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10/26/2018

Evaluation on Biological Value of Food


(EBVF) Course
SUB TOPIK:
• Review of food compounds: nutrients, non nutrients, xenobiotics
(20 ’)
• Lingkungan pangan sehat
Whole food concept, food groups, human genes (25’)
Digestions, Bioavailability (20’)
Oral physiology, nerve sensation, emotional stimulus, (20’)
Discussion (15’)

References:
Harris RS and Karmas E. 1988. Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing. Third
Edition, AVI Publ, Westport
Hodgson E and Levi PE. 2000. Modern Toxicology. McGraw Hill, Singapore (2nd ed)
De Vries I (ed). 1997. Food Safety and Toxicity. CRC Press, New York

• Whole foods: http://www.globalfoodforums.com/food- Vegetables and


news-bites/2016-food-trends/ fruits:
• https://www.forumforthefuture.org/ Sources of
• Neurotoxicity: vitamins,minerals,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PpLPoJXqfNw fibers and bioactive
• http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alisha-bhagat/a-little-is- compounds
a-lot-health-and-wellness-trends-
2016_b_9393638.html
• Protein structure:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lijQ3a8yUYQ
Electrophil: DNA damage
Space Food:.
• http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/astronauts/food-
system.html
• http://astro-
2.msfc.nasa.gov/Academy/ASTRONAUTS/FOOD-
HISTORY.html

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Natural FOOD COMPOUNDS


BRING POSITIVE EFFECTS:
• nutrients function in synthesis of:
energy (Protein, Fat, Carbo), enzyme (cofactors:
VITAMINS DAN MINERALS), antioxidants
(NUTRIENTS: Vit A C D E, Cu, Zn, Se), protein synthesis,
physiological molecule synthesis (i.e
Neurotransmitters/ cholesterols/sterols), glycogen,
DNA/RNA, immune system, cell multiplication, cell
renewal, connective tissues.
• Bioactive compounds (flavonoids, chlorophyll,
carotenoids, organic acids, etc: natural weak drugs
that stimulate metabolism, flavors, colors
• Fibers: all food fibers are prebiotics,
ALL ARE ESSENTIAL TO STAY ALIVE, HEALTHY

Functions of nutrients have been proven: essential, subjects of


nutritional studies

Major nutrients: CarbohOdrate (starch, sugars), fat (fatty acids:


saturated, unsaturated) , proteins (20 amino acids)

Minor nutrients:
VitaminS MineralS
A (retinol) MaCro: Ca, P, K, S, Cl, Mg,
B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), I, Fe
B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), MiCro: Zn. Se, Cr, Co, Cu,
B6 (pyridoxine), B7 (biotin), Fl, Mn, Mo, Va
B9 (folic acid), B12 (cobalamin),
C (ascorbic acid), The B and C vitamins are water-soluble
(not stored in the body, excess amounts are excreted in the urine).
The A, D, E, and K vitamins are fat-soluble
( will be stored in the body fat).

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Fibers: >10 TYPES


not digested, not absorbed, substrateS of MO in colon
Water, oxygen: no need to proof

Bioactive compounds: >> 6000 COMPOUNDS IN


PLANTS = Phytochemicals:
 subject of functional food studies
 when purified can be use as: preparative medicines
(pills, capsules), they will behave as drugs
CAN BE used as food additives: must follow
regulations of food additive utilization

 NUTRIENTS, FIBERS AND BIOACTIVE


COMPOUNDS ALL ARE ESSENSIAL
HOW TO GET THEM??

Adverse/toxic effects:
• Toxin: KNOWN MECHANISM, MOSTLY
• Radical metabolites, free radicals, xenObiotics:
base of modern toxicology
• XENOBIOTICS (ZN) xeno = FOREIGN
NOT RECOQNIZED BY THE ENZYME SYSTEM
(human gene is 20.000 year old, have not change until now,
enzyme = protein coded by the ancient genes= ancient
metabolism)
Xn: normally new chemicals introduce to the earth during the
last 400 years, after industrial revolution in 1716.
Our body do not have specific metabolism pathway to
excrete/detoxify Xn
Examples of Xn: Many food additives, chemical contaminants
(pesticides, heavy metals, antibiotic residues), industrial
chemicals, including toxins, drugs
No functions or permanent roles in human body
METABOLIC BURDEN

