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Art Part 4: The Diversity of

Art
By 2017, the
Louvre museum
in Paris, France
became the most
visited art
museum in the
world. It has
stunning
architecture and
artwork spanning
the eons of
human history.
The Charles H. Wright Museum of African
American History is one of the greatest museums in
the world. It was founded in 1965 and has the
largest permanent exhibit of African American
culture in America. A wall of the museum has the
museum's official poem, written by Melba Boyd,
inscribed in bronze on it. The Museum owns more
than 35,000 artifacts and archival materials. It is
located at Detroit, Michigan.

The joy of art is that it relates to


unapologetic self-expression and the viewer
can interpret its meaning in a multiplicity of
ways. Also, art motivates our creativity and
The Chrysler Museum of Art represents not
focuses our thinking to excel mightily. Art
only excellence, but creativity. It is found at is glorious.
Norfolk, Virginia.
Preface
Glory and power are found embrace the diversity of art. the world. That is
concurrently in art. It Art is never a shallow force exemplified in how so many
motivates our curiosity and it meant to be embraced a small other people take inspiration
enriches our souls in many number of human beings. It is from the African American
ways. We may love it, be meant to expand and spread freedom movement. The
offended by some of it, or throughout the Universe. I strength of black Americans
question it, but we aren’t am an African American, so is truly inspirational. African
ignoring its fundamental it is very important for me American art, just like the
value to civilization. One of (and any freedom lover) to varied forms of art, aren’t just
the truisms of art is that it is appreciate the contributions related to one subject matter
diverse. Art is found in the of African Americans in art. or genre. African American
structures found in Africa, in We, who are African art is wide ranging to deal
the ink paintings found in Americans, have a long with quilts, abstract
Asia, and in the sculptures history in joy, in pain, in paintings, dance, spoken
found in Europe. It is also struggle, and in excellence.
excellence word performances, digital
found by works created by We have lived in the art, comic imagery,
Native Americans and the Americas for over five sculptures, and other
various images found in centuries and we still rise to compositions. Therefore, it is
Oceania too. That is precisely not only proclaim our talents, always keen to honor the
why it is important to but to be a beckon of light to diversity of art itself.

This photograph shows Central Park, as seen from Rockefeller Center. Central Park is the most visited city
park in the United States. Photography and the large architecture, found in the image above, represent art
too.
Art Worldwide
Art is found worldwide. Art can be used to express cultural and ritualistic expression. One example
involves the megaliths found in Stonehenge in the United Kingdom. Some researchers believe that
the stones were situated because of astronomical purposes or religious significance. The
Mississippian culture of ancient North America used many large mound building structures. From
3,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C, during the time of the Neolithic and Bronze Age eras, art evolved to be
more complex. Rulers, hierarchies, and empires flourished in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asia,
the Americas, Australia, Oceania, etc. There were paintings and drawings of people working found
in Ur. There were figurines found in the Cycladic culture of Greece. The early Harappan location
in the Indus Valley civilization had many sculptures and complex city patterns. One figuring of a
person found in the city of Mohenjo-Daro appears to show a priest king. In Africa, there were
hieroglyphics and pyramids in both ancient Egypt (with the Great Pyramid of Giza, statues of
pharaohs, paintings of people, and many tools available. Ancient Egyptian art celebrates
polytheism with their praise of Horus, Isis, Geb, and other ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses)
and ancient Nubia. The ancient Hittites of Asia Minor had their own art too. During the Bronze
Age era of China, we see pottery with complex designs. Later, ancient texts in China show Chinese
characters and diverse, exquisite artistic images.

Ancient Central America with the Olmec culture, the Mayan civilization, etc. had large head
structures, images of jaguars, and literature filled with complex languages. Ancient Greece and
Rome used many forms of columns, paintings, and temple in celebrations of their deities. Ancient
Rome copies mosaics from the Etruscans and other forms of art from ancient Greece too. The
ancient great Parthenon (created during the 400’s B.C.) was a large temple with a state of the
goddess Athena in the middle of it. It was found in Athens, Greece. The Persian Empire with its
palace of Susa showed images of soldiers in colorful, court robes. The Ming dynasty of China from
the late 1300’s A.D. had porcelain, the explorer Zheng He, and a huge amount of artistic expression.
India incorporated Hinduism and Buddhism in its art too. The ancient Sanchi gate is
representative of early Indian art. Early Islamic art used calligraphy, pendants, drawings, and other
forms of expression. Sub Saharan Africa art focused on bronze structures, bronze plates, various
diverse structures, paintings, and other forms of art. One example is of the soapstone bird
structure from the ancient Great Zimbabwe civilization. The West African terra-cotta head is
found heavily in places like Nigeria. Oceania had art too in its large images of people. Today, art is
more diverse during the 21st century with the advent on complicated technological advances (from
the Internet to 3-D printing). We live in a new time, but we have the same love of artistic
expression as the ancients did thousands of years ago.

