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Aastha Engineering Solution Pvt. Ltd.

Draft Report
Report
September
2018

Energy Audit Report for Dining Park


Restaurant and Bar, Kathmandu-31,
Nepal

Conducted by
Aastha Engineering Solution
Pvt. Ltd.
September- 2018

Dining Park Restaurant and Bar Energy Audit


Aastha Engineering Solution Pvt. Ltd.

CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................................................ 4
Study Team ..................................................................................................................................................... 5
DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS DEPLOYED DURING ENERGY AUDIT .............................................. 5
abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 6
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................................ 7
1.0 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 9
1.1 About Dinning Park Restaurant & Lounge Bar .................................................................................... 9
2.0 BUILDING ENERGY SYSTEMS: SALIENT FEATURES ............................................................. 10
2.1 Electricity Mains Supply ................................................................................................... 10
2.2 Connected Electrical Loads ............................................................................................... 10
2.3 Energy Consumption during study period ......................................................................... 11
2.4 Month-wise Energy Consumption ..................................................................................... 12
2.5 Specific Energy Consumption ........................................................................................... 12
2.6 Unit Energy Charge (NRs. per kWh)................................................................................. 13
3.0 Energy Conservation (ENCON) Opportunities......................................................................................... 14
3.1: Energy Saving Opportunities by Switching into LED Lights .......................................... 14
3.2: Energy Saving Opportunity by changing route of the 3-phase supply to the kitchen
building .................................................................................................................................... 15
3.3: Energy Conservation by phase balance ............................................................................ 17
3.4: Demand Charge Reduction by Load Shifting:.................................................................. 18
3.5: Energy Conservation by Rerouting of Inverter Line: ....................................................... 18
3.6: Energy Conservation by Replacing old Induction motor: ................................................ 19
3.7: Energy Conservaion by Reactive power Compensation: ................................................. 19
4.0 Application of Renewable Energy Technologies ..................................................................................... 21
4.1 Installation of Solar Photovoltaic Power System .............................................................. 21
5.0 No cost Imporvement and visibilty oppurtunity within the building...................................................... 24
5.1 Achieving Energy Efficiency through Behavioral Change ............................................... 24

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Table 1 Energy Conservation Proposal and Payback Summary ...................................................................... 8


Table 2 Connected Electrical Loads by types ............................................................................................... 10
Table 3 Building wise Loads and Energy Consumption ................................................................................. 11
Table 4 Monthy Energy Consumption 2074 Kartik to 2075 Asoj ................................................................. 12
Table 5 Recommended Summary and Simple Payback period for switching to LED light ........................... 14
Table 6 Electrical Parameters observed in Second floor of Kitchen building ............................................... 15
Table 7 Energy Loss due to Voltage Drop in Kitchen Building ..................................................................... 16
Table 8 Payback Summary to change route of kitchen Supply ..................................................................... 17
Table 9 Estimated loss due to leakage from Inverter Supply ....................................................................... 19
Table 10 Payback Summary of Re-routing Inverter Supply .......................................................................... 19
Table 11 Parameters of old water pumping Induction motor in Dining Park ............................................... 19
Table 12 Estimated Energy Generation from Proposed PV system .............................................................. 22
Table 13 Payback Summary Proposed PV system ........................................................................................ 22
Table 14 Energy storing capacity of Existing Battery Bank ........................................................................... 23

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Satellite View of Dinning Park Restaurant and Lounge Bar ............................................................. 9
Figure 2 Contribution of different types of loads ......................................................................................... 11
Figure 3 Building wise installed Load and Daily Energy Consumption Pattern............................................. 15
Figure 4 Proposed Rerouting of Supply to kitchen DB ................................................................................. 16
Figure 5 Comparison of Phase currents Dinning Park .................................................................................. 17
Figure 6 Demand Pattern Dinning Park......................................................................................................... 18
Figure 7 Space to place PV modules on Dinning Park ................................................................................... 21

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STUDY TEAM

1. Mr. Aashish Neupane Electrical Engineer


2. Mr. Bimal Gyanwali Electrical Engineer
3. Mr. Shobhit Man Bista Electrical Engineer

DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS DEPLOYED DURING ENERGY AUDIT