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Whole foods:
Most edible part still exist
Most natural compounds (protein, fat, carb, vit, min,
fibers,bioactive compounds) still present
Unrefined, less processed, minimal
Can be cooked, peeled, cut, milled: i.e dried fruit,
canned beans
Ideal to provide all nutrient-non nutrient compounds
needed by the body
Refined ingredients:
sugar, white rice, flour, oils/margarine, salts,
tapioca, maizena.
Do not contain: micro nutrients, bioactive
compounds, fibers caused by the refining process
Cause obesity, related to chonic diseases:
diabetes, heart, cancer, Alzheimer, etc

WHITE
Brown rice: whole food RICE:
REFINED
Poor food
Huller Polishing Machine
machine throw away
Bran: very nutritious
Fibers, vit, min
bioactive compounds

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Refining process cause loss of nutrient, fibers,


bioactive compounds:
-what are the nutrient and bioactive compounds in
bran?
-are the compounds in all cereal brans similar?

Whole Grain Mill Refined Grain


100% of 15-35% of
Phytonutrients Phytonutrients

Grains are divided into 2 subgroups, whole grains and refined grains.
Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel -- the bran, germ, and endosperm.
Examples include:
whole-wheat flour
bulgur (cracked wheat)
oatmeal
whole cornmeal
brown rice

Refined grains have been milled, a process that removes the bran and germ.
This is done to give grains a finer texture and improve their shelf life, but it also
removes dietary fiber, iron, and many B vitamins. Some examples of refined
grain products are:
Most refined grains are enriched. B vitamins (thiamin,
white flour riboflavin, niacin, folic acid) and iron are added. Fiber
is not added back. Never the same with natural bran.
Tapioca, maizena Make sure that the word “enriched” is included in the
grain name.
white rice Some food products are made from mixtures of whole
grains and refined grains.

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Whole grains:
Refined grains:
brown rice
cornbread*
buckwheat
corn tortillas*
bulgur (cracked wheat)
couscous*
oatmeal
crackers*
popcorn
flour tortillas*
Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals:
grits, noodles*
whole wheat cereal flakes, muesli
whole grain barley Pasta*
whole grain cornmeal, whole rye
spaghetti, macaroni
whole wheat bread
pitas*
whole wheat crackers
pretzels
whole wheat pasta
whole wheat sandwich buns and rolls
Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals
whole wheat tortillas
wild rice corn flakes, white bread
white sandwich buns and rolls
Less common whole grains:amaranth white rice.
millet
quinoa
sorghum
triticale

Whole foods
unprocessed, minimal
What foods are in the vegetable group?
Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice/puree
Vegetables may be raw or cooked; fresh, frozen, canned, or
dried/dehydrated; and may be whole, cut-up, or mashed.

Vegetables are organized into 5 subgroups, based on their


nutrient content. Some commonly eaten vegetables in each
subgroup are:
Can you point out quickly the vegetables that are local
commocities?

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Dark green vegetables Orange vegetables Other vegetables


acorn squash artichokes, asparagus
bok choy
butternut squash bean sprouts
broccoli carrots beets
collard greens hubbard squash Brussels sprouts
dark green leafy lettuce pumpkin cabbage
kale sweetpotatoes cauliflower
mesclun celery, cucumbers
mustard greens Dry beans and peas eggplant
romaine lettuce black beans green beans
spinach black-eyed peas green or red peppers
turnip greens garbanzo beans (chickpeas) iceberg (head) lettuce
watercress kidney beans mushrooms
lentils okra, onions
lima beans (mature) parsnips
Starchy vegetables navy beans tomatoes
pinto beans tomato juice
corn soy beans vegetable juice
green peas split peas turnips
tofu (bean curd made from wax beans
lima beans (green) zucchini
potatoes soybeans)
white beans

Foods components: DIGESTION


Nutrients, ABSORPTION
Bioactive compounds, BODY/
Xenobiotics CELLS

Digestion
Absorption
Transportation to
the liver
Utilization by cells/function in
cells (nutrients, non nutrients)
BIOAVAILABILITY

Detoxification: xenobiotics, toxins, drugs (COMPOUNDS


NOT NEEDED), body waste (urea, hormons, keto acids)
BIOTRANSFORMATION/detoxification:
Commonly produce radical metabolites/ electrophils that
cause chronic diseases

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Practical advise:
minimize the entrance of
xenobiotics in your body.
Give examples of Xn….

