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A Joint effort of:

Vipul (BA(H) History Vth Semester)

Aswani, Fariah, Saleha , Shruti ,and Tahir
(BA(H) Psychology Vth Semester)
Submitted To:

Dr. Samina Bano Subject: CBCS Assignment (Report)

Dept. of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia Topic: Recruitment Processes & Strategic Issues
In human resource management, “recruitment” is the process of finding and hiring the best and most qualified
candidate for a job opening, in a timely and cost-effective manner. It can also be defined as the “process of
searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an
It is one whole process, with a full life cycle, that begins with identification of the needs of the company with
respect to the job, and ends with the introduction of the employee to the organization.
The recruitment process is implemented to find the person who is best qualified for a particular position
within the company, and who will help them towards attaining organizational goals.

Recruitment is affected by several factors. These factors play a big part on whether the recruitment process
will be successful or not:

Size of the organization

A large organization is bound to have a higher demand for new employees. It is bound to look for more people,
since the structure will require more manpower. On the other end of the spectrum, a small enterprise, like a
new company just starting its operations, will require only a lean staff.
Comparing the two, it is clear that the smaller enterprise will have a simpler, more straightforward and shorter
recruitment process, conducted by only one or two people. The larger organization, however, will have a
lengthier and more complex recruitment process, one where several members of the organization will take
part in.

Current employment conditions in the economy

Try comparing employment opportunities in a country with a developed economy with that of an
underdeveloped one. An organization operating in an underdeveloped economy may have difficulty finding
the candidates with the talents and skills it requires.
The availability of prospective talents is one huge issue with respect to the economy that an enterprise
belongs to. The company will have to design and implement its recruitment process in a way that will address
this issue.

Salary structure of the organization

Say one company is known to provide higher salaries and wages to its employees. Once it advertises its open
position, candidates are likely to line up submitting their resumes. However, a company known to be quite
stingy with its wages will have more difficulty recruiting top talents. In addition, it may even have problems
keeping or retaining its employees, since no employee would want to stay for a long time in a company that
will not pay him enough for his services.

Working conditions within the organization

Prospective candidates will first look for work in companies or organizations that are known to provide good
working conditions and looks out for the health and well-being of their employees.

Growth rate of the organization

There are organizations that grow at a fast rate, which means that they will require new employees from time
to time. However, there are also organizations that do not grow as much, or even at all. The only time that
these organizations with low growth rates are likely to recruit new employees would be when the old ones
retire or resign.

Recruitment Process
There are five steps involved in recruitment process are as follows:

1. Recruitment Planning: The first step involved in the recruitment process is planning. Here, planning
involves to draft a comprehensive job specification for the vacant position, outlining its major and minor
responsibili-ties; the skills, experience and qualifications needed; grade and level of pay; starting date;
whether temporary or permanent; and mention of special conditions, if any, attached to the job to be filled ”

2. Strategy Development: Once it is known how many with what qualifications of candidates are required,
the next step involved in this regard is to devise a suitable strategy for recruiting the candidates in the
organization. The strategic considerations to be considered may include issues like whether to prepare the
required candidates themselves or hire it from outside, what type of recruitment method to be used, what
geographical area be considered for searching the candidates, which source of recruitment to be practiced,
and what sequence of activities to be followed in recruiting candidates in the organization.

3. Searching: This step involves attracting job seekers to the organization. There are broadly two sources
used to attract candidates. These are:

a. Internal Sources: Which is promoting within the company.

b. External Sources: “External recruitment is the assessment of an available pool of job candidates, other
than existing staff, to see if there are any sufficiently skilled or qualified enough to fill and perform existing job
vacancies. It is the process of searching outside of the current employee pool to fill open positions in an
organization. “

All the organizations have to depend on external sources of recruitment at one time or the other. The
commonly used different types of external sources of recruitment are discussed below.
1. Recruitment at Factory Gate: This method is used to fill casual vacancies. Thus the workers appointed are
called ‘Budli’ workers. Usually a large number of unemployed persons assemble everyday at the gate of every
big factory. Whenever unskilled workers are required , the Personnel Manager will scrutinize the available
workers and pick up the required number.

