covering all the
areas and localities of the city
(2) Improving road infrastructure like widening roads, strengthening the
pavements
(3) Providing facilities at bus terminals and bus stops which would encourage
more usage of public transport system
(4) Reducing the waiting time for public transport

B-5. Worldwide experience of Real Time Passenger Information


Systems

B-5.1. International Literature survey of ITS studies and benefits

Various studies taken up internationally and researched on the Internet indicate the broad set
of benefits that ITS was able to realize. These studies relate to ‘before’ and ‘after’ the
project implementation. These are captured in a summary form in the following list:

Blacksburg Transit March (1998) 7Chap.pdf

• Rescheduling
• Efficiency and utilization

98 B-Line bus Rapid Transit Evaluation Study (Sep 2003)

• Travel time savings (~by 20%) compared to previous services


• Modal Shift 23%
• Reduce travel time variability
• Reduction in 8 Million personal Vehicle Kilometers
• Reduction in Vehicle hours 25%
• Benefits estimated to be 30% higher than costs

Wisconsin community (1999)

• Different Perceptions of Commuters and their weights (page 9)


• Users Perceive that waiting time is 2.62 more valuable than travel times
• Wait Times sensitive to Benefits
• Benefits of Modal over a period
• Weighted importance index of various features – riders’ perceptions {The most important
ranking is scored 1 and the least important ranking is scored 5}
Table 16: Feature index for commuters
Weighted
Variable Importance
score
Bus is on-time 1.48

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Weighted
Variable Importance
score
Real time information 1.55
Low fares 1.62
Replacement on breakdown 1.66
Emergency response 1.68
Exact Delay time 1.78
Availability of seat 1.91
Latest Technology 2.01
Display Next stop 2.39
Calling out stop 2.82

Passenger Wait Time Perceptions at Bus Stops (Chicago)

• Quantification of Perception of Wait times


• Statistically significant between Perceptions and Actual Wait times
• Eliminate the Exaggerated perception of Wait times

Regional Bus Study (Washington (Sept 2003)

• Scheduled Arrival 49%


• Signage of Arrival 9%
• Non Riders - Better Information of Services
• Non Riders - Allured by Premium Service Buses for Modal Shift

Transport Cooperative Research Program Washington 2003 Chapter 5

• Passenger Valued arrival Information at 31 Cents


• 90% passengers at least once looked at the Display
• 65% felt that they have waited for less time
• Real-time information at locations where key travel decisions are made (e.g., office
buildings) would be used and considered useful by a majority of transit passengers.
• people travelling late at night now have the confidence that a bus is not far away
• Value of Display as very high 4.5 on 5 point scale
• Display by itself is not likely to increase Overall satisfaction
• Use of the bus services more often from modal shift toward public transportation
• Increase in ridership and revenue
• Lessons learned
o Finding an appropriate system could be tailored to the agency’s operational needs and
future requirements
o Testing and implementation issues including institutional and organizational issues such
as:
 getting power to the bus shelter for the electronic signs,
 adequate communication coverage in the service area for communicating AVL data
and related data to real-time bus arrival signs,
 reliability and stability of the underlying AVL data, prediction algorithm, system
hardware and control centre software,
 Installation on on-board equipment (where on-board the equipment should be
placed),

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 predicting how the system would function if more buses and signs were added,
 changes in project scope owning to a variety of circumstances,
 moving buses through the installation phase,
 system customization,
 providing adequate number of buses for the pilot phase,
 training needs,
 funding the project at the right times,
 maintenance issues

Real time at-stop information is probably the one, which best meets user expectations. At-
stop displays usually display waiting times. Also, the location of the arriving vehicle can be
shown. The knowledge of waiting time greatly improves the conditions of the trip in two main
ways: (i) by removing uncertainty (When will the bus arrive & has the bus already passed) (ii)
by minimising waiting time (passenger is enabled to do shopping, etc).

B-5.2. Review of information services

Most of the at-stop displays surveyed here were bus stop displays. In addition, there were
some metro platform and train station display systems surveyed, but the conclusions mostly
concentrate on bus stop displays.

Existing at-stop displays provide real-time information on the arrival of the next vehicles. The
content of the given information is usually the same: route number, destination of the
arriving vehicle and waiting time. Some displays show the location of the arriving vehicle on a
linear map. About half the systems give information on service disruptions. The Metro
platform displays in Helsinki give information about the vehicle: they use a symbol to display
the length of the train. The most common additional information is current time, some
displays can give free text messages.

1. Review of ergonomic aspects

Almost all the bus stop displays are situated in the direction of the arriving vehicle. In those
cases the vertical position of displays varies between 170 and 250 cm above ground. The
vertical position is limited by the height of the bus shelter.

The way to give the same information (on waiting time) varies among systems. Most bus stop
displays show the next 1 - 5 lines / vehicles at a time one below the other. The number of
lines shown can be varied: the bottom row can scroll or all text can scroll on the display. On
some displays the route number is static information and so all the lines passing a certain
stop are displayed continuously. VIDEOBUS in Le Havre, France, has a diagrammatic
representation: the waiting time can be seen in the same screen as the progress of the
arriving bus.

The use of LED and LCD displays is about the same. The height of text in the different
systems varies from 2.9 to 7.5 cm. Font type is usually undefined (though in some systems it
is arial.)

The needs of elderly and disabled people have been taken into account in about 25% of the
systems surveyed. The most common way of catering for the needs of elderly people is to
transform the text information into audio information. This can be done, for example, with
key fobs that have been issued to blind persons. With a key fob, audio messages giving the

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same information as the sign, can be activated. At some stops there is also a button that a
blind person can push to request information from the Control Centre by radio. Other
features used are larger letters and contrasting colours for the signs.

Two portable information devices for blind or partially-sighted people are currently under
test in the UK, which offer the potential for improving the specificity of information provision
in-trip for disabled or elderly people. One is the REACT way finder system, currently under
test at Golders Green Underground station, London. The user carries a small device that
triggers speech from a beacon when the user comes into range, and the system is automatic
and does not need to be activated by the user: it uses radio technology.

The second experimental system is Pathfinder, using infra-red technology. This requires the
user to point the device at the receiving beacon, and it then triggers a message to the user
through an earpiece. A trial of the Pathfinder system is currently being undertaken at
Hammersmith Underground and Bus Interchange, in London.

All the displays have been protected against vandalism somehow: with strong metal cases,
poly-carbonate fronts and anti-graffiti coatings.

2. Data technology

Data communication between the vehicles and the control centre is handled by radio in all
the systems on which the information was available, except in STOPWATCH (UK) where a
radio paging system is used. Data communication between the control centre and the signs
mostly uses radio, although pager, wire and telephone are also used. Vehicle positioning uses
beacons, GPS, DGPS, dead-reckoning, track circuits, odometer and different combinations of
these technologies.

B-5.3. Surveys and Experience

Surveys have been carried out, among other places, in Brussels, Glasgow, Birmingham,
London, Bologna and Paris. Feedback has also been received in other cities, and the overall
customer response has been very positive.

a) Surveys in Brussels show user satisfaction on PHOEBUS to be 90 %; the systems are


regarded as being very user-friendly, and display readability is felt to be excellent. The
Brussels experience is that the use of public transport on the lines equipped with
these displays has increased by 6 %.

b) In Glasgow (BUSTIME) user feedback in surveys has been extremely positive.


There is 98% acceptance, and 46% of users say that they would be encouraged
to use the bus service more often because of the system.

c) In Birmingham (CENTRO) household surveys asked what measures were


required to get people on to buses and out of cars. Real-time information on
PT was considered the best, more important than, say, improved bus shelters
or low floor vehicles. Passenger numbers have gone up 30 % after the
introduction of combination of measures on a demonstration route (including
CENTRO displays).

d) In London a pilot survey has been carried out on one COUNTDOWN route, and
gave very positive results. The main findings were that:

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(1) Waiting itself is more acceptable (89% of passengers)


(2) Passengers found that time seemed to pass more quickly when they knew
how long their wait would be (83% of passengers)
(3) Passengers perceive a shorter waiting time (65% felt this was so)
(4) The service is perceived as more reliable
(5) Of those passengers travelling, waiting at night is perceived as safer
(6) General feelings improve towards bus travel (68%), the particular operator
(54%) and London Transport (45%)
(7) 96% of passengers say that Countdown information is clear and easy to
see, and have no problem of any kind with the system
(8) About 70% of passengers refer to the display when they arrive at the stop,
and about 90% look at the sign while they wait. About 60% say they look at
the sign at least once a minute.
(9) Passengers approve of the 3 essential pieces of information provided
(route number, destination and waiting time). However, some base-line
messages sent out by Countdown controllers were not so well understood.
(10) There is strong overall customer support for the system
(11) Countdown has been found to generate a minimum of 1.5% new revenue.

e) A survey was also carried out on the Time-checker system in Liverpool (where
the system itself has been funded under the European THERMIE and DRIVE II
projects). The results, which were very positive, are as follows:
(1) The Time-checker system has led to a 5% increase in patronage on routes
where Time-checker had been installed.
(2) 68% of passengers use Time-checker consistently
(3) The system claims a 90% accuracy
(4) 85% of users believe that the use of Time-checker makes waiting more
acceptable
(5) 87% feel that Time-checker gives a feeling of reassurance
(6) 92% of respondents perceived real-time information to be either 'very
accurate' or 'accurate'
(7) 89% of respondents wanted to see an expansion in the provision of real-
time information, with electronic displays provided at all bus stops —
(8) 73% of respondents found that the availability of real-time information
enhanced their feeling of personal security when waiting for a bus after
dark.
(9) 71.5% of users believed that, in general, the SMART services improved
when the electronic displays were installed.
(10) 57% of respondents thought that the installation of real-time displays
resulted in decreased waiting times at bus stops.

f) In Espoo (Finland) a passenger survey has been carried out before and just
after the installation of the displays. Passengers' views on the system are
mainly positive and the system is more widely accepted after than before the
implementation. The main findings from the survey made soon after the
implementation are:
(1) 78 % of the passengers interviewed consider the system good or very good,
just 5 % are of opposite opinion. A total of 78 % support the expansion of
the system, 22 % object to it.
(2) The displays are already now used more than paper schedules. Fewer
people find out the departure time of the bus beforehand (compared with
the study made before implementation).

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(3) Critical feedback on the system was mainly focused on unreliable waiting
times shown on the displays. The result was expected at this stage,
because 90 % of the waiting times shown on displays are based on driving
times from 1995.
(4) 91 % of the passengers interviewed understood correctly the times shown
in display. The bus symbol was understood by 62 % of the passengers. The
square symbol was understood by 38 % of passengers. (There are posters at
the stops to explain the display characters.).

g) Other Experience

The general experience of the systems is that they work very well and are very useful and
successful. However the implementation stages of some systems have had difficulties. There
have been problems with installations and deliveries have been delayed.

Installation of COUNTDOWN (London) has been dependent on installation of AVL (Automatic


Vehicle Location), which has been delayed due to, e.g.

(1) Longer-than-anticipated integration of the various AVL system elements


(2) Bus fleet 'churn' (moving buses between depots)
(3) The change in scale required from project to programme working.
(4) The one major operational problem with the AVL system is bus drivers not
registering their vehicle onto the system properly. This is a major
challenge to the perceived accuracy of COUNTDOWN, with up to 15% of
vehicles not showing on the signs.
(5) Several developments are being considered to enhance Countdown: e.g.
(6) Linking the buses' radio to the Electronic Ticket Machine, to assist driver
logging-in
(7) Evaluating ISDN for landline communication to and from the stops
(8) Initiatives to allow third-party dissemination of Countdown information

h) In Southampton (STOPWATCH) there have been operational problems with


waiting time predictions, while in London (COUNTDOWN) the accuracy of
predictions is high: forecast errors in 1997 surveys were within + or - 30
seconds for 40% of the time. On average, over all predictions, 75% of the time
forecast errors are within + or - 2 minutes. On average 65% of 'clear downs'
from the stop display are within + or - 30 seconds of the bus being at the stop,
and 83% are within + or - 1 minute.

i) Mersey travel (the co-ordinating agency in Liverpool) found that with high
demand for radio channels from other users, obtaining suitable radio channels
to operate the system was one of the biggest barriers to implementation of
the Time checker system.

Whilst it is relatively easy to make changes to the database of timetables and running boards,
a major problem has been that with the system Time checker uses, each morning the bus
operator must enter the fleet number and running board for each bus into the system,
otherwise the system does not know what buses are on the route. It has not always been
possible to obtain the manpower to do this, so that at times this has had a detrimental effect
on the reliability of the system.

j) In Hong Kong (PIDS) the stop display system (in use on the Metro network) is
considered to enhance the safety of the underground environment by providing
information efficiently and to be an effective tool in assisting crowd control.

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k) In Gothenburg there is a lot of experience on at stop displays. The GoTiC


project has produced research reports on requirements and recommendations
for real-time displays and design of information about disturbances in public
transport. Some findings concerning the display type (GoTiC News 2/97,
Research report of GoTiC project: Recommendations for real-time information
on monitors and displays, 1995):
(1) LED technology is especially well suited for locations where shelter roofs
shield the displays from excessive sunlight. LCD technology provides good
legibility, even in sunlight.
(2) Binotype, a special binary typeface, has been developed to make message
texts on binary interfaces (LED; LCD, bi-stable) as legible as possible. In
the study the majority were of the opinion that the sign with red text on a
black background was easiest to read. In order for a LED display in a
shelter to function properly as a carrier of real time information, it must
be able to display at least four lines of 35 characters per line.
(3) An advantage of the monitor is that it has space to provide a good
overview of available alternatives of the various lines passing the stop.
The disadvantage is that the monitors are very light-sensitive. Outdoor
monitors for real time information should be avoided.

Users of monitors may have problems related to readability and outdoor positioning. Finnish
Railways and display supplier have found a new solution to replace monitors with displays
with a developed LCD technique. They are easy to place (the depth of the device is only 10-
20 cm) and the readability is much better than with monitors in a daylight. They are also
cheaper than outdoors monitors. Experience on use is however not yet available.

l) Similar Project executed in Rome.

The ITS Project in Mysore is modelled on many similar projects in operation world wide.
Mysore project can be linked to its similarity to the ITS Solution for public transport in Rome.

The latest system for Public Transport management implemented in the city of Rome is called
the ‘Automatic vehicle monitoring’. This system serves the fundamental tool for managing all
the processes in Public Transport Service, planning, control, passenger information and
production control.

The components of the System Architecture are the on board system, the depot system,
electronic display system, communication system and central control system. All the data &
information collected by the system can be used to support the different stages of the
Service supply chain:

Planning

 Estimated route journey time Vs real route journey time.

Monitoring

 Real time mapping of buses on routes & information on the status of the vehicle.
 Real time information on vehicle’s Service details, location, speed etc
 Real time information on bus stop details such as missed bus stops.
 Passenger Information System

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 Real time location of the buses with respect to bus stops and delays estimated on the
arrival time at bus stops.

Control room functions

 Linear representation of bus routes and bus stop details


 Visualization at the control center of the information delivered on the electronic
displays
 Automatic record and reporting of data for operation and management personnel

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C: Intelligent Transport System


C-1. Solution framework

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) is an umbrella term for advanced automation in moving
vehicles. It includes internal and vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems as well as
collision avoidance and crash detection systems. ITS also covers systems that monitor traffic
in order to control signal lights, electronic speed limit signs, reversible lanes and other
highway safety components. One of the ultimate and futuristic manifestations of ITS is
automatic vehicular guidance, which steers a car by sensors in the road.

Figure 7: ITS solution overview

C-1.1. Use of AVL to Improve Public Transport Service, Operations and


Management

The intended use of the AVL system is to improve the quality of passenger information and to
assist staff in performing better route supervision and control to assure bus schedule
adherence. Another important use of such systems is to develop a data warehouse to support
a number of operating and strategic decisions for the transit system.

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1. Using Vehicle Location Data 1

The solution proposes use of IT tools which can

a) Assess the frequency distribution of actual transit travel times produced by


the AVL system and provide guidance on establishing running times for use in
preparing passenger, vehicle and crew schedules,

b) Enable transit operators to visualize graphically patterns poor on-time


performance in order to take corrective actions

c) Enable the measurement of between day arrival time of trips at specific time
points to determine the reliability of service from a customer perspective and
address problem locations

d) Perform an analysis of end of line layovers to determine their role in on-time


terminal departures – a key determinant of on-time performance along a
route.

Given the long headways of most routes in Indore, schedule adherence is very important
since it greatly affects customer waiting time. While this is a clear issue for late buses, if
buses occasionally run early, customers either miss their bus and wait for the following one or
compensate for this over time by arriving earlier at the stop.

2. Running Time

The development of tools will assist transit managers in establishing scheduled running times.
These times are essential for proper transit management and operation. Running times which
are in excess of what is required to maintain schedules result in higher than necessary
operating costs. Excessively tight running times, on the other hand, result in late arrivals at
time-points and reduced capacity. Inadequate times also cause delays in terminal departures
on subsequent trips, a key factor in late arrivals at successive stops. By using actual running
time data derived from the AVL system, transit managers can obtain the information
necessary to establish proper running times, balancing the requirements for operating
efficiency and requirement for sufficient layover time for schedule recovery and operator
breaks.

By using fairly simple statistical analyses, transit analysts would also be able to trade off
efficiency with reliability by developing a curve showing the probability of subsequent on-
time terminal departures as a function of the scheduled running time. For example, to assure
that 99% of buses complete their trips prior to the scheduled departure time for the next trip
may require far more buses than if this standard is relaxed to 95%. This is a case requiring
considerable management judgment and experience.

3. Reliability Assessment

Reliability may be viewed as consistency of on time performance across days. Since most
transit commuters take the same bus each day, reliability greatly influences customer wait
time. Over time, arriving customers adapt to the historic bus arrival pattern. Service which
wildly fluctuates over time (including early stop departures) causes customers to adapt by

1
These tools would help implement a body of research developed as part of TCRP Project 113 – Using
Archived AVL-APC Data to Improve Transit Performance and Management.

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arriving sufficiently early at stops to assure with some high probability that the bus is not
missed. Essentially, this is a risk management decision in which the commuter implicitly
trades off the certainty of a higher wait time by early arrival against the possible wait time
to the next bus in the schedule. Recent research has developed methods to estimate the
wait time premium associated with poor reliability.

Appropriate tools need to be developed / deployed to measure deviations from published


schedule for a particular time point to permit at least the identification of problematic route
segments and time periods so strategies to fix the problems can be developed.

4. Terminal Departure and Layover Analysis

A large proportion of the total “late minutes” along the trajectory of a trip are due to late
departure from the terminal – poor vehicle dispatching. This suggests that a good amount of
the “lateness” can be controlled by better on-time departures from terminals. This is a
matter of both supervisory discipline as well as assuring that arriving trips have sufficient
schedule time to enable an on time departure on the subsequent trip.

Two tools will facilitate this. The first is a histogram of the difference between scheduled
and actual departure times for trips from specific terminals stops. Ideally, this should be
zero for all trips. The second is the development a layover analysis tool to determine if poor
on-time performance is the result of schedule deficiencies (insufficient running time) or
problems of schedule discipline at terminals which can be controlled by better on-street
supervision.

5. Traffic Signal priority

Though not proposed for implementation by KSRTC, but which could be considered by the
Mysore City Corporation for which World Bank assistance could be available include the
following:

a) Introduction of sidewalks/bicycle paths on arterial streets: At present, a


good amount of general traffic capacity is used by pedestrians, bicyclists and
people who haul carts since there is no dedicated, safe place to walk on the
side of the road. This problem is exacerbated by several individuals and
businesses which appear to encroach on the road right-of-way.
b) Improved police training and enforcement: Mission observed that it will be
useful to train the police so that they could take specific action to improve
public transport efficiency and performance.
c) Targeted traffic improvements on critical links: Spot improvements in
critical areas such as queue jumps with signal priority for departing buses are
warranted. They should be planned and implemented if the AVL system is to
produce its full measure of environmental and other benefits.
6. Overall Scope of Service

The overall scope of the implementation will consist of design, development, testing,
installation, commissioning, training, operations, and management of facilities for a period of
three years by the winning bidder.

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This project is planned to cover 500 Buses, 80 Bus Stops and 2 Bus Terminals. ITS is divided
into the following eight components:

a) Vehicle Tracking System

b) Central Control Station


c) Passenger Information Management System

d) Communication Sub System

e) Travel Demand Management


f) Incident and Emergency Management System

g) Operational and Maintenance Specification Fleet Management System

C-1.2. New scenario with the induction of technology

Figure 8: Bus Stop after introduction of ITS

Figure 9: Central Bus Terminal after introduction of ITS

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Figure 10: Regulated traffic after implementation of ITS

C-2. Technical specifications

C-2.1. Mapping product availability and their technical features with


the functional requirements

This project is planned to cover 500 Buses, 80 Bus Stops and 2 Bus Terminals. ITS is divided
into the following eight components:

1. Vehicle Tracking System


2. Central Control Station
3. Passenger Information Management System
4. Communication Sub System
5. Travel Demand Management
6. Incident and Emergency Management System
7. Operational and Maintenance Specification Fleet Management System

C-2.2. Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) & Tracking System


GSM / GPRS Specifications
Table 17: GSM/GPRS specifications
1 GSM Normal MS-SMS data
2 Frequency 900/1800/1900 (dual band) Class 4 (2W) at 900 MHz (EGSM)
Class 1 (1W) at 1800 MHz
3 GPRS Type B class 10
4 SIM 1.8V/3V
5 Antenna Built in Antenna

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GPS Specifications
Table 18: GPS specifications
1 Frequency L1 (1575.42 MHz) frequency
2 C/A code Standard Positioning Service
3 Channels Minimum 16-Channels
4 Sensitivity Minimum –158 dBm Acquisition without external
assistance
5 Accuracy Horizontal: <6 meters (50%)
Altitude: <11 meters (50%)
Velocity: 0.06 m/sec
6 Antenna Built In active antenna

Environmental Specifications
Table 19: Environmental specifications
1 Temperature Operating -20°C to +70°C
2 Humidity 5% to 95% RH non-condensing at +40°C
3 Enclosure UL fire retardant enclosure
4 Vibration to meet SAE standards
5 Shock to meet SAE standards

Physical Specifications
1. Assembly : Injection molded plastic with integrated battery pack

Electrical Characteristics
1. Primary Power : Vehicle Battery 12/24 volts
2. Battery Life : 8 Hours normal operation

Firmware:

1. Over the Air Download of firmware as well as configuration parameters


2. Store and Forward features for network dark zone

The high-level logical architecture of the solution is described below. Some of the key
services that have been included are:
1. Application Services
2. GPS/GSM Services
3. GIS Services
4. Reporting services
5. Database Services
6. Archival Services
7. Streaming Services
8. Integration Services

The following diagram denotes various logical components, which synthesized together will
perform the task of servicing the requirements of ITS.

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Figure 11: Logical components of ITS

The proposed architecture comprises of following broad technology components:

Client Layer- The Client layer contains the devices that would interact with application
layer.

Browser – This is a traditional Internet browser that initiates requests to the Web Server and
displays the results of requests. Users will be accessing the applications using Internet
browsers.

DMZ Zone Layer - This is the layer hosting the Load balancer, front-end Web Servers &
Presentation Services.

Load Balancer – This is the hardware/software load balancer that ensures that load is
distributed evenly across all of the web server instances.
Web Server - This is a traditional web server that serves the content or forwards requests to
the Application Server. Web Server takes the request and recognizes that the requested
resource is on the application server and, using the Web server plug-in, redirects the
request to the Application Server Serve let and EJB container.

Directory Services – The Directory services will be provided through Directory Server.
Directory Server will hold the user credentials for all users including the internal authors &
content publishers.