Museums
Art museums are worldwide. Where I was born in Virginia, there is an art museum that I have
visited before. For centuries and thousands of years, art museums have existed. Religious
institutions and the wealthy organized numerous collections of art. During the Medieval period,
royal palaces, castles, and large country houses had art collections. Some of them were inaccessible
to a section of the public. The Palace of Versailles centuries ago allowed some of the public to
witness art works. Today, times are different. More of the public can see art works. Some art
museums are more expensive than others. The British Museum was created in 1753 and it allowed
public viewing of artwork. The Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. is the world’s largest
research and museum complex. It has 19 museums and galleries. It has more than 137 million
objects that describe American history. It has tons of paintings and artwork. The Louvre in Paris,
France is found in the shape of a pyramid. The pyramid was created by I. M. Pei. It has works like
Venus de Milo, Winged Victory of Samothrace, and Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. The British
Museum in London, England has 8 million objects and many Ancient Egyptian paintings and other
works like the Rosetta Stone. The Prado in Madrid Spain has a lot of art including classical
masterpieces.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City is the largest museum in the Western
Hemisphere. It has a collection of more than 1 million items. It has works from ancient Egypt. It
also has works from Botticelli, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Degas, Rodin, and other artists. Renaissance
paintings and Baroque artwork are found in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. The Chrysler
Museum of Art is found in Norfolk, Virginia. It was created in 1933. It is one of the major art
museums in the Southeastern United States. It has places like the Glass Studio and Moses Myers
House. It has works spanning over 5,000 years. It has works from Tintoretto, Veronese, Peter Paul
Rubens, Diego Velázquez, Salvator Rosa, Gianlorenzo Bernini, John Singleton Copley, Thomas
Cole, Eugène Delacroix, Édouard Manet, Paul Cézanne, Gustave Doré, Albert Bierstadt, Auguste
Rodin, Mary Cassatt, Paul Gauguin, Georges Rouault, Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Edward
Hopper, and other people. The arts of the ancient world, Asia, Africa, and Pre-Columbian
America (particularly Maya ceramics) are also well represented. Art museums magnify our
creativity and stir up our imagination legitimately.

These four images show some of the greatest museums in the world. The top left image
shows the Chrysler Museum of Norfolk, Virginia. The top right picture shows medieval
works from the New York City Metropolitan Museum of Art. The bottom left picture shows
the Louvre in Paris, France and the image on the bottom right is the African American
Museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Architectural Diversity
Art is related to architecture and vice versa. The reason is that art signifies the development of
creative expression of humanity. Architecture can be created not only for housing or building
culture. It can be created for artistic purposes as well. So, there is always that linkage between
architecture and art. The Gobeki Tepe in Turkey is an ancient structure and it is the earliest found
place of worship being dated to the 10th millennium B.C. The Longshan culture of China had
advanced architecture. We already know that the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Pyramid of
Djoser being constructed in ancient Egypt are very historic. They possessed great building
properties. They have existed since the 2600’s B.C. Ancient Egyptian priests usually ordered or
founded the creation of the city palaces and temples plus the rulers did it too. Back then, the
priests were very powerful as they organized the religious rituals and influenced the pharaohs and
the ruling class in ancient Egypt too. In essence, architecture deals with the planning, designing,
and developing of buildings and other structures. Neolithic architecture is found all over Africa,
the Americas, Europe, and Asia. One of the greatest forms of architecture in Mesopotamia was the
ziggurat. This was a religious temple. It was created for the purpose of the worship of gods and
goddesses of Mesopotamia.

