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A Project Report on

Supercritical Airfoil
Submitted by
VIVEK KUMAR SHRIVASTAV
(17AE60R23)
1st Year M.tech Student

DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE
ENGINEERING
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
KHARAGPUR
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Abstract
In this report, a flow over the NACA0010 and SC20410 aerofoil at an angle of attack of 40 with
speed varying from M=0.6 to M=0.95 is modelled and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
analysis is performed using FLUENT in ANSYS. The flow is considered as ideal gas with
considering the viscosity effect. The coefficient of drag over the aerofoil is remained constant up
to M=0.6 but increases by increasing the speed above M=0.6.

Table of Content
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………… (1)
List of figures…………………………………………………………………………….. (1)
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………….. (1)
List of Graphs……………………………………………………………………………. (2)
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………. (2)
Objective…………………………………………………………………………………. (2)
Simulation Setup ………………………………………………………………………… (2)
Results ………………………………………………………………………………….... (4)
Discussion & Conclusion ……………………………………………………………….. (7)
References ……………………………………………………………………………….. (7)

List of Figures
 Fig.1: Meshed model of SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil…………………………. 2
 Fig.2: Zoom view of Meshed model of SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil………….. 3
 Fig.3: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.7 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil… 5
 Fig.4: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.8 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil….. 5
 Fig.5: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.85 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil.... 5
 Fig.6: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.95 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil… 5
 Fig.7: Variation of Static Mach No. @ M=0.7 for SC20410 &NACA0010 airfoil… 6
 Fig.8: Variation of Static Mach No. @ M=0.8 for SC20410 &NACA0010 airfoil…. .6
 Fig.9: Variation of Static Mach No. @ M=0.85 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil.. 6
 Fig.10: Variation of Static Mach No. @ M=0.95 for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil. 6

List of Tables
 Tab.1: Domain Physics for Airfoils …………………………………………………. 3
 Tab.2: Boundary Physics for Airfoils .………………………………………………. 3
 Tab.3: Obtained value of force for NACA0010 Airfoil.………………….…………. 4
 Tab.4: Obtained value of force for SC204010 Airfoil…………………….…………. 4

List of Graphs
 Graph.1: Variation of Coefficient Of Drag with Mach number for SC20410 &
NACA0010 airfoil…………………………………………………………………… 4
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1. Introduction
During 1960’s and 1970’s, the concerted effort within National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA) was directed towards developing practical airfoils with improved drag
divergence Mach number and two-dimensional transonic turbulent flow while retaining low-
speed maximum lift and stall characteristics and focused on a concept which is referred as the
supercritical airfoil. The supercritical airfoil is based on the concept of local supersonic flow
followed by isentropic compression. The characteristic feature of the supercritical airfoil is the
large leading-edge radius, reduced curvature over middle region of the upper surface followed by
substantial aft camber.
The early phase of the effort by NASA was successful in extending the drag divergence Mach
numbers when compared to conventional airfoils such as National Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics (NACA) 6-series airfoils. However, these early supercritical airfoils which are also
referred as SC (phase 1) prefix, experienced a noticeable increase in drag at Critical Mach
number also known as drag creep. This gradual build-up of drag is due to intermediate off-design
second velocity peak (acceleration of flow over the rear upper surface portion of airfoil before
the trailing edge recompression) and weak shock wave above the upper surface.
Improvement to phase1 airfoils resulted in airfoils with reduced drag characteristics. These early,
phase 1 airfoils and the improved phase 1 airfoils were developed before adequate theoretical
analysis codes were available and resulted from iterative contour modifications during wind-
tunnel testing. The process consists of performing experimental pressure distribution at off-
design and design conditions and physically modifying the profile of airfoil to get the best drag
characteristics over the range of experimental test conditions. The design guidelines that are
identified during early phase 1 investigations, together with viscous, transonic, airfoil analysis
code developed during the same interval of time, resulted in an evolution of matrix of family-
related supercritical airfoils (referred as SC (phase 2) prefix).

2. Objective
The objective of this report is to study the behaviour of flow as it passes through NACA0010 and
SC20410 aerofoils near the transonic region and compared the flow coefficients for the
conventional and supercritical aerofoils.

3. Simulation Setup
I. Geometry
Design of airfoils is performed using ANSYS design modular by using the coordinates provided
as per ref [2].
II. Meshing
Meshing is done by using ANSYS ICEM CFD, which is popular software package used for CAD
and mesh generation.