Content Management - Content Manager manages all types of digitized content including
HTML and XML Web content, document images, electronic office documents, printed
output, audio and video. It supports replication to store and manage objects in multiple
locations. It supports Linux and other Operating Systems. This will be used to store the
audio/video content for streaming advertisements in buses/bus terminals/bus depots for

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KSRTC Mysore. A simple level sequential workflow can be set up for approval of the data to
be streamed.

Streaming Services – These would be the streaming servers, which will help stream the data
stored in the content repository.
Integration Services - The application integration services will provide a composite platform
optimized for building service-oriented applications that extend and integrate the various
applications like GPS, GIS, and PIS.
Backup & Restore of Data: The infrastructure will use structured backup & restore solution
to provide resilience to the entire infrastructure. It is a Web-based management, intelligent
data move-and-store techniques and comprehensive policy-based automation working
together to help increase data protection and potentially decrease time and administration
costs. It operates on a progressive incremental methodology that backs up only new or
changed versions of files, thereby greatly reducing data redundancy, network bandwidth
and storage pool consumption as compared to traditional methodologies based on periodic
full backups.

Schematic Model

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Figure 12: ITS - Schematic model

The above diagram illustrates possible component population.

C-2.3. Features of Proposed Solution (CCS)


Standards based solution

Can be installed on multiple operating systems


Support latest J2EE Standards

Unified Portal Framework

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The proposed architecture provides access to different functional components and


different applications via single unified portal framework.

Provides componentized solutions that are designed for scalability and future growth

Secure and reliable


Using LDAP, the security is provided at the infrastructure layer, application layer and at
the user authentication layer

It also provides controlled access to portal based on privileges stored in LDAP.


Web and Application servers can run on Linux which is an open-source and offers security
features same as standard Linux platform

Server Room A/c Plant

A/c
12 Feet

Communication Servers Distribution Bay


Door I/F

Work Stations
Access Control Printer

28 Feet
UPS

A/c
Power
Sup

Figure 13: Floor plan for Central Control Station - ITS Mysore
Servers and Accessories in CTCS

Table 20: Servers and accessories


Edge Server 2 nos
Web Server 2 nos
Database Servers 2 nos
Application Server 2 nos
Directory Server 1 no
GSM/GPRS Server 1 no
Reporting Server 1 no
Integration Server 1 no
Streaming Server 1 no
GIS Server 1 no
SAN Array – 2 Tb 1 no
Storage Manager Server 2 nos

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Total no of Boxes 17 Nos

Power Supply for Data Centre


o UPS Configuration 2 x 10 KVA
o Parallel redundant based advanced digital technology
o UPS system with 0.9 leading power factor loads with 15 Minutes backup.
LCD Display Units

Brief details of LCD


Display unit is
furnished below
(LCD Display Panel-
42” Typical)

A 42” LCD Display


unit can be installed
for displaying details
of Arrival and
Departure
information of the
buses in Kannada and
English. The
information of the Figure 14: Display panel
buses Such as Route
Number, Bus Number, Terminal, Platform, Bay, Origin, Destination and Estimated Time of
Arrival (ETA) & Estimated Time of Departure (ETD) will be displayed in both Kannada and
English. The LCD unit operates in windows environment. The LCD units should be network
capable with capability to configure the system remotely. LED based GPS enabled destination
board can be fitted in the bus to inform the destination of the bus to the enroute waiting
passengers. The size of the destination board can be 160 x 19 mm.

Specifications for LED Display Units


1. Display Type : LED, 5mm; diffused
2. Color : RED or AMBER
3. View Distance : 30 Meters
4. Language : English & Local Language
Functional Specifications
1. Protocol : HTTP
2. Wireless Interface : GPRS
3. Data Format : Bit Map or Unicode
4. Memory : Non Volatile to store 200 Display Frames
5. Display Format : Fixed and Scrolling
GPRS Interface
1. Type : GSM & GPRS Class 10
2. Air Interface : Dual Band; 900 MHz & 1800 MHz

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3. Max. Output Power : 2W @900 MHz & 1W @1800 MHz


4. Antenna : Passive with 5M cable length
Environmental Specifications
1. Power Requirement : 90-240VAC; 50VA
2. Operating Temperature : 0-55 DEG C
3. Humidity : 95 % RH non-Condensing
4. Enclosure : GI
5. Mounting : Wall or Ceiling
6. SIM CARD Holder : provided inside
Online Updates available on Internet

List of bus stops in city and urban areas


Number. of schedules

Vehicle positions of city services

Route maps of Buses


Bus timetable

Details of city and sub urban routes

Passenger Information regarding arrival times at bus stops


Destination in Multilingual format

C-2.4. Communication Sub-System


Communication sub-System consists of the following:

1. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

2. Communication and Data Exchange


3. Two-way Communication system

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

GPRS is a packet oriented Mobile Data Service available to users of Global System for Mobile
Communications (GSM) and IS-136 mobile phones. It provides data rates from 56 up to 114
Kbit/s.

GPRS can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Short
Message Service (SMS), Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet
communication services such as email and World Wide Web access. GPRS is a best-effort
packet switched service, as opposed to circuit switching, where a certain Quality of Service
(QoS) is guaranteed during the connection for non-mobile users

The information captured by the VMU is transmitted to the control station server through
GPRS/GSM network creating a communication network between Bus drivers, Bus stops along
the road route, and passengers through passenger information system. The communication
network is connected to the internet for accessing information regarding bus arrival, routes
etc.

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The requirements of the communication system are:

a) The data communication channel requires exchanging data between the KSRTC Control
Room and the bus fleet.

b) Communication of data will be reliable without any loss of data.

c) Each Base Transceiver Station (BTS) of offered service provider should have
configuration to ensure required 10 Sec. update time for the vehicle position at all times
in all BTS area.

d) Identify specific areas of existing GPRS/GSM blackout zones and Police critical locations
in Mysore and enhance number of BTS towers and their capacities, if required.

e) The GPRS/GSM data connectivity would be seamless while moving from one BTS site to
other BTS site in Mysore.

f) Redundancy provided in VMU to ensure if GPRS fails due to unforeseen reason and then
SMS facility is activated as a fall back mode.

g) 24*7*365 system operation would require proactive monitoring, fault detection and
management for reduced downtime and regular fine tuning of the communication links
for best response time

Communication and Data Exchange

Figure 15: Communication & Data Exchange

VMU:

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VMU will update the location information like Latitude and Longitude to the central server
through GPRS.

In Bus Display System

The next arrival bus stop information and the current bus stop information will be displayed
inside the bus for the passengers based on the location information collected by VMU. This
information is sent via serial port to display system. The proposed approximate dimension of
the In-Vehicle Display Unit is 220mm X 820mm X 150mm

Driver Voice Communication

Driver will be given a keypad interface for the voice communication.

In Bus Voice System


The next arrival bus stop information and other necessary information can be announced
inside the bus. The data for the announcement will be sent from VMU to Voice system
through serial port. This in bus voice system will be in turn connected to a speaker.
Bus Stop LED display

Expected time of arrival of the bus will be displayed in the bus stops. This information will
be updated by central server through GPRS.
Two-way Communication system

Communication Headset will be provided to the driver to interact with Central Control
Center. The driver will use the two-way communication facility made available to
communicate with the central control center. The central control center can also contact
any of bus drivers instantly to communicate messages. The driver can also use the audio
system for announcing information regarding arrival of bus stations and incident
management.

Display System Standards Requirements

Each of the Bus Stops will be fitted with electronic display systems measuring
approximately 20 x 100 cms (minimum size)

Fitment provision will have to be provided in the Bus Stops along with necessary power
supply made available. The Display Unit will source power from here for its operation.
Display will be located at a convenient height to have a clear view of the message of next
arrival bus.

C-2.5. Integration of ITS Components

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The following components of the ITS system will be integrated with appropriate interfaces
to work in sync with each other seamlessly.

Figure 16: sub-system communication link

1. GPS (VMU unit)


a) The tracking system /VMU (Vehicle mounted unit) fitted in the buses will
calculate the positions from the GPS receiver and transfer the data to the
Control Centre Server through GPRS interface for processing /prediction of
arrival time of buses at different bus stops. The GPRS tracking unit fitted in
the bus will also transfer the current LON/LAT data to the bus mounted
display unit through RS 232 I/F for display /audio announcement of Bus Stops.
2. Display units
a) The Tracking system fitted in the buses will acquire the positional information
(LON/LAT) from the GPS receiver and transfer the same to the Central Server
(CS) through the GPRS interface.

b) The BUS STOP DISPLAYS will periodically query the CS through HTTP request.

c) The CS, which receives the current position of all the buses from the Tracking
Unit, will disseminate the data received and transfer the relevant information
like the Route No, Destination of the bus and the Expected Time of Arrival at
that bus stop, to the bus stop display, which has requested for the data.
d) The BUS STOP DISPLAY, which receives all such information, will display
continuously until the next set of data is received.

e) The Destination will be displayed in different languages at least in two


languages i.e. English, and Kannada.

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f) The tracking units fitted in the bus will also transfer the current LON& LAT
information to the BUS MOUNTED DISPLAY through the serial RS 232 C
interface.

g) Each BUS Mounted Display will have a database of 100 bus routes and 200 bus
stops. This information would be acquired earlier and stored in the database.

h) When this unit receives the current positional information from the tracking
unit, it will then check with the nearest bus stop and displays the name of the
bus stop, which is likely to arrive. This displayed information will be in English
and Kannada.

i) This unit will also have an inbuilt audio port with amplifier and connected to
two powerful speakers mounted in the front and rear of the bus.

j) Along with the visual display, the next bus stop will also be announced in
English and Kannada.
k) The BUS TERMINAL DISPLAYS, unlike the BUS STOP Displays will be connected
through wired cable with the CS.

l) The communication will use TCP/IP and HTTP protocol.


m) This display will receive the details of the buses, which are about to leave the
Bus terminal and display the Route Number, Destination and the Expected
Time of Arrival and Departure.
n) There will be at least four lines to indicate the status of different buses
leaving the terminal.

o) The destination will be displayed in English and Kannada one after the other.
3. Central Control Station
a) The Central Control station will be equipped with a cluster of servers. Servers
process the data received from buses and compares the actual location of the
bus at a given time with its scheduled location from the data received from
the buses. Also the server calculates the time for the bus to reach all
subsequent stops along the route taking into consideration bus speed & any
deviations from the schedule. On processing, the Central Control Server
transmits the data to the relevant bus stops for displaying predicted arrival
time of the bus.

b) The users (Passengers, Drivers, Depot Officials, and KSRTC Mysore Employees)
visit the site from the internet and land on the front-end web server running
HTTP Server which takes the request and recognizes that the requested
resource is on the application server, and using the Web server plug-in,
redirects the request to the Application Server.
c) The Directory services running Directory Server holds the user credentials for
all users. The authentication and authorization is done using the LDAP server
for all services, like Website access, content publishing, content management
access, database access etc.

d) The Application Server will host all the applications to be developed for KSRTC
Mysore like Passenger Information System, Reporting applications etc.

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e) The GPS and GIS system will be integrated so as to pass the inputs from the
GPS system into the GIS application which will be accessed via website by the
passengers to see the bus route maps etc.

f) The VMU will fetch the bus position data from the GPS satellite and sends it to
the central server. The application software will process and integrate with
GIS data to display it on the map on a real time basis

g) There will be third-party streaming servers used to stream advertisements


onto the buses/bus stops etc. The ad files will be stored in the content
management system.

h) There will be local databases at the bus stops/terminals, which will be


synchronized.

i) The Backup & Restore service will be provided using Storage Manager.

C-2.6. Sample Reports


1. Daily Reports
Table 21: Sample Daily report
1 Bus stops skipped
2 Speed violation
3 Driver duty performance daily/weekly/monthly
4 Daily out shedding deviation report
5 Driver wise improper stopping
6 Details of Missed trips

2. Daily Bus Stops Skipped Report


Table 22: Sample Bus stops skipped report
Date Bus Stop Type :

Sr. No. Time Bus Route Bus Stop Stage Depot Driver Conductor
No No. No. Name Code ID. ID
Total stops
skipped

3. Daily Speed Violation Report


Table 23: Daily speed violation report
Date : Duration mare than …… seconds

Duty No: Bus registration No


Sr. No Time Route No Location Driver Duration Speed
No (Sec) (Kmh)
1
2
4. Daily Driver Duty Performance
Table 24: Daily Driver Duty Performance report
Date:
Sr. No Driver Name: Driver ID: MOR/EV Outshedded (Y/N) DUTY STATUS
1
2
5. Daily Out shedding deviation report

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Table 25: Daily out-shedding deviation report

Daily Out shedding deviation report

Date: Shift:

Sr. Duty Bus Reg. No. Scheduled Actual Deviation Reason


No. No. Outshed Time Outshed Time time(min)

6. Daily Improper Stopping Report


Table 26: Daily improper stopping report
Date:
Sr. No. Time Route Driver Driver Bus Reg. No Conductor Stage
No No Name No Name
1
2
7. Daily Missed Trips Report
Table 27: Daily Missed Trips report
Date : Misse Break Bus Staff Late Out Late Route Total
d Trips Down No No Shedding Running Deviation Missed Trips
Terminal
Terminal
Total
Grand Total

C-2.7. Scaling plans

Technology Road map with Mysore as a pilot across other cities for KSRTC

“Universal currency” – Smart Cards – ticketing – expanding to interact with its eco-system –
smart card usage for services in commercial stalls inside KSRTC bus stations / bus stops

C-3. Project Impact analysis

C-3.1. Environmental Impacts

The ITS Project proposed by KSRTC at Mysore does not include any major construction work,
widening of roads, felling of trees or other activities which contribute negative
environmental impacts such as air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, visual intrusion,
community severance and impacts on vegetation / land degradation by the implementation
of the ITS Project.

In most cases, environmental benefits from a given project can only be estimated by analysis
and simulation. The problems related to regional measurement include the small impact of
individual projects and large numbers of exogenous variables including weather,
contributions from non-mobile sources and the time evolving nature of ozone pollution.
Small-scale studies, so far, generally show positive impacts for ITS on the environment. ITS

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will result smoother and more efficient flows in the traffic system. However, the
environmental impact of travelers in the long term is not a cause for concern.

With the implementation of ITS projects there will be only improvement in various
environmental parameters. In view of the above, there will be no need to undertake
mitigation measures to minimize negative impacts. Consequently detailed EIA/EMP, SIA and
RAP have not be carried out as they are not applicable for this project.

C-3.2. Social Impacts

On ITS component, no significant environmental impacts are envisaged. With several of its
facilities certified to ISO 14001, KSRTC is well positioned to manage the environmental issues
related to the bio-fuel component.

a) The implementation of the ITS Project has several social benefits as described
below:
(1) Safety improvements
(2) Delay reduction,
(3) Effective capacity improvements,
(4) Greater commuter satisfaction
(5) Energy and Environment-Positive and Negative Impacts:
(6) Use of public transport by people instead of using own private vehicles
(7) Reducing Travel Uncertainty
(8) Reliability and Punctuality
(9) Reduction in Traffic Congestion
b) Safety improvements

The objective of the transportation system is to improve seamless trip with safety of travel.
Crashes and fatalities are undesirable occurrence of the transportation system. Intelligent
Transportation System helps to minimize the risk of accident occurrence. Monitoring vehicle
speed and its location will reduce the number of crashes and the probability of controlling
number of fatality.

c) Delay Reduction

Delay reduction and travel time savings is a major goal of the ITS project. Benefits of this
measure also include reducing the variability of time in transit and increasing the reliability
of vehicle arrival time.

d) Effective Capacity Improvements

Many ITS services seek to optimize use of existing facilities and reducing the need for new
investments. This is accomplished by increasing the effective capacity of the transportation
system. Effective capacity is the maximum potential rate at which vehicles may traverse a
network under a representative composite of roadway conditions. Increases in throughput are
sometimes realizations of increases in effective capacity. Throughput is typically measured in
terms of vehicles per unit time traversing a segment of roadway.

e) Greater commuter satisfaction

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Commuter satisfaction indicates the degree to which transportation consumers are


accommodated by ITS service offerings. Although satisfaction is difficult to measure directly,
measures related to satisfaction can be observed including the amount of travel in various
modes, mode options, and the quality of service as well as the number of complaints and/or
compliments. Customer satisfaction is often measured by using surveys, questionnaires, or
focus group interviews.

f) Energy and Environment-Positive and Negative Impacts

The majority of available references demonstrate positive benefits for ITS. This is true both
for actual deployments and for analytical studies predicting future benefits. The number of
cases reporting negative results has been very small. However, most of the systems that
produce negative impacts are carried out primarily to obtain broader societal benefits, or
contain other benefits or intangible effects that may not be measurable. It is also recognized
that negative impacts of ITS project may be under-reported in the literature. Since ITS
project enables to reduce vehicle congestion on roads, the per capita energy consumption for
travel will be reduced and thereby reduction of vehicular pollution on city roads.

g) Use of public transport vs private vehicles

With the introduction of ITS Technology it has been made possible to provide real-time
passenger information to the traveling public inside buses, at bus stops and at bus terminals.
The information displayed informs the passengers about the details of the next arriving bus
stop, route no, destination expected time of arrival/departure, which brings in lot of comfort
to the traveling public. The ITS also helps in reducing travel time and reduction of congestion
of roads. This increases the confidence of public to reach their destination on-time and also
reduce travel uncertainty. Hence ITS will contribute for shifting people from using private
vehicles to public transport.

h) Reducing Travel Uncertainty

One of the interesting insights realized by transportation planners in recent years is to


provide greater reliability and predictability in transport, and not just to move people to
their destinations faster. An unfortunate aspect of most current transportation systems is
that the travel time varies widely from day to day. This can be due to weather, congestion,
traffic incidents, or a large number of other external factors. This uncertainty means that
travelers must allow extra time for their travel. ITS can help to reduce travel uncertainty by
smoothing traffic and informing exact arrival of vehicles. ITS can also provide improved real-
time and predictive information that allows travelers to plan their trips better. Public
transport agencies can stay on schedule better and provide information about travel times
and connections. In-vehicle navigation systems can incorporate real-time traffic information
to dynamically adjust driving routes to optimize trips based on current information

i) Reliability and punctuality

Intelligent Transport System (ITS) generates real time data about vehicle performance,
exceptional reports of MIS. These data are useful for the management to make informed
decisions which will in turn lead to better management of the existing fleet, transport
schedules and the number of trips and passengers carried. These management capabilities
will result in better reliability and punctuality of vehicle operation.

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j) Reduction in Traffic Congestion

Traffic congestion is a serious problem in all urban areas. The problem is growing faster in
developing countries where urbanization and the use of motorized vehicles are increasing
rapidly. Congestion causes delays and uncertainty, wastes fuel, results in greater air
pollution, and produces a larger number of crashes. ITS can help to mitigate congestion by
helping people plan travel better, by suggesting alternate routes and keeping travelers well
informed. Reduction in traffic congestion enhances mobility at lesser per capita fuel.

C-3.3. Measures by KSRTC for providing more efficient and less polluting
Public Transport:

The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) has 6,250 buses, of which 700 are
old vehicles. The old buses will be scrapped in a phased manner. The KSRTC will add 1,639
new buses to its fleet during the fiscal year 2007-08. Fifty of these buses will be Volvo B7R
vehicles. The age of buses in the KSRTC fleet by the end of 2007-08 will be between one and
five years.

The KSRTC has taken up a drive to improve passenger facilities in its bus stands. Tenders
have been floated in respect of 80 bus stops with provision for Passenger Information Display
Systems. KSRTC has initiated stringent measures to control air pollution. Every bus is
periodically subjected to emission check. KSRTC would pay Rs. 1,000 to anybody who spots
one of its buses emitting smoke from its exhaust pipe. The KSRTC was the first State
transport undertaking in the country to successfully experiment with the blending of ethanol
and other forms of bio-fuels with diesel. Further advance emission control system and
pollution measurement equipment will be installed at the terminals to constantly monitor
emission levels and take remedial steps to meet Norms for clean air.

By upgrading bus stops and implementing ITS, the efficiency of KSRTC will improve
substantially and more number of buses can be operated with better punctuality of arrivals
and departures of buses at terminals and bus stops. It will encourage more personalized
transport users to embrace public transport resulting in lesser number of vehicles on the road
and thereby lesser emissions.

C-3.4. Expected measurable outcomes of the project


1. Service Outcomes- Socio economic benefits

With the introduction of Intelligent Transport System in Mysore City, the following clear
factors would get established:

2. Increase in productivity

With intelligent display units inside the vehicle and at bus-stations / stands providing
information on bus schedules and estimated time of arrival, citizens enhance their productive
time without having to waste their time at bus stops / stands not knowing when the next bus
would be arriving.

3. Reduction in travel time

With well established communication lines between the vehicle, central command control
centre (64) and the bus stations, the C4 will be able to redirect the vehicles in the event of

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any emergencies Enroute saving the property of KSRTC (in such events riots Enroute) and
help to reach the destination in pre-determined time. When Traffic Management System gets
implemented across the city, these vehicles would get to have information on the traffic
density and probable courses of action to reach the destination in time.

4. Patronage of Public Transport System

The introduction of ITS will result in more efficient and cleaner transport management, real-
time dissemination of information to passengers regarding bus services at bus stops, bus
terminals and inside Buses. This will enhance reliability of public transport services and
encourage people using personal transport to use public transport system. This will result in
minimizing traffic congestion and pollution levels. A modal shift of up to 5% to public
transport is expected.

5. Reduction in Congestion

With state of the art and real time information dissemination of information possible for all
stakeholders’ immediate corrective steps can be taken to avoid areas of accidents, high
density of traffic and help ease congestion. Also, with increased modal shift from other
personnel modes, the system is expected to ease traffic congestion on roads.

6. Reduction in accidents

With ITS improving the efficiency and management of transport across city, improved training
and two way communication capability between driver and operations staff it is expected to
reduce accidents with the use of incident management facility in ITS, it will be possible to
ensure quick relief in case of accidents, hold ups, breakdowns etc. This will also minimize
fatalities with immediate help coming from the right quarters.

7. Reduction in emission levels

While the transport network becomes highly efficient, punctual, passenger friendly it is
bound to translate to citizens using own vehicles patronizing public transport. This will result
in reduction of emission levels, as less number of vehicles will be using the roads.

8. Increase in tourist satisfaction

With various systems installed in the vehicle, bus-stations / stands, command and Control
Centers, integration and coordination becomes a key factor for providing different
experience to the citizens of Mysore. This is expected to increase the tourism flow into the
city and their patronage.

The outcome of ITS implementation could be translated into measurable parameters such as:

Table 28: Measurable outcomes for project evaluation


S. Particulars of Outcomes Evaluation plan
No

1. Increase in average passenger occupancy in Obtain data on Occupancy Ratio from CCS.
buses as a result of access to on-line
information through display systems,
improved transport management.

2. Reduction of personal vehicles use by Data from RTO on new vehicles registration.

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S. Particulars of Outcomes Evaluation plan


No
commuters.

3. Reduction in emission from personal vehicles Data based on number of vehicles plying on
due to greater usage of public transport. the Road multiplied by average emissions per
vehicles of different categories.

4. Enhanced Air quality due to reduction in By installing Air quality monitoring stations at
pollution levels. appropriate locations

5. Increase in Commuter/Passenger Satisfaction Conducting surveys with different segment of


level. population

6. Real-time punctuality monitoring of bus Reports generated at data center in CCS.


arrivals and departures.

7. Effective Fleet Management and deployment Reports generated at data center in CCS.
of Buses.

8. Increase in revenue for KSRTC. Balance sheet.

The thresholds on these parameters will have to be determined by KSRTC and the targets set
with the participation of different stakeholders of KSRTC. The parameters need to be
monitored on a regular basis. The results will have to be made public that would provide
scope for continuous improvement of the services of KSRTC.