Eat What Your Body is Made For


Compounds in foods become part of the whole body

Foods: Fresh, Digested, absorbed Metabolized


processed In Cells, used

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Bioavailability of vitamin C in fruit juice vs


whole fruit

Food matrix: Most of vit C is


Vit C is trapped released:
Provides Digestibility
chewing effects Absorbability
crushing Faster utilization by
body cells
Better
bioavailability
But loss during
processing!!!

Milk
Yoghurt
Genetically
Proteins: hydrolysed
important
(peptides, amino
foods for Fermen- acids)
human until 2- tation Lactose: gal, glu
5 y old
Ca and other minerals
are released
Bioavailability
Good for lactose
intolerance

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Advantages of high Bioavailability evaluation:


• High Digestibility: food compounds released in the
stomach, intestines. Only protein, starch, fats are
digested. No digestion for fibers, vitamins, minerals,
some bioactive compounds
• Absorbability: how much in plasma/blood
• How good is transportation: vit A by retinol binding
protein
• Utilization: vit C in hydroxylation/oxidations
enzymes
Protocollagen collagen
High bioavailability is good for sick people, not always
beneficial, i.e. high glucose bioavailability causes
diabetes

High bioavailability of glucose


from starch , sucrose cause:
spikes of glucose in the blood
that results in diabetes
Data on high bioavailability of other food
compounds are relating to chronic diseases
REFINING PROCESS CAUSE HIGH
BIOAVAILABILITY
PRODUCE POOR FOODS/ONLY CARRY
ENERGY

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BIOAVAILABILITY OF CARBOHYDRATE, FAT?


THE HIGHER NOT THE BETTER

BANANA VS BISCUITS
100 GR

CALORIE 100 600


VIT, + -
MIN + -
STARCH + ++
digestibility/
bioavailability - ++
glycemic index - +++
diabetigenic
FAT - +++
trans fat - +++
CVD - +++
SALT - ++
hypertention - ++

Bioavailability: Tablets vs food


Tablets/juice Whole Food
Bioav: higher Bioavail: lower
Other values:
Chewing effects: teeth, saliva
glands, face bone, face muscle are
stimulated
Taste bud effects, Smell effects :
nerves are stimulated
Digestive effects: human has 6 m
long intestine for slow digestion
Emotional effects: happy
Social effects: good
communications

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Foods for long-term health.

Evolution of Diet and of Health -. Paleo-anthropologists


concur that traditional man was free of degenerative
illness; but lifespans were short due to infections,
childbirth, inter- and intra-clan conflict and predation.

With more "stable and secure" systems of food provision


dietary options have become progressively narrower

Study of macronutrient energy proportions in the diet of


Hunter gather societies (n=229) show a relatively high
protein intake: 19-35%, highly variable fat intake 28-47%
and low carbohydrate level 22-40%.

It is postulated that changes in food staples and food


processing procedures introduced during the Neolithic
and Industrial era have fundamentally altered seven
crucial nutritional characteristics of our ancestral diet: (i)
glycaemic load, (ii) fatty acid balance, (iii) macronutrient
balance, (iv) trace nutrient density, (v) acid-base balance,
(vi) sodium-potassium balance, (vii) fiber content.

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• THE PRESENT HUMAN GENE IS STILL THE SAME AS THE


GEN OF THOSE LIVING 20.000 Y AGO
• METABOLISM CAPACITY IS STILL THE SAME
• GEN=PROTEIN=ENZYME=METABOLISME
• FOOD PATTERN/HABIT CHANGE
• MODEREN/DEGENERATIVES DISEASES: DIABETES,
CANCER, HEARTS, ALZHEIMER DLL
• WHO 2008:
90% DIABETES, 80%HEART, 35% CANCER CAN BE
PREVENTED (RISK REDUCED) BY CORRECT DIETS,
SUFFICIENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
 PLANT FOODS, WHOLE, NATURAL
• FOOD TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCE MINIMAL PROCESSED
FOODS THAT ARE BODY AND ENVIRONMENTAL
FRIENDLY

THANK YOU
FOR YOUR
ATTENTION

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