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The report contains the comparison of cd vs Mach number between NACA and supercritical airfoil.

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Supercritical Airfoil

Submitted by

VIVEK KUMAR SHRIVASTAV

(17AE60R23)

1st Year M.tech Student

DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE

ENGINEERING

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

KHARAGPUR

1

Abstract

In this report, a flow over the NACA0010 and SC20410 aerofoil at an angle of attack of 40 with

speed varying from M=0.6 to M=0.95 is modelled and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

analysis is performed using FLUENT in ANSYS. The flow is considered as ideal gas with

considering the viscosity effect. The coefficient of drag over the aerofoil is remained constant up

to M=0.6 but increases by increasing the speed above M=0.6.

Table of Content

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………… (1)

List of figures…………………………………………………………………………….. (1)

List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………….. (1)

List of Graphs……………………………………………………………………………. (2)

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………. (2)

Objective…………………………………………………………………………………. (2)

Simulation Setup ………………………………………………………………………… (2)

Results ………………………………………………………………………………….... (4)

Discussion & Conclusion ……………………………………………………………….. (7)

References ……………………………………………………………………………….. (7)

List of Figures

Fig.1: Meshed model of SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil…………………………. 2

Fig.2: Zoom view of Meshed model of SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil………….. 3

Fig.3: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.7 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil… 5

Fig.4: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.8 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil….. 5

Fig.5: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.85 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil.... 5

Fig.6: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.95 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil… 5

Fig.7: Variation of Static Mach No. @ M=0.7 for SC20410 &NACA0010 airfoil… 6

Fig.8: Variation of Static Mach No. @ M=0.8 for SC20410 &NACA0010 airfoil…. .6

Fig.9: Variation of Static Mach No. @ M=0.85 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil.. 6

Fig.10: Variation of Static Mach No. @ M=0.95 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil. 6

List of Tables

Tab.1: Domain Physics for Airfoils …………………………………………………. 3

Tab.2: Boundary Physics for Airfoils .………………………………………………. 3

Tab.3: Obtained value of force for NACA0010 Airfoil.………………….…………. 4

Tab.4: Obtained value of force for SC204010 Airfoil…………………….…………. 4

List of Graphs

Graph.1: Variation of Coefficient Of Drag with Mach number for SC20410 &

NACA0010 airfoil…………………………………………………………………… 4

2

1. Introduction

During 1960’s and 1970’s, the concerted effort within National Aeronautics and Space

Administration (NASA) was directed towards developing practical airfoils with improved drag

divergence Mach number and two-dimensional transonic turbulent flow while retaining low-

speed maximum lift and stall characteristics and focused on a concept which is referred as the

supercritical airfoil. The supercritical airfoil is based on the concept of local supersonic flow

followed by isentropic compression. The characteristic feature of the supercritical airfoil is the

large leading-edge radius, reduced curvature over middle region of the upper surface followed by

substantial aft camber.

The early phase of the effort by NASA was successful in extending the drag divergence Mach

numbers when compared to conventional airfoils such as National Advisory Committee for

Aeronautics (NACA) 6-series airfoils. However, these early supercritical airfoils which are also

referred as SC (phase 1) prefix, experienced a noticeable increase in drag at Critical Mach

number also known as drag creep. This gradual build-up of drag is due to intermediate off-design

second velocity peak (acceleration of flow over the rear upper surface portion of airfoil before

the trailing edge recompression) and weak shock wave above the upper surface.

Improvement to phase1 airfoils resulted in airfoils with reduced drag characteristics. These early,

phase 1 airfoils and the improved phase 1 airfoils were developed before adequate theoretical

analysis codes were available and resulted from iterative contour modifications during wind-

tunnel testing. The process consists of performing experimental pressure distribution at off-

design and design conditions and physically modifying the profile of airfoil to get the best drag

characteristics over the range of experimental test conditions. The design guidelines that are

identified during early phase 1 investigations, together with viscous, transonic, airfoil analysis

code developed during the same interval of time, resulted in an evolution of matrix of family-

related supercritical airfoils (referred as SC (phase 2) prefix).

2. Objective

The objective of this report is to study the behaviour of flow as it passes through NACA0010 and

SC20410 aerofoils near the transonic region and compared the flow coefficients for the

conventional and supercritical aerofoils.