Leonard Woolley excavated the ziggurat at Ur. It was 64 by 46 meters at the base. It was originally
some 12 meters in height with 3 stories. It was built under Ur-Nammu (in ca. 2100 B.C.) and rebuilt
under Nabonidus (555-539 B.C.). It was increased to probably seven stories by that time of the 6th
century B.C. Greek architecture used temples, public buildings, and the acropolis (or the buildings
being on a hill). Greek architecture used the column styles of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
columns. Ancient Roman used amphitheaters, circus buildings, arches, bridges, domes, and other
complex images. Byzantine architecture used many mosaics and complex domes upon massive
piers. The Persians used buildings in a massive scale with carved stucco, floral motifs, and
brickwork in many patterns. Islamic architecture is found in many lands from Africa, Europe,
Asia, the Middle East, etc.
ANCIENT DEPICTIONS OF PEOPLE OF BLACK AFRICAN DESCENT
It is found with mosques, forts,
places, and excluding
illustrations of anything living
(that means that there can be no
human and no animal depictions
in ancient Islamic art). Islamic
art is also found in Sudano-
Sahelian locations, Moorish
areas, and in Iran plus Saudi
This sculpture is of a black youth This sculpture showed the image
Arabia. Large rectangular
found in ancient Rome. Frank of a young black girl. This was churches are found in Ethiopia
Swonden Jr. (1911-2007) and found in the Hellenistic period of on the basis of Aksumite style.
other scholars have documented history.
the black African presence in The conical shaped enclosure in
ancient Rome. the Great Zimbabwe civilization
outlines the largest medieval city
in sub-Saharan Africa. Hindu temples existed back then during the Middle Ages throughout India.
Southeast Asia with Khmer architecture has the Angkor Wat temple, which was huge. It is filled
with durable brick, laterite, and sandstone. The Angkor Wat temple is a great example of Khmer
architectural masterpiece, was built by king Suryavarman II in 12th century. Chinese, Japanese,
Korean, and Oceanic architectures flourished too. The Forbidden City in China was created during
the 15th century. It has yellow roof tiles. Mesoamerican architecture had stepped filled pyramids
and temples. The Incas used suspension bridges. Ancient North American architecture had Native
Americans using mounds, and buildings near caves (including pueblos) and other locations.

One of the greatest architectural wonders in the world is the Luxor Temple of ancient Egypt. It is
found in the ancient city of Thebes. Its construction was finished at ca. 1,400 B.C. In the Egyptian
language, it is known as ipet resyt, "the southern sanctuary.” It is found in the east bank of the Nile
River. At the Luxor, there were many temples on the east and west banks. Tourists globally visit
the location year round. In the complex, there is the Temple of Seti I at Gurnah, the Temple of
Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahri, the Temple of Ramesses II (a.k.a. Ramesseum), and the Temple of
Ramesses III at Medinet Habu. Other temples are found on the east bank at Karnak. The Luxor is
not dedicated to a god per se. It is about the rejuvenation of kingship. Many kings of ancient Egypt
were crowned at the location. The rear of the temple had chapels built by Amenhotep III of the
18th dynasty and Alexander the Great. Other parts of the temple were built by Tutankhamun and
Ramesses II. The Roman government centuries ago used the area as a fortress. The Luxor Temple
has a statue of Ramesses II (who was one of the most famous pharaohs of ancient Egypt). People
used sandstone to construct the architectural marvels. The entrance also has an obelisk as well. In
the front of the Luxor Temple complex, there was an ancient relief of the Battle of Kadesh when
Ramses II fought the Hittites thousands of years ago. Sphinxes existed in its original incarnation
too. The ancient Temple of Luxor had the Obelisks of Ramesses II in the front. Inside, there is the
courtyard of Ramses. The courtyard and colonnade of Amenhotep III was found close back. In the
back, there is the sanctuary and the Hypostyle Hall. The temple was built mostly by Amenhotep III
and completed by Tutankhamun. Later, more features were added by Horemheb and Ramesses II.
The whole structure goes in a specific pattern.