2. File of Unsolicited Applications: Many qualified personnel apply for employment to reputed companies on
their own initiative. Such applications are known as unsolicited applications. They serve as a good source of
manpower. A file is kept of such applications and the candidates may be called for interview whenever the
need for manpower arises. It is a cheaper method of recruitment.

3. Advertisement: Advertisement in local or national newspapers and trade and professional journals are
generally used to recruit qualified and experienced personnel in the organizations. Most of the mid and senior
level positions are filled by this method. The advantage of advertising is that more information about the
organization, job description and job specification can be given in the advertisement to allow self – screening
by the candidates. Thus it gives the management a wider range of candidates to choose from. But its
disadvantage is that it brings in a flood of responses ,many from quite unsuitable candidates . However , box
numbers may be used to avoid approaches in order to have good selection. Example : Ascent newspaper of
Times of India is a specialist newspaper only for job advertisements.

4. Campus Recruitment: Direct recruitment from educational institutions (Universities and Colleges) for jobs
which require technical or professional qualifications, has become a common practice. A close liaison between
the employers and educational institutions helps in getting suitable candidates for various entry positions.
Such recruitment is a well established practice followed by thousands of businesses and other organizations.
Example: Campus recruitment in IITs/IIMs and other allied institutions for technical and management trainees
is a common practice among business houses. One advantage this method of recruitment has is it doesn’t
allow salary negotiations to students and gives sitting advantage to employers.

5. Employment Exchanges: Employment exchanges and employment agencies provide a nation-wide service
for getting the required personnel to organizations (both govt. and private). Employment exchanges in India
are mostly run by the Government. For skilled, unskilled, semi-skilled, clerical posts etc. it is often as a source
of recruitment. In certain cases it has been made obligatory for the businesses to notify their vacancies to the
employment exchanges. But the employers turn to these exchanges only as a last resort.

6. Employee Referrals: The existing employees know both the company culture and the candidate being
recommended. Hence some companies encourage their existing employees to assist them in getting
applications from persons who are known to them. In certain cases, rewards may also be given if candidates
recommended by them are actually selected by the company. In addition, the applicants introduced by friends
and relatives may also be used as a source of recruitment. Example: Big private equity and venture capitalists
firms for their front end positions where a lot of money is at stake recruit by the method.

7. Labour Contractors : This method of recruitment is used for hiring unskilled and semi-skilled workers. The
contractors keep themselves in touch with the labours and bring the workers at the places where they are
required. They get commission for the number of persons appointed through them. The disadvantage through
this system is that if the contractors himself decides to leave the organization, all the workers employed
through him will follow suit. Nowadays, this system of recruitment is losing popularity because of its inherent

8. Head Hunters/ HR Consultants/ Management Consultants: Consultancy firms help the organizations to
recruit technical, professional, and managerial personnel. They specialize in mid level and top level executive
placements. They maintain database of persons with different qualifications and skills and even advertise the
jobs on behalf of their clients to recruit right type of personnel. These days professional bodies of accountants,
engineers etc also help their members to get suitable placements in industrial organizations. Example: ABC
Consultants is India’s top HR consultancy firm engage in mid and top level corporate hiring.

9. Telecasting: The practice of telecasting of vacant jobs over T.V. (Doordarshan and other channels) has
gained importance in recruitment for promotion of transparency. Special programmes like ‘Job Watch’ ,
‘Youth Pulse’ , ‘Employment News’ , etc over the T.V. have become quite popular in recruitment for various
types of jobs. The detailed requirements of the job and the qualities required to do it are publicized along with
the profile of the organization where vacancy exists.