3. Simulation Setup

I. Geometry

Design of airfoils is performed using ANSYS design modular by using the coordinates provided

as per ref [2].

II. Meshing

Meshing is done by using ANSYS ICEM CFD, which is popular software package used for CAD

and mesh generation.

3

III. Setup

The above meshed models are then imported into ANSYS CFX Pre and the setup and the

boundary conditions are specified in the following tables:

General

Solver Type Density Based

Time Transient

Velocity Formulation Absolute

2D Space Planar

Models

Multiphase Off

Energy On

Viscous Standard K-e, Standard Wall Function

Materials

Fluid Air Ideal Gas

Fluid Definition Material Library

Tab.1: Domain Physics for Airfoils

Boundary-Inlet

Boundary Type Pressure Inlet

Referance Frame Absolute

Gauge Total Pressure (Pa) Based on Mach number

Direction Specification Method Normal to Boundary

Total Temperature 300K

Boundary-Airfoil

Boundary Type Wall

Wall Motion Stationary Wall

Shear Condition No Slip

Boundary-Outlet

Boundary Type Pressure Outlet

Gauge Pressure (Pa) 0

Boundary-Wall

Boundary Type Wall

Wall Motion Stationary Wall

Shear Condition Specified Shear

Shear Stress 0

Tab.2: Boundary Physics for Airfoils

4

4. Results

By using CFX Pre solver we have given the required boundary conditions. After the solution is

done and then analysis is carried out. The results obtained are listed below:

Obtained Value of Forces for NACA0010 airfoil

Speed Of Sound Flow Speed Gauge Pressure Drag Force Lift Force Coefficient Coefficient

Mach No.

(300K) (m/s) (Pa) (N) (N) Of Drag Of Lift

347.20 0.65 225.68 31210.80 1309.00 23755.00 0.04 0.76

347.20 0.70 243.04 36197.14 2156.00 21252.00 0.06 0.59

347.20 0.80 277.76 47277.90 3403.00 31553.00 0.08 0.67

347.20 0.85 295.12 53372.32 4444.29 33428.00 0.10 0.63

347.20 0.90 312.48 59836.09 5922.00 30467.00 0.12 0.51

347.20 0.95 329.84 66669.22 7694.00 37685.00 0.14 0.57

Tab.3: Obtained value of force for NACA0010 Airfoil

Obtained Value of Forces for SC20410 airfoil

Speed Of Sound Flow Speed Gauge Drag Force Lift Force Coefficient Coefficient

Mach No.

(300K) (m/s) Pressure (Pa) (N) (N) Of Drag Of Lift

347.20 0.65 225.68 31210.80 1248.35 32746.34 0.04 1.05

347.20 0.70 243.04 36197.14 1809.74 37978.00 0.05 1.05

347.20 0.80 277.76 47277.90 3309.24 51314.00 0.07 1.09

347.20 0.85 295.12 53372.32 4269.51 51968.00 0.08 0.97

347.20 0.90 312.48 59836.09 5923.39 52502.00 0.10 0.88

347.20 0.95 329.84 66669.22 8999.76 51549.00 0.13 0.77

Tab.4: Obtained value of force for SC20410 Airfoil

5

Graph.1: Variation of Coeff. Of Drag with Mach number for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil.

II. Comparison between airfoils using Static Pressure contour plot

Fig.3: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.7 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

Fig.4: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.8 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

Fig.5: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.85 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

Fig.6: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.95 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

6

Fig.7: Variation of Mach number @ M=0.7 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

Fig.8: Variation of Mach number @ M=0.8 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

Fig.9: Variation of Mach number @ M=0.85 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

7

Fig.10: Variation of Mach number @ M=0.95 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

This reports gives the comparison of flow properties across the SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

by varying the flow speed. As we know wave drag is become predominant for the conventional

airfoil when the flow approaches the transonic region. This dominant wave drag is delayed by

using the supercritical airfoil, which reduces the considerable amount of drag at speed near the

transonic zone.

6. References

[1] Charles D Harris, 1990, “NASA Supercritical Airfoils”, NASA Technical Paper 2969

[2] Airfoiltools.com

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