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Contraindi- Adverse

Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Side Nursing


cation Effects
Action Effects Responsibilities
Generic Name: Widely used Heart Contraindicated Tachycard CNS:  Instruct patient
Digoxin cardiacglycoside of failure,paroxys in patients ia, Agitation, not to stop
DigitalisLanata. Acts malsupraventri hypersensitive Headache, Dizziness, taking drug
Brand Name: byincreasing the culartachycardi to drug and in Dizziness, Fatigue,
without
Digitek forceand velocity of a,atrial those with Mental Generalized
myocardial fibrillationand digitalis induced disturbanc muscle notifying
Dosage: systoliccontraction. It flutter toxicity, es, weakness, physician.-
PO: 10-15 mcg/kg (1 alsodecreases ventricular Nausea, hallucinatio  Instruct to
mg) individed doses conductionvelocity fibrillation, or and ns, report slow or
over 24-48h IV : 10- through ventricular Vomiting, headache, irregular pulse,
15 mcg/kg (1mg) theatrioventricular tachycardia Diarrhea, malaise, rapid weight
individed dose over node.Acton is more unless caused Anorexia paresthesia,
gain, loss of
24h promptand less by heart failure. Blurred or vertigo CV:
prolongedthan that of yellow Arrythmias, appetite,
digitalisand digitoxin Patients with vision, heart nausea,
Wolff- failure, diarrhea,
Parkinson- EENT: vomiting,
White syndrome Blurred blurred or
unless the vision, yellow vision,
conduction myopia, unusual
accessory light
tiredness or
pathway has flashes,
been photophobia weakness,
pharmacologic , GI: swelling of the
all surgically Anorexia, ankles, legs or
disabled. diarrhea, fingers,
nausea difficulty
breathing.-
Contraindi- Adverse
Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Side Nursing
cation Effects
Action Effects Responsibilities
Generic Name: Furosemide inhibits Management  Hypersensitivity Cardiovas Hyponatrae Monitor BP, serum
Furosemide reabsorption of Na of edema to furosemide cular: mia, electrolytes, renal
Brand Name: and Cl mainly in the associated with and Acute hypochlorae function, orthostasis,
Fortaz, Tazicef medullary portion of heart failure sulfonamides. hypotensi mic
hearing (on high
the ascending loop of and hepatic or Anuria or renal on, alkalosis,
Dosage: Henle. Excretion of K renal disease; failure, chronic hypokalaem doses or rapid IV
dosage: and ammonia is also acute Addison's aortitis, ia, admin).
IM/IV increased while uric pulmonary disease, necrotizin headache,
1g q 12 acid excretion is edema; hypovolaemia or g angiitis, drowsiness,
(8am, 8pm) reduced. It increases treatment of dehydration, muscle
plasma-renin activity, hypertension precomatose orthostatic cramps,
plasma- (alone or in state associated hypotensi hypotension
norepinephrine and combination w/ liver on, , dry mouth,
plasma-arginine- with other cirrhosis. vasculitis thirst,
vasopressin antihypertensiv weakness,
concentrations. es) lethargy,
Onset: Diuresis: 30- restlessness,
60 min (oral); 30 min oliguria, GI
(IM); approx 5 min disturbances
(IV). Oedema: W/in ,
15-20 min prior to hypovolaem
diuretic effect. ia,
Duration: 6-8 hr dehydration,
(oral); 2 hr (IV). hyperuricae
Pharmacokinetics: mia, acute
Absorption: Fairly generalisede
rapidly absorbed xanthemato
from the GI tract. uspustulosis
Bioavailability: , drug rash
Approx 60-70%. w/
Distribution: Crosses eosinophilia
the placenta; enters and
breast milk. Plasma systemic
protein binding: Up symptoms,
to 99% (mainly reversible or
albumin). irreversible
Metabolism: hearing
Undergoes minimal impairment
hepatic metabolism.
Excretion: Mainly via
urine (as unchanged
drug). Half-life: Up
to approx 2 hr.
Contraindi- Adverse
Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Side Nursing
cation Effects
Action Effects Responsibilities
Generic Name: Description: Prophylaxis of Hypersensitivity pain, Diarrhea, Assess for liver and
Ceftadizime Ceftazidime binds to surgical to ceftazidime or swelling, nausea, renal dysfunction
Brand Name: 1 or more of the infection in other burning, vomiting,
Zeptrigen penicillin-binding patients cephalosporins. or abdominal Culture infection, and
proteins (PBPs) undergoing irritation pain, arrange sensitivity
Dosage: which inhibit the prostate around the metallic tests before and
dosage: final transpeptidation surgery. IV needle; taste; during therapy if
IM/IV step of peptidoglycan eosinophilia expected response is
1g q 12 synthesis in bacterial nausea, vo , not seen.