Fig.1: Meshed model of SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil


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Fig.2: Zoom view of Meshed model of SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

III. Setup
The above meshed models are then imported into ANSYS CFX Pre and the setup and the
boundary conditions are specified in the following tables:

General
Solver Type Density Based
Time Transient
Velocity Formulation Absolute
2D Space Planar
Models
Multiphase Off
Energy On
Viscous Standard K-e, Standard Wall Function
Materials
Fluid Air Ideal Gas
Fluid Definition Material Library
Tab.1: Domain Physics for Airfoils

Boundary-Inlet
Boundary Type Pressure Inlet
Referance Frame Absolute
Gauge Total Pressure (Pa) Based on Mach number
Direction Specification Method Normal to Boundary
Total Temperature 300K

Boundary-Airfoil
Boundary Type Wall
Wall Motion Stationary Wall
Shear Condition No Slip

Boundary-Outlet
Boundary Type Pressure Outlet
Gauge Pressure (Pa) 0

Boundary-Wall
Boundary Type Wall
Wall Motion Stationary Wall
Shear Condition Specified Shear
Shear Stress 0
Tab.2: Boundary Physics for Airfoils
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4. Results
By using CFX Pre solver we have given the required boundary conditions. After the solution is
done and then analysis is carried out. The results obtained are listed below:
Obtained Value of Forces for NACA0010 airfoil

Speed Of Sound Flow Speed Gauge Pressure Drag Force Lift Force Coefficient Coefficient
Mach No.
(300K) (m/s) (Pa) (N) (N) Of Drag Of Lift
347.20 0.65 225.68 31210.80 1309.00 23755.00 0.04 0.76
347.20 0.70 243.04 36197.14 2156.00 21252.00 0.06 0.59
347.20 0.80 277.76 47277.90 3403.00 31553.00 0.08 0.67
347.20 0.85 295.12 53372.32 4444.29 33428.00 0.10 0.63
347.20 0.90 312.48 59836.09 5922.00 30467.00 0.12 0.51
347.20 0.95 329.84 66669.22 7694.00 37685.00 0.14 0.57
Tab.3: Obtained value of force for NACA0010 Airfoil
Obtained Value of Forces for SC20410 airfoil

Speed Of Sound Flow Speed Gauge Drag Force Lift Force Coefficient Coefficient
Mach No.
(300K) (m/s) Pressure (Pa) (N) (N) Of Drag Of Lift
347.20 0.65 225.68 31210.80 1248.35 32746.34 0.04 1.05
347.20 0.70 243.04 36197.14 1809.74 37978.00 0.05 1.05
347.20 0.80 277.76 47277.90 3309.24 51314.00 0.07 1.09
347.20 0.85 295.12 53372.32 4269.51 51968.00 0.08 0.97
347.20 0.90 312.48 59836.09 5923.39 52502.00 0.10 0.88
347.20 0.95 329.84 66669.22 8999.76 51549.00 0.13 0.77
Tab.4: Obtained value of force for SC20410 Airfoil

I. Graphs obtained from above table


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Graph.1: Variation of Coeff. Of Drag with Mach number for SC20410 & NACA0010 airfoil.
II. Comparison between airfoils using Static Pressure contour plot

Fig.3: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.7 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

Fig.4: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.8 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

Fig.5: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.85 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

Fig.6: Variation of Static Pressure @ M=0.95 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil
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III. Comparison between airfoils using Mach Number contour plot

Fig.7: Variation of Mach number @ M=0.7 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

Fig.8: Variation of Mach number @ M=0.8 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

Fig.9: Variation of Mach number @ M=0.85 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil
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Fig.10: Variation of Mach number @ M=0.95 for SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil

5. Discussion & Conclusion


This reports gives the comparison of flow properties across the SC20410 and NACA0010 airfoil
by varying the flow speed. As we know wave drag is become predominant for the conventional
airfoil when the flow approaches the transonic region. This dominant wave drag is delayed by
using the supercritical airfoil, which reduces the considerable amount of drag at speed near the
transonic zone.

6. References
[1] Charles D Harris, 1990, “NASA Supercritical Airfoils”, NASA Technical Paper 2969
[2] Airfoiltools.com