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Thermodynamics

Duration:2 Hrs 100 Marks

(a) the path (b) state of the system (c) external pressure (d) nature of the system

2. One mole of a perfect gas expands adiabatically. As a result of this, its pressure, temperature and volume change

from P1 , T1 , V1 to P2 , T2 , V2 respectively. If molar specific heat at constant volume is Cv , then the work done by the

gas is

(a) 2.303P1 V1 log VV12 (b) RT1 log VV21 (c) R(T2 −T1 )

(d) Cv (T1 − T2 )

3. A system consists of 1024 atoms and is at a temperature of 300 K. Assuming that there is no interatomic energy in

the system, its total internal energy is

(a) may increase or de- (b) does not change (c) increases (d) decreases

crease

5. A system A interacting with a reservoir R undergoes a reversible transformation of its thermodynamics state. If

∆SA is the change of entropy of A and ∆SR that of R during the transformation, then in general

(a) ∆SA = ∆SR = 0 (b) ∆SA = ∆SR (c) ∆SA = −∆SR (d) ∆SA = 0, ∆SR > 0

6. The function which remains constant if thermodynamic process is carried out isobarically and isothermally is called

(a) Internal energy (b) Gibbs function (c) Helmholtz function (d) Enthalpy

(a) ∂G

∂P (b) ∂U

∂V (c) − ∂G

∂T (d) ∂U

∂S

T X P T

8. In an isobaric process the heat intake or release in a thermodynamic system is equal to the change in

(a) Helmholtz free energy (b) Gibbs free energy (c) Enthalpy (d) Internal energy

9. Consider a gas contained in a box at a pressure P and temperature T having entropy S. If the box is divided into

two parts of volume V1 and V2 with corresponding entropies S1 and S2 then S − (S1 + S2 ) is

10. Assume that the heat capacity at constant volume of a metal varies as aT +bT 3 at low temperatures. The temperature

dependence of entropy is given by

1

(a) aT + bT 3 (b) a + bT 2 (c) aT + 3b T 3 (d) aT 2 + bT 4

11. An ideal diatomic gas (of γ = 5/3) is expanded adiabatically so that its volume is doubled. By what ratio is its

temperature reduced in this process

1

(a) 2 (b) ( 21 )1/3 (c) ( 12 )2/3 (d) ( 12 )5/3

∂P of one mole van der Waals gas as a function of temperature and volume is (a

and b are constants in the van der Waals equation of state)

(b) V (V − b)2 /(RT V 2 − 2a(V − b)) (d) V 2 (V − b)2 /(RT V 3 − 2a(V − b)2 )

13. An ideal gas undergoes an isothermal expansion (at a constant temperature T ) from an initial volume V1 to a final

volume V2 . The change in the entropy per mole is

(a) R(V1 /V2 ) (b) R ln |V1 − V2 | (c) R ln(V1 /V2 ) (d) R ln(V2 /V1 )

14. Which of the following integrals depends only on the initial and final states of a thermodynamic system (i.e.,

independent of the path of transformation)

dQ

T 2 dS

R R R R

(a) P dV (b) dQ (c) T (d)

15. When 100g ice at 0◦ C melts, the change in entropy in cal/K is about (Take latent heat of fusion (melting) as

80 cal/g)

16. When heat Q flows into a monoatomic gas, the volume increases keeping the pressure constant. The fraction of the

heat energy used for the gas expansion is:

17. To a pure substance undergoing an infinitesimal reversible process. Which of the following relations is not a Maxwell

equation

∂T

(a) ( ∂V )S = −( ∂P

∂S )V (b) ( ∂P ∂V

∂T )V = ( ∂S )P (c) ( ∂P ∂S

∂T )V = ( ∂V )T

∂T

(d) ( ∂P )S = ( ∂V

∂S )P

18. One mole of a monoatomic perfect gas is initially at a constant temperature of T0 . It expands from a volume V0 to

2V0 under constant pressure. The heat absorbed by the gas is:

3 5

(a) RT0 (b) 2RT0 (c) 2 RT0 (d) 2 RT0

19. Each of the two isolated vessels A and B of fixed volumes contain N molecule of perfect monoatomic gas at a

Pressure P . The temperature of A and B are T1 and T2 respectively. The two vessels are brought into thermal

contact. At equilibrium the change in entropy is

h 2 2i h i

T1 +T2 (T1 +T2 )2

(a) 3/2N KB ln 4T T

1 2

(c) 3/2N K B ln 4T T

1 2

2

20. Consider an ideal gas whose entropy is given by

nh U Vi

S= σ + 5Rln + 2Rln

2 n n

where n =number of moles, R =universal gas constant, V =volume and σ =constant. The specific heat at constant

volume is given by

5 1 3 9

(a) 2 nR (b) 2 nR (c) 2 nR (d) 2 nR

where a0 is a constant and KB denote the Boltzmann’s constant. The internal energy of the gas is

(b) 5/2N KB T (d) N KB T ln[a0 V (KB T )3/2 ]

a

(P + )(V − b) = RT

V2

where P, V, and T represent the pressure, Volume and temperature respectively, and a and b are constant parameters.

At the critical point, where all the roots of the above cubic equation are degenerate, the temperature is given by

a 8a a

(a) 9b (b) 27bR (c) 27b2 (d) 3b

23. If the equation of state for a gas with internal energy U is P V = 1/2U then the equation for an adiabatic process is

(a) P V 1/3 =Constant (b) P V 4/3 =Constant (c) P V 3/2 =Constant (d) P V 5/3 =Constant

24. For a particular thermodynamic system the entropy S is related to the internal energy U and volume V by

S = CU 3/4 V 1/4

4/3 4/3

S S 4/3

(a) 0 (b) − 3C 4/3 V 1/3

(c) − 3C4S

4/3 V 1/3 (d) 3C 4/3 V 1/3

25. The efficiency of a Carnot cycle is 1/6 on reducing the temperature of the sink by 65◦ C the efficiency increases to

1/3, then the temperate of the source is

(b) 373K (d) 0K

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