(8am, 8pm) cell wall, thus miting, thrombocyt Warning:
inhibiting diarrhea, osis;
biosynthesis and stomach pruritus, Do not mix with
arresting cell wall pain; rash aminoglycoside
assembly resulting in orvaginal (maculopap solutions, administer
bacterial cell death. itching or ular, these drugs
Pharmacokinetics: discharge. erythematou separately.
Absorption: Time to s), urticaria,
peak plasma photosensiti Powder and
concentration: vity, reconstituted solution
Approx 1 hr (IM), 5 angioedema, darken with storage.
min (IV bolus). fever;
transient Have Vit. K available
increases in in case
serum hypoprothrombinemi
concentratio a occurs
ns of AST, Discontinue if
ALT, hypersensitivity
alkaline occurs
phosphatase
, LDH, γ-
glutamyltra
nsferase,
bilirubin,
serum
creatinine
concentratio
ns; local
reactions
(e.g.
phlebitis,
pain or
inflammatio
n at inj site),
candidiasis,
vaginitis
Contraindi- Adverse
Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Side Nursing
cation Effects
Action Effects Responsibilities
Generic Name: Paracetamol exhibits Mild to  Patient w/ Bloody or Thrombocyt -Check that the
Acetaminophen analgesic action by moderate pain chronic black, openia, patient is not taking
peripheral blockage and fever alcoholism, tarry leucopenia, any other medication
(Paracetamol) known G6PD
of pain impulse stools pancytopeni containing
deficiency,
generation. It severe a, paracetamol.
Brand Name: produces antipyresis -bloody or neutropenia,
hypovolaemia,
Biogesic by inhibiting the cloudy agranulocyt - For children who
chronic
hypothalamic heat- malnutrition. urine osis, pain may refuse medicine
regulating centre. Its Renal and and burning off a spoon try using
Dosage: -fever a medicine syringe to
weak anti- hepatic sensation at
Oral impairment. with or
inflammatory activity inj site. squirt liquid slowly
Pregnancy and without into the side of the
160mg PRN for temp is related to inhibition Rarely,
lactation chills (not child’s mouth or use
equal to or greater than of prostaglandin hypotension
present soluble paracetamol
37.8 synthesis in the CNS. and
before mixed with a drink.
treatment tachycardia.
Onset: Oral: <1 hr.
and not - Some children may
Duration: 4-6 hr Potentially
caused by be happy to take one
(analgesia). Fatal: paracetamol product
Pharmacokinetics:Ab the Stevens- but dislike the taste of
sorption: Readily condition Johnson another
absorbed from the GI being syndrome,
treated) toxic - Evaluate therapeutic
tract. Time to peak
epidermal response.
plasma concentration: necrolysis,
-pain in
Approx 10-60 min the lower
(oral). back
and/or
side
Contraindi- Adverse
Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Side Nursing
cation Effects
Action Effects Responsibilities
Generic Name: Omeprazole is a Zollinger-  Increased risk of Back, leg, Increased -Monitor therapeutic
Omeprazole substituted Ellison Clostridium or risk of effectiveness and
Brand Name: benzimidazole gastric syndrome difficile- stomach Clostridium adverse reactions at
Omeprazole, antisecretory agent Gastric and associated pain difficile- beginning of therapy
PriLOSEC, PriLOSEC and is also known as duodenal diarrhea associated and periodically
OTC, Zegerid PPI. It blocks the ulcers, (CDAD) and -bleeding diarrhea throughout therapy.