 Three Phase Electrical Power & Energy Analyzer

 Electrical clamp-on Power Analyzer

 Time of Day (ToD) Meter

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ABBREVIATIONS

AC Air Conditioning

CFL Compact Fluorescent Lamp

DB Distribution Board

DCS Distribution and Consumer Services

DG Diesel Generator

ENCON Energy Conservation

FTL Fluorescent Tube Light

ISO International Organization for Standardization

kVA kilo Volt Ampere

kWh kilo Watt Hour

LED Light Emitting Diode

NEA Nepal Electricity Authority

NRs Nepalese Rupees

PF Power Factor

PV Photovoltaic

UV Ultra Violet

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Rationale

Aastha Engineering Solution is a leader in full-service consultancy on engineering, procurement,

construction, and operations in this age. As a project delivery firm with a national grasp, we believe

the challenge is in the planning, not the executing. Our activities span the full spectrum of facility,

technology and process design; by applying technology and innovation optimally to these, our

vision is of helping to build a better Nation.

Dining Park Restaurant and Bar have embarked upon a effort to reduce their energy consumption

and costs and as a result making their services more cost competitive, the business more profitable,

and as a result reduce their businesses carbon footprint. The Dining Park Restaurant was selected as

the facility for Aastha Engineering Solution Pvt. Ltd. to conduct energy audit. Any energy

conservation measures recommended in this report have proven as commercially reliable based on

the payback criteria specified :< 5 years.

The energy audit at Dining Park premises was conducted in the month of September 2018, covering

all major energy utilization areas.

Building and Energy Systems Properties:

 The Dining Park is located at Old-Baneshwor, Kathmandu and has three building including a
banquet a with a total built up floor area of 1,571 square meters
 The electricity used for the audited building is received through 11 kV NEA feeder line which
supplies power to the all buildings within the premises through a 11/0.4 kV transformer of 100
kVA capacity.
 A TOD meter has been installed for the building to measure its electrical consumption and
was upgraded from 50 kVA to 100 kVA since Jestha of 2075.
 The monthly maximum demand recorded during the audited period (month of September) was
found to be 30 kVA, as against the total connected load of 56 kW.
 The average daily consumption for the month of September was found to be 501 kWh per day,
out of which 168 kWh was the consumption during peak hour, 290 kWh was the consumption
during normal hour and 43 kWh was the consumption during off-peak hour.
 There is also provision of backup diesel generator of 125 kVA supply to the building.

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 The major electrical loads of the building consist of ovens, fridges, lights, fans, office
computers, printers, photocopy machines, split-type air conditioning units and electrical
heating and cooking units.
Energy Conservation Proposals and Payback Summary:

The total annual energy consumption of the building was estimated to be 1,42,227 kWh while the identified
annual energy savings potentials add up to 45,986 kWh amounting to 32.33 % of the consumption. The
following table lists the top six energy saving opportunities that resemble savings of worth 4.93 Lakh NRs
annually, against an investment of 9.49 Lakh NRs and offer an overall simple payback period of 2.22 Years.

Table 1 Energy Conservation Proposal and Payback Summary


Payback
Annual Savings Investment
Period
S.N. ENCON Proposal kWh NRs. (NRs.) (Years)
Replacement of Tube
lights and
1 10,354 111,102 74,000 0.66605549
Incandescent lights by
LED lights
Changing route of the
2 3-phase supply to the 9825.02609 105,423 100,000 0.94856384
kitchen building
Energy Conservation
3 by Load Shifting _ 18,900 5,000 0.26455026

Rerouting of Inverter
4 Line 8,870 95,179 50,000 0.5253238

Installation of 9 kWp
Solar PV module for
5 10657.17 1,14,351 7,20,000 6.29
10 % of total
Electrical Load
Energy Conservation
by balancing Phases
6 Significant Signigicant Less Less

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 About Dinning Park Restaurant & Lounge Bar
Dinning Park Restaurant& Lounge Bar is a finest and luxurious multi-cuisine restaurant located in
the booming, and rapidly expanding education and Business hub area at Mid - Baneshwor. The
property addresses intriguing atmosphere that blends with hygienic and excellent taste of food
accompanied by warm and friendly service with total seating capacity of 200. It is accessible in 10-
15 drive from International Airport and 15- minute walking distance from the Pashupati Nath
Temple.