The ancient Parthenon was one of the greatest structures of ancient Greece. It was a temple being
part of the Greece acropolis. An acropolis is a citadel of buildings found on a hill in Athens,
Greece. It was dedicated to the goddess Athena (which represented wisdom in ancient Greek
mythology). Its classical style has Greco-column structure. The construction of this building started
on 447 B.C. and was completed by 432 B.C. The architects involved in its created were Iktinos and
Callicrates. Phidas was the famous sculptor involved in its creation too. The Parthenon is a symbol
of Athenian democracy. The whole size of the building was 228 feet by 101 feet. It has Doric and
Ionic styles. The Parthenon is regarded as the finest example of Greek architecture. The temple,
wrote John Julius Cooper, "enjoys the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built.
Even in antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle
correspondence between the curvature of the stylobate, the taper of the naos walls and the entasis
of the columns." The Ionic frieze, sculptures, and other images were found in the location. The
traveler Pausanias, when he visited the Acropolis at the end of the 2nd century AD, only
mentioned briefly the sculptures of the pediments(gable ends) of the temple, reserving the majority
of his description for the gold and ivory statue of the goddess inside. Restorations of the Parthenon
continue to this very day.

The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. It was originally built from 1406
to 1420 A.D. during the Ming Dynasty. The architect was Kaui Ziang. It shows a lot of great
Chinese architecture. It has been visited by people from the world over. The whole structure is a
rectangle. It is 3,153 ft. from north to south and 2,470 ft. from east to west. It has 980 surviving
buildings and 8,886 rooms. The front side has the Meridian Gate. In the center of the location was
the Gate of Supreme Harmony. The Corner Towers are found in the back of the whole structure as
well. The Forbidden City was designed to be the center of the ancient, walled city of Beijing. It is
enclosed in a larger, walled area called the Imperial City. The Imperial City is, in turn, enclosed by
the Inner City; to its south lies the Outer City. The Forbidden City remains important in the civic
scheme of Beijing. The central north–south axis remains the central axis of Beijing. This axis
extends to the south through Tiananmen gate to Tiananmen Square, the ceremonial center of the
People's Republic of China, and on to Yongdingmen. To the north, it extends through Jingshan
Hill to the Bell and Drum Towers. This axis is not exactly aligned north–south, but is tilted by
slightly more than two degrees. Researchers now believe that the axis was designed in the Yuan
dynasty to be aligned with Xanadu, the other capital of their empire. The Forbidden City is
surrounded by a moat. The Meridian Gate is huge with Asian architectural patterns. To the south
of the Forbidden City were two important shrines – the Imperial Shrine of Family or the Imperial
Ancestral Temple (Chinese: 太廟; pinyin: Tàimiào) and the Imperial Shrine of State or Beijing
Shejitan(Chinese: 社稷壇; pinyin: Shèjìtán), where the Emperor would venerate the spirits of his
ancestors and the spirit of the nation, respectively. Today, these are the Beijing Labouring People's
Cultural Hall and Zhongshan Park (commemorating Sun Yat-sen) respectively.

The Roman Colosseum was built for Vespasian and Titus. It was built from 70-80 A.D. in Rome.
Travertine, tuff, and brick-faced concrete were the materials that were used to create it. It was the
largest amphitheater of the ancient Roman Empire. It is found east of the ancient Roman Forum.
Modifications to the Colosseum existed during the reign of Domitian (81-96 A.D.). Vespasian,
Titus, and Domitian were known as members of the Flavian dynasty. The Colosseum back then
could hold between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators with an average audience of about 65,000 people.
It was filled with many violent games like gladiatorial contests, mock sea battles, animal hunts,
executions, dramas, re-enactments of famous battles, etc. Many early Christians were unjustly
murdered in the Colosseum too. Today, it is a tourist attraction and has ceremonies conducted by
the Roman Catholic Church. The Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium,
often anglicized as Flavian Amphitheatre. The building was constructed by emperors of the Flavian
dynasty, following the reign of Nero. As many people know, Nero was a totally evil person. It is
elliptical in plan and is 189 meters (615 ft. / 640 Roman feet) long, and 156 meters (510 ft. / 528
Roman feet) wide, with a base area of 24,000 square meters (6 acres). The height of the outer wall is
48 meters (157 ft. / 165 Roman feet). The perimeter originally measured 545 meters (1,788 ft. / 1,835
Roman feet). The central arena is an oval 87 m (287 ft.) long and 55 m (180 ft.) wide, surrounded by
a wall 5 m (15 ft.) high, above which rose tiers of seating. The arcades are framed by half-columns of
the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. The attic is decorated with Corinthian pilasters. Each of
the arches in the second- and third-floor arcades framed statues, probably honoring divinities and
other figures from Classical mythology. It stands as a testament to the creativity of human
architecture. The Sydney Opera House was designed to evoke the sails of yachts in the Sydney
harbor. 3-D printers have created artificial marble for construction and the development of
architecture as well. 3-D printed buildings have been cost effective and environmentally friendly.
We have new Urbanism, New Classical architecture, and Eco-cities. So, architecture continues to
be awe-inspiring and diverse.
More Modern Expressions of Architecture