10. Poaching : Experienced employees can be recruited by offering better pay, designation and facilities to the
people working in the competitive organizations . Newly established organizations of well known business
houses often lure experienced executives and technical experts from other organizations. Multinational
organizations also attract employees working in other corporations in the host countries.

11. E-Recruitment : The revolution of telecommunications has helped the organizations to use internet as a
source of recritment gained prominence in 21st century. The organizations can advertise the job vacancies
through world wide web (www). The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using the Internet .
There are various methods of E- Recruitment :

• Job Portals : Job portals has humongous database of job seekers’ CVs which companies can utilize and
shortlist according to their requirement. , , are few alike job portals .

• Social Media Recruitment : It is a new trend where employers engage with job seekers on social media
like LinkedIn for recuitment.

12. Outsourcing : Some employment agencies have started developing human resource pool ,by employing
the pool for themselves . These organizations do not utilize the human resources instead they supply them on
temporary basis to various companies based on their needs. In other words, rather than employing human
resources , can draw them from these organizations on lease basis. This arrangement is called ‘outsourcing.’
Example : The emergence of BPO trend is a subset of outsourcing.

13. Internship recruitment model: Various Startups, mid-size companies, NGOs etc. roll out both paid / unpaid
internship opportunities where hiring of candidate is solely based upon performance of the candidate during
internship . Example: Organizations like Internshala offer candidates as a medium to intern in various

Advantages of External Recruitment

• External recruitment provides a large number of applicants to choose from. This permits the enterprise to
have freehand in making right choice of candidates.

• The enterprise can expect to get fresh, talented candidates from outside. This means infusion of new blood
and ideas into the enterprise.

• Internal candidates have to compete with external candidates for the higher jobs. It results in better overall
productivity of employees.
• Sometimes recruitment from internal sources or promotions creates an atmosphere of resentment in the
firm. Recruitment from outside avoids such menace.

• As compared to internal source, outside source is everlasting and never “dries up.”

Limitations of External Recruitment

• Recruitment from outside may cause dissatisfaction and frustration among existing employees who aspire
for promotions.

• External recruitment takes more time than internal recruitment since the enterprise has to publicize the
vacancies and wait for response of prospective candidates.

• It is very costly to recruit staff from external sources which require funds for advertising and processing the

• There is no guarantee that the enterprise will be able to attract suitable applicants even after costly hiring

4. Screening: Though some view screening as the starting point of selection, we have considered it as an
integral part of recruitment. The reason being the selection process starts only after the applications have
been screened and shortlisted. Let it be exemplified with an example.

In the Universities, applications are invited for filling the post of Professors. Applications re¬ceived in response
to invitation, i.e., advertisement are screened and shortlisted on the basis of eligibility and suitability. Then,
only the screened applicants are invited for seminar presentation and personal interview. The selection
process starts from here, i.e., seminar presentation or interview.

Job specification is invaluable in screening. Applications are screened against the qualification, knowledge,
skills, abilities, interest and experience mentioned in the job specification. Those who do not qualify are
straightway eliminated from the selection process.

The techniques used for screening candidates vary depending on the source of supply and method used for
recruiting. Preliminary applications, de-selection tests and screening interviews are common techniques used
for screening the candidates.

5. Evaluation and Control:

Given the considerable cost involved in the recruitment process, its evaluation and control is, therefore,

The costs generally incurred in a recruitment process include:

(i) Salary of recruiters
(ii) Cost of time spent for preparing job analysis, advertisement
(iii) Administrative expenses
(iv) Cost of outsourcing or overtime while vacancies remain unfilled
(v) Cost incurred in recruiting unsuitable candidates
In view of above, it is necessary for a prudent employer to try to answer certain questions like: whether the
recruitment methods are appropriate and valid? And whether the recruitment process followed in the
organization is effective at all or not? In case the answers to these questions are in negative, the appropriate
control measures need to be evolved and exercised to tide over the situation.