Specific Evaluation Reports are designed to assess, define goals described above and
document how the goals were (or were not) achieved. The reports would be generated at the
data center in CCS.

Each of ITS goal areas can be associated with outcomes of deployment that lend themselves
to measurement. These outcomes resulting from project deployment are identified as
measures. The association of goal areas and measures is depicted as follows:

Table 29: Measures of effectiveness within each goal area

Goal Area Measure

Safety • Reduction in the overall Rate of Crashes


• Reduction in the Rate of Crashes Resulting in Fatalities
• Reduction in the Rate of Crashes Resulting in Injuries

Mobility • Reduction in uncertainty of waiting passengers


• Reduction in Delay
• Reduction in Transit Time Variability
• Improvement in Customer Satisfaction

Efficiency • Increases in Highway and Arterial Throughput or Effective Capacity

Productivity • Travel Time Savings


• Increase in Economic Productivity

Energy and • Decrease in Emissions Levels


Environment
• Decrease in Energy Consumption

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The "few good measures" in the preceding table constitute the framework of benefits
expected to result from deploying and integrating ITS technologies. Other projects may have
goals that fall outside the traditional "few good measures", and may include the following:

Deployment of infrastructure required to support ITS


Creation of a regional architecture
Creation of a system to archive data

Goals need to be identified for each individual project based on the type of project being
deployed. In cases where the traditional "few good measures" are not applicable, the
evaluation should document how well the project met the goals. Potential areas for
evaluation include the following:

Implications of achieving consistency with the National ITS Architecture


Standards implementation
Consumer acceptance
Others as appropriate to local considerations
Institutional issues

An area of special emphasis should be the non-technical factors influencing project


performance. ITS projects have been profoundly influenced by considerations such as
procurement practices, contracting policy, organizational structure, and relationships among
major participants such as prime contractors and their subcontractors. The transportation
community stands to reap significant benefit from understanding how the varied range of
non-technical factors impacts directly on traditional project performance parameters, such
as, cost, schedule, and final functionality.

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D: Bio-Diesel
D-1. Need of the Project

D-1.1. Energy Efficiency & Climate Change Considerations

GHG emissions across the globe are increasing most rapidly in the transportation sector. A
major issue of global concern at present is the increasing contribution of the transport sector
to carbon dioxide (CO2)—the main greenhouse gas (GHG) produced from the use of fossil
fuels—and its consequences on global warming and climate change. Even people with low
incomes are meeting their need for mobility, and projected income growth over the next two
decades suggests that many more will acquire personal modes of transportation. How this will
affect the earth’s climate is a great concern.

In India, roads have dominated land transport system since 1985, and it is clear that their
dominance will continue, if not increase. In the last three decades, owing to easy
accessibility, flexibility and reliability the share of both freight and passenger traffic has
experienced a rapid shift from rail to road, however the capacity of the road has not been
able to keep pace with the increasing demand. In terms of rail-road modal mixes, the freight
traffic carried by road transport is estimated to have increased from roughly 35% in 1970/71
to 70% in 2003/04 whereas the passenger traffic has increased from 67% to 85% during the
same period.

Current transportation activity is overwhelmingly driven by internal combustion engines


powered by petroleum fuels. The total transport sector (which includes road, rail, aviation
and water navigation) energy consumption in India was 31.14 million tones of oil equivalent
(mtoe) in 2003/04 with share of petroleum fuels 98% and electricity 2% (MoPNG, 2005). Of the
total petroleum products consumed, share of high-speed diesel (HSD) was the highest 71%,
gasoline 27%, and all other fuels less than 1%. Demand for gasoline and HSD has grown at 7.4%
and 5.7% per year respectively between 1980/81 and 2003/04. As a consequence, transport
energy use and CO2 emissions closely track the growth of transportation activity. The total
CO2 emissions from the transport sector in the country in 1994 were 79.88 million tonne (mt)
(MoEF, 2004). The transport sector contributed around 12% of the country’s total CO2
emissions as a part of its total energy activities (i.e., 679.47 mt of CO2 in 1994). Among the
transport sub-sectors, road transport is the main source of CO2 emissions and accounts for
nearly 90 per of the total transport sector emissions.

Further, the rapid pace of urbanization and an even faster pace of motorization—measured as
the growth in ownership and use of motor vehicles—have exerted heavy pressure on the urban
transport system, especially in the metropolitan cities and second order cities like Mysore
city. One noticeable feature about the growth of vehicles is the explosion in the number of
two wheelers (namely, scooters, motor cycles, and mopeds), cars and auto rickshaws. The
importance of transport energy use and emissions, within the overall energy scene, has grown
substantially in recent decades in response to a series of public policy objectives such as
energy security, human health, safety, local environment and climate change.

There are policy and technology choices that could significantly lower the emissions growth
rate while increasing mobility, improving air quality, reducing traffic congestion, and
lowering transport and energy costs. These can be attenuated by sensitive design of new
infrastructure and introduction of best practice operating technology. But technology is not

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enough, and measures are required to restrain road traffic growth by better-directed land use
planning, stricter demand management, and greater use of public transport.

In India, GHG emissions from the road transport sector are expected to soar . In 2000, nearly
81.25 mt of CO2 was emitted from on road vehicles in India and in 2005 it went up to about
130 mt. Similar to the fuel demand growth rate, total CO2 emissions is also likely to go up
over nine-fold in the low GDP growth ( 6 % ) scenario (127.69 mt in 2005 to 1159.95 mt in
2030) and about thirteen-fold (133.98 mt to 1698.82 mt) in the high GDP growth over the
next 25 year period between 2005 and 2030. This increase has been fuelled by the rising
demand for mobility, as economies would continue to grow.

Despite the rapidly increasing contribution to CO2 emissions, likely to grow at an average
annual rate of 9.2% with GDP growth at 6% and 10.7% with GDP growth at 8%, there has been
no initiative so far in addressing cost-effective emission reduction strategies in India.
Although with advancement of automobile and fuel technologies, the fuel efficiency of
transport vehicles will continue to improve but these improvements will be more than offset
by a combination of increases in the number of personal vehicles (with a shift towards
vehicles with more powerful engines) and their increasing utilization levels. The more
significant role of public transport and use of Alternative fuel such as Ethanol Blended Diesel
will be needed in reducing the energy intensive path of the road transport sector in India.

The mix and the growth in automobile population determine the contribution of auto
emissions of local pollutants namely, CO, HC, NOx and PM in any city. The likely penetration
of buses running on Ethanol – solubiliser blend Diesel is expected to bring a drop in the
growth of energy demand and emissions of CO2 and also local criteria pollutants.

Role of Public Transport providers such as KSRTC, therefore becomes significant both in terms
of providing the public transport services and introduction of best practice technological
aspects such as use of Ethanol blending to address the vital issues of GHG emissions and
energy efficiency. The Ethanol –Solubiliser -Diesel blends reduce, GHG as well as particulate
emissions and other criteria pollutant emission from Diesel vehicles.

Figure 17: Drop in PM emissions with the use of Ethanol


(Source: Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, ORNL State Partnerships Program)

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In the USA O2 diesel (Ethanol-Diesel fuel) fuel blend has been subjected to extensive
independent laboratory and field testing under the auspices of federal, state, and local
agencies. Testing has included tens of millions of miles and hundreds of thousands of hours of
operation in a wide range of diesel powered equipment. Testing has been conducted in
several countries and under variable conditions including hot and cold climate extremes.

The testing of O2 diesel (Ethanol-Diesel fuel) was undertaken by California Air Resource Board
(CARB) under its interim procedure for verification of Emissions Reductions for alternative
diesel fuels. About 1.6 % reduction in oxides of Nitrogen Emissions and a 20 % reduction in
particulate emissions and 25 % reduction in Hydrocarbon emissions were observed. The
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Protection,
State of Nevada, US has also designated O2 diesel (Ethanol-Diesel fuel) as an Alternative fuel
in Nevada’s Alternative Fueled Vehicles Fleet program.

Diesel emissions’ contribution to poor urban air quality is the focus of Air Quality and
Environmental Agencies around the world. Diesel emissions not only contribute to ozone
depletion, but particulate matter (PM) from diesel exhaust has been linked to a number of
health related issues. Many solutions proposed require large and expensive infrastructure
investment. The time scale and cost of these approaches has led several countries to seek
more immediate and less expensive solutions. In economies with large and ageing diesel
fleets an oxygenated diesel fuel that provides immediate air quality benefits, is the most
practical solution. If this solution can additionally cut oil imports and promote indigenously
produced renewable fuel components it can make sense from both an environmental and
economic standpoint.

D-2. Mysore City environmental Scenario

City of Mysore currently enjoys the favorable state of environment. However, rapid pace of
socio-economic development and consequent growth in number of motor vehicles would pose
significant pressure on urban and regional air quality particularly in the region of Mysore.
Urban population in Mysore is growing faster. This is also leading to tremendous growth in
number of motor vehicles in Mysore. Urban air quality is, therefore, likely to become major
challenge the city would face in future. The current number of vehicles in Mysore city stand
at 3.55 lakhs .For city of Mysore mode-wise, 2-Wheelers account for 80.56 % , followed by 4-
Wheelers at 9.13 %, Trucks at 1.67 %, Buses at 0.8 %, with others vehicles at 7.85 %.

As the city has grown up with increase in per capita income, the ownership of the vehicles
has increased which causes intense land use and in turn generates more traffic. Although
number of motor vehicles has increased multifold by about 25 times in the Mysore City
between 1970 and 1996, the road capacity in older parts of the city remained same while the
quantum of traffic has increased significantly. As a result the GHG emissions (CO2) &
pollutants contributed by automobile exhaust are also likely to have increased. In future
years, increased vehicle kilometers will consume more fuel and generate increased amount of
GHG emission & criteria pollutants .To minimize the pollution loads in these cities,
technological options will have to be explored in terms of eco-friendly alternative fuels as
also efficient eco-friendly public transport systems in lieu of personal transport.

Energy consumption in transport sector is also likely to increase in the coming years with the
rapid increase in number of vehicles in Mysore city. Efforts are being made all over the globe
to reduce the consumption of petroleum-based fuels and maximize the utilization of eco

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friendly energy sources and fuels for meeting transport energy needs. Diesel engines are
major contributors of various types of air polluting exhaust gasses such as Particulate Matter
(PM), Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), Sulfur, and other harmful compounds
besides GHG. It has been shown that formation of these air pollutants can be significantly
reduced by blending oxygenates into the base diesel. Ethanol blended diesel (e-diesel) is a
cleaner burning alternative to regular diesel for heavy-duty (HD) compression ignition (CI)
engines used in buses. Although ethanol has been used as a fuel oxygenate to reduce tail-pipe
emissions in gasoline, its use in diesel has not been possible due to technical limitations (i.e.,
blending). Commercially viable E-Diesel is now possible due to the development of additive
systems. With the use of e –diesel significant reductions in the CO2 , PM, CO and NOx levels
could be achieved.

In Mysore city, demand for petroleum products for transport sector is estimated to increase
over the next decades. In year 2007-2008 the diesel consumption of KSRTC buses in Mysore
Division stood at 166 lakh liters, considering 10 % increase in the consumption based on the
increased operations, this is likely to be the tune of 183 lakh liters for year 2008-2009. With
the blending of ethanol & Solubalizer to the tune of 8.2 %, the consumption of diesel fuel
would be reduced significantly. With the price differential between the prices of diesel and
E-Diesel, significant savings could be achieved per annum. Therefore, Blending of Diesel with
Ethanol for Karnataka SRTC Buses operating in Mysore region would address both the aspects
of reducing air pollution as well as energy savings. The buses operating on a blend of 7.7%
Ethanol, 0.5 % of Solubalizer and 91.8 % of diesel could well prove to be the solution for
meeting both the energy as well as environmental needs.

D-3. Ethanol & Diesel Blends: An Overview

Ethanol is a clear, colorless, flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon, with the chemical formula
C2 H5 OH. There is an important distinction between anhydrous and hydrous alcohol.
Anhydrous alcohol is free of water and is at least 99% pure. Anhydrous ethanol is used in fuel
blends. Hydrous alcohol contains some water and typically has a purity of 96%. In Brazil,
hydrous ethanol is used as a 100% gasoline substitute in cars with dedicated engines. Ethyl
alcohol as an automotive fuel replaces gasoline in dedicated internal combustion engines and
is an effective octane enhancer when mixed with gasoline in blends of 5% to 30%. In this case
no engine modifications are required. Ethanol easily blends with gasoline but not with diesel.
Ethanol was initially the fuel of choice for early automobiles, but was rapidly displaced when
low-cost gasoline was developed as a commercial automotive fuel. Ethanol made a comeback
as an automotive fuel in the early 1980s, when the Brazilian government launched the
Proálcool program to produce fuel ethanol from sugar cane on an unprecedented scale.

As mentioned above, Ethanol blends are common in gasoline but it is technically more
difficult to blend Ethanol with diesel and the mix is subject to various problems such as lack
of stability of the blend, lower cetane values causing poor starting and operation, lower
lubricity leading to increased component wear, increased corrosion of components, loss of
power and lower fuel economy.

These technical problems of using ethanol-diesel blends can be overcome in by using a


solubiliser. The blending of Ethanol and Diesel by an electronic on-site blending equipment
and innovative additive technology is now possible. This creates a stable clear solution of
ethanol and diesel ready for use in diesel engines. For reasons of fuel efficiency, emissions

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performance, and economics, a 7.7 vol % fuel ethanol blend can be utilized for maximum
benefits.

D-3.1. Ethanol- Diesel Blends

The emission and combustion benefits of oxygenating diesel fuel have been known for many
years but until recently a commercially viable oxygenated diesel remained elusive. While
ethanol has proven to be a technically and fiscally suitable gasoline oxygenate in numerous
markets, it, despite many attempts, has not been suitable for diesel fuel blending. It is only
recently, following the introduction of solubilizing additives that ethanol has seen widespread
consideration as a diesel fuel oxygenate.

Ethanol-diesel blended motor fuel (Ener Diesel) comprised of up to 7.7% fuel-grade ethanol
with additive package that solubilizes ethanol in both diesel fuel, and standard on- or off-
road diesel fuel. A solubiliser is essential for e-diesel because without it, extreme
temperatures and condensation can cause the fuel components to phase-separate.

It is virtually impossible to keep the diesel fuel distribution system free of water, which is
one reason why ethanol diesel has not been commercially demonstrated as a viable fuel until
recently. However, development of highly efficient cost-effective additive package has
solved these concerns along with a novel method of blending the product outside of the oil
companies.

D-3.2. Benefits

The table below gives the comparative analysis of various parameters for Compressed Natural
Gas (CNG) and E-diesel.

Table 30: Comparative analysis of various parameters for CNG & e-Diesel
Performance
Compressed Natural Gas (Methane) E-Diesel (7.7% Ethanol in Diesel)
Characteristic
Reduces CO2 Emissions by 7% or
100% Fossil Fuel (Methane has
Greenhouse Gas More – Greater if Ethanol is Biomass-
significantly higher negative impact
Emissions Derived (Source: U.S. Dept. of
on CO2)
Energy)
Engine Efficiency Requires Twice as Many Units of fuel
Excellent -- Similar to Diesel
(Mileage) (based on Btu content)
Saving of up to 30 paise per litre
Up to $0.34 per mile(Source: N.Y. compared to normal diesel. Saving
Incremental Costs
Metropolitan Transit Administration) dependent on ethanol price and
diesel price.
Substantially Higher Than Liquid Similar to Diesel
Lifecycle costs
Fuels (Source: U.S. Dept. of Energy)
Substantial, Requiring Large Insignificant
Infrastructure Costs
Government Subsidies
Limited to Cities Near Natural Gas
Fuel Availability Universal
Pipeline Distribution

In addition to environmental benefits, there are other various advantages of Ethanol-diesel


blends such as:

 Enhanced lubricity
 Added Cetane
 Improved corrosion resistance

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 Outstanding static properties


 Excellent response and power
 Maintains clean distribution system
 Maintains fuel economy
 No engine modifications required
 Increased life of engine and other components
 Increased life of engine oil

D-3.3. Engine Efficiency / Performance

Many millions of miles of fleet testing using ethanol diesel have been logged in Europe
(Sweden, Ireland), Brazil, Australia, India (Bangalore) and the United States (Nevada, Illinois,
Nebraska, Texas, and New York City). Sweden has tested a variant of e-diesel for many years
in urban buses operating in Stockholm, with great success. Using Swedish Mark II diesel fuel,
perhaps the cleanest in the world as the base, this ethanol blend has shown significantly
improved emissions performance and reliable revenue service.

Brazil has also pioneered the investigation of ethanol diesel since the late 1990s,
demonstrating that a properly blended and formulated ethanol diesel can operate quite
successfully in a very warm, humid climate. The results of U.S. e-diesel fleet testing to date
have indicated that, a fuel with less than 8% ethanol in most applications, particularly in
stop-and-go urban operations, has no adverse affect on fuel efficiency.

However, e-diesel has a lower energy content (fuel ethanol has about 78,000 BTU’s of energy
vs. “average” diesel fuel with ~128,000 BTU’s), so that the greater the concentration of
ethanol in the fuel, the lower the energy content. The extra oxygenation from ethanol, and
the outstanding lubricity, cetane, and detergency from the additives, help overcome fuel
efficiency deficits.

D-3.4. Engine & Materials Compatibility

As part of an overall “no harm” testing program undertaken by several ethanol diesel product
developers, several 1000-hr. engine durability tests on e-diesel have been undertaken in the
U.S. since 1998. Durability is an important criterion for OEMs that require such data to
determine the compatibility and durability of fuels in a given engine under heavy load
conditions. Results of several of these tests to date have found that all fuel pumps,
injectors, rods & bearings, and other components were “normal” and “no excessive wear was
found” relative to the expected results using conventional diesel fuel.

Through multiple field demonstrations and commercial fleet sales the e-diesel blend has
accumulated many hundreds of thousands of hours of “real world” no harm data. Extensive
materials compatibility tests were recently carried in Germany by a internationally
recognized third party.. The tests showed that from a materials compatibility standpoint e-
Diesel performed no worse than the base diesel.

D-3.5. Fuel Properties

E-Diesel exhibits a number of properties that are very desirable for fleet operators. Also,
there are several looming issues associated with the required introduction of low sulfur diesel
(LSD), with a sulfur content that cannot exceed 350 parts per million and (ultimately 50ppm
by 2010 in Bharat stage IV for identified cities) can be addressed by e-diesel. One of which is

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fuel lubricity, which is degraded significantly in ULSD unless modified with additives. E-
diesel more than solves this problem by imparting a substantial increase in lubricity without
the need for additional additives. E-diesel blends have been shown to provide excellent
corrosion protection, a factor that is crucially important to fleet operators such as Karnataka
SRTC. This added degree of natural protection ensures that e-diesel can be classified legally
as a “premium” diesel fuel in many markets.

After years of development and technical achievement, ethanol-diesel blended motor fuels
are beginning commercialization in developed and developing nations alike. All remaining
technical challenges are being addressed on a global basis by some of the world’s most
respected fuel and fuel additive manufacturers, developers, and suppliers. More than
sufficient supplies of fuel ethanol, and the additive components would make it work as an
effective diesel fuel component. E-diesel can immediately be employed as part of a
comprehensive urban environmental strategy to reduce harmful emissions from a wide-range
of diesel-powered equipment, both on- and off-road, in a cost-effective manner without fuel
supply or equipment infrastructure modifications. In addition to environmental benefits, E-
diesel provides nations another option for their energy portfolios, which will help diversify its
sources of energy while modulating the impact of fluctuating world crude oil prices. Also, an
effective renewable energy strategy that includes new bio-fuels (including ethanol)
production provides nations with a means of stabilizing agriculture commodity prices,
improving their manufacturing sector, and creating new employment opportunities.

Industry specification of Denatured Anhydrous Ethanol based on IS: 15464:2004 is appended


at Enclosure ‘2’.

D-4. Studies using E-Diesel across the world


a) Air Resource Board’s (ARB) , California, has reviewed the data submitted by
O2 diesel Inc and verified the results in a 1.6 percent reduction in oxides of
nitrogen emissions and 20 percent reduction in PM and 25 percent reduction in
HC with no net increase in toxicity. Division of Environmental Protection,
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, State of Nevada has also
reviewed the data and finds that O2 Diesel (Ethanol and Diesel fuel) meets the
requirements of NAC 486 A.140. They have also designated the O2 diesel fuel
as an alternative fuel. NAC 486 A.140 requires that to be designated as an
alternative fuel, the fuel must reduce the emissions of one or more regulated
pollutants compared to the emissions generated by the fuel being replaced
and not to cause emissions that exceed the tailpipe emissions standards listed.

b) Studies in Indian context: Karnataka SRTC is successfully operating 2100 buses


at its 20 depots; on Ethanol-Diesel blends (8.2 % ). The results from operation
of these buses are encouraging in terms of emission reductions added with
environmental and social benefits.

D-5. Social, environmental & economical Benefits

Fossil fuel combustion in the transportation system is a major cause of outdoor air pollution.
Air quality improvement requires additional policies and technological upgrades in fuels and
vehicle engines. The project would simulate the environmental and social impacts resulting
from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the KSRTC bus fleet in its Mysore
division. The evaluation will be carried out to show reductions in air pollutants, mainly PM10,

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which would help avert a number of disease events and deaths, as estimated through dose-
response functions of epidemiological studies on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.
Valuation of the impacts using an environmental cost-benefit analysis considering operational
installation, job generation, potential carbon credits, and health costs and also adding the
estimated qualitative benefits to the quantitative ones, the project's benefits would far
outweigh the measured costs. Mysore region would benefit from ethanol use, producing
environmental, health and socio-economic gains, the three pillars of sustainability.

The development of bio fuels (Ethanol) is likely to have significant social impacts, including
job creation (quality and permanence), social responsibility and social equity, including issues
such as wealth distribution to rural communities. The rural poor in India who are mainly
farmers are involved with agricultural production and are likely to gain from the development
of Ethanol.

During site visit to one of the 4 depots where the preparation of the diesel/bio-fuel mix is
proposed, KSRTC informed that facilities are registered with the Pollution Control Board and
operate with valid consents. On the issue of oil waste and vehicle washing waste, KSRTC also
shared information about the facilities for recycling waste from the workshop and the
disposal of washing area waste which is disposed of on approved sites.

It is necessary for KSRTC to commit all its 4 depots in Mysore certified to ISO 14001 processes
in set timelines so that this activity is completed in time for the operations to begin. On
construction impacts, the relevant measures included in the ESMF for the entire project
would be applied. On construction impacts, the relevant measures included in the ESMF for
the entire project would be applied.

D-5.1. Safety Aspects in Ethanol-Diesel Blends:

Ethanol and diesel are typically immiscible fluids due to their high molecular weight
difference and the polarity of ethanol’s alcohol group. As mentioned in earlier, fuel additives
must be added to facilitate mixing of the two fuels. Though apparently miscible with the
additives, the ethanol and diesel in the blends retain their own vapor-liquid equilibrium
characteristics. Therefore, at ambient temperatures, mainly ethanol resides in the headspace
of E-Diesel blends. This makes the diesel fuel a more flammable liquid when blended with
ethanol. Therefore, the flammability properties of E-Diesel are a significant technical
challenge from a safety standpoint.

At typical ambient temperatures (70 - 72°F), the vapor pressure of E-Diesel is 0.925 - 0.988
psi, which lies at ethanol’s stoichiometric concentration in ambient air (6.5%). The
flammable temperature range for ethanol once it has reached equilibrium inside a closed
container (e.g. fuel tank) is approximately 51° - 106°F, based on flammability limits and
vapor pressure data. The flammable temperature range at equilibrium in a closed container
for diesel is approximately 148° - 302°F, and for gasoline is approximately -40° - 0° F. This
shows that ethanol, and therefore E-Diesel, is most flammable over a more significant range
of temperatures, posing a greater safety hazard in a closed container. Although ignition of
the diesel can easily occur at the mouth of the fill neck, it is virtually impossible for ignition
to propagate down the fill pipe and into the fuel tank, since the fuel mixture is too rich (not
enough oxygen).