1.1.1 Building Location and Profile


Located at the heart of Kathmandu in Mid-Baneshwor, the Dining Park has three buildings
including one banquet building and all buildings are under study. The buildings are namely
Kitchen building, Administration building and Banquet building. The kitchen building has three
floors; first floor has coffee shop and kitchen. The second floor has reception, launch rooms,
meeting hall and one room include a 5kVA, UTL inverter with a 96 V, 200 Ah battery bank. The
third floor has launch rooms and meeting halls. The administration building has two floors; first
floor include main reception, bar, dining rooms, launch rooms and seminar hall. The second floor
of this administration building include office of director, account section, HR room, one meeting
room and dining rooms

Figure 1 Satellite View of Dinning Park Restaurant and Lounge Bar

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2.0 BUILDING ENERGY SYSTEMS: SALIENT FEATURES


2.1 Electricity Mains Supply
The whole Dining Park premise is supplied by 11 kV feeder through a 100 KVA, 11/0.4 kV
transformer. Since, there is not a dedicated feeder and there is chances of power-cut or load
shedding. So there is provision of backup diesel generator of capacity 125 kVA and 5 kVA UPS
system for the IT devices, computers and most of the lighting loads inside premise. The whole
buildings under study has a TOD meter which was upgraded from 50 kVA to 100 kVA in Jestha
2075. The main distribution panel board is located at the small room below the 100 kVA transformer
which is supported by H-Pole structure made up of steel tubular pole. Inside this main distribution
board there is ATS to couple DG. From this main distribution board, two 3-phase 4-wire supply is
fed to Sub-distribution boards near bar and Sub-distribution board near rest room of ground floor of
Banquet building. From Sub- distribution board near rest room of ground floor of banquet building
3-phase 4-wire supply is fed to banquet hall DB and Bakery kitchen DB and from DB near bar
3-phase 4-wire supply is fed to kitchen building through 60 A TPMCB.

2.2 Connected Electrical Loads


The connected loads include lighting load, cooking ovens, computer, printers, photocopy machines,
air conditioner, and fans. AC have the highest connected wattage, followed by ovens, refrigerator
and induction motor.

Table 2 Connected Electrical Loads by types

SN Type of Load Total (Watt)


1 Induction Motor 6300
3 CFL light 204
4 LED light 3703
5 Fan 660
6 Oven 7500
7 Refrigerator 6644
8 Microwave oven 3000
9 FLT 2280
10 AC 10900
11 Miscellaneous 14809
12 Total 56000

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Figure 2 Contribution of different types of loads


2.3 Energy Consumption during study period
The electricity consumption of the building during the study period (month of September) was found
from the TOD meter installed in Dining Park premise.
The average daily consumption for the month of September was found to be 501 kWh per day, out
of which 168 kWh was the consumption during peak hour, 290 kWh was the consumption during
normal hour and 43 kWh was the consumption during off-peak hour.

The kitchen building had the highest connected load as well as the highest monthly energy
consumption, followed by banquet building and kitchen building.

Table 3 Building wise Loads and Energy Consumption

Energy Energy
Building Load (kWh) (kWh) per
(kW) per day month
Banquet 17.574 134.936 4048.08
Admin
Building 12.926 84.436 2533.08
kitchen
building 24.557 251.084 7532.52
Total 55.057 470.456 14113.68

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2.4 Month-wise Energy Consumption


Using the consumption pattern provided by Old-Baneshwor , the annual energy consumption of the
restaurant was calculated to be 1,42,227 kWh.
The month-wise energy consumption is given in the following table:

Table 4 Monthy Energy Consumption 2074 Kartik to 2075 Asoj

kWhr consumption by month


Meter
SN Year/Month Capacity (kVA) % Consumption kWhr/month
1 074/Kartik 50 6.583841324 9364
2 074/Mangsir 50 5.963705907 8482
3 074/Paush 50 6.665401084 9480
4 074/Magh 50 8.840796754 12574
5 074/Falgun 50 8.209411715 11676
6 074/Chaitra 50 6.704774761 9536
7 075/Baisakh 50 7.357252842 10464
8 075/Jestha 50 6.592278541 9376
9 075/Ashad 100 11.60117277 16500
10 075/Shrawan 100 11.95764517 17007
11 075/Bhadra 100 8.949074367 12728
12 075/Aawin 100 10.57464476 15040
total 100 142227

2.5 Specific Energy Consumption


Considering a total built up floor area of 1,572m2, the building premises consumption reflects a
specific energy consumption of 90 kWh/m2/Year. While this value seems very favorable compared
to typical commercial buildings in India 180 kWh/m2/Year(reference: Bureau of Energy Efficiency,
India) it must be appreciated that the building is not fully air conditioned along with heavy loads
such as lifts etc. The specific energy consumption may thus in fact be considered as a parameter for
internal bench marking and trending for control and target setting through improvements and
adopting best practices.

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2.6 Unit Energy Charge (NRs. per kWh)


The energy charge per kWh (for commercial building under TOD Tariff of NEA) is NRs. 12.6 for
energy consumption during peak time, NRs. 11.1 during normal time and NRs 6.9 during off-peak
time. The average energy charge is estimated to be NRs. 10.73, as shown below:
Demand charge (Rs. / kVA) = 315
Approved Load (kVA) = 100 (to justify the 56 kW of connected load)
Minimum billable demand per month (50 % of approved load, kVA) = 50
Annual Energy Consumed (kWh) = 142,227
Unit Energy Charge (NRs. per kWh) = 10.73

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3.0 ENERGY CONSERVATION (ENCON) OPPORTUNITIES
In this chapter the identified energy saving opportunities are elaborated with the existing situation at the field,
the recommendations for improvement and the cost benefits of the recommended options. There are five
major quantifiable ENCON options presented in this chapter.

3.1: Energy Saving Opportunities by Switching into LED Lights


Present Situation

At present there are 57 numbers of Fluorescent Tube Lights (FTL), 17 CFLs of each 12 watt are mounted in
the various locations of the audited buildings. The FTL consumes typically 40watt as the tubes are fitted
along with the inefficient electro-magnetic chokes.

Recommendation:

It is recommended to replace the FTL and CFL devices by energy efficient LED lights (LED=Light emitting
diode) as per following Cost Benefit Table.

Table 5 Recommended Summary and Simple Payback period for switching to LED light

Connected Load FTLs CFLs Total


Power (Watt) 40 12
Existing Lighting Devices and Quantity 57 17
Parameters Operation hr./day 14 14
kWh/year 11,651 1042.44 12,693
Proposed Device LED LED Total
Power (Watt) 11 5

Proposed Lighting Devices and Quantity 57 17


Parameters Operation hr./day 9 9
kWh/year 2,060 279.225 4,410
Annual kWh Saving 9,591 763.215 10,354
Tariff NRs/kWh 10.73 10.73
Total Annual Saving (NRs) 102,913 8,189 111,102
Unit Cost of proposed Device (NRS) 1,000 1,000
Envisaged Investment (NRs) 57,000 17,000 74,000
Simple Payback (Year) 0.55386827 2.0758803 0.66605549

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3.2: Energy Saving Opportunity by changing route of the 3-phase supply to the kitchen
building
Present Situation

Though banquet load center is far from MDB we didn't observe significant voltage drop since it is
lightly loaded and also due to high value of diversity factor. But Kitchen Building is the heavily
loaded building among other building it is suffered from significant voltage drop. Sometimes L-N
(Line to Neutral) voltage is observed around 200 V.