Dosage: final step in gastric Gastroesophag osteoporosis- or crusting (CDAD)
Intravenous acid secretion by eal reflux related fractures. sores on and -Assess GI system:
40mg q 6 or OD on specific inhibition of disease, Headache, rash, the lips osteoporosis bowel sounds every
NPO H+/K+ ATPase NSAID- pruritus, -related 8hours, abdomen for
(6am, 12pm, 6pm, enzyme system associated dizziness, -blisters fractures. pain and swelling,
12am) present on the ulceration fatigue, cough, Headache, appetite loss.
secretory surface of H.pyloric back or -bloody or rash,
the gastric parietal infection abdominal pain, cloudy pruritus, -Monitor hepatic
cell. Both basal and Peptic ulcer arthralgia and urine dizziness, enzymes: AST, ALT,
stimulated acid are Erosive myalgia, fatigue, increased alkaline
inhibited. oesophagitis urticaria, dry -chills cough, back phosphatase during
Prophylaxis of mouth, or treatment.
acid aspiration photosensitivity, abdominal
during general bullous eruption, -difficult, pain, -Assess
anaesthesia fever, burning, arthralgia knowledge/teach
Acid-related angioedema, or painful and appropriate use of
dyspepsia bronchospasm, urination myalgia, this medication,
anaphylaxis, urticaria, interventions to
somnolence, -fever dry mouth reduce side effects
aggression and
vertigo
Contraindi- Adverse
Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Side Nursing
cation Effects
Action Effects Responsibilities
Generic Name: Centrally acting Management  Hypersensitivity nausea, CNS: Drow  Assess for
tramadol opiate receptor of moderate to to tramadol or constipati siness, dizzi level of pain
Brand Name: agonist that inhibits moderately other opioid on, ness, relief and
Ulram severe pain. analgesics; dizziness, vertigo, administer prn
the uptake of
Dosage: patients on MAO headache fatigue, dose as
PO 50–100 mg q4–6h norepinephrine and inhibitors; ,drowsines headache, needed but
prn serotonin, suggesting patients acutely s, and somnolence, not to exceed
both opioid and intoxicated with vomiting. restlessness the
nonopioid alcohol, Less , euphoria, recommended
mechanisms of pain hypnotics, commonly confusion, total daily
relief. May produce centrally acting reported anxiety, dose.
analgesics, side coordination  Monitor vital
opioid-like effects,
opioids, or effects in disturbance, signs and
but causes less psychotropic clued sleep assess for
respiratory drugs; substance itching, disturbances orthostatic
depression than abuse; patients sweating, ,seizures. C hypotension
morphine. on obstetric dry V: Palpitati or signs of
preoperative mouth, ons, CNS
medication; diarrhea, vasodilation depression.
abrupt rash, . GI:Nausea  Discontinue
discontinuation; visual ,constipatio drug and
alcohol disturbanc n, vomiting, notify
intoxication; es ,and xerostomia, physician if
vertigo dyspepsia, S&S of
diarrhea, hypersensitivi
abdominal ty occur.
pain,
anorexia,
flatulence.
Contraindi- Adverse
Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Side Nursing
cation Effects
Action Effects Responsibilities
Generic Name: Mefenamic acid, an Pain and  Hypersensitivity Tachycard  CNS: Dro  Assess
mefenamic acid anthranilic acid inflammation to drug; GI ia, wsiness, patients who
Brand Name: derivative, is a inflammation, or Arrhythmi insomnia, develop
Ponstan prototypical NSAID. ulceration. a, dizziness, severe
Dosage: It reversibly inhibits Safety in vasculitis, nervousne diarrhea and
Adult: PO Loading the cyclooxygenase-1 children <14 y, hypotensi ss, vomiting for
Dose 500 mg PO and -2 (COX-1 and - during on, confusion, dehydration
Maintenance 2) enzymes, thus pregnancy palpitation headache. and
Dose 250 mg q6h prn resulting in reduced (category C), or s; GI: Severe electrolyte
synthesis of lactation is not abdominal diarrhea, imbalance.
prostaglandin established pain, ulceration,  Lab tests:
precursors. It has vomiting, and bleedi With long-
analgesic and dyspepsia, ng; nausea term therapy
antipyretic properties constipati , (not
w/ minor anti- on, vomiting, a recommended
inflammatory diarrhea, bdominal ) obtain
activity. nausea, cramps, periodic
heartburn, flatus, complete
GI constipatio blood counts,
perforatio n, hepatic Hct and Hgb,
n, peptic toxicity. and kidney
ulcer  Hematolo function tests.
gic: Prolon
ged
prothromb
in time,
severe
autoimmu
ne
hemolytic
anemia
(long-term
use),
leukopenia
,
eosinophili
a, agranulo
cytosis,
thrombocy
topenic
purpura,
megalobla
stic
anemia,
pancytope
nia, bone
marrow
hypoplasia
.