The architect I. M. Pei was Eero Saarinem from 1956 to 1962 Skidmore, Owings & Merrill were
involved in the creation of was the architect of the TWA the architects of the
the Herbert F. Johnson Terminal at JFK Airport in New Manufactures Trust Company
Museum of Art at Cornell York City. He wanted to promote Building back in 1954 in New York
University in Ithaca, New excitement among passengers. City.
York from 1973.
Historic Artists
CELEBRATE THE ART OF THE PAST

BUILD A BETTER FUTURE


These historic artists
and sculptors made
history in enumerable
ways. They used their
creativity, their
determination, and
their artistic skills to
develop excellent
forms of art. Art
doesn’t just deal with
painting. Art does Senenmut was an 18th Phildias (ca. 480-430
deal with sculpture, dynasty ancient Egyptian B.C.)
architect and was a Greek sculptor,
architecture, pottery, governmental official. He painter, and architect. He
and other aspects of organized the erection of was the architect of the
human expression. twin obelisks at the statue of Zeus at
entrance to the Temple Olympia.
of Karnak.

Mary Edmonia Lewis was Callicrates was an ancient Dr. James W.


a famous woman of color Greek architect of the Washington Jr. (1909-
with African American fifth century B.C. He and 2000) was an African
and Native American Ictinus were the American painter and
heritage who sculptured architects of the sculptor who made great
many images. She made Parthenon according to accomplishments. He was
images using themes Plutarch. One inscription born and raised in
related to black people identified Callicrates was Gloster, MS and used art
and indigenous peoples one of the architects of heavily in the Seattle art
of the Americas into the Classical circuit wall community. His wife
Neoclassical style of the Acropolis. (who was born in Texas)
sculptures. She was was Janie Rogella
educated at the famous Washington.
Oberlin College (which
educated many black
Americans).
The Sydney Opera House was
opened on October 20, 1973. It was
designed by the Danish architect The Beijing National Stadium or the
Jorn Utzon. It has performances National Stadium is home to many events.
yearly. It has a concrete frame and a It can hold over 80,000 people and it
precast concrete ribbed roof. housed the 2008 Olympics in Beijing,
China. It was opened by June 28, 2008.
Many architects worked together to form The Burj Khalifa building is the
it and it cost CN¥2.3 billion. tallest structure on Earth. Adrian
Smith was the architect of the
building and it is 2,722 feet tall.
It has reinforced concrete, steel,
and aluminum.

Modern Architecture
This is the
Willis Tower It is always important for anybody to acknowledge the greatness of modern
in Chicago. It architecture. Since the 1980’s, buildings have become more complex.
has 110- stories. Architecture now relates to many specializations, advanced technology, and
It is one of the environmental considerations. More buildings are created to promote
tallest
buildings in the durability, sustainability, quality, and compliance with local laws. Newer
Western architecture isn’t just based on aesthetics. It is about being formed to
Hemisphere. It benefit the everyday needs of the people or make the environment more
was completed livable for humanity plus Nature. Today, we have the new movements of
by 1973.
New Urbanism, metaphoric architecture, and New Classic Architecture
that advance smart growth, classical design, and architectural tradition.