Figure 3 Building wise installed Load and Daily Energy Consumption Pattern

Table 6 Electrical Parameters observed in Second floor of Kitchen building

Parameter Watt VA VAR Voltage (V) Current (A) PF

Values 947 949 61 201.3 4.71 0.997

1079 1080 46 200 5.4 0.99

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Table 7 Energy Loss due to Voltage Drop in Kitchen Building

kWh
Average Monthly Energy consumption in Kitchen 7532.52

kWh
Average Annual Energy consumption in Kitchen 90390.24

V
Observed voltage (average) 205

9825.0261 kWh
Energy loss due to voltage drop

Recommendation:

It is recommended to supply DB on ground floor of kitchen building directly from MDB as per
cost benefit table as below:

Figure 4 Proposed Rerouting of Supply to kitchen DB

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Table 8 Payback Summary to change route of kitchen Supply

Annual kWh Saving 9825.0261 kWh


Tariff NRs/kWh 10.73 NRs.
Total Annual Saving (NRs) 105422.53 NRs.
Envisaged Investment 100000
(NRs) NRs
Simple payback period 0.94 Year

3.3: Energy Conservation by phase balance


Present Situation

Here 3- Phase is not in the balanced condition which leads to unequal voltage across the phases and
circulating currents will cause internal heating of transformer. It is also reducing the performance
of the three phase machines. Form our measurement as well as TOD meter reading of September
2018 the blue phase is most loaded phase where yellow phase is lightly loaded.

Figure 5 Comparison of Phase currents Dinning Park

Recommendation:

It is recommended to balance phases by shifting some of the heavy loads to lightly loaded phases.
Here we can shift 5 kVA inverter which is connected in Blue Phase in Kitchen DB through 32 A
MCB to Yellow Phase.

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3.4: Demand Charge Reduction by Load Shifting:


Present Situation:

Here demand curve is not uniform showing extreme variation in connected loads in whole day.
NEA apply Demand Charge of 315 per KVA.

Figure 6 Demand Pattern Dinning Park

Recommendation:

It is recommended to shift non- emergency loads like Water filters, Pump running Induction
motors to off- peak time to reduce Demand Charge as load shifting is most key aspect of demand
management.

3.5: Energy Conservation by Rerouting of Inverter Line:


Present Situation:

Here as we measured the out-going current from inverter we found that there is significant difference
in current going from live and returning from neutral suggesting there is leakage of currents to the
Earth. We observe this difference in current up to 12A. Here inverter is supplying most of the
lighting loads and important devices like computers etc.

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Table 9 Estimated loss due to leakage from Inverter Supply

Average Current leakage from


inverter 8 A
It's contribution to annual energy loss 8870.4 kWh
Total annual loss 95179.39 NRs.

Recommendation:

It is recommended to Re-route the supply from the inverter by maintaining proper insulation and
Earthing with sufficient earth resistance.

Table 10 Payback Summary of Re-routing Inverter Supply

Annual kWh Saving 8870.4 kWh


Tariff NRs/kWh 10.73 NRs.
Total Annual Saving (NRs) 95179.39 NRs.
Envisaged Investment (NRs) 50000 NRs.
Simple payback period 0.525324 Year

3.6: Energy Conservation by Replacing old Induction motor:


Present Situation:

Here the motor on the way to banquet hall is very old and performance is very poor. We can see the
performance table as below:

Table 11 Parameters of old water pumping Induction motor in Dining Park

Parameters Watt VA VAR Voltage Current PF

Value 22 351 350 218.7 1.6 0.062

While consuming 351 VA only 22 Watt is used to pump water.

Recommendation:

It is highly recommended to replace this motor by good one.

3.7: Energy Conservaion by Reactive power Compensation:


Present Situation:

Here more than 50% of the load consists of inductive loads. But no power factor correction
measures are taken. It will increase demand charge and copper loss of transformer and conductors.

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Recommendation:

It is recommended to install fixed capacitor bank of capacity 20kVAR. It will save electricity bills
mainly by two way:

 Eliminating penalties on reactive energy and decreasing kVA demand.