With ethanol fuel, however, ignition could easily propagate down a fill neck and into the fuel
tank at typical ambient temperatures, causing the fuel tank to catastrophically fail. The low

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flash points of ethanol and vehicle tank vapor flammability are the most important aspects of
e-diesel that needs to be addressed from the safety standpoints.

E-diesel fuel blends pose a much larger hazard from a fire-safety standpoint than diesel or
gasoline, due to the fact that their vapors are most explosive at typical ambient
temperatures. Safe onboard storage poses a significant technical challenge. However, the use
of properly sized flame arresters in fill necks help minimize these risks. The Annexure ‘A’ and
Annexure ‘B’ depicts the details about Assembled Cast and Rolled Filler Neck with Flame
Arrestor respectively.

D-5.2. Environmental Impact Assessment

The environmental benefits of Ethanol blended with diesel appear during the combustion in
the engine itself. The use of ethanol would results in a closed carbon cycle, since the
emitted amount of CO2 is as much as the plant absorbed during its vegetation.

Due to the low or zero content of pollutants such as sulfur in ethanol, the pollutant (SO2
etc.) emission is much lower than the emission of conventional fuels.

The impacts of use of ethanol in diesel are enumerated below;

 Closed carbon cycle, reduced CO2 emissions.


 No sulfur content, no SO2 emission, very low NOx, CO, soot emission.
 Better energy balance than conventional fuels.
 Bio-fuel (Ethanol) is biological degradable.

D-5.3. Emission Benefits

The emission inventory has been worked out for without project and with project scenario for
the four key pollutants namely CO, HC, NOx and PM. The reductions for these four pollutants
are expected to the tune of 40%, 50%, 2% and 50 % respectively, with the implementation of
project with the use of e-Diesel and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).

Emission inventory in tonnes/ year is calculated on the basis of following formulae for CO,
HC, NOX and PM.

Emission = VKT x EF x DF

= Vehicle Kms travelled per year x EF x DF

Where, EF= Emission Factor , DF = Deterioration Factor

Vehicle Kms traveled per annum are taken as 100,000 Kms for all the buses currently
operating in Mysore Division.

The ratio of the buses for 0-5 years & 5-10 years brackets on the basis of current bus
population is taken as 85 % /15 %.

The Emission Factors (EF) in Gms/ km and Deterioration Factors (DF) for both the age
brackets has been prepared on the basis of ‘Transport Fuel Quality for year 2005” report by
Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, is as given below

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Emission Factors:

Table 31: Emission factors


CO HC PM
Age Bracket of Buses,
0-5 5-10 0-5 5-10 0-5 5-10 0-5 5-10
years
Emissions, Without
3.6 4.5 0.87 1.21 12 16.8 0.56 1.6
Project, gms/km
Emissions* With
2.16 2.7 0.43 0.60 11.76 16.46 0.28 0.8
Project, gms/km
* The reductions for CO, HC, NOx and PM are assumed to the tune of 40%, 50%, 2% and 50 % respectively as mentioned above

Deterioration Factors (DF):

Table 32: Deterioration factors


Sl
Age Bracket Pollutant DF
.No.
PM 1.19
1 0-5 years CO 1.015
HC & NOx 1
PM 1.355
2 5-10 years CO 1.18
HC & NOx 1

Note: No change in DF is assumed for both with and without project scenario

Based on the above working Emission Inventory has been worked out. The Table below
depicts the details of same.

Table 33: Working emission inventory


Pollution Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year
Load Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CO 102.7 113.0 124.3 136.7 150.4 165.4 182.0 200.2 220.2 242.2
Without
HC 25.3 27.9 30.6 33.7 37.1 40.8 44.9 49.4 54.3 59.7
the
project NOX 349.8 384.8 423.3 465.6 512.1 563.4 619.7 681.7 749.8 824.8
PM 19.7 21.7 23.8 26.2 28.8 31.7 34.9 38.4 42.2 46.4
CO 61.6 67.8 74.6 82.0 90.2 99.3 109.2 120.1 132.1 145.3
With the HC 12.5 13.8 15.2 16.7 18.3 20.2 22.2 24.4 26.9 29.5
project NOX 342.8 377.1 414.8 456.3 501.9 552.1 607.3 668.0 734.8 808.3
PM 9.8 10.8 11.9 13.1 14.4 15.9 17.4 19.2 21.1 23.2
CO 41.1 45.2 49.7 54.7 60.2 66.2 72.8 80.1 88.1 96.9
Differential
HC 12.8 14.1 15.5 17.0 18.7 20.6 22.7 24.9 27.4 30.2
Load With
Project NOX 7.0 7.7 8.5 9.3 10.3 11.3 12.4 13.7 15.0 16.5
PM 9.8 10.8 11.9 13.1 14.4 15.9 17.4 19.2 21.1 23.2

As detailed above, there will be significant reductions for CO, HC and PM, with the use of e-
Diesel and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), i.e. with project there will be significant
reductions in overall pollution loads from the buses operating in Mysore region. There will be
marginal reductions in NOx as well, as detailed above.

D-6. Ethanol: Supply Scenario in India

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With 14.1 per cent growth (2007) in the manufacturing sector, 14 per cent (2006) in the
service sector, and an agriculture sector that is beginning to finally look up, the Indian
economy needs all the energy it can get to sustain the growth momentum. However,
enshrouded in the figures of the galloping Indian economy is the precarious energy situation
that the country faces.

Coal comprised half of India's 15.734 EJ (exajoule)/ 325 mtoe (million tons of oil equivalents)
primary energy consumption in 2004, used for running most of its power plants. Crude Oil and
its products, which fuel the transport sector, contributed 36 per cent. Natural Gas, used
mainly in the fertilizer sector, had a share of 8 per cent, while renewable energy (including
Nuclear Energy) comprised a miniscule 4 per cent in the total energy mix. It is thus evident
that India is primarily a coal-based economy. The second more worrisome aspect of India’s
energy economy is the reliance on crude oil and its products. India imports 73 per cent of its
crude oil requirement, and this is expected to reach 90 to 93 per cent by 2031-32. It is also
worth noting that most of India’s oil imports come from the politically unstable countries of
West Asia and Nigeria, rendering India’s supply security precarious. Further, as crude oil has
crossed the US $125 a barrel mark, the import bill for crude oil imports will face some drastic
upward revision.

Evidently, any alternate to such an expensive and environmentally degrading energy mix with
insecure supply options would be welcome. Among all sources of bio-energy, ethanol has the
maximum global presence. The global production of alcohol in 2005 was 41 million kilolitres
of which 70 per cent was used as fuel. Reeling under the pressure of the spike in
international crude oil prices and the increasingly unstable political situation in West Asia,
there has been an increased international momentum towards Ethanol.

India is the fourth largest producer of ethanol in the world. Unlike Brazil, where ethanol is
produced directly from sugar cane juice, and the United States, which uses corn for
production, India produces ethanol from bagasse. Bagasse, or molasses, is the waste product
after the extraction and refining of sugar from sugar cane. Ethanol production in India
therefore has a marked advantage as its production could potentially leave sugar prices
unaffected. Further, by blending diesel with 7.7 per cent ethanol for buses of Mysore division
15 lakh litres of diesel could be saved annually by Karnataka SRTC. Apart from increasing
India’s energy security, Ethanol production can also generate rural employment.

The annual projected growth rate in the area under sugarcane at 1.5% per annum has doubled
during the last five years. This is because it is considered to be an assured cash crop with
good returns to the Farmers vis-à-vis other competing crops.

Molasses production in India has increased. It is therefore evident that along with sugarcane
production, phenomenal growth is also taking place in the production of molasses, the basic
raw material for the production of ethanol from sugarcane. Of course, there are also other
agro routes available to produce ethanol. The current availability of molasses and alcohol
would be adequate to meet the requirement of usage of ethanol as a fuel after fully meeting
the requirement of the chemical industry and potable sectors.

Capacities for supply of ethanol in India are in the process of building up. About 11 factories
in Uttar Pradesh will be adding facilities to produce about 75 million litres of anhydrous
alcohol. Similarly about 7 units in Tamil Nadu (production capacity of 62.5 million litres of
anhydrous alcohol); 8 in Karnataka (anhydrous alcohol production capacity of 66.5 million

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litres); and 4 units in Andhra Pradesh (capacity of over 40 million litres) are enhancing their
capacities. Similar steps have also be taken up by the cooperative sector units in
Maharashtra, Punjab and UP.

There is considerable scope for further reduction in the cost of production of both sugarcane
and sugar in India with liberalization of controls on the sugar industry with the resulting
reduction in costs for ethanol. Consolidation of land holdings and corporate farming on the
raw material side and expansion of capacity on the unit size are important developments and
would lead to substantial improvements in productivity, thereby rendering India a cost-
effective producer of sugar and Ethanol in the world.

The area under sugarcane is presently less than 2% of total cultivable area in the country and
about 3% of the irrigated area. There is considerable scope for increasing the area under
sugarcane considering the fact that it is more profitable compared to other crops.

D-7. Ethanol Diesel – Solution Framework

In Mysore, KSRTC is operating intercity as well as intra city services. The numbers of routes
operated in the Mysore region are about 795. There has been a steady increase in the no. of
passengers using the bus. This is primarily due to nearly constant fares over the years and
increase in the bus routes as per the growing demand for the bus transport.

Since 1994-95 onwards there has been a steady increase in the fleet. The average fleet held
increased by 1.75% in the initial years to 3% in the recent years. The increase in the fleet is
accompanied by the increased percentage fleet utilization. The average age of the fleet is
approximately 4.35 years over the last decade. Overall picture of increased percentage
utilization, acquisition of fleet and the average age resulted into increased reliability of
services.

As mentioned above, currently Mysore Division of Karnataka SRTC operates 795 buses.
Majority of these vehicles are either EURO I or EURO II vehicles .The actual smoke level
observed on these vehicles is well within the prescribed limit of 65 HSU, except few stray
cases, which are sent for rectification and tested again for smoke levels. Out of 795 buses,
about 750 buses will be run on the blend of Ethanol- Diesel. For the fuelling of the buses for
ethanol-diesel blends, necessary infrastructure changes at four depots of Karnataka SRTC at
Mysore will be undertaken.

The blending of Ethanol and Diesel will be done by an external independent agency with
capacity of proprietary electronic on-site blending equipment and innovative multi-patented
additive technology. A stable clear solution of ethanol and diesel will be used for fuelling 750
buses. To achieve maximum benefit in terms of fuel efficiency, emissions performance, and
economics, a 7.7 vol% fuel ethanol blend will be utilized. The Specialized on-site ethanol
storage tanks will be installed along with state-of-the-art computerized blending equipment,
which will automatically blend diesel, ethanol and the patented additive into a clear stable
solution prior to being dispensed into the tank of the vehicle. Delivering the solution in this
manner will eliminate contamination of the fuel blend with water, which is normally found in
the diesel storage tanks.

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The patented additive technology will offer enhanced fuel characteristics including
substantially increased lubricity, conductivity and anti-corrosion properties.

Figure 18: Onsite tank to be installed at depots & computerized blending equipment

State- of- Art computerized blending Equipment

Monitoring of all the buses for smoke levels will be carried out on monthly basis. Past data of
smoke levels will be compared to establish the benefits in terms of emission reductions.

Ethanol-diesel fuel, ignition could easily propagate down a fill neck and into the fuel tank at
typical ambient temperatures, causing the fuel tank to catastrophically fail. To avoid any
such eventuality, diesel tanks of all the vehicles will be fitted with flame arrestors.

D-7.1. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

For evaluating the natural resource requirements and environmental impacts from the whole
life cycle of ethanol, LCA, an established technique will be used. Data on the life cycle of the
Ethanol as well as the complete network of products and services used for its provision will
be collected and analyzed. LCA analysis will focus on land use, primary energy and GHG
emissions, and will provide a highly effective means of estimating total GHG emissions
reductions and energy resource depletion associated with the production and utilization of
Ethanol. These estimates will be calculated relative to the diesel fuel that ethanol would
potentially replace.

D-7.2. Functional Specification of Stores


1. Specialized on–site Ethanol Storage Tanks
a) The tanks shall be made from either of stainless steel or fiber glass (using
resins compatible with ethanol).
b) The tanks shall be fitted with conservation vents. It should be so configured to
allow venting, in case the pressure in the tanks exceed 1-3 psi ( 7-21 kPa ) and
when the vacuum in the tank exceeds 5-10 cm ( 2-4 in ).
c) The tanks shall be provided with all the necessary accessories such as External
emergency valve, Manual ball valve, solenoid valve, splitter valve, fuel
dispenser, vapour recovery nozzle, dispensing pumps, fire suppression nozzle,
and fuel pick up tube, drop tube filling port and gauges etc.

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d) The tank shall be of capacity of 1000 liters.

2. Computerized Blending equipment


a) Computerized blending equipment shall be of high accuracy.

b) It must be able to carry out homogenous blending of all components, i.e. it


should be able to automatically blend diesel, ethanol and the solubiliser into a
clear stable solution prior to being dispensed into the tank of the vehicle.

c) It should be able to eliminate contamination of the fuel blend with water.

d) It must be fully automatic and shall operate without human intervention.


3. Diesel particulate Filter (DPF)
a) A DPF an innovative system for removing soot from the diesel exhaust
b) DPF should control diesel particulate matter emissions by physically tapping
the particles in its structure
c) Buses fitted with the DPF should not provide any operational problems. Buses fitted with
DPF in KSRTC have been a success.

4. Flame Arrestor
a) The Flame arrestor fitted on fuel tanks must be able to stop flame
propagation.
b) It should be made of suitable material such as carbon steel / aluminum so as
to have superior mechanical Strength and corrosion resistance.

D-7.3. Environment Management

Karnataka SRTC is committed to make all its four depot at Mysore division ISO 14001
certified. The process for ISO certification has been initiated and the four depots will be ISO
14001 certified by March 2009.

D-8. Cost Estimates & Funding Plans

Total Project Cost: 357.00 Lakhs

Item wise break-up of Project Costs:

Cost in Rs.
Items
Lakhs
Flame Arrestor 53.90
DPF 201.00
Tanks 60.00
Consultancy 25.20
Total Project Cost 340.10
Contingency @ 5% 17.00
Total 357.10

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Table 34: 1 - Assumptions for working out the EIRR


Item Number Units
Projected Growth in Buses 10% percent
Kms Traversed per Bus 100,000 Kms/bus/year
Cost of HSD 36.62 Rs/ litre
Bio Ethanol Mix
Percentages
Diesel 91.8 percent
Ethanol Mix 7.7 percent
Solubalizer 0.5 percent
Prices of components of
Ethanol mix
Diesel 36.62 Rs. Per Litre
Ethanol Mix 22.66 Rs. Per Litre
Solubalizer 151.00 Rs. Per Litre
Actual Consumption in Data From
16.60
Mysore in July 2008 KSRTC

Table 35 Emissions load from Bus without the Project


Emissions Gms/ Kms CO HC NOx PM
New Bus 3.6 0.87 12 0.56
Old Bus 4.5 1.21 16.8 1.6

Table 36 Emissions Load from bus with the Ethanol mix


Emissions Gms/ Kms CO HC NOx PM
New Bus 2.16 0.43 11.76 0.28
Old Bus 2.7 0.6 16.46 0.8
Table 37 Accessories that are to be Placed on Vehicles
Item 1 Flame Arrestor 5600 Rs. per Item Life 10 years
Item 2 Diesel Particulate Filter 60000 per Item Life 7 years

The basis of the unit rates is as given below:

 Specialized on-site ethanol storage tanks and State-of-the-art computerized blending


equipment: On the basis of established units at Bangalore Central division, Bangalore,
Karnataka SRTC.
 Solubiliser: The details are appended at Annexure ‘C’.
 Flame Arrestor: The quotation from M/s Energenics is appended at Annexure ‘C1’.

D-9. Fund Flow Pattern:

The funds for specialized on-site ethanol storage tanks and State-of-the-art computerized
blending equipment and Flame Arrestors to be fitted on fuel tanks of buses will be required in
the first quarter itself of Year 1 of the project (80.00 lakhs). For the supply of solubiliser a
detailed schedule will be worked out depending on the requirement for the individual depots
at Mysore city for the three years duration and the same will be incorporated in RFP.

1. Schedule for Financial Contribution and Sources (in Rs. Lakhs)


Table 38: Schedule for financial contribution and sources for eDiesel
Year 1
Sl. No. Source Year 2 Year 3 Total
Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4

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Year 1
1 GEF & GOI 20.02 69.64 21.76 21.76 88.79 88.79 310.76
2 Government of Karnataka 1.49 5.18 1.62 1.62 6.61 6.61 23.12
3 KSRTC 1.49 5.18 1.62 1.62 6.61 6.61 23.12
Total 23.00 80.00 25.00 25.00 102.00 102.00 357.00

D-10. Economic and Financial Analysis

The Mysore region, in year 2007-2008 the diesel consumption of KSRTC buses in Mysore
Division stood at 166 lakh liters, considering 10 % increase in the consumption based on the
increased operations, this is likely to be the tune of 183 lakh liters for year 2008-2009. With
the blending of ethanol & Solubiliser to the tune of 8.2 %, the consumption of diesel fuel
would be reduced significantly. With the price differential between the prices of diesel and
E-Diesel, significant savings could be achieved per annum.

The detailed analysis of economical and financial gains by use of E-diesel is elaborated
below:

Table 39 Base Rolling Stock used for the EIRR


Flame Additional Kms
Cost Buses in Cumulative
Arrestors in Buses in Traversed
Item the year DPF
the year the year millions
Year1 795 795.0 275.0 0.0 79.5
Year2 874 79.5 302.5 27.5 87.5
Year3 962 87.5 332.8 30.3 96.2
Year4 1058 96.2 366.0 33.3 105.8
Year5 1164 105.8 402.6 36.6 116.4
Year6 1280 116.4 442.9 40.3 128.0
Year7 1408 128.0 487.2 44.3 140.8
Year8 1549 140.8 535.9 48.7 154.9
Year9 1704 154.9 589.5 53.6 170.4
Year10 1874 170.4 648.4 58.9 187.5
Year11 1875 0.4 0.0 0.0 187.5
Year12 1875 0.0 0.0 0.0 187.5
Year13 1875 0.0 0.0 0.0 187.5
Year14 1875 0.0 0.0 0.0 187.5
Year15 1875 0.0 0.0 0.0 187.5

Table 40 Cost of Diesel Without the Project


Diesel
Cost Of Diesel
Period Consumption
(Rs.mil)
(mil litres)
Year 1 16.60 607.89
Year 2 18.26 668.68
Year 3 20.09 735.55
Year 4 22.09 809.10
Year 5 24.30 890.01
Year 6 26.73 979.02
Year 7 29.41 1076.92
Year 8 32.35 1184.61

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Year 9 35.58 1303.07


Year 10 39.14 1433.38
Year 11 43.06 1576.72
Year 12 47.36 1734.39
Year 13 52.10 1907.83
Year 14 57.31 2098.61
Year 15 63.04 2308.47

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Table 41 Savings with the use of Bio Diesel

Without the Project With the Project


Diesel Cost Of Bio Fuel - Consumption Cost of Bio Fuel Total Bio Savings
Consumption Diesel (Rs. Fuel Cost Rs.
mil litres mil) Million
Period Diesel Ethanol Mix Solubalizer Diesel Ethanol Mix Solubalizer
Year 1 16.60 607.89 15.24 1.28 0.08 558.04 28.96 12.53 599.54 8.35
Year 2 18.26 668.68 16.76 1.41 0.09 613.85 31.86 13.79 659.50 9.19
Year 3 20.09 735.55 18.44 1.55 0.10 675.23 35.05 15.16 725.45 10.10
Year 4 22.09 809.10 20.28 1.70 0.11 742.76 38.55 16.68 797.99 11.11
Year 5 24.30 890.01 22.31 1.87 0.12 817.03 42.41 18.35 877.79 12.23
Year 6 26.73 979.02 24.54 2.06 0.13 898.74 46.65 20.18 965.57 13.45
Year 7 29.41 1076.92 27.00 2.26 0.15 988.61 51.31 22.20 1062.12 14.79
Year 8 32.35 1184.61 29.70 2.49 0.16 1087.47 56.44 24.42 1168.34 16.27
Year 9 35.58 1303.07 32.67 2.74 0.18 1196.22 62.09 26.87 1285.17 17.90
Year 10 39.14 1433.38 35.93 3.01 0.20 1315.84 68.30 29.55 1413.69 19.69
Year 11 43.06 1576.72 39.53 3.32 0.22 1447.42 75.13 32.51 1555.06 21.66
Year 12 47.36 1734.39 43.48 3.65 0.24 1592.17 82.64 35.76 1710.56 23.82
Year 13 52.10 1907.83 47.83 4.01 0.26 1751.38 90.90 39.33 1881.62 26.21
Year 14 57.31 2098.61 52.61 4.41 0.29 1926.52 99.99 43.27 2069.78 28.83
Year 15 63.04 2308.47 57.87 4.85 0.32 2119.17 109.99 47.59 2276.76 31.71
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Table 42 Savings Due to Reductions in Pollution load


CO HC NOX PM Total Benefits
Rs. Millions
Year 1 1.84 0.86 0.33 0.49 3.53
Year 2 2.02 0.95 0.37 0.54 3.88
Year 3 2.23 1.04 0.41 0.60 4.27
Year 4 2.45 1.15 0.45 0.66 4.70
Year 5 2.69 1.26 0.49 0.72 5.17
Year 6 2.96 1.39 0.54 0.80 5.69
Year 7 3.26 1.52 0.59 0.88 6.25
Year 8 3.59 1.68 0.65 0.96 6.88
Year 9 3.95 1.85 0.72 1.06 7.57
Year 10 4.34 2.03 0.79 1.17 8.32
Year 11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Year 12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Year 13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Year 14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Year 15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Table 43 Capital and Capex Replacement


On Vehicle Costs Rs. Millions
Capex Replacement
Flame DPF Item 1 Flame Item 2
Arrestor Arrestor DPF
Year1 4.45 16.50
Year2 0.45 1.65
Year3 0.49 1.82
Year4 0.54 2.00
Year5 0.59 2.20
Year6 0.65 2.42
Year7 0.72 2.66
Year8 0.79 2.92 16.50
Year9 0.87 3.22 1.65
Year10 0.95 3.54 1.82
Year11 0.00 0.00 4.45 2.00
Year12 0.00 0.00 0.45 2.20
Year13 0.00 0.00 0.49 2.42
Year14 0.00 0.00 0.54 2.66
Year15 0.00 0.00 0.59 2.92

D-11. Procurement Plan and implementation process

For supply of specialized on-site Ethanol Storage Tanks and State-of-the-art Computerized
Blending Equipment, Flame Arrestors on fuel tanks of buses and Solubiliser for Blending of
Ethanol and Diesel , A global tender shall be floated against the functional specification of
individual stores as detailed below in E-4. The details of guidelines to tenders, terms and
conditions of contract, the stores requirement are given at Annexure ‘D’.

The actual receipt of stores for the project components would commence from the receipt of
specialized on-site ethanol storage tanks and State-of-the-art computerized blending

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equipment. Simultaneously Flame arrestors would also be purchased and process of fitment
of it on buses would commence. For the supply of solubiliser a detailed schedule would be
provided to the contractor/s depending on the requirement for the individual depots at
Mysore city. . The project would commence in August 2008 and would be completed by
August 2011 (Three year Period). The procurement and implementation plan is given at
Annexure ‘E’.

D-12. Environment & Social Issues

The project of ITS & Bio-fuel component for Mysore city is aimed to be implemented with the
existing facilities. It will not involve additional requirement of land & consequently there will
be no displacement in implementation of this project either at the time of implementation or
in the future.