The One Trade


Center is the
tallest building
in America and
in the Western
Hemisphere. It
The City Hall building in London houses the was opened in
headquarters of the Mayor of London and the The Petronas Twin Towers are twin
2015 and it’s
London Assembly. It was finished in 2002. It was skyscrapers found in Kuala Lumpur,
found in New
designed by Norman Foster. Its interior has a Malaysia. They were once the tallest
York City.
helical staircase too. Its shape promotes energy buildings on Earth. Cesar Pelli was
efficiency. A location called the Chamber is the architect of the building. It has a
found in the structure. park, retail stores, and a sky bridge.
Modern architecture in the 21st century is diverse. It relates to technological advancements,
environmental concerns, large creativity, and other unique aesthetics. The National Museum of
African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) is filled with beauty inside and outside. It is
one of the greatest museums in human history and it is filled with African American culture. It
shows the truth of the contributions of black people and the necessity for freedom for the human
race in general. It was designed by Freelon Group, Adjaye Associates, and Davis Brody Bond. It has
multiple floors filled with almost 37,000 objects relating to community, family, the visual,
performing arts, religion, civil rights, slavery, segregation, sports, etc. It has 85,000 square feet.
Interactive videos, stations, and other stations are in its five floors. Students, adults, and other
people worldwide have visited its grounds. It opened on September 24, 2016. It was constructed
since 2003. It has a façade with great patterns of scrim based on the iron grilles found in the
African American communities of Charleston, South Carolina, and New Orleans, Louisiana. The
architectural firm of McKissack & McKissack (which was the first African American-owned
architectural firm in the United States) provided project management services on behalf of the
Smithsonian, and acted as liaison between the Smithsonian and public utilities and D.C.
government agencies. The whole building looks like a ziggurat or a stepped pyramid. Its
architecture is unique and beautiful at the same time. It will forever be a representation of the
inspiration, the power, and the strength of African American people.
On the day of
September 2016, the
National Museum of
African American
History & Culture was
opened to the public.
The Obama family
and the Bonner family
are there to celebrate
and ring the opening
bell.

Photograph by Joel Mason-Gaines


The Contemplative Court is located
The Heritage Hall has the
on the Concourse level of the
Museum shop and other places
museum. Water flows down in the where people can contemplate
court to develop a great effect. It has
inspirational quotations (from Dr. Never forget. about history and culture.

King and Mandela) too.

The National Museum


of African American This museum is very
interactive too.

We are always a creative


people.
History & Culture
This historic museum (which was planned for over one
century) is a shining of light of truth, wisdom, and the
power of resiliency. This national museum is dedicated
to record the history and culture of African Americans.
The celebration of music is a Now, people from across America and from across the
large part of our lives. From world visits its numerous floors, witness its art, and
Soul Train to hip hop, we embrace the dynamic tapestry of black culture. We are
are known to love the many blessed to live near 2020 to live to see the majestic Sports and black
genres of music. beauty of this location. excellence go hand in
hand.

The Changing America part of


The Slavery and Freedom section of
the museum deal with our age
the museum is found at the C3 level of
after 1968. Modern African
that location. It has chains, the Bible
owned by Nat Turner, and countless American history and culture is
information about the Maafa and on full display with this section.
slavery.
The goal for a national museum dedicated for African American history and culture existed
from 1915. During that year, African American veterans of the Union Army met at the
Nineteenth Baptist Church in Washington, D.C. They had a reunion and a parade. They
abhorred racial discrimination that they experienced. So, they formed a committee to build a
memorial to various African American achievements. By 1929, President Herbert Hoover
appointed Mary Church Terrell, Mary McLeod Bethune, and 10 other human beings to forms a
commission chat desired to build a “National Memorial Building” showcasing African
American achievements in the arts and sciences. Yet, Congress didn’t support the project.
Private fundraising wasn’t enough. Later, people fought for such a museum again by the early
1970’s. Tom Mack wanted this goal along with Representative Mickey Leland by the 1980’s.
Leland sponsored a non-binding resolution (H.R. 666) advocating an African-American
museum on the National Mall, which passed the House of Representatives in 1986. The
congressional attention motivated the Smithsonian to improve its presentation of African-
American history. In 1987, the National
Museum of American History sponsored a
major exhibit, "Field to Factory," which focused
on the black diaspora out of the Deep South in
the 1950s. People worked in the 1990’s too.