 Reducing power losses generated in the transformers and conductors of the installation

Here,

PF1 be the power factor before installation of capacitor bank =0.92

PF2 be the power factor after installation of capacitor bank= 0.98

% reduction in copper loss = (1-(PF1/PF2)^2)

% reduction on copper loss = 11.87 %

Total Energy loss in the distribution system = 70525 kWh

Reduction in Energy loss due to capacitor bank= 11.87% *70525 kWh =8371

Annual
Energy
saving 8371.39643 kWh
Total
annual
saving 89825.0837 NRs.
Investment 150000 NRs.
Simple pay
back
period 1.66991216 year

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4.0 APPLICATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

4.1 Installation of Solar Photovoltaic Power System


The rooftop area of the banquet building could be a viable location for Solar PV installation. The
building’s roof top, as well as most of the nearby ones is shadow free. The total area available at the
roof top of the audited building is 192 sq. m. Utilizing 50% of the available space, solar PV of
capacity 9 KWp can be accommodated which can supply for 16% of total electrical loads, or more
precisely 20 % of loads comprising lighting systems, computers and accessories.

30 solar PV modules (each 315 Wp) of dimension 1954mm ˣ 982mmm can be used to generate solar
energy. The tilt angle of 25 degree has been considered in this case. The solar electricity generated
during the day time could be used in the same building and at the same time the surplus electricity
could be feed to the NEA grid line.

Figure 7 Space to place PV modules on Dinning Park

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The estimated energy generation from the solar PV System is calculated below:

Table 12 Estimated Energy Generation from Proposed PV system

Total capacity of Solar PV System 9 KWp


Total no. of sunny days in a year (Nepal) 300 Days
Efficiency of the components and the losses:
Power Degradation 0.50% per year

Temperature Loss (-0.41%/degree C for 24V 315 Wp


P-Si. If we consider NOCT (Normal Operating Cell 9%
Temperature) is 47⁰C, the loss is (47-25)*0.0041 = 9%

Series and parallel loss due to the difference in module


3%
specifications
Efficiency of the inverter 96%
Cable loss 3%
Dust and reflection 2%
Other electronics 2%
Overall efficiency of the PV system 0.789

Average annual solar insolation 5 KWh/m2/day

Total annual working hours of PV system 1184.13 Hrs


Estimated annual energy 10657.17 KWh
Estimated average annual energy generation
10.124312 MWh
considering power degradation of PV module

The cost benefits are as follows:


Table 13 Payback Summary Proposed PV system

Annual Energy Saving, kWh 10,657.17


Tariff NRs/kWh 10.73
Total Annual Saving (NRs) 1,14,351
Envisaged Investment (NRs.) 7,20,000

Simple payback Period (Year) 6.29

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There are also 8 pieces of 12 V, 200 Ah flooded lead acid batteries operating 5kVA single phase
inverter surplus energy can be stored in it. Considering DOD and efficiency it can supply 13.68
kWh of energy to the load which will reduce peak demand charge which is NRs. 315 per kW.

Table 14 Energy storing capacity of Existing Battery Bank

Battery Size (Ah) Nos DOD Voltage (V) Efficiency Total capacity watt hour
200 8 0.75 12 0.95 13680

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5.0 NO COST IMPORVEMENT AND VISIBILTY OPPURTUNITY WITHIN THE


BUILDING

5.1 Achieving Energy Efficiency through Behavioral Change


During energy audit field work it was observed that some of the office computer monitors, air
conditioners, extension cables and indoor lights were turned-on when no occupancy inside the room.
As the study was carried out in the month of September, there was no prospect to observe the
tendency of staffs in operating electrical or gas heaters.

Social science can improve our understanding of individual and societal responses to their
surroundings; it has been used to investigate people's relationship with energy, energy use and
energy efficiency behavior change initiatives/measures. Behavior change to reduce energy
consumption is complex and involves a wide range of different possible measures to address it but
following measures are applicable on such behavior change.

 Feedback measures: Putting display board of the energy consumption per day at the entrance
of the building. Block metering and communicating with staffs.
 Policy, Communication and engagement: Energy saving awareness within the staffs. Some
cases even small penalty system can be experimented. Green staff reward concept could be
useful tool for changing the behavior.
 Technological interventions with smart switch, timer switch and occupancy sensors.
 Centralized switching mechanism for each floor in which the switching off could be possible
measure for the holidays and off-hours.
 About 4 to 5% energy could be saved from the use of electrical equipments such as lighting,
computer, fan, A/Cs and heaters.

Dining Park Restaurant and Bar Energy Audit