However, such an exercise seems to be only rarely carried out in practice by the organizations employers.
Having discussed recruitment process, it will be now relevant to have an idea about recruitment practices in
India. The following section delineates the same.

Recruitment strategies – getting and keeping the right people

A recruiting strategy is formal plan of action involving an organization’s attempts to successfully identify,
recruit, and hire high-quality candidates for the purpose of filling its open positions.
Implementing creative recruiting strategies will help get your jobs seen by candidates who are looking for a
new role. It will also make it faster to hire great candidates, more consistently, and with significantly less effort.
Different companies opt for various strategies keeping in mind job requirements, company’s affordability,
demand, supply etc.

1. Treat candidates like your best customers: Impress high quality candidates and treat them to a great
hiring experience. Every new person you add to your team can move it forward dramatically, slow it down, or
take it a step back. That's why companies like Google, Facebook, Uber, and Snapchat offer high option.
packages, so they can attract the best talent in the world.

2. Understand the cost/benefit of every hire: Before you hire, you need to know what the potential costs
and benefits are. This is considered to be part of best practices for recruiting employees.

When figuring out the potential cost, be thorough and include everything so you have the full picture. It is
easy to just hire a resource. However, the person needs to be able to add value in the organization. Especially
when a company is small and growing it is important to bring in resources that can deliver the right value for
the company in a timeframe that makes sense.

3. Hire freelancers where appropriate, not just full-timers: Sometimes you encounter certain jobs that
just aren’t on your side, still it needs to be done. That's a good time to consider hiring freelancers. In fact, you
may want to consider freelancers even if you can afford a regular employee. This way you can experiment
with various types of people for various kinds of jobs without being bound to any long term commitment. This
also helps getting the best suited person for a job that your permanent employees might not be good at.

4. Using a coaching culture to attract millennials: If you're not working to attract millennials to your
company, then your recruiting strategy is heading nowhere. In just a few short years, millennials will make up
nearly half the workforce. By 2030, they'll be 75 percent of it. Start strategizing now and working on some
creative recruiting techniques if you want the best of this generation. One way to start attracting millennials is
to build a coaching culture. Millennials have overwhelmingly shown that they're interested in opportunity.
They don't want to just settle in for the long haul for the next 20 years; they want to know where they're going
in the next two. Help them learn and grow, and you'll attract and keep them.

5. Have an office space that attracts millennials: From dress code to office infrastructures, everything is
important for people nowadays. The suit and tie, once a symbol of powerful companies and serious jobs, has
become a sign of stodginess in many industries. But there is probably no work convention more hated these
days than the cubicle. From Dilbert to Office Space, it has become the symbol for a creativity killing work space.
Open office plans are much more popular among millennials than the rat mazes of yesteryear. Beyond open
spaces, the office is also becoming a destination for millennials - a place where they work, exercise, eat and
even sleep. Think about what you can offer employees that will make the office a destination.

6. Have a strategy to attract the best cultural fits: Great companies are honest about their culture.
Infusionsoft’s careers page says, “A word of warning: Infusionsoft isn’t for everyone.” Or Bonobos'(super
awesome) career page that lets you know, “Working here is very challenging.”

When you're promoting your employer brand, whether it's on your career page, social media or at an event,
be honest and convey real information about daily life at the company. Most people don’t want to work for
companies where they don’t think they’ll fit in. If you put out accurate information to help people decide if
they’re a good fit, you won’t waste time interviewing or hiring the wrong people.

7. Train your interviewers on latest interview techniques: With the advancement of technology latest
technique for every single process is required. Those old face to face interviews are important but just not
enough as these are limited to people who live nearby or can afford frequent up – down. So, latest
technologies such as telephonic and Skype interview are becoming very prominent these days.

Just being familiar with common interview questions is not enough to nail your interview process. Framing
questions according to a person’s talent and ability is required in order to bring out the actual potential of a