Contraindi- Adverse
Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Side Effects Nursing
cation Effects
Action Responsibilities
Generic Name: Contain fat-soluble Treatment and Hypersensitivity GI: Nausea, In Assess patient for
multivitamin vitamins (A, D, and prevention of to preservatives, vomiting, recommen signs of nutritional
Brand Name: E) and most water- vitamin colorants, or heartburn, ded doses, deficiency before and
Theragran deficiencies. additives, diarrhea throughout therapy.
soluble vitamins (B- adverse
Dosage: Special including Hematologi
PO (Adults and com- formulations tartrazine, c: Acute reactions
Children): are available saccharin, and hemolytic are Toxicity and
plex vitamins B1 extremely
for patients aspartame (oral anemia Overdose: Toxicity
1 dose unit ,B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, with particular forms); Some CNS: Head rare rarely occurs with
(tablet/capsule/dropper needs, products contain ache (high multivitamin
vitamin C, biotin, and GU:urine
ful)/day including: alcohol and doses) preparations because
folic acid). These Prenatal should be Urogenital: discolorati of the small amounts
vitamins multiple avoided in Urethritis, on per unit of fat-soluble
vitamins (with patients with dysuria, (preparati vitamins
are a diverse group of larger doses of known crystalluria
compounds necessary folic acid), ons with B
intolerance
for normal growth Preconceptiona vitamins). If overdose occurs,
and development. l multiple treatment includes
Misc:
vitamins, induction of emesis
Many act as allergic or gastric lavage,
coenzymes or reactions calcium gluconate IV
catalysts in numerous to if hypocalcemic, and
metabolic processes. preservati maintenance of high
ves, urine output.
additives,
or
colorants
Contraindi- Adverse
Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Side Nursing
cation Effects
Action Effects Responsibilities
Generic Name: An essential mineral Prevention/trea Hemochromatosi Vomiting,  CNS: CNS Advise patient to take
ferrous sulfate found in hemoglobin, tment of iron s, hemosideoris, Severe toxicity, medicine as
Brand Name: myoglobin, and many deficiency or other evidence abdominal coma, and prescribed.
Feosol enzymes. Enters the anemia. of iron overload; pain, death with • Caution patient to
Dosage: blood stream and is Anemias not due Diarrhea, overdose make position
PO 350 mg/day transported to the to iron Dehydrati  GI: GI changes slowly to
organs of the deficiency; Some on, upset, minimize orhtostatic
reticuloendothelial products contain Hypervent anorexia, hypotension.
system, where it is alcohol, ilation, nausea, • Instruct patient to
separated out and tartrazine, or Pallor or vomiting, avoid concurrent use
becomes part of iron sulfites and cyanosis, constipatio of alcohol or OTC
stores. should be Cardiovas n, medicine without
avoided in cular diarrhea, consulting the
patients with collapse epigastric physician.
known pain • Advise patient to
intolerance or consult physician if
hypersentivity. irregular heartbeat,
dyspnea, swelling of
hands and feet and
hypotension occurs.
• Inform patient that
angina attacks may
occur 30 min. after
administration due
reflex tachycardia.
Contraindi- Adverse
Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Side Nursing
cation Effects
Action Effects Responsibilities
Generic Name: Semisynthetic broad- Similar to  Hypersensitivity, anorexia, SpecSenses:  Assess for
doxycycline spectrum tetracycline those of some products Nausea, Interference infection at
Brand Name: antibiotic derived tetracycline, contain alcohol vomiting, with color beginning of
Monodox Chlamydial and bisulfites, diarrhea, vision. an throughout
from oxytetracycline.
Dosage: and avoid in patients photosensi the therapy
PO/IV 100 mg q12 h More completely mycoplasmal with known tivity, GI:  Report
on day 1 absorbed with infections; hypersensitivity rashes Anorexia, evidence of
effective blood levels gonorrhea, or intolerance nausea, super
maintained for longer syphilis in vomiting, infections
periods and excreted penicillin- diarrhea,  Monitor
more slowly than allergic enterocolitis bowel
patients; ; esophageal function.
most other
rickettsial irritation Diarrhea,
tetracyclines. Thus it diseases; acute (oral abdominal
requires smaller and exacerbations capsule and cramping,
less frequent dosing. of chronic tablet). fever and
bronchitis.. bloody stools
Skin: should be
Rashes reported to
health care as
assign of
pseudomembr
anous colitis