By the 21st century, massive progress would be


made. John Lewis and Representative J.C. Watts
re-introduced legislation for a museum in the
House of Representatives. President George W.
Bush formed a study to investigate the matter Rep. Mickey Leland was Rep. John R. Lewis
and Bush and Obama would support the an early supporter of championied legislation
national museum movement. On September 24, federal legislation to for the museum after
2016, President Barack Obama formally opened establish a national Black Rep. Leland’s passing
History museum. He (by a plane crash in
the new museum along with four generations of
didn’t live long enough 1989). It would be until
the Bonner family, from 99-year-old Ruth to see it, but his work 2016 when the museum
Bonner, who was the daughter of Elijah B. was never in vain. would be completed
Odom of Mississippi, an escaped slave who lived after over 100 years of
through the years of Reconstruction and Rest in Power Brother planning.
Mickey Leland.
segregation, down to Ruth's great-
granddaughter Christine. Together with the Obamas, Ruth and her family rang the Freedom
Bell to officially open the museum. The bell comes from the first Baptist church organized by
and for African Americans, founded in 1776 in Williamsburg, Virginia, despite laws at the time
making it unlawful for blacks to congregate or preach. The Obamas and Ruth Bonner opened
the museum by tugging on a rope as the Freedom Bell rang. It started a "communal bell ringing"
by schools and churches throughout Washington, D.C. Former president Barack Obama gave a
speech at the museum's opening, shedding tears, discussing his thoughts on visiting the museum
with future grandchildren. He stated the courage of children such as Ruby Bridges. Bridges was
the first black student attending an all-white school in New Orleans. More than 600,000 people
visited the museum in its first three months. Smithsonian officials announced that the museum
had 3 million visitors in its first full year of operation. An average of 8,000 people a day
attended the museum, double the number anticipated.

Conclusion
In this time, tons of human beings realize the dynamic reality of the diversity of art. Every
background of people and every culture has some form of works which excellently harbor art.
Art motivates our curiosity and it can provoke long lasting debates on the interpretations of its
meaning. Throughout the exploration of art, we witness key axioms. One is that art manifests
the total imagination of the human mind. We also realize that art isn't just about paintings or
drawings though they are key elements of artistic expression. Architecture, computer graphic
designs, and abstract imagery represent art to the fullest too. Performance dancing details the
great beauty of art as well. Legends like Picasso, Da Vinci, Savage, Tagore, Lawrence, and
Basquait used genius not only to create magnificent artwork. They wanted education to be
precisely promoted as a pristine way for future generations to be inspired to express their art as
they see fit. Art doesn't follow monolithic, rigid, and authoritarian rules. It flows with time and
other aspects of human culture. It can be made into a reality via a plethora of mediums and
tools from pencils, pens, charcoal, paints, pastels, clay, acrylic, and other items. Motivation to
establish artistic works can be found in dreams, writings, imagination, and just plain human
experiences. That is precisely why some of the greatest works have been formed by a person
experiencing pain or massive joy. There are countless artists globally who seek to do it not as a
product of ego or a product of self-aggrandizement. They do it as a personal love for the art of
human self-expression.

The Greatness of Ancient & Modern Art

This image shows a This gold mask of The African The sculpture of the
sculptor of Menkaura Tutankhamun was American woman African American
(Mycerinus) and the created in ca. 1327 sculptor Augusta young girl was also
Queen. They existed B.C. It is made up of Savage (who was created by one of
from the Old gold, glass, and born in Florida) the greatest
Kingdom, in Dynasty semi-precious created this sculptors of all time,
4 which was from ca. stones. It is about sculpture of a young who was Augusta
2490 – 2472 BC. The 21.25 inches tall with African American Savage. This art
formality of the pose a width of 15.5 child. This sculptor is image was created
is unique by the inches. It is found called Gamin from in 1935 and the girl
Queen's arm round from the Valley of the 1920’s. This was has pigtails. The
her husband. the Kings (in Thebes, her nephew. She was sculptor is made up
Egypt). It is one of later awarded a of bronze.
the most iconic Julius Rosenwald
artifacts found Fellowship to study
relating to ancient in Paris back in 1929.
Egypt.

Unsung artists (who sell their works, who sacrifice their time for the purpose of fulfilling their
dreams, and who genuinely want to share their ideals to humanity in a congruently profound
fashion) deserve the same dignity and respect as more well-known producers of art. 2020 is
almost here and the wonderful theme of art continues to stimulate our sense of self awareness
about the totality of the Universe.

By Timothy

This picture shows the late, great Sister Augusta Savage,


who was one of the greatest sculptors in human history.

The next part of this art series will be the


final part. The next, upcoming commentary
will describe legendary artists throughout
history and the meaning of art itself.