This project has no negative issues with respect to environment & social impacts, it is
expected to have more positive impact on environment of social issues. The implementation
of this project will ensure the environment & social well being at the local, regional, national
& global level.

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E: Overall Project Economic & Financial analysis


The total capital cost of Intelligent Transport System and bio-fuel project works out Rs.14.33
Crores and the Operating costs works out Rs. 7.97 Crores with a total outlay of Rs. 22.70
crores spread over a three year period. This includes a contingency cost @ 5% of Rs. 1.08
Crores. A quick overview of the Project outlay is provided below:

Total in
Capital Costs (in Rs. Operating costs (in
Project Items -> Rs.
Lakhs) Rs. Lakhs)
Lakhs
Year ITS Bio-Fuel ITS Bio-Fuel
Year 1 1,006.92 296.02 249.74 -
Year 2 26.07 20.95 252.85 -
Year 3 29.89 23.05 256.46 -
Total 1,062.88 340.02 759.05 -
5% contingency 53.14 17.00 37.95 -
1,116.02 357.02 797.00 -
Total Capex / Opex 1473.05 797.00 2270.05
Total ITS Project Outlay 1,913.03
Total Bio-Fuel outlay 357.02
Grand Total 2,270.05

E-1. Summarized Fund Flow Statement for ITS & e-Diesel

The overall project cost can be broadly divided into two categories. These categories include
the material costs (procurement of material including software procurement) and service
costs (deployment, installation and integration). The fund flow pattern identifies the
necessary funds required at every stage of the project with respect to the activities
identified in the Gantt chart. All the material costs have to be incurred against the purchase
order raised. The service costs will be met according to the flow of activities identified in
every quarter of the Gantt chart. In case the procurement and installation of an item occur
simultaneously, the expenditure procedure will be similar to material costs. The cost of
project monitoring and evaluation study will be met during the 3rd year of the project. The
Project Management consulting charges will be paid at 80% during the first year, 10% during
the second year and the balance 10% during the third year.

E-1.1. Fund Flow

Towards this project, the World Bank would be providing a grant of Rs. 8 Crores and the
balance of Rs.14.70 Crores is proposed to be shared in the following manner:

Table 44: Extent of World Bank grant


# Grants Rs. In Lakhs
1 Total project outlay 2,270.05
2 World Bank Grant 800.00
3 Balance 1,4705.05

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Table 45: Capital flow for ITS and environmental project


Sl. Project Contribution Amount % Share by
Agency
No. Source (Rs. Lakhs) Specific Source
Balance to be shared by 1,4705.05
1 GEF & GOI GEF + GOI Funding 1176.05 80%
2 Government of Karnataka Grant towards its share 147.00 10%
3 KSRTC Grant towards its share 147.00 10%
4 Total 1470.05 100.00

E-2. Analysis Objectives

The analysis has three objectives:

a) Addressing the Economic Internal Rate of Return on the ITS project

b) Providing a gist of the non-quantifiable benefits of the project

c) Response to the Questions from the project appraisal team on an earlier


version of the Project report
(1) Section A provides the Economic and Financial Analysis
(2) Section B provides the Non- Quantifiable benefits
(3) Section C provides the Response to the specific questions from project
appraisal team

Economic and Financial Analysis for the ITS project has been reworked based on the feedback
received. The workings focus on the following:

d) A.1: Framework of the analysis

e) A.2: Data available and used for the analysis


f) A.3: Cost and benefits of the project and associated assumptions

g) A.4: EIRR and NPV of the project

h) A.5: Scenario Analysis and conclusions on Project Viability

E-3. Framework of analysis

The framework of the EIRR analysis was finalized after going through papers of similar
implementation globally. The literature survey was mainly focused on “before” and “after”
studies as well as behavioural studies. A common thread across these papers revealed that
there are significant benefits of ITS implementation. In fact, the intangible benefits
outnumber the tangible (read “monetize-able”) benefits warranting a separate section B in
this document.

As a second element of the framework, identifying and mapping all the costs and benefits of
the projects components were carried out. The broad categorization revealed, categorization
of these costs and benefits, monetizing these costs in rupee terms over the project life cycle
of 15 years.

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Figure 19 EIRR framework

E-3.1. Cost of the Project

The costs of the project are categorized as:

1. The Costs of the project are based on the tentative Bill of Material and Quantities as
indicated in the earlier version of the report. These costs are classified as Capital
Expenditure for all initial investment. The estimated costs were obtained as budgetary
quotes by KSRTC for the Detailed Project Report from Hewlett Packard. The other
onetime costs viz, Pre project expense at 2% of the costs, and Project Management
expenses at 6% of the costs were also capitalized. This summarizes the Capital
Expenditure on the project.
2. The operating costs of ITS infrastructure were taken into account and include,
Maintenance, additional human resources required and categorized as Operating
Expenses. The estimates for these were taken from the earlier version of the report
that was arrived after detailed discussions with KSRTC.

3. Considering that this project has significant technology components, and that
technology changes are inevitable, there would be a requirement for the project to
replace the capital equipment. The technology changes are rapid and progressive and
project such as ITS for Mysore would need capital funds infusion to keep the services
relevant through better technology components. Further, as has been the experience in
the past, obsolete technology is more expensive to maintain than replacement of the
components. Considering all these factors, Capital Replacement expenses are included
into the project costs.
4. The near future expansion plans and projections of KSRTC Mysore has been taken into
the cost calculations and these capital costs have been added in the relevant year.

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E-3.2. Benefits of the Project

The benefits of the project were classified as mainly three categories

a) Additional revenue accruals to KSRTC due to modal shift from the existing
population using other modes of transport; the data for this is taken from the
Survey conducted by CIRT on July 4, 2008. These are termed as Additional
revenues due to Modal Shift.

b) A second aspect of this modal shift is that it is unlikely to happen in year 1 of


the project and is spread-out over a 3-4 year period. Commuters would
normally wait, see the effectiveness of the new system, and then make a
gradual shift.
c) The revenue accruals for the modal shift are taken at the margin. In other
words, as the shift is primarily due to the ITS and its benefit accruals, the
revenue increase is attributed to the project at the current marginal revenue
per passenger.

d) Revenues through Advertisements are yet another benefit from the Project.
There are two type of advertisement revenues viz., Revenues from
Advertisements in the buses, - termed Bus Advt Revenues and revenues from
advertisements at the Bus stops, termed Bus Stop Advt Revenues) and
revenues from Advertisements at Bus terminus (termed Bus Terminus Advt
Revenues).

e) In Arriving at the Bus Advt revenues, as is natural, the markets are classified
into Premium, Standard and Others and a split is indicated. Premium buses are
ideally on high traffic main routes, Volvo fleet buses and the like. The
Standard category would form the off trunk routes, however covering the main
residential and office avenues. The rest is categorized as others.
f) In order to provide a realistic picture a Capacity Utilization of the Buses, Bus
Stops and Bus terminus is taken for analysis. Thus Ramp-up of buses and the
advertisement bookings estimated to be a factor of the capacity
g) All benefits are taken at present prices viz., the current rates

E-3.3. EIRR & Scenario Analysis, and Conclusions on Project Viability


a) As is evident from the earlier studies, it is very difficult to quantify the
entirety of benefits and monetize the same. Therefore, the EIRR calculations
cover the costs and benefits as mentioned in the framework above. In
addition, scenario analysis was carried out to investigate the sensitivity of
EIRR of the project and confirm its viability or otherwise.

b) On understanding the sensitivity, the parameters were fixed carefully with as


realistic estimates as possible. The same was discussed with KSRTC and agreed
upon.

c) The results so obtained were discussed with KSRTC before finalization of the
viability of the project

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The capital and operational costs are worked out and presented in Annex – 1 of this report.
The worksheets for the same are attached in the MS Excel file2 to this DPR. This annex details
out the economic and financial internal rate of return.

A complex transit technology project such as an AVL or AFC system has several sources of
cost uncertainty. Among these are:

(1) Changes in scope definition, features, functionality, Contractor


requirements, etc
(2) Changes in the quantities of items to be procured
(3) Inflation and currency fluctuation

At this point of the project since final scopes have not been established, an additional
contingency estimate of 10% is provided for. When the final tender documents are
developed, this has been lowered to 5%.

An overview of the Capital and Operating costs for ITS and Bio-fuel) procurement are
summarized in the following table:

Table 46: Overview of capital and operating costs


With
Contingency
Project Item Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total of 5%
ITS Procurement
Capital Costs 1,006.92 26.07 29.89 1,062.88
Operating Costs 249.74 252.85 256.46 759.05
Subtotal ITS Year wise 1,256.66 278.92 286.35 1,821.93 1,913
Bio Fuel Procurement
Capital Costs 296.02 20.95 23.05 340.02
Operating costs 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total Costs Year wise 296.02 20.95 23.05 340.02 357
Total of Both Projects 2,161.95 2,270

E-4. Data used and Assumptions in the EIRR Analysis

Two data sources were used for the analysis. The first is the existing data from KSRTC
operations MIS and the second was a survey conducted by CIRT. These are provided in the
paragraphs below.

E-4.1. General Assumptions


Transportation needs of the city will depend on the city’s population and population
growth; population growth of the city is assumed to be 2.5% p.a.

In case the proposed ITS system is not implemented, existing (and prospective) users will
gradually shift to personal transportation. There is no fare increase in the immediate term
soon after the ITS is introduced. Fare increase over the longer term is taken as aggregated
figure of about 10%.

2
Financial Analysis.xls

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Two wheeler riders traveling beyond 10 Kms distance per day are potential customers for
KSRTC ITS buses.

At least 25% of these potential customers will definitely switch over to KSRTC buses after
implementation of the ITS project.
The present two wheeler riders will use the ITS bus at least for 200 days in a year. The rate
of trips per day is estimated at 2.01.
1. Revenue Increase from different sources

In addition to the primary source of income, there are always possibilities to utilize other
sources of income in any business model. Many models can easily add one or two additional
revenue streams without the need for extensive development, but merely by exploring
existing possibilities from a fresh perspective. A large number of innovative and successful
Businesses can be explored for the possibility of additional income from advertising or from
merchandising. KSRTC, Mysore has multiple revenue sources, which comprises of not just
regular tickets and passes, but also other sources such as advertisements. A few possibilities
of additional revenue streams for KSRTC, Mysore have been explained below:

a) Advertising on the Bus body

KSRTC can earn additional revenue through advertising on the bus body. City buses generate
advertising revenue by carrying advertisement banners or hoardings. A company hires a
particular bus for displaying an advertisement for a specific period of time. Advertising rates
are based upon the advertisement banner, time period of advertising, brand of bus being
chosen and route quality. It is seen that BMTC generates an additional income of Rs. 62,000
per month per bus through this scheme on its VOLVO services.

b) Advertising inside the buses

Another source of revenue for KSRTC is through advertisements by carrying small sized
banners behind the seats. Also the in-vehicle display units inside the buses can be used to
scroll advertisements for a pre-determined time period in between the bus-stops. The audio
announcement system can also be used to announce products along a specific route and can
be charges accordingly.

c) Revenue from Online Advertising

Advertising online offers impressive value compared to traditional media, and the possibilities
for accurately tracking and measuring the response to a campaign is superb. Online
advertising is certain to continue to provide an important source of income, and a potent
revenue stream for all sorts of eCommerce ventures. Advertising Networks are an excellent
source of website revenue generation, allowing the webmaster display and earn revenue from
many different ads. Another service can be providing links to paid sites.

d) Revenue from Subscriptions

Subscription-based revenue stream is very vital to any ecommerce. Companies with all
business models often seek to add a subscription based element to their offerings since
subscriptions can be the most lucrative of all forms of revenue. People will only subscribe to
something where they see the value and can find no suitable free alternative. This software
typically comes with subscription-style licensing, information sites seek to offer subscription-

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only content, and Search Engine Optimization companies asking clients to subscribe. Since
KSRTC will be catering to the needs a wide range of end-users, subscription-based income
sources can prove to be lucrative.

e) Reduction in Fuel Consumption

In the earlier section, it has been estimated that around 1977.9 lakh kilometers of two-
wheeler-travel will be reduced as a result of the modal shift due to the introduction of ITS in
Mysore City. Assuming an average mileage of 45kmpl for two wheeler vehicles, the estimated
reduction in fuel consumption is to the tune of 43,977.8 litres of petrol per year. This will
result in a net savings of Rs. 241,745,777 (Rs. 24 Crores) per year going by the current fuel
prices.

2. Social Benefits

The economic IRR (EIRR) takes a much broader perspective of the fallouts of the proposed
project. It considers several indirect benefits which are not readily quantifiable or reducible
to financial measures. These fallouts which are measured in this category are classified as
“economic returns”. A societal perspective is taken when calculating costs and benefits: that
is, all the costs and benefits are considered without considering that who is the payer or the
beneficiary. Annex -1 provides a complete report on the ITS EIRR

A bus system with ITS can provide a number of benefits to a diverse set of local and global
stakeholders, from reduced greenhouse gas (CHG) emissions to increasing social cohesion to
providing more sustainable urban transport alternative.

a) Social Benefits
(1) Reduced uncertainty while waiting for bus
(2) Reduced travel times / waiting time
(3) Enhanced reliability of bus system
(4) Increased economic productivity
(5) Increased mobility at reduced travel cost
(6) Improved travelling conditions
(7) Overall reduction in adverse selection
(8) More equitable access throughout the city
(9) Reduced accidents and injuries
(10) Increased civic pride and sense of community
(11) Reduced emissions of air pollutants
(12) Reduced noise
(13) More sustainable urban form, including densification along major corridors
(14) Reduced cost of urban travel

b) Social Acceptance
(1) The project should be accepted by the citizens of the city as they are the
intended users and patrons of ITS. Their acceptance of the ITS is critical
(2) Citizens should be educated about what they expect from the project and
what are the end benefits of ITS. This should be done in earnest line
educating public and quashing rumours is a time consuming task.

c) Life Span of the Project

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The life span of the project is expected to be around 6 years. This period constitutes the 3
year implementation period and an additional period of 3 years considering the life
expectancy of LED display boards,

units (GPS) and computer hardware. According to Written down Value (WDV) method, 16.25%
of the goods procured for the project are the depreciation amount per year for replacing the
assets. This will be achieved by the additional revenue (traffic and non-traffic) generated
through the implementation of this project.

d) 1. Rise in customers using ITS bus

The CIRT survey conducted on 4th July 2008 revealed that 89% of the sample population is
willing to shift to public transport of KSRTC IT buses. However, on having focus group
discussion with the experts in the public transport domain, it
Distance(km) % Share
is assumed that out of 89% of the preferred two wheeler
riders, only 25% of them will actually shift towards the public 0-5 17.43
transport system. There are 2.8 lakh two wheeler owners in 6 - 10 11.93
Mysore city. The following is the trip pattern and travel 11 - 15 15.60
distance pattern of the two wheeler riders in Mysore city: 16 - 20 19.27
Generally, the two wheeler riders prefer to use their two 21 - 25 7.34
wheelers for short distance travel. Considering this, it is 26 - 30 9.17
assumed that in Mysore city, the two wheeler riders prefer to 31 - 35 0.92
No. of Trips % Share use two wheelers up to a
36 - 40 4.59
1 6.42 travel distance of 10 Kms per
41 - 45 0.92
2 58.72 day. Based on these
46 - 50 3.67
3 5.50
assumptions, it is estimated
that 70.64% of the two > 50 9.17
>4 29.36
wheeler riders are the
prospective customers shifting towards ITS bus transport. As already indicated, 25% of
70.64% of the two wheeler riders are pessimistically considered as the probable customers
shifting towards the ITS bus. It is further assumed that they will travel in the bus for at
least 200 days in a year. It is worked out that 1977.9 lakh kilometers of two wheeler travel
will be reduced per year after the potential two wheeler riders shift to the ITS buses. It is
estimated that the above mode shift will increase 49,448 passengers to KSRTC. This will
increase the revenue of KSRTC to Rs. 343,762 per day. The total revenue increase due to
the introduction of ITS in KSRTC services in Mysore is estimated at Rs. 6.87 crores per year.
Thus the total project cost will be recovered within a span of 3 years even without a fare
hike in KSRTC’s city services. From the above analysis, it is found that the revenue increase
due to ITS implementation will be sufficient to sustain the ITS project in Mysore.

e) Cost Assumptions
Risk of cost inflation during the time of ITS implementation is already built into the
estimates of the capital costs.

There is a significant cost advantage arising out of purchase of high quality material for ITS
project. In essence it is expected to decelerate the growth of cost of maintenance and
operations.

f) Project O & M IRR

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The project operations and maintenance (O&M) IRR considers the returns on the O&M
part of the project. That is, it does not consider the capital costs incurred in getting
the project up and running. Assuming that the capital costs are funded by grant/aid,
the project O&M IRR reveals the overall sustainability of the project.

E-4.2. Data from KSRTC

KSRTC meticulously maintains operational data in a MIS and this was obtained from the Depot
Manager Mysore. This data pertains to the existing infrastructure and the costs and revenues
of operations.

Data for the analysis was obtained from KSRTC and CIRT Survey carried out on July 4, 2008.
The same is presented in the tables below

Table 47 Overall Infrastructure at KSRTC relevant to the project


Data Item Value Units

Buses 258 Nos


Schedules 282 Nos
Routes 185 Nos
Bus Depots 2 Nos
Bus Terminus 2 Nos
Bus Stops 484 Nos
Advertisement rates
Ordinary Bus 4,500 Rs./Month
Volvo Bus 31,290 Rs./Month

Table 48 Break-up of urban and Suburban Operating Data


Data Item Urban Suburban Total Units
Revenues 703,000 289,000 992,000 Rs. / Day
Costs 791,000 389,000 1,180,000 Rs. / Day
No. Of Buses 185 73 258 Nos
Passengers 130,000 45,000 175,000 Nos
Load Factor %age 78.8 74.2 77.50 Weighted Avg
Total Kms /Day 37,000 18,000 55,000 Kms.
Earnings Per KM 18.9 15.94 17.93 Rs. Weighted Avg
Costs Per KM 22.17 20.32 21.56 Rs. Weighted Avg
Avg Vehicle Utilization 232 261 240 Kms. Weighted Avg
Derived from the above
Total Passenger Kms 4,810,000,000 810,000,000 5,620,000,000 Total Psngr-Kms
Safety Factor 0.8 0.8
Average Rev/Psngr 4.33 5.14 5.67 Rs. Weighted Avg
Note: The Average revenue per passenger is derived as Rs.4.33.

The fares are assumed to go down over a period from the present tariff with the decrease in
International oil Prices. However, this decrease is not likely to be more than the 80% on an
average over the project life cycle.

Assumption 1: The Overall decrease in average revenues per passenger is unlikely to be

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lesser than 80% over the next 15 years

Assumption 2: The marginal revenues are assumed to be at Rs.4.33/ passenger over the
project life cycle.

Table 49 Vehicular Population of Mysore

Type of vehicles 1-Jan-06


4 Wheeler 32,431

3 Wheelers 1,6384
2 Wheeler 286,079
Truck 5,937
Bus 2,693
Total 329,146

Figure 20 Vehicular Population in Mysore

The above Table provides the vehicular population of Mysore. The population of Mysore
increases by 2.5% annually. However, our considered opinion is that a project that turns
viable based on the assumption of 2.5% increase in population is in fact non-viable.

Assumption 3: The growth of Population of 2.5% does not significantly impact the project
viability

E-4.3. Survey Data

A survey was conducted of 1860 commuters in Mysore on July 4, 2008. A questionnaire


provided in Annexure 1 was administered to the respondents and details filled up. Two
aspects were investigated in the survey. The respondents’ willingness to shift based on Mode
of Transport which is given in the table below.

Table 50 Survey Data - Mode of Transport of Non-Commuters in Mysore

Mode of Sample Willingness


% Share
Transport size to shift
Cars 160 150 93.75
3 Wheeler 110 110 100
2 Wheeler 1290 1160 89.92
Cycle 300 240 80
Total 1860 1660 -
Average Weight time was found to be 15 minutes
by the commuter

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Figure 21 Sample Size in the CIRT Survey

A second aspect was investigated more closely based on the mode of transport of 2 wheelers.
This assumes greater significance as there are 286,079 two wheelers in use and is the highest
population of vehicles as provided in the table above. It was found that in the two wheelers
segment, there was reluctance to shift to public transport for distances less than 10 Kms. A
further analysis indicated that a total of 70.64% of two wheeler population commuted more
than 10 Kms and these are the target population for the modal shift. This data is provided in
Table below.

Table 51 Percentage of Two Wheelers who would be willing to shift


Distance Shifting
% Share
(km) to Bus
0-5 17.43% 0
5 - 10 11.93% 0
10 - 15 15.60% 15.60%
16 - 20 19.27% 19.27%
21 - 25 7.34% 7.34%
26 - 30 9.17% 9.17%
31 - 35 0.92% 0.92%
36 - 40 4.59% 4.59%
41 - 45 0.92% 0.92%
46 - 50 3.67% 3.67%
> 50 9.17% 9.17%
Total 70.65%

As indicated in the version 1 of the report, (vide section B-2-h) “On having focus group
discussion with the experts in the public transport domain it was concluded that the modal
shift would be to the tune of 30% for cars, 50% for 3 wheelers, 10% for cycles and 70% for 2
wheelers”.

Again an expert panel felt that these figures were unrealistic from past experience and the
rates of shift were scaled down to more realistic levels (vide section E-4-1)” 25% of 70.64% of
the two wheeler riders are pessimistically considered as the probable customers shifting
towards the ITS bus”.

Therefore the target population who could shift to public transport of KSRTC buses are
provided in the Table below.

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Table 52 Total target population for shifting to ITS bus


% Shift Total Vehicle. Prospective
Mode of Transport
Expected Population Customers
2 Wheelers 17.66% 286079 50529
3 Wheelers 12.50% 16384 2048
4 Wheelers 7.50% 32431 2432

Figure 22: Target Population for Modal Shift

It is obvious that one of the success parameters in the ITS initiative surely rests with the two
wheeler population migrating to ITS BUS mode of transport and becoming customers of
KSRTC. These prospective customers will not immediately shift to the new mode of transport.
Therefore, it is to be assumed that the shift is gradual and spans across 4 years. The Table
below provides the assumed shift pattern over a period of 4 years.

Assumption 4: The modal shift is attributable to ITS project and will happen gradually and
over a period of 4 years. Once the prospective customers shift, the convenience of Bus
transport will retain these customers over the Project life cycle.

Table 53 Assumed shift pattern of prospective target customers


Year %age
As per the present plan of KSRTC, the number of buses over the next Year 1 10%
two years would increase from the present 258 to about 500. It is Year 2 20%
assumed that this expansion will occur uniformly over the first three Year 3 30%
years of the project. Similarly, the number of Bus stops on Public Year 4 40%
Private Partnership model is planned to be 100 to begin with and Total 100%
expand to 200 by the year 3. The number of bus terminus are planned
to be 6 with additional 2 terminuses in the second and third year of the project. These
assumptions are captured in the table below:

Assumption 5: The number of buses would increase by 125 in the 2nd and 3rd year of the
project.

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Assumption 6: The number of bus stops under the PPP model would increase by 50 each in
2nd and 3rd year of the project
Assumption 7: The number of Bus Terminus will increase from the present 2 to 6 with an
additional 2 terminus added each in 2nd and 3rd years.

Table 54 - Number of Increased Buses, Bus stops and Bus Terminus in the 1, 2 & 3 year
Period Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Buses
Bus Fitted in the year 250 37 43
Total Buses 250 287 330
Bus Stops
PPP in the year 80 0 0
Total PPP Stops 80 80 80
Bus Terminus
Terminals in Yr 2 1 1
Total Terminals 2 3 4

E-5. Costs and Benefits of the Project

The cost and benefit workings of the project year wise based on the assumptions above are
provided in this section. The costs are taken from the earlier version of the report and for
the purpose of completeness are provided in annexure 2 to this document.

E-5.1. Capital Costs

The Capital Costs of the Project are provided in each category over a period of 15 years in
Table below

Table 55: Capital and Capital Replacement costs for the Project (in Rs. Lakhs)
Capital Pre Op- Project Proj
Bus GIS Project Total
Costs Bus Central Depot Exp Moni- Mgmt
Bus Termi- Soft- DPR Capital
(in Rs. Stop Station Infra Capital- toring Capital-
nus ware etc Costs
Lakhs) ized @2% Costs ized @6%
Year 1 159.25 128.00 5.00 458.48 17.00 4.30 25.56 100.00 15.00 94.33 1,006.92
Year 2 23.57 - 2.50 - - - - - - - 26.07
Year 3 27.39 - 2.50 - - - - - - - 29.89
Year 4 - - - - - - - - - - -
Year 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
Year 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
Year 7 79.63 64.00 2.50 229.24 8.50 2.15 - - - - 386.02
Year 8 11.78 - 1.25 - - - - - - - 13.03
Year 9 13.70 - 1.25 - - - - - - - 14.95
Year 10 - - - - - - - - - - -
Year 11 - - - - - - - - - - -
Year 12 79.63 64.00 2.50 229.24 8.50 2.15 - - - - 386.02
Year 13 11.78 - 1.25 - - - - - - - 13.03
Year 14 13.70 - 1.25 - - - - - - - 14.95
Year 15 - - - - - - - - - -

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E-5.2. Operating Costs

The Operating Costs for the Project are provided in the Table below.

56: Operating Costs for ITS project (in Rs. Lakhs)


Operating Commn Bus Stop Commn Facilities Depot Total
Costs to Display Links to and AMC Infra- Opex
Vehicles &Commn Central structure
Stn

Year 1 10.50 1.92 10.00 98.16 129.16 249.74


Year 2 12.05 1.92 10.00 98.16 130.72 252.85
Year 3 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 4 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 5 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 6 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 7 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 8 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 9 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 10 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 11 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 12 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 13 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 14 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46
Year 15 13.86 1.92 10.00 98.16 132.52 256.46

E-5.3. Benefits Calculations

The benefits of the project are mapped as three major revenue streams viz., Passenger Shift,
Advertisement Revenues and Non Quantifiable Benefits

Passenger Shift

Passenger Shift calculations- The passenger shift data is from the CIRT survey carried out on
July 4, 2008. From the previous section on Data Table 6 and Table 7 the additional number of
Passengers is worked out.

Additional Revenue – The shift in passengers is because of the ITS project (Assumption 4) and
the revenues are at the average revenue per passenger of Rs. 4.33 (Assumption 1& 2)

Total Revenues due to Modal Shift – The Total revenues are taken to be for an average
operating year of 200 Days.

The revenues due to modal shift from 2 Wheeler, 3 Wheeler, 4 Wheeler segments are in the
following tables:

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Table 57: Revenues from Modal Shift 2 Wheelers in Rs. Lakhs


Applying
Additional Additional For 200
Period Shift
Passengers Revenues Days
Pattern
Year 1 0.10 0.10 0.25 50.93
Year 2 0.15 0.25 0.64 127.33
Year 3 0.15 0.40 1.02 203.73
Year 4 0.10 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 5 - 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 6 - 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 7 - 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 8 - 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 9 - 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 10 - 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 11 - 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 12 - 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 13 - 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 14 - 0.51 1.27 254.66
Year 15 - 0.51 1.27 254.66

Table 58: Revenues from Modal Shift 3 Wheelers


Applying For 200
Additional Additional
Period Shift Days (in
Passengers Revenues
Pattern Rs. Lakhs)
Year 1 410 410 1032 2.06
Year 2 614 1024 2580 5.16
Year 3 614 1638 4129 8.26
Year 4 410 2048 5161 10.32
Year 5 0 2048 5161 10.32
Year 6 0 2048 5161 10.32
Year 7 0 2048 5161 10.32
Year 8 0 2048 5161 10.32
Year 9 0 2048 5161 10.32
Year 10 0 2048 5161 10.32
Year 11 0 2048 5161 10.32
Year 12 0 2048 5161 10.32
Year 13 0 2048 5161 10.32
Year 14 0 2048 5161 10.32
Year 15 0 2048 5161 10.32

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Table 59: Revenues from Modal Shift 4 Wheelers


For 200
Applying
Additional Additional Days (in
Period Shift
Passengers Revenues Rs.
Pattern
Lakhs)
Year 1 486 608 1,532 3.06
Year 2 730 1,338 3,371 6.74
Year 3 730 2,067 5,210 10.42
Year 4 486 2,919 7,355 14.71
Year 5 - 2,432 6,129 12.26
Year 6 - 2,432 6,129 12.26
Year 7 - 2,432 6,129 12.26
Year 8 - 2,432 6,129 12.26
Year 9 - 2,432 6,129 12.26
Year 10 - 2,432 6,129 12.26
Year 11 - 2,432 6,129 12.26
Year 12 - 2,432 6,129 12.26
Year 13 - 2,432 6,129 12.26
Year 14 - 2,432 6,129 12.26
Year 15 - 2,432 6,129 12.26

E-5.4. Advertisement Revenues

Advertisement revenues are split into Buses, Bus Stops and Bus terminus. It is assumed that
the split of Buses for the purpose of advertisements is in three segments and the growth of
these segments is gradual over a period of three years. The Premium segment would be Volvo
services and Trunk routes, Standard Segments would be buses passing through dense routes
and rest as others

Assumption 8: Three segments are assumed for in-Bus Advertisements viz., Premium,
Standard and Others. In addition, the growth of these segments is assumed to be gradual over
a period of 3 years. Table 14 has the details

Table 60 Bus Capacity Split, Advertisement Rates and Actual Number of Buses
Period Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Bus Capacity Split and growth
Premium Bus Capacity 10% 15% 20%
Standard Bus Capacity 30% 30% 40%
Others Bus Capacity 60% 55% 40%
Advertisement Rates per day per bus
Premium Bus Advt
2500 4,500 5,500
Collections/ Day / Bus
Standard rate 1500 3,000 3,500
Others 1000 2,200 2,500
Total Number of Buses in each year

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Period Year 1 Year 2 Year 3


Premium Bus 25 43 66
Standard Bus 75 86 132
Others Bus 150 158 132

While the number of buses is calculated in Table 54, it is unreasonable to assume that the
entire capacity is filled by the advertisements. Therefore capacity utilization is assumed as
indicated below

Assumption 9: Capacity utilization is assumed to be partial of the available and costs of


obtaining advertisement is assumed to be 25% of the net revenues

Table 61 Capacity Utilization of Buses for advertisements


Capacity
Bus Segment
Utilization
Premium 50%
Standard 40%
Others 20%

The total revenue accruals from advertisements over a 15 year period are provided below in
table 62:

Table 62: Revenue from In-Bus Advertisement (in Rs. Lakhs)


Expenses
Segment Premium Standard Others Total of Advt
@25%
Year 1 3.75 5.40 3.60 12.75 3.19
Year 2 11.62 12.40 8.33 32.36 8.09
Year 3 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 4 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 5 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 6 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 7 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 8 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 9 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 10 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 11 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 12 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 13 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 14 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97
Year 15 21.78 22.18 7.92 51.88 12.97

E-5.5. Advertisements in Bus Stops and Bus Terminus

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KSRTC has plans of reconstructing the Bus stops under a PPP model and the plan is to take up
100 bus stops in the first year, and 50 each in the next two years. The number of Bus
Terminus is planned to increase by another 4 to a total of 6 over the next two years. The
revenues, capacity utilization estimates are provided below in Table 57, and, Table 18
provides the total year wise revenues from advertisement.

Table 63 Advertisement Rates at Bus stops and Terminus

Revenues Costs Net Capacity Days in


Revenue Source
Rs./Day % Revenue Utilization Year

Revenues at Bus stops 2500 25% 1875 40% 200

Revenues at Bus
4000 25% 3000 70% 200
terminus

Table 64: Revenues from Advertisement in Bus Stop and Bus Terminus (in Rs. Lakhs)
Advt Bus
Revenue Bus Bus Bus Total
Stop
Source stops terminus terminus revenues
Revenues
Year 1 80 2 120 11 131
Year 2 80 3 120 16 136
Year 3 80 4 120 21 141
Year 4 80 4 120 21 141
Year 5 80 4 120 21 141
Year 6 80 4 120 21 141
Year 7 80 4 120 21 141
Year 8 80 4 120 21 141
Year 9 80 4 120 21 141
Year 10 80 4 120 21 141
Year 11 80 4 120 21 141
Year 12 80 4 120 21 141
Year 13 80 4 120 21 141
Year 14 80 4 120 21 141
Year 15 80 4 120 21 141

E-5.6. Total Benefits

The total benefits from Modal shift and advertisements are provided below in this Table

Table 65: Total Benefits from the ITS project (in Rs. Lakhs)

Advt Advt Reduced


Benefit( Shift in Shift Rev. Net Internal
Shift in Rev Rev Pollution
In Rs. 2 in 4 Bus Fuel Efficien Total
3 Whlrs Bus Bus load
Lakhs) Whlrs Whlrs Advts Savings cy
Stops Stands Savings

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Advt Advt Reduced


Benefit( Shift in Shift Rev. Net Internal
Shift in Rev Rev Pollution
In Rs. 2 in 4 Bus Fuel Efficien Total
3 Whlrs Bus Bus load
Lakhs) Whlrs Whlrs Advts Savings cy
Stops Stands Savings

Year 1 50.93 2.06 3.06 9.56 120.00 10.50 38.93 129.60 38.36 403.01
Year 2 127.33 5.16 6.74 24.27 120.00 15.75 91.77 129.60 38.36 558.98
Year 3 203.73 8.26 10.42 38.91 120.00 21.00 144.60 129.60 38.36 714.88
Year 4 254.66 10.32 14.71 38.91 120.00 21.00 190.96 129.60 38.36 818.52
Year 5 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23
Year 6 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23
Year 7 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23
Year 8 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23
Year 9 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23
Year 10 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23
Year 11 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23
Year 12 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23
Year 13 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23
Year 14 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23
Year 15 254.66 10.32 12.26 38.91 120.00 21.00 176.12 129.60 38.36 801.23

E-6. Rate of Return for the Project

Table 60 provides the IRR for the cash flows of ITS project with aggregated Costs and
aggregated benefits

Table 66: Net Benefits of the Project (in Rs. Lakhs)


Total Total Net
Period
Costs Benefits Benefits
Year 1 1,260.00 403.01 -850.00
Year 2 278.92 558.98 280.06
Year 3 286.35 714.88 428.53
Year 4 256.46 818.52 562.06
Year 5 256.46 801.23 544.77
Year 6 256.46 801.23 544.77
Year 7 642.48 801.23 158.75
Year 8 269.49 801.23 531.74
Year 9 271.41 801.23 529.82
Year 10 256.46 801.23 544.77
Year 11 256.46 801.23 544.77
Year 12 642.48 801.23 158.75
Year 13 269.49 801.23 531.74
Year 14 271.41 801.23 529.82
Year 15 256.46 801.23 544.77

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Figure 23: Net benefits of the project

EIRR calculation and NPV at 12% discount rate is provided in table 61 below

Table 67 EIRR and NPV of the project


Project Period EIRR NPV @12% in Rs.
15 years 48% 188,860,015
10 Years 47% 13,144,390
6 years 41% 70,841,177

E-6.1. Over all Project Viability

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It is our considered opinion that the project such as ITS for Mysore is Viable given the
assumptions and data. The returns are positive for periods above 10 years and cost
escalations below 20%.

A project such as this, surely has a time horizon of more than 10 years and is definitely
timely and feasible for the City of Mysore

E-7. Non-quantifiable Benefits of ITS

The Ministry of Urban Development in its draft National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP)
recognizing the increasing urban road congestion and its associated air pollution has
recommended a strategy that “puts primary emphasis on the need to increase the efficiency
of use of road space by favoring public transport and by the use of traffic management
instruments to improve traffic performance and by restraining the growth of private vehicular
traffic”3. Towards increasing the use of public as against personal transport, NUTP
recommends, “Encourage and support investments in facilities which would wean people
away from the use of personal vehicles rather than build facilities which would encourage
greater use of personal motor vehicles”, introducing Intelligent Transport Systems, addressing
concerns on road safety and trauma response, and reducing pollution levels.

This would imply the need for investments in improving public transport”4. Its vision is “to
make our cities the most livable in the world and enable them to become the ‘engines of
economic growth’ that power India’s development in the 21st Century”. Among the many
objectives that the policy has enunciated,

Dr Prem Pangotra and Somesh Sharma5 observed that “the demand for transportation in
urban centres is linked to the residential location choices that people make in relation to
places of work, shopping, entertainment, schools and other important activities. As cities
grow, they support more people and more dispersed settlement patterns. Increasing demand
for transportation is an inevitable outcome of urban growth. A universal tread that has been
observed is that as household incomes grow, people prefer personal transportation to public
transport. The obvious and compelling reason for this is that personal transport maximizes
individual mobility, freedom of choice and versatility that public transport systems cannot
match. However, the experience of cities in many developed and developing countries show
that an efficient and economic public transport system can reduce dependence on personal
transportation.”

Towards making the public transport more attractive, four essential principles need to be
followed – Availability, Accessibility, Assessment, and Acceptance (4A Principle6). Intelligent
Transport Systems provide the needed information on the availability of buses / seats and the
time of arrival / departure. Route optimization encourages point to point accessibility rather
than the tradition hub-spoke routing assuring accessibility of Transport services to the public.

3
“Towards a discussion of support to Urban Transport development in India”, Energy & Infrastructure Unit,
South Asia Region, Document of the World Bank, March 2005 (p 2)
4
Ibid (p 3)
5
Prem Pangotra (Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad) and Somesh Sharma (Bhaskaracharya
Institute for Space Application and Geo-informatics, Gandhinagar), Modeling Travel Demand in
Metropolitan City, Case study of Bangalore, India), WP No. 2006-03-06, March 2006
6
4A- principle developed at eGestalt to address convergence, synergy and transformation of systems

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The features that a transport offers get the commuters to assess the worthiness of the
services, and if found conducive and functional, leads them to accept the services thereby
contributing to a significant modal shift from personal transport. Maintaining the quality of
services is imperative to sustained assessment and acceptance.

“It is imperative that bus systems are planned such that they satisfy the requirements of
users as well as service providers within the limited resource constraints. A flexible,
comfortable, easily available and reliable bus service is expected to shift people from private
vehicles to public transport…. Spatial and temporal availability, reliability, comfort and
affordability are some of the important parameters that influence the usage pattern of bus
services. If an extensive bus network, having high frequency, is available to commuters at
affordable prices (often less than marginal cost of using a two wheeler), it is likely to attract
large number of commuters…. Improvements in reliability, speeds, availability, cost reduction
that can be brought out by improved scheduling, feeder systems, changes in road design, bus
stop location, and signal system, have not been [fully] explored”7

KSRTC’s initiative in setting up ITS covering automatic Vehicle Location and tracking systems,
display systems and a central command station addresses certain core components of ITS.
Other components of the ITS such as cashless smart card based ticketing, automatic
passenger counting, improved traffic management could be taken up in phases.

The potential benefits of the kind of technologies proposed at Mysore far outweigh the
negative impacts such technologies could bring in as summarized in the following list:

Table 68: Potential benefits from technology infusion

Parameters Benefits

• Enhanced Service Quality


Planning • Increased Reliability -Fix SLA and Meet them
• Improve Frequency and travel time
• Data for Demand Assessment
• Scenario Analysis _ Traffic Routing / re routing
• Assign Demand to Bus Stops
• Rapid Bus Services - Vajra /Pushpak Concept ("I will wait for Vajra")
• Increased Passengers and Better Revenues
Revenues • Advertisements

• Dynamic Re routing
Operational • Fuel Economy
efficiency • Real-time Query of Assets
• Monitoring Performance
• Reduction in Vehicle Hours of Operations
• Incident Management
o Breakdowns
o Accidents

7
Mukti Advani and Geetam Tiwari, “Review of Capacity Improvement Strategies for Bus transit Service”, IIT
Delhi, Oct-Dec 2006

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• Lesser Complaints
End User • Improved Mobility
• Premium Image
• Aids Planning of schedules
• Saves Anxiety
• Reduce Travel time Variability
• Next stop Announcements
• Non Riders - Better Information of Services and thereby Modal Shift
• Reduction in personal Vehicle Kilometers
Society • Better Utilization of Public transport infra
• Positioning as a Credible transport

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F: Procurement Plan
In the procurement plan three items have been covered:

a) ITS implementation agency – the system integrator who will provided all
components envisaged in the ITS, integrate, test, roll-out and manage the ITS
services for a period of three years.

b) Selection of Project Management Agency to ensure that the ITS project is


implemented according to specifications and timelines
c) Bio-Diesel supply under the ethanol-diesel bio-fuel project

As the nature of these supplies is different, the procurement plan will be appropriately
worked out.

F-1.2. ITS Implementation agency

The procurement plan for the overall Intelligent Transport System is proposed to be based on
the World Bank procurement guidelines for IT systems – “Standard Bidding Documents (SBD) –
supply and installation of Information Systems – Single Stage Bidding, English Edition, The
World Bank, December 2008”. This SBD for Supply and Installation of Information Systems
(IS1STG-12-08-eng) is recommended for single-stage procurement of supply and installation of
information systems. It may also be used for the procurement of sophisticated or large-scale
IT, possibly including communications technology and services, of systems engineering
services, and of other IT goods/services for which the SBD for Goods or the Request for
Proposal (RFP) approach would be unsuitable. “IT procurement (as defined in the world bank
guidelines) is the common term used to designate all procurements having to do with
computing and communications technologies regardless of their hardware, software, supply or
service components of whatever products or services the Purchaser requests, and extends to
the provision of any other products or services required to make the facility perform to
specifications”.

As the Intelligent Transport System includes computer hardware including digital display units
and software components, it is proposed to be brought under the SBD for supply and
installation of information systems.

The above mentioned SBD contains two types of documents: those which must be used
unchanged and those that should be customized specifically. Sections II, V, VI & VIII of the
SBD will be customized before the tender release and Section I, III & IV will be used
unchanged as mandated.

F-1.3. Project Management Agency

As part of the procurement plan, to manage the ITS deployment an external Expert agency is
needed as the skills do not exist within KSRTC. This will ensure that the objectives are met
and the ITS deployment is supervised and managed by the experts who will advice the Project
Implementation Unit at KSRTC.

The selection of the Project Management Agency is on QCBS with a two stage process. An EOI
to shortlist the firms and an RFP along with draft contracts for a National Competitive
Bidding.

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The EOI and Draft Functional Specifications (TOR) are in Annexure 3 and 4 to this document.

The Contractual and Procurement guidelines of the World Bank will be followed along with
KSRTC procurement guidelines.

The planned activities for the selection of the Project Management agency may be as under:

Part 1 Appointing Project Management Agency and ITS System Integrator

a) Publishing Expression of Interest


(1) EOI for Project Management Agency
(2) EOI for ITS System Integrator
b) Evaluation of EOI
(1) Based on parameters
(2) Communication to the Shortlisted Vendors

c) Release of RFP to the Shortlisted Vendors


(1) Pre-bid Meeting and Technical Clarifications
(2) Changes if any as per discussions in the pre- bid: This will ensure that all
clarifications on the scope of work is provided. In addition, this will also
ensure that there are no proprietary technologies / Vendor(s) bias in the
final RFP

d) Evaluation of the RFP Responses


(1) Technical evaluation by the committee
(2) Financial evaluation by the Committee
(3) Internal Approvals

e) Negotiations and Award of Contract


(1) Financial negotiations
(2) Contractual Review
(3) Internal Approvals for placing Purchase Order

f) Award of Contract

F-1.4. Bio-Diesel supply

As the third part of the procurement plan, the supply and installation of Ethanol based fuel is
to be tendered out. This is an activity that KSRTC has carried out earlier in Karnataka and
will manage the entire installation, Commissioning and Training process in house. Therefore,
the procurement is similar to goods procurement.

The draft tender document is in Annexure 5 to this document

The planned activities for procurement of bio-diesel fuel equipment and installation may be
as under:

Part III Procurement of Bio Diesel Fuel Equipment and Installation

a) RFP release
(1) National Competitive Bidding Procurement

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b) Pre-bid meeting
(1) RFP clarifications for the bidders
(2) Ensuring that there is no vendor Bias in the RFP

c) Evaluation of RFP responses


(1) Technical Evaluation by the Committee
(2) Financial Evaluation by the Committee

d) Negotiations and Award of Contract


(1) Financial negotiations
(2) Contractual Review
(3) Internal Approvals for placing Purchase Order
(4) Award of Contract

F-1.5. Finalization of Contracts

On obtaining feedback on the draft RFP for procurement, KSRTC will finalize the contract
formats and items based on World Bank Procurement format. This essentially involves the
following

a) Incorporation of the Terms of KSRTC procurement as per the regulations and


processes of KSRTC - This would be incorporated into the “Special Conditions”
of the World Bank contract Format
b) Final Decision on the Timelines for procurement to accommodate the
processing times for various activities

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G: Project implementation plan


G-1.1. Internal management plan for ITS 8

KSRTC has its own internal IT department headed by a Chief Systems Manager located at the
KSRTC headquarters in Bangalore, reporting to the MD of KSRTC. The IT Department in
consultation with the top management sets priorities and resource allocation for IT projects;
it also sets a common framework in the adoption of Operating systems, computers, access
control and regulating the use of the PC focused only for official use.

The IT department maintains the IT infrastructure relating to system hardware, system


software, various application software, communication systems, workflows, Data Centres,
Security, and liaisoning with various vendors for keeping the systems updated.

As part of the ITS implementation, it is proposed that the System Integrator (SI) undertakes a
study of the existing operations before implementation of ITS, project clearly the objectives
and goals to be achieved through ITS, and follow through with an evaluation on ITS post-
implementation. This study will focus on key measurable and achievable parameters.

The System Integrator will be expected to undertake the following activities:

Task 1 – Review existing management systems and capabilities

• Interview existing staff


• Broad review of internal management practices
• Identify information flows in critical cross-function areas including:
• Schedule (timetable) development, customer information systems, dispatching
operations
• Dispatch operations, operator timekeeping, payroll, financial management

Task 2 – Identify transit system information technology function requirements

• Identify the activities necessary to support the project both during and after
implementation.
• Make recommendations on how to develop an information technology capability
within the organization.
• Provide recommendations concerning the role of central information technology
functions and those of operating and staff functions.
• Recommend how functions will be undertaken including using internal staff or
outsourcing to specialty contractors

Task 3- Develop operating procedures for information technology

• Develop internal operating procedures (manuals) for transit system information


technology strategy and operations

Task 4 – Estimate resource requirements for continued operation of technology system

8
Source: Jack M Reilly by email on 11th Dec 2008

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• Develop cost and personnel estimates for project implementation and continued
operations.
o Internal staffing costs
o External vendor costs
• Make recommendations on staff development and recruitment if necessary
• Identify risks to implementation schedule due to expectations of staff availability
for data development, acceptance testing, training, etc.

Program management for complex technology projects includes both subject matter
expertise as well as broad project management experience. It should be kept in mind that
technology vendors have presumably considerable experience in installing such systems while
transit system staff has relatively little. This imbalance of experience puts the transit system
at a disadvantage in items such as acceptance testing, project schedule etc.

Project Management is therefore critical that an agency to perform project


management oversight is appointed by KSRTC. It is more important that this agency
have an established track record in technology introduction rather than specific
expertise in transit enterprises. It is critically important that this firm / agency have
experience in technology acceptance testing and have the personal skills and depth
of experience to manage inevitable disputes with technology contractors.

Project Management will be a combined ownership of the KSRTC, the system


integrator or implementation vendor and a third party agency specialized in Project
management, where the third party PM agency will act as a bridge between the
project team of the system implementation vendor and the management of KSRTC.
The details and the mechanisms for effective project management are detailed
below:

G-1.2. Project Implementation Unit (PIU)

KSRTC has set up a Project Implementation Unit (PIU) with the following composition for
monitoring the implementation of the project.

Sl. Officers Designation


1 Sri. C.G.Anand, Chief Mechanical Engineer (Production) PIU - Head
2 Sri. P.S.Anand Rao, Mechanical Engineer (Environment) Member
3 Sri. K. Ramamurthy, Systems Analyst Member
4 Divisional Controller, Mysore Urban Division Member
Sri. H.M.Ramesh, Dy.Works Manager, RWS, Bangalore
5 Member
(Co-ordinating officer for exclusively managing the project)
Sri. Inayat Bhagawan, DTO, Mysore Urban Division
6 Member
(Supporting officer at the implementation site)
Member/
7 Sri. Umesh Babu, Dy. Controller of Stores and Purchases, Central Offices Procurement
Specialist
Smt. Gayathri M.N, Dy. Chief Accounts Officer, Member/
8
Central Offices Financial Manager

G-1.3. Project Management Agency (PMA)

To ensure professional management of the project it is recommended that the Project


implementation be outsourced to a professional agency identified by KSRTC.

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The Project management agency needs to address the following key functional dimensions:

Integration Management
Scope Management
Time Management
Cost Management
Quality Management
HRM
Communications Management
Risk Management
Procurement Management

The project management needs to cover the key project phases – (a) initiating, (b) planning,
(c) executing, (d) controlling, and (e) closing as represented in the following figure:

Figure 24: PM - right sizing of project personnel


In each of the project phases covering – initiating, planning, executing, controlling and
closing, application of the 6-Q framework will ensure that the tasks under each of the phases
are carried out for a definite purpose using the best of techniques and methodologies
covering all the stakeholders’ interest in a timely manner and at appropriate places. This is
detailed in the following table:

Table 69: 6-Q Framework


Project
Why What How When Where Who / Which Whom
Phases

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Project
Why What How When Where Who / Which Whom
Phases
Define Identify steps Committing the Identify Identify Resources – Identify
Project / activities organization timelines for locations for (4M) Men, decision
Initiating

outcomes for Project project project machines, authorities


approval completion completion materials & whose approval
money is internally
required required

Establish Scope Organization Activity Identify Identify the Identify


goals Planning Planning duration locations where broad areas of stakeholders
Scope Tools & estimating action is to responsibility who are
Definition techniques Schedule happen and roles affected by the
Scope Cost estimating Development Identify project
limitations & budgeting Milestones resource
(boundaries) Resource definition requirements
Procurement
Planning

Planning
Quality Planning
Planning
Communication
Planning
Risk Planning –
Identification,
Quantification
Legal
implications
Identify Activity Risk Response Schedule Manage events Source Feedback from
optimal Definition Development Management at identified selection identified
Executing

activities Activity Dependency locations Resource stakeholders


Sequencing relationships acquisition

Verify with Scope Risk Response Schedule Site inspections Who are Feedback
quality verification Control system Control authorized to questionnaire
benchmarks, Cost Control inspect / test
parameters system intermediate
outputs?
Controlling

Performance
Reporting Authorized
system Decision points
Contract
Change Control
System
Procurement
audit
Contract Manage Quality audit Where would Establish Identify
Administratio interfaces the payment be authorized authorized
n amongst made, the signatories of signatories to
Contract various bankers and the the Contract the contract
Work Results providers form of Admin closing – formal
Closing

Contract payment Contract close- acceptance and


Change closure
Requests change control out
system
Seller
invoices Performance
Reporting
Payment
System

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The selection of the Project Management Agency (Consultant) and the key roles to be played
by the PMA are indicated in the following diagrams which are illustrative of the overall scope
and responsibility of the consultant appointed by CIRT on behalf of KSRTC.

Phase – 1 PMA appointment

Clearance received Release of


from funding Preparation of Approval of EOI Advertisement in
agency on the DPR national
EOI Notices Notices
& RFP
newspapers

Last Date for bid


Approval of bids Preparation of Bid opening & submission /
by PSC evaluation reports short-listing profiles by
interested
agencies
Figure 25: PMA appointment

Mobilization by Kick-off meetings Review by the Submission of


the Consultant - PSC PSC inception report

Approval of the State-1: n – PSC workshop


Consultant’s Review by the
reports PSC

Figure 26: Project preparation

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Core Processes

Activity
Sequencing
Scope Schedule
Planning Development
Activity
Definition Activity
Duration
Estimating
Scope Cost
Definition Budgeting
Resource
Planning

Cost
Estimating Project Plan
Development

Facilitating Processes

Quality Communication Risk Risk Risk


Planning Planning Identification Quantification Development

Organizational Staff acquisition Procurement Solicitation


Planning planning Planning

Figure 27: PM - Core and facilitating processes


Project Plan Execution

Facilitating Processes

Information Team Quality


Distribution Development Assurance

Scope
verification

Contract
Solicitation Source Selection
Administration

Figure 28: Project Plan execution

In brief there will be three key processes in the overall implementation of the ITS Project:

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1. Program Management Process

The processes related artifacts identified under this category include:

Communication Matrix: The communication matrix defines the information requirements,


distribution patterns, ownership of transmission, frequency of the event and format and
media through which the information needs to be communicated. The matrix is
comprehensive and encompasses all the project contacts to take care of inter project
dependencies which are vital in this program. The template for Communication Matrix is
enclosed as Appendix ‘A’.

Issue Management: Every project and the program as a whole shall have issues propping up
that directly affect schedule and indirectly cost. The issues are categorized depending on
their likely impact and the resolution path is pre defined rather than evolve a path during the
manifestation of an issue. An issue tracker is provisioned on the PMT website. Issues can be
posted by any of the project stakeholders and the same would be tracked until resolution.

Risk Management: The program as a whole and the projects there in would have associated
with them a set of elements that would be perceived as a risk towards program/project
failure. The idea here is to capture these risks and find mitigation avenues. This section does
not yet provide a framework (where there are quite a few well known ones and one could be
chosen or customized at a later stage) for risk mitigation but provides a template for
capturing risks, a sort of a risk list.

Project Dependency Matrix: All the projects under the current eGovernance initiative ambit
have many dependencies, on external agencies as well as on each other. This matrix is
targeted towards capturing these dependencies and documenting them, such that a uniform
execution of the projects can be ensured and risk related to integration is mitigated.

2. Project monitoring & control process

The processes related artifacts identified under this category include:

Change Management Plan: A typical project always encounters a need for change. This
change could be in terms of scope, cost, quality and schedule. A Change Management Plan
shall ensure that all changes to the project are reviewed and approved in advance;
coordinated across the entire project and all stakeholders are notified of approved changes
to the project. The Change Management Plan and the Change Request Format need to be
furnished by the PMA to CIRT before commencing the project management activities.

Project Fortnightly Status Reports: The projects have extensive interdependencies on each
other in the form of application and data standards, deployment environment, and
interlinked schedules. This situation demands the projects be reviewed as frequently as
possible. A period of fifteen days has been decided with an assumption that an incremental
change which would need appraisal as well as intervention at this periodicity. Once again to
maintain consistency across the projects, the Fortnightly status report template need to be
furnished by the PMA to CIRT before commencing the project management activities.

Minutes of Meeting: Minutes of meetings are an important part of any project as well as the
program as a whole. Major decisions and future directions are evolved from this. They are
revisited often to compare and cross check. The MOMs are recorded in their simplest form

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highlighting the discussion points and decision and ownership for actionables (for individual
project and program level).

Procurement Forecast Plan: However, under this category, one process assumes
significance. The development and deployment environment needs of each of the projects.
Considering the fact that the procurement cycles are time consuming and also the delivery
timelines for vendors, a process is defined to help accelerate decision making and support
project schedules.

Project Plan: By the time a project team arrives at the first milestone of delivering the
Inception report, it is expected that the high level project plan has been evolved and
included in the report. The project plan should conform to the following:

It is mandatory that the project plan be in MS Project

The project phases planned out should conform to the deliverables (high and medium
level) committed to in the description of services to contract and the inception report
submitted

The project plan should be revised every fortnight in line with the status report
submitted and reviewed. The conformance of milestones and activities should not be at
variance for a period of more than one fortnightly review. Revision history should be
strictly maintained

The project plan should be uploaded onto the PMT website for access to all those
authorized stakeholders. The responsibility to do so shall rest with the concerned project
manager.

Project Phase Plan in Detail: At the exit of each phase, the plan for next phase should be
available in detail. It may be noted here that the project plan submitted as part of the
inception report is a high level plan. Progressive elaboration of various factors is
expected as the project moves into different phases. The phase plan should conform to
the following requirements:

Should be in MS Project
Should be detailed, with clear breakdown of activities
Activity notes should contain the resource assignment details
The plan should be revised every fortnight similar to the master project plan
Project manager shall ensure the availability of the plan on the PMT Website.

G-1.4. Project Deliverables Management

The high level deliverables common across projects have generally been identified as follows:

Project Inception Report


Software Requirements Specifications
Architecture Document (Conceptual and Physical Architecture)
High Level Design
Detailed Design Document
Application Development Plan, Pilot, Scope, Test Data required, Security, deployment
and other infrastructure services for the project)
Integration with existing Systems document

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User Acceptance Test Plan


User Acceptance Test Report
Pilot Implementation Plan
Pilot Feedback Report
Implementation Readiness Report
Training Plan
Training report
Deployment Plan
Deployment Readiness Report

While the list is indicative, each of the deliverable comprises of components that include
physical and electronic artifacts. Each of these deliverables will be submitted by the
vendors.

Program management involves a large variety of activities across different projects and
varied stakeholders. The aim of putting in place a well defined process framework ensures
conformity across the project and stakeholders. While the framework takes care of regular
processes, clarity of approach and expectations, the project managers can dedicate their
time better to ensuring the realization of the objectives and vision of KSRTC.

As part of the overall program management, the Project management agency will also
undertake validation tests of the implementation, quality audit on the system and coordinate
with the implementing vendor to ensure that the system operating procedures are
established, documented, tested, manpower trained, processes modified if necessary,
obtaining acceptance for a period of six months from the date of the successful launch of the
pilot.

G-1.5. Project progress measurement and control

olling Project Performance will be measured regularly to identify variances from the plan. A control
mechanism will be set in place that would include taking preventive action in anticipation of
possible problems. The controlling process
will include the following elements:

Performance Overall Change


In addition, the project management
Reporting Control
process would set up the following
management mechanism:

Interdependency Management: Facilitating Processes


Identification and management of
Scope Schedule Cost
interdependent items and variables across
Change Control Control
the different components of the project –
Control
communication, power, civil
infrastructure, ITS components inside
Quality Risk Resource
buses, bus stations and at bus stops Control Response Control
control
Issue Management: Interactive and
collaborative identification, management
and disposition of issues (delays, failures, Figure 29: PM measurement & control
change in plan, change in specifications,

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etc) across the different project elements, including definitive issue resolution closeout,
documenting issue history etc

Plan version control: documenting history files reflecting prior state and baseline plan

Document Management: Full document storage and management including collaboration and
document version control accessible to Project management team members

Cascading: automated flow-through of project and task changes through inter-related and
interdependent projects to determine the potential effect of delays and failures; effects of
schedule changes and resource allocations in one component on other components of the
project helping trace the original causes

Metrics: Full array of management, financial and resources allocation / utilization indices.

The project progress will be monitored based on fortnightly reports covering the following
parameters: Accountability, skills, collaboration, reporting, alerting, quality control,
escalation procedures.

G-1.6. Project Implementation Vendor (PIV)

In addition to the Project management unit being set up, the implementation vendor will
have to set up their own project monitoring mechanisms and will report to the Project
Monitoring Agency for which the PMA will provide the necessary templates.

The implementation of the project will be undertaken by the winning bidder which can be
individual bidder or a consortium. KSRTC will award the contract which will include
implementation of the project meeting the requirements of the RFP. The contract
awarded to winning bidder will also include the “Operation & Management of the ITS
facilities setup for the project for a period of three years. Hence the same contractor who
implements the project will also be responsible for the maintenance & operations of post
implementation.

Procurement Process Management

KSRTC will float tenders for global participation on a two-bid system that consists of
Technical bid and Commercial bid. The cost of bid document will be announced along with
the last date of purchase of tender document/RFP and date and time of opening of bids.

The bid process including the Functional, Technical, general instructions & commercial
details and the legal contracts are detailed in the Request for Proposal (RFP).

The tender procurement norms furnished in the RFP will be adopted for the selection of
vendor for implementation of the project and as well as Operations & Maintenance of the
project.

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G-1.7. Project Plan - Schedule, Milestone & Work Breakdown


Table 70: Project Plan
No. Delivery Areas Start Date End Date
(T0 + weeks) (T0 + weeks)
1. Date of Award of Contract T0 T0+1
2. Procurement of hardware, Software licenses T0+1 T0+16
3. Development of Application Software T0+1 T0+21
4. System Integration T0+21 T0+25
5. Procurement & Integration of GPS System T0+10 T0 + 16
6. Development & Testing of Display System Prototype T0 + 4 T0 + 16
7. Procurement & Installation of Display Systems for 100 Buses T0 + 16 T0 + 24
8. Procurement & Installation of Display Systems for Bus Terminals T0 + 5 T0 + 23
9. GPS/GPRS integration with all modules of ITS and Data Centre. T0 + 16 T0 + 26
10. Integration of all modules T0 + 26 T0 + 30
11. Acceptance Testing T0 + 30 T0 + 34
12. Pilot run on 10 Buses and Performance testing, Acceptance T0 + 34 T0 + 38
13. Deployment on 100 Buses T0 + 38 T0 + 46
14. Deployment on remaining 390 Buses T0 + 46 T0 + 56
Table 71: Project Plan - Gantt chart
Sl Track Name Durati Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4
No on
Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Date of award of 1 wk
1
contract

Delivery of
2 hardware to Data 15 wks
Centre

Application
3 20 wks
Development

4 System integration 4 wks

Procurement and
5 6 wks
integration of GPS/
Development and
testing of prototype
6 display systems of bus 12 wks
and stops
Procurement and
installation of display
7 systems for 300 buses 8 wks
initially
Procurement and
installation of
8 18 wks
display systems in
bus terminals
GPRG/GPG
integration with all
9 modules and Data 10 wks
Centre
Integration of all
10 modules 4 wks

11 Aceptance Testing 4 wks

12 Pilot run on 10 buses 4 wks

Deployment on 100
13 8 wks
buses

Deployment
14 onremaining 100 10 wks
buses

15 Training 2 wks

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Important Note: This project schedule does not account for delays that are not controllable
directly. The above Schedule is subject to change depending upon the complexities of the
project and variations in the requirements during the development and implementation
phase.

G-1.8. Deliverables
Software Requirement Specification
Project Plan
User Acceptance Test Plan
Test Plan
System Architecture
Information Architecture
Visual Design
System Design
Test Case
Coding standards
Source code
Test cases
Test reports
Release note
User manual and Training Plan
Support plan. Roles & Responsibilities of key stakeholders

An overview of the roles and responsibilities of the four key stakeholders – KSRTC, CIRT,
Implementation vendor and the Program Management Agency (Consultant) are outlined
below. However during the finalization of the contract with the external agencies, the roles
and responsibilities will be detailed out with corresponding liability clauses.

1. KSRTC (PIU)
a) Provide timely approvals at various stages of the progress of the project and
release the funds in a phased manner based on the progress of the project and
in terms of the commercial contract with the implementation vendor based on
clearances and certifications by the Project Management Agency (Consultant)
appointed by KSRTC.
b) Arrange for necessary permissions for entry and exit of authorized personnel
of the implementation vendor and their consortium partners if any, the
Project management agency (Consultants)
c) Provide an independent office suite to the PMA for the period of project
execution at Mysore with communication facilities and other basic essentials

d) Arrange for meetings with key officials of KSRTC as needed and to have the
internal IT team of KSRTC for any integration of ITS with existing applications

e) Provide necessary assistance as and when required for the implementation


vendors and the Project Management Agency during the project execution
phases

f) Undertake effective strategies for brand building of the new Intelligent


Transport system to encourage use of the KSRTC services in Mysore.

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g) Arrange for transfer of knowledge to a team of training instructors from the


three training institutes of KSRTC to help ongoing training in the use of new
ITS for Drivers, Conductors and other users within KSRTC
2. Project management agency (PMA)
a) Provide adequate support and assistance to KSRTC in the vendor selection
process including bid process management, vendor evaluation, providing
clarifications on various terms of reference

b) Closely coordinate with the Project monitoring committee during various


stages of the Project management phases as detailed below:
(1) Ensure that the scope, time, cost, quality, people, communication,
procurement, integration and risks are effectively managed to deliver the
project as per the terms and conditions
(2) Effectively liaison with the implementation vendor, various key
stakeholders within KSRTC officials
(3) Provide for adequate manpower to cater to various activities of the
project management
(4) Monitoring the project progress as per the project schedule and submit
periodical reports to KSRTC.
(5) Raise timely averts to critical events and slippages and coordinate with
KSRTC for timely course corrections and approvals.
(6) Develop appropriate templates for project monitoring and obtain
clearance of the same from Project monitoring committee.
3. Project Implementation Vendor (PIV)
a) Responsible for complete implementation of the ITS project as stipulated
under the terms and conditions on awarding the contract including meeting
the project milestones, delivering the assured quality in the supply of
products and services and effective integration of various components for a
seamless interface.

b) Ensure provisioning adequate staff during the operations phase to deliver


quality services as per the contract and terms of reference

c) Ensure that the service level metrics are adhered to and in the event of
unforeseen events provide quick and necessary alerts to the nominated official
of KSRTC.

d) Offer training to selected set of users in KSRTC in the use of various devices
and information in the Intelligent Transport System of KSRTC.
e) As part of implementing the automatic vehicle location (AVL) system under
ITS, the system integrator will ensure that with improved information quality
and extensive data, will address and improve (1) On-time performance –
through assessment based on data for each time-point and rating associated
with each level of deviation from on-time; (2) Increasing the efficiency
through proper scheduling of transit services; (3) Analyzing the sources of
delay such as long waiting times at stops, intersection delays or street
congestion, etc; (4) End of trip analysis – given the distribution of actual
terminal to terminal running times, a transit analysis can develop overlay
times which allow for schedule recovery and a reasonable break for drivers,
supporting trade-off between reliability and efficiency based on good data; (5)
Identification of bottlenecks in spacing out schedules; (6) Reliability analysis

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to ensure consistency in arrival and departure times and reducing the


passenger waiting time. The success factors would include:
(1) Development of appropriate tools to assist in making the decisions
described in the previous section. These tools would include a graphic
description of the operating environment.
(2) Adapting these tools to common desktop software programs such as
Microsoft Access and Microsoft Excel for use by transit analysts
(3) A reassessment of existing data capture and analysis methods to identify
redundancies in data entry or processing
(4) Providing sufficient technical assistance to train users not only in the
functional operation of the software but also how it might be applied to
specific transit operations analyses.
(5) Detailed requirements are provided in the RFP for the ITS.
4. Project Evaluation Agency

A Project Evaluation Agency (PEA) selected as an external third party agency shall:

(1) Undertake pre-and post-implementation studies to monitor the impact of


the project socio, economic, environmental perspectives.
(2) Design appropriate questionnaires and take up sampling and data
collection from key stakeholders including the commuters, financial
parameters, value perception, time saved etc before and after the project
implementation.
(3) Submit a report to the PSC on Pre-project studies and parametric values
(4) Submit a report to the PIU after six months of the launch of the project
comparing the findings of the pre-post project effects.

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H: ITS Operational Plans


Maintenance, upgrade, replenishments, Operations & financial monitoring mechanisms, roles
and responsibilities, managing warranties and claims, review of business models.

ITS must be effectively maintained and managed to ensure that all services are delivered
without any break. The system needs to be covered with Service Level Guarantees as part of
the Service Level Agreements (SLA) to be signed with the System implementation and
integration vendor.

H-1.1. Service Metrics

The Quality of service metrics in respect of various sub-systems are indicated below:

Table 72: Service Metrics


ITS Applications Bench marks
ITS Application Availability 99.00%
Functional requirements upgrade < 60 days
Computing accuracy 100%
Customer Satisfaction level >80%
DIT user satisfaction level >80%
Hosting Centre
Minimum concurrent connects to the Command 500
Centre
Availability of systems at Data Centre 99.00%
Resumption of online ITS services 1 hr
Data availability 100%
Data accuracy 100%
Capacity of the database server Handle 6000 service
transactions /hr
Capacity of the Application Server Handle 6000 service
transactions /hr
Availability of agreed services over the internet 100%
Local Area Network at the Command centre
Network availability 99%
Network Latency Average of > 75
milliseconds per month

Uptime of Back Office Servers > 99%


Time to restore back office servers from failure < 1 hr
Client Access

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ITS Applications Bench marks


Grievance and Complaints settlement < 7 days
Customer Satisfaction measure > 75%
support response < 10 Sec
Average time for service at the customer premises <12 hrs
Business Development
Percentage of increase in the transactions every 10%
quarter

The basic procedures for the Maintenance & Support and administration of computing
resources of ITS Project are furnished below.

It is expected to develop a perfect synergy between the user and the machine to Define,
Identify, Analyze, Maintain, and communicate on-line data between the end users and the
decision makers. The Project Organization hierarchy provides delegation of responsibility at
all levels and end-to-end Role-Definition of the personnel.

H-1.2. Maintenance Plan

The maintenance team will work for providing a robust system without any down time by
applying a comprehensive maintenance policy incorporating both Hardware and Software
maintenance.

1. Hardware Maintenance Plan

All the necessary hardware required for the project like Servers and Network Components,
Computers, peripherals and other associated components would be sourced from reputed and
pre-approved Vendors. The implementing agency will have agreements with such vendors.
VMUs shall be maintained in good condition and defective units shall be replaced at any of
the designated locations.

Maintenance is broadly classified as Preventive and Reactive.

a) Preventive Maintenance

The user shall be responsible for doing routine maintenance like virus scan and update, UPS /
Generator/ A/C maintenance as per the User Manual supplied. The maintenance activities are
followed to prevent any breakdown. Standard/genuine spares would be maintained for any
urgent replacement.

b) Reactive Maintenance:
(1) If a breakdown occurs, the user shall report the nature of breakdown to
the administrator.
(2) The administrator will generate the complaint number and dispatch the
maintenance team immediately to the concerned location.
(3) The maintenance team will attend and sort out the problem. They will
generate a service report and submit to the administrator.
(4) The administrator closes the complaint number and files it in the
breakdown register.

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2. Software Maintenance Plan

The vendor shall provide Software Updates, patches/fixes, new versions/releases of all the
Application software and System software as and when it takes place. The Vendor on its own
will also install and set these updates on all the components of the System. Troubleshooting
and Customization of all the Application software will be part of this activity. The Vendor will
provide a comprehensive maintenance support to the user for all the Hardware, Software and
material taken by operator.

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I: Notes on queries raised


I-1. Intelligent Transport System
(1) The comments on economic and financial analysis are discussed in this supplementary
report in detail.
Inadequate information has been provided about the travel demand and characteristics of urban commuters
within Mysore City. More specifically, baseline information about bus users and their characteristics is
minimal. The consultants should compile the following information and present it in the report.
• Number of bus routes
• % of city road length having bus routes
• Bus route network density
• % of population within 500 meters of each bus route
• Average trip length of passengers
• Fare structure
• Average operating cost per kilometer
• Average revenue per passenger kilometer

While these data are mentioned in the Detailed Project Report submitted by CIRT9 in the
summary as well as in the body of the document, we provide the updated data consolidated
as given below:

Table 73: Project Data

# Data elements Urban Rural

1 Number of buses 185 73


2 Number of Passengers per day 1.30 Lakhs 0.45 Lakhs
3 Load Factor 78.8% 74.2%
4 Average Vehicle utilization per day per bus 232 Kms 261 Kms
5 Number of bus stops 484
6 Average Total length covered per day in Kms 37,000 18,000
7 Costs incurred per day INR 7.91 Lakhs 2.89 Lakhs
8 Revenue per day INR 7.30 Lakhs 3.89 Lakhs
9 Earnings per kilometer 18.90 15.94
10 Cost per kilometer 22.17 20.32
11 Advertisement revenues per month (INR) Ordinary buses (4500 /month)
Volvo buses (31,290 /month)
12 Mysore District Population (census 2001) 2,641,027

According to the census of 2001, Mysore city had a total population of 799,228 with 406,363
males and 392,865 females, making it the second largest city in Karnataka. The gender ratio of
the city is 967 females to every 1000 males and the population density is 6223.55 persons per
km². Mysore has a total area of 128.42 km². Among the population, 76.76% are Hindus, 19% are
Muslims, 2.84% are Christians and the remaining belongs to other religions. The city had a
population growth of 20.5% in the decade 1991–2001. Nineteen percent of the population in

9
Word document titled “Part_1_._Final_07.08.08.doc” dated 30th September 2008

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Mysore lives below the poverty line and 8.95% of the population live in slums. 33.3% of the
population in Mysore city belongs to the working class. People belonging to Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled tribes contribute to 15.1% of the population10. The current population is over 2
million and the details of the demographic distribution are not available.

Mysore City has a total of 1093 Kms of Municipal Roads with 5 Kms of State level roads, a total
number of 767 buses both from KSRTC and other Private buses; Private registered vehicles are
289,27811.

(2) Information on urban travel demand and characteristics has been provided based on a study conducted by
M/s Transport Operations Planning and Informatics (page 36) but the year of study has not been
mentioned. For instance, the TOPIC study mentions that of the 5.7 Lakh passenger trips generated pr day in
Mysore city, 12.72% use buses. This which works out to 72,500 passenger trips per day. However, table in
page 35 indicates that 1.79 lakh passengers use the buses each day. If the TOPIC study , it is more than 10
years old, then the DPR consultants should undertake some supplementary studies to validate / update the
old information and estimate the current travel demand and its characteristics.

All the numbers indicated have been revised in this supplementary document under the
financial analysis section.

(3) An important component of the DPR is to establish the viability of the project through an economic and
financial analysis. Costs, benefits, revenues and expenses need to be assessed to enable this analysis. As
this has not been done, the DPR consultants should complete this analysis and present it in a separate
chapter

eGestalt technologies engaged by KSRTC to undertake the RFP preparation for the ITS project
at Mysore, have undertaken this analysis on behalf of KSRTC and the required analysis is
provided in the financial analysis section of this document.

(4) There are many queries regarding the implementation Process (Ref pages 88 to 91). It is not clear whether
the staff in Project Management Office (PMO) which is to be set up to implement the project will be from
KSRTC or outsourced. If they are to be outsourced, then an appropriate procurement plan needs to be
suggested for selecting individual / consortium of consultants. Would the PMO procure the equipment
according to their specifications or according to the specifications mentioned in the DPR? Would the PMO
be responsible for operations and maintenance as well? If so, what would be the duration of such a
contract?

As indicated in the DPR under reference, the Project Management Agency (PMA) (Section F-
2[P 92]) will be selected through a separate tender process to ensure that the project
implementation is managed professionally. A Project monitoring Committee has also been
proposed at the apex level to represent the key stakeholders within KSRTC. The
recommendation is set up this committee with the chairman being nominated by MD of KSRTC
and would have representatives from Finance, stores, Engineering, Civil & Electrical and IT
departments.

The ITS project is proposed to be implemented through a two-stage process: EOI & RFP

10
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mysore#Demographics
11
Mysore City Development Plan under JNNURM Scheme, Mysore CDP.pdf, 28 Sep 2006, (P68), published on
http://www.kuidfc.com/

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(1) To release an expression of interest (EOI) to solicit key players in the field based on certain
pre-qualifying criteria and to select the solution providers who meet these criteria. (A draft
of the EOI is attached)

(2) Based on discussions with the select list of EOI respondents, KSRTC would hold discussions
with each of them to evaluate the core technology options keeping in view the state-of-art
technologies, reliability etc. The RFP, revised based on the inputs from the solution
providers, would be issued to the selected list of solution providers which will contain only
the core functional requirements, and the operational, legal and commercial specifications.
The technology architecture and design is proposed to be left to the choice of the solution
providers. This is expected to bring out the best technology options which will first be
evaluated. The commercial evaluation would be taken up after short listing the technically
qualified solution providers and would be based on L-1. This would be in line with the
guidelines provided by World Bank

World Bank procurement guidelines recommend the Two-stage bidding12 under section 2.6 –
“In the case of turnkey contracts or contracts for large complex facilities or works of a
special nature or complex information and communication technology, it may be undesirable
or impractical to prepare complete technical specifications in advance. In such a case, a two-
stage bidding procedure may be used, under which first unpriced technical proposals on the
basis of a conceptual design or performance specifications are invited, subject to technical as
well as commercial clarifications and adjustments, to be followed by amended bidding
documents13 and the submission of final technical proposals and priced bids in the second
stage”.

Therefore, the procurement process will not include the technical specifications detailed in
the DPR, but would follow these guidelines. The operations and maintenance of the ITS
infrastructure will be on a build – operate model for a contractual period of 3 years,
extendable based on performance of the solution provider measured on clear service level
metrics and governed by a set of Service level agreements.

(5) In the section on BOQ and Cost Estimates (page 96 to 101), the basis for the unit rates has not been
mentioned. It would be useful to indicate the source from where these unit rates have been obtained
(schedule of rates / catalogs / recent contracts / quotations etc) to provide some reliability to cost
estimates.

The estimates are based on information available on the net and in consultation with
technology players. These estimates are likely to come down by choice of technology and the
extent to which various features can be offered.

(6) We were given to understand that the bust stop upgradation work amount to Rs. 480 Lakhs is to be
implemented under a separate program. Please clarify whether this is to be included under this project or
not. If this is to be included, then the typical design and specifications for a bus stop needs to be provided in
the DPR. If there are other buildings or structures to be constructed as part of this project, the DPR will
have to provide the design details and specifications for each of these as well.

12
World Bank Procurement Guidelines, ProcGuid-10-06-ev1.doc, published on http://web.worldbank.org/
13
In revising the bidding documents in the second stage the Borrower should respect the confidentiality of the
bidders’ technical proposals used in the first stage, consistent with requirements of transparency and
intellectual property rights.

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The bus stop upgradation is not a part of the project and is being handled separately.

(7) The DPR has not addressed the Environmental and social issues and neither has an impact assessment
been made. As was indicated in the generic TOR for preparation of DPR, there is a need to indentify
environmentally and socially sensitive areas, assess the broad social and environmental effects due to the
implementation of the project proposal – Identify all significant construction and operation phase activities
that can lead to negative environmental impacts in terms of air and noise pollution, water pollution, visual
intrusion, community severance, impacts on vegetation and land degradation. Suggest mitigation
measures to minimize the negative impacts – undertake quantitative / qualitative assessment of
environmental and social impacts to provide requisite understanding of such impacts to all stakeholders
and identify environmental and social management measures that will restrict the negative impacts to
acceptable levels. Detailed EIA / EMP, SIA and RAP shall be carried out in the later phase of the project
depending on the quantum of the impacts. This needs to be incorporated in the DPR.

An Environmental Impact Survey documents the physical, socio-economic, natural resource


and cultural characteristics related to a project, allowing project leaders to choose a solution
that best meets the needs of affected communities, residents and commuters while
protecting the quality of the environment. Only then can final design and construction begin.

The technology of Intelligent Transport System does not have environmental impact as the
necessary electronic equipment will be installed inside the vehicles and electronic display
screens located at bus stops and bus stations.

The book “Transportation Infostructures” emphasizes the need for several human factors to
be addressed when assessing ITS technology14. The human factors include the cultural
characteristics.

• The potential threat to privacy

o Privacy of Drivers affected when tracked and monitored on the automatic


vehicle location and Tracking system, as they are answerable for route
deviations, long hours of stoppage, reasons for skipping a bus stop, etc; but this
is necessary to improve the operational efficiency of the fleet management

o Privacy of commuters affected when information on routes and buses are


provided on SMS or cable TV broadcast; but SMS will only be sent to those who
seek information and no advertisement content will be sent to the mobile
phones. Similarly when broadcasting route related information through Cable
TV, it will be ensured that such display does not affect the viewing pleasure of
the users

• The potential threat to mobility and changes to individual travel behavior


o With dynamic passenger information being made available, there is less
freedom for commuters to use their personal vehicles, which provide ample
privacy for the choice of the routes and planning their schedules
• The potential threat to local democracy

14
Transportation Infostructures: The Development of Intelligent Transportation Systems, By Diebold Institute
for Public Policy Studies, Published by Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995

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o With information being widely available, the Driver / Conductor may lose
importance / control with the passengers

• The high cost, and the possibility of giving privilege to wealthier individuals

o Will investment in ITS result in increase in fares, thereby affecting the less
affordable population in using the bus services? No hike is proposed by KSRTC an
account of introducing the ITS enabled services, as these costs are proposed to
be recovered through higher operational efficiency, increased load factor of the
buses and through the potential of advertisement revenues

• The loss of control over vehicle and route choices

o Certain stakeholders within KSRTC – the drivers, conductors and scheduling staff
may lose control due to dynamic schedule management facilitated by Automatic
Vehicle location and Tracking system

• The high level of training needed for people to use the system
o Technology calls for new skills and could affect senior drivers and operational
staff; Training has been addressed in the DPR as an intervention across different
stakeholders and transfer of knowhow
• The inability of people to cope with a constant flow of information

o While the literate commuters may suffer from information overload, the
illiterate commuters may have a serious issue in being able to read the display
inside the bus, at the bus stops and at bus terminals; the literacy rate of urban
Mysore is considerably higher than that of the state average, at 82.8%15. With
the deep penetration of mobile phones in India, this is not perceived as a
serious problems as people are use to information overload; in addition KSRTC
would continue to use the services of the conductors in the buses to assist those
who cannot make use of the display facilities, supported by voice
announcements

The benefits, some of which are not quantifiable are listed under the next section.

I-1.1. Additional Comments from the Meeting on 16 December 2008


a) Provisioning of Help Desk : in order to address the effectiveness of the ITS
Service, it is proposed to include a Helpdesk at the central Control Room
where the ITS facility is established. The purpose of this help desk is to
(1) Provide a well publicized Telephone number and an email id for
Registering complaints and suggestions from the citizens
(2) 109
(3) Provide a tracking number to the citizen on their complaints
(4) Highlight the complaint to the right authority at KSRTC.
(5) Follow-up and closure of the complaint or suggestion
(6) Information to the citizen on the action taken

15
http://encyclopedia.stateuniversity.com/pages/15592/Mysore.html">Mysore - Origin of name, History,
Climate, Government and Politics, Transport, Demographics, Education, Media, Sports, Sources
http://encyclopedia.stateuniversity.com/pages/15592/Mysore.html

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b) Functioning of the help desk will be reviewed by the Mysore Head of KSRTC
periodically and action taken report submitted to the Project Implementation
Agency

c) This addresses the need to follow-up on the citizen suggestions and complaints
and will be incorporated in the RFP as one of the Functional / Technical
requirements
(1) Maintenance of the system beyond the stipulated 3 years – It is to be
ensured that the system installed will survive beyond the first stage of 3
years of the project. This can be attended by
i. Providing a clear handover from the existing vendor to the next.
RFP has the exit criteria incorporated. However, this needs to be
strengthened in the Special Conditions to the Contract

ii. A handover report from the existing vendor with “learning” thereof
for smooth functioning. This shall incorporate a Systems Operating
Procedure document that will be generated from the initial period
and revised periodically as per the experience “on-the-ground”

(2) The ESMF survey covering random selection of citizens highlight three
core components (1) Implement the ITS project as quickly as possible, (2)
physically Secure the Display units at the bus stands and stops against
vandalism, and (3) display passenger information system in Kannada,
Hindi, and English

I-2. Ethanol blended Diesel


(1) The DPR has not established the viability of the project through an economic and financial analysis. Costs,
benefits, revenues and expenses need to be assessed to enable this analysis. As this has not been done, the
DPR consultants should complete this analysis and present in a separate chapter
The socio-economic benefits are addressed in Section C-6 of Part II of the DPR referenced in
the footnote. The economic and financial analysis is detailed under Section F of Part II of the
DPR referenced in the footnote
(2) The DPR has not indicated the procurement plan and implementation process for this component of the
project. The DPR consultants should prepare these and include in the DPR

KSRTC would float a tender for the same and will follow the procurement guidelines
(3) In the section on BOQ and Cost Estimate the basis for the unit rates has not been mentioned. It would be
useful to indicate the source from where these unit rates have been obtained (schedule of rates / catalogs /
recent contracts / quotations etc) to provide some reliability to the cost estimates
Quote from a company is in annexure C of the DPR in part II reference in the footnote

(4) The DPR consultants should provide functional specifications for the various equipment and fuel which is
required to be procured as part of this component
Functional specifications are listed under section E-4 of Part II of the DPR referenced in the
footnote

(5) The DPR has not addressed the environmental and social issues and neither has an impact assessment
been made. This needs to be included in the DPR

Environmental Impact Assessment is detailed in Section C-8 of Part II of the DPR referenced in
the footnote.

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Detailed Project Report – Intelligent Transport System and ethanol Diesel

J: About CIRT, the consultants to KSRTC on the ITS


and e-diesel project
Having obtained the grant, KSRTC zeroed on Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT) for
preparing a detailed project report and appointed them as consultants for the project with
the responsibility to prepare:

♣ Detailed Project Report


♣ Tender documents,
♣ Prequalification documents
♣ Bill of Materials/System requirement specifications
♣ Floating of tenders and tender evaluation, selection of the contractor
and award of contract will be under taken by the technical staff of
KSRTC.

J-1.1. Brief Profile

CIRT was established in the year 1967 as a joint initiative of the then Ministry of Shipping and
Transport, Government of India and Association of State Road Transport Undertakings,
(ASRTU).

CIRT campus occupies 84 acres of land and around 216 employees work here. The Faculty is
composed of Doctorates, pursuing Doctorates and Post Graduate Engineers.

J-1.2. Areas of specialization


♣ Traffic & Transportation Engineering
♣ Transportation Planning & Management
♣ Public Transportation
♣ Road Safety
♣ Transport Policy
♣ Intelligent Transportation Systems
♣ Mechanical Engineering
♣ Freight Transportation Futuristic Technologies
♣ Environmental Pollution
♣ Alternative Fuels
♣ International and National project assignments
♣ Petroleum India International, India for Al Mansoor Enterprises, Abu
Dhabi
♣ Transport Research Laboratories (TRL), UK
♣ National Transport Corporation, Mauritius
♣ Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, South Africa
♣ Traffic Police (Bangalore, Pune, Mumbai, etc
♣ Ministry of Road Transport & Highways
♣ Motor Vehicle Department of various States
♣ State Transport Undertakings
♣ Urban Development Authorities, Municipal Corporations

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Detailed Project Report – Intelligent Transport System and ethanol Diesel

K: Annexes
K-1. Annex -1 – Survey Questionnaire of CIRT (July 4, 2008)
CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF ROAD TRANSPORT
Pune 411 026

1. Mode of transport currently being used:

Please tick wherever applicable

Walk Cycle 2 Wheeler 3 Wheeler Car / Jeep

2. Would you be shifting to Public Transport if reliable services are provided


through Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)

Yes No

3. Would you like to have Arrival / Departure information displayed

Yes No

4. Number of trips made in a day: __________________

5. Average distance travelled in a day: __________________

6. Expenditure on petrol / diesel: Rs. ___________ per day / week / month

Date of survey: Signature:

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146

K-2. Annex 2: Budgetary Costs (quote of HP vide Section E-3 of the


DPR)

NOTE: The quotation and estimates of costs are used for the project calculations from this
annexure for EIRR and FIRR for the projects. Actual costs used for the project are in Tables
beginning Table 54 to 66. These tables provide the numbers that are actually required for the
project.

K-2.1. Capital Costs

Central Station Bill of Material


Table 74: BoM - Central Station
13
Description Unit Cost Qty Total (Rs.)

1 Servers 17 boxes, Software License and Network costs :


(i) Edge Server 175,000 2 350,000
(ii) Web Server 175,000 2 350,000
(iii) Database Server 1,700,000 2 3400,000
(iv) Application Sever 720,000 2 1440,000
(v) Directory Server 175,000 1 175,000
(vi) GSM/GPRS Server 385,000 1 385,000
(vii) Reporting Server 175,000 1 175,000
(viii) Integration Server 720,000 1 720,000
(ix) GIS Server 385,000 1 385,000
(x) SAN Array 2 Tb 650,000 1 650,000
(xi) Storage Manager 385,000 2 770,000
(xii) VAT 4% on the above 352,000
(xiii) Packaging & delivery charges 10,000
(xiv) Software licenses 20000,000
(xv) Network components 1650,000
(xvi) Network Installation 67,000
Cost of design, sizing, system architecture
(xvii) 13,616,000
installation, commissioning, testing
2 Access control facilities at server rooms 100,000 2 200,000
3 Application Software for ITS 5,000,000 1 5,000,000
4 Workstations/Computers 50,000 4 200,000
5 Dot-matrix Printer 10,000 2 20,000
6 Ink jet Printer/Scanner 30,000 1 30,000
7 Plotter 40,000 1 40,000
UPS (servers and computers)-20KVA with 15
8 1,000,000 1 1,000,000
minutes backup
9 System software for Computers 20,000 4 80,000
10 Generators(30KVA) 900,000 1 900,000
11 Window A/C -capacity 4 tons 75,000 4 300,000

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13
Description Unit Cost Qty Total (Rs.)

12 Power supply distribution (on actual ) 1,000,000 1 1,000,000


Cost of Project Management, Installation,
13 5,000,000 1 5,000,000
Integration and testing
Total Central Control Station Cost ( B ) 49,465,000

1. Vehicle Mounted Unit and Associated Software


Table 75: BoM - VMU & SW
Sl Unit
N Description Cost(Rs. Qty Total (Rs.)
o. )
1 Supply and of Vehicle Mounted Unit 13,000 1 13,000
2 Installation of Vehicle Mounted Unit 500 1 500
GPRS enabled Activated SIM cards for a
3 200 1 200
GSM Service Provider
Total 13,700
GPS Software
Supply, Installation and commissioning of
1 Vehicle Tracking Software Application 100,000 1 100,000
(License for a fleet size of 500 units)
Integration with Application software of
2 100,000 1 100,000
GIS road network dataset
Total 200,000

2. Bus, Bus stop and Bus terminal Display Units


Table 76: BoM - Display Units
Sl
N Unit Cost
o. Description (R.) Qty Total (Rs.)
1 Bus Mounted Display Panel 50,000 1 50,000
2 Bus Stop Display Unit 200,000 1 200,000
3 Bus Terminal Display Unit 350,000 1 350,000
Total Display System Cost 600,000

3. GIS Software and Components


Table 77: GIS specifications

Sl.
No. Description Unit Price Licenses Total (Rs.)
1 Integration of application software with NA Built into Built into
GIS road network dataset of Mysore GPS GPS system
System
2 MapXtreme Java Version 4.7.0 1,000,000 1,000,000
3 Geo fencing of routes by physical 500,000 At 500,000
survey and integration with the Geo Actuals
Fencing module
Total GIS Software Cost ( D ) 1,500,000

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4. Depot Infrastructure
Table 78: Depot infrastructure requirements

Sl. No. Description Unit Cost (Rs.) Qty Total

1 Computers/ Workstation with 17 inches monitor 45,000 2 90,000


2 Printer 15,000 2 30,000
3 UPS 30,000 2 60,000
4 A/C- capacity 25,000 2 50,000
5 Application Software for Computers 100,000 2 200,000
Total cost for 2 depots ( G ) 430,000

K-2.2. Operating Costs


Data Communication Costs for Central Station
Table 79: Opex - Communication
Sl NO Description Total (Rs.)
Data communication between GSM VMU & Central control
1 1,200,000
station for 500 buses at Rs.200/- per month per bus for 1 years
Two way voice communication between 500 buses and CCS at
2 ,900,000
Rs.150/- month per bus for 1 years
GPRS data communication for 584 display units at RS.200/- per
3 1,401,667
unit per month for 1 yrs
Total Central Control Station Cost ( B ) 3,501,667

Communication Costs of Data Links at the Central Station


Table 80: Communication costs of data links at the central station

Sl. No. Description Unit Price Licenses Total (Rs.)

4 Mbps dedicated bandwidth


1 1,500,000 1,500,000
(License Cost)
2 4 Mbps Redundant Line 1,500,000 1,500,000
Total Communication Cost ( E ) 3,000,000

Facilities Management Costs and AMC


Table 81: Facilities management costs & AMC
Unit Cost
Sl. No. Description Qty
(Rs.) p.a.
1 Manpower Cost
(i) Computer/ Data entry Operator 120,000 4
(ii) Database Administrator 300,000 2
(iii) Software Programmer 480,000 2
(iv) System Administrator 300,000 2
(v) Project Manager 720,000 1
Total Manpower Cost 19,20,000
38,40,000
2 Consumables Cost

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149
Unit Cost
Sl. No. Description Qty
(Rs.) p.a.
(i) Computer Stationary 48,000 1
(ii) Printer Cartridges (assuming two cartridge per month) 38,400 1
Total Consumable Cost 86,400
3 Maintenance Cost (AMC)
(i) Maintenance cost of CCS H/w, S/w and N/w Components 750,000 1
Maintenance cost of computers including service and
(ii) 5,400 4
spares (per year charges assuming AMC)
(iii) Maintenance cost of VMU including spares per year 1,000 500
(iv) Maintenance cost of generators including Diesel, per year 175,000 1
(v) Maintenance cost of AC Units 7,500 4
(vi) Maintenance cost of UPS 5,000 1
(vii) Provision of Spares for all above equipments
Total Maintenance Cost 9,43,900
29,50,300
4 Sub Total (1 + 2 + 3)

Maintenance of Depot Infrastructure Costs


Table 82: Maintenance of depot infrastructure costs
Unit Cost
Sl. No. Description Qty Total
(Rs.)
Man Power for a period of 1 years (2
1 625,000 4 2,500,000
Operators - 2 Shift)
2 Maintenance Cost 25,000
Total cost for 2 depots ( G ) 2,525,000

K-3. Annex -3 – Draft EOI for Project Management Agency

Attached separately

K-4. Annex -4 - Draft Functional/Technical Specifications

Attached separately

K-5. Annex – 5 - Bio-Diesel Tender

Attached separately

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150
K-6. Annex 6 – Ethanol Diesel systems

Flange Cast Pipe

O-Ring

Cast Filler Neck

Figure 30 : Assembled Cast Filler Neck with Flame Arrestor

Tamper Proof Bolts

Flame Arrestor
Gasket

Assembled Flame
Arrestor
Arrestor

Figure 31 : Assembled Cast Filler Neck With Flame Arrestor

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151

Flange Gasket

Rolled Filler Neck

Figure 32 : Assembled Rolled Filler Neck with Flame Arrestor

Tamper Proof Bolts

Flame Arrestor
Gasket

Assembled Flame Arrestor

Figure 33 : Assembled Rolled Filler Neck With Flame Arrestor